[ Home  |  FAQ-Related Q&As  |  General Q&As  |  Answered Questions ]

    Search the Q&A Archives

Should human cloning take place?

<< Back to: talk.politics.tibet: FAQ [1/1]

Question by catdog
Submitted on 11/17/2003
Related FAQ: talk.politics.tibet: FAQ [1/1]
Rating: Rate this question: Vote
Should human cloning take place?

Answer by jake.philips
Submitted on 3/30/2005
Rating: Not yet rated Rate this answer: Vote
  Q1.  What Is Cloning?  Human cloning is the creation of a human being, or a number of human beings, who is/are  genetically identical to another.  In the current debate, you are likely to hear cloning referred to in one of two ways:    Reproductive cloning refers to the creation of a new person with the same genetic make-up  as someone who is alive or has lived.    Therapeutic cloning refers to using cloning techniques to initiate the growth of embryos in  order to create new organs or cells for medical and research purposes.     Q2.  How Does Cloning Occur?  Artificial cloning can be carried out by one of two techniques:    Embryo splitting is similar to the natural process which creates identical twins - the embryo's  cells are separated at a very early stage of development to create one or more clones.    Nuclear replacement is the process that was used to create "Dolly" the sheep 1. It works by  taking a cell nucleus from one person (eg from a skin cell) and putting it into the egg of  another, whose nucleus has already been removed. The egg is then stimulated to divide, for  example, by treatment with bursts of electric current, thus starting the growth of an embryo.  The egg's nucleus contains all the chromosomes (genetic information) for the cell to start  dividing and become a fully developed child (or lamb!) in due course.  
Q3.  Does Uk Law Currently Allow Human Cloning?  Yes and No. The law currently does not allow any form of reproductive cloning to be licensed, but  there is no explicit ban on cloning. The Government have made it clear that they believe "human  reproductive cloning is ethically unacceptable and cannot take place in this country." 2 This is a very  welcome statement.  Nuclear replacement of an embryo, or any cell that is part of any embryo, is also prohibited.  Nuclear replacement of an egg (like the process that led to Dolly the sheep) and embryo splitting are  currently allowed in human embryos under the jurisdiction of the Human Fertilisation and  Embryology Authority (HFEA) only for short-term experimental use. However, the HFEA "has made it  crystal clear that it will not licence cloning by embryo splitting for treatment purposes." 3 The HFEA  also regulates the legislation which allows embryos up to 14 days old to be destroyed, frozen or  researched on for specific purposes (laid out in the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990).  There would need to be an extension of the Act to allow the HFEA to license embryo research into  "therapeutic approaches to disease or tissue damage"4, ie extending the Act for a new purpose.  However, prior to the HFEA Act being in place, the Warnock Report of 1984 made it clear that human  cloning should not be permitted, so any change in this policy would be contrary to the spirit of the  law.  Discussion about the law on cloning has not been restricted to the UK.    In March 1997, the European Parliament voted in a resolution to ban cloning of human  beings. However, the resolution carries no legal weight. This policy area remains more  obviously a matter for individual Member States, with national politicians bringing in  legislation on human cloning.    In December 1997, UNESCO 5 published the Universal Declaration on the Human Genome  and Human Rights. Article 11 bans "practices which are contrary to human dignity, such as  reproductive cloning of human beings...".    In Strasbourg, the Council of Europe, with 40 Member States, produced a protocol banning  human cloning which has been added to their Convention on Biomedicine and Human  Rights, and was signed on 12 January 1998 by 19 Member States. However the UK has not yet  ratified this Convention so cannot sign the Protocol 6.  
Why Should Christians Be Concerned About The Possibility Of Reproductive Cloning?  CARE believes that each one of us is made uniquely in God's image with genetic inheritance from  both our parents. Reproductive cloning would change this because:    An individual would not have a unique genetic make-up (although this does not diminish the  personhood of identical twins) and would be created for a specific purpose (eg to be a  replacement copy of a sibling), rather than being valued for being their own unique  personality. There would be considerable pressure on the child to suit or fulfil the desires of  their parents.    Human life would be treated as just another 'product' or 'commodity', undermining the  intrinsic worth and dignity of each individual if the characteristics of people were deliberately  selected and chosen.    It would promote asexual human reproduction using a single cell. Cloning would not require  the coming together of a man and a woman to create a new life.    It would confuse family relationships by blurring the distinctions between parent, child,  sister and brother. For example, if a clone were created of a man in order to have a child, the  clone, A, would genetically be the man's twin (brother), not his son. If the man's female  partner also had a clone, B, this child would not have any genetic relationship to A, unlike  normal biological siblings. The psychological consequences of cloning for the children  created in this way are likely to be immense.  We should also be concerned about the health implications of reproductive cloning. Recent research  on Dolly the sheep suggests that she is ageing genetically faster than she should.7 How cloning  affects the body is not known, although animal cloning has been associated with deaths before and  after birth, and with unusually large foetuses.8 Finally, and very importantly, we should be concerned that successful cloning will mean the  unacceptable destruction of numerous embryos. (The creation of Dolly is believed to have taken 277  attempts, but with some recent reports suggesting that it may have been over 400). It will also  require the donation of hundreds of eggs from women who are prepared to have their eggs used to  produce embryos that can be cloned. If insufficient eggs can be donated, then it is likely that animal  eggs will be used as alternatives, eg cows eggs.9
Why Not Allow Therapeutic Cloning If It Will Lead To A Cure For Cancer?  Sadly, a cure for cancer is the less likely use of therapeutic cloning, it is much more likely to be used  to generate spare parts to replace tissues which are destroyed by degenerative diseases. The  motivation to heal people of all sorts of diseases and pain is of course good. However, that does not  mean that the end justifies the means. CARE is concerned about therapeutic cloning for the reasons  we outlined above.  In addition, the nuclear replacement technique is still at a very early stage and requires further  development work. In fact, the most recent work on Dolly the sheep, created using this technique,  has shown that she is not a pure clone. Dolly has genes from both the egg and the separate nucleus
Q9.  Are There Alternative Approaches To Finding New Treatments That Do Not Involve  Cloning?  Yes. Current research suggests that adult stem cells from bone marrow can be transformed into  other types of cell, eg, fat or bone. Other work suggests that neural stem cells taken from living  human nerve tissue could in the future be used for the treatment of Parkinson's and Alzheimer's  disease. Researchers in Canada and Italy have turned neural stem cells taken from an adult mouse  into new blood cells. If this technique could be applied to humans, it would be a major step forward  because use of a patient's own stem cells would greatly reduce the likelihood of rejection of cells  from a embryo.13 The British Medical Journal remarked that the use of embryonic stem cells "may  soon be eclipsed by the more readily available and less controversial adult stem cells."14
Q10. What Has The Government Done About Considering Cloning?  In 1998 the Government asked the HFEA and the Human Genetics Advisory Commission (now called  the Human Genetics Commission) to explore the ethical issues and the potential applications of  human cloning. The conclusions of this review were published in the report Cloning Issues in  Reproduction, Science and Medicine. This recommended that no human reproductive cloning  should be allowed, but that 'therapeutic' cloning should be permitted.  Following this report, in June 1999 the Government announced that more evidence of the potential  benefits to human health from therapeutic cloning was needed before legislation should be  introduced. An independent advisory group, chaired by the Chief Medical Officer Dr Liam  Donaldson, was set up and reported a year later, in August 2000.  The key recommendations made by the Donaldson group15 are:    Stem cell research using embryos created by IVF and using embryos created through cloning  techniques (ie therapeutic cloning) which would increase understanding about human  disorders and their treatment should be permitted. This would require an extension to the  HFEA Act 1990, which currently only allows research for other, limited purposes.    Reproductive cloning should remain a criminal offence and if necessary a new Act of  Parliament should be introduced to ensure this remains the case.    Another Act of Parliament may be required in the future to allow the application of this new  embryo research on patients, in order for it to be used in treatment.    The mixing of human adult cells and live eggs of animals should not be permitted.  
Q11.  What Happens Now?  It is likely that the debate on legislation to allow therapeutic cloning will take place in the autumn of  2000. The Government have said that they will give Parliamentarians a free vote on the regulations  that will be needed to extend the HFEA Act. The regulation will be an affirmative instrument which  means that both Houses will debate it and vote 'yes' or 'no'. There will not be an opportunity to  amend the details of the regulation. The time allocated for this type of debate in the House of  Commons will only be one and a half hours, which will not enable any real consideration or debate  on the significant ethical and practical implications of changing the law to permit human (embryo)  cloning. There is no time limit in the Lords.  It is unlikely that there will be time for the primary legislation needed to outlaw any human  reproductive cloning. However the Government has agreed that this legislation, and any other  needed, will be introduced 'when the Parliamentary timetable permits'.17 There will be a short debate on using embryos for research into treatment on 31 October when Evan  Harris MP, a Liberal Democrat, puts forward a Ten Minute Rule Bill on Stem Cell Research. This will  allow Mr Harris ten minutes to persuade MPs of the case for this research and an opposing MP will  also have ten minutes to speak. This Bill has no chance of becoming law, but will be the first  indications of the views of MPs.  
Q12. Where Can I Find Out More About Cloning?  The Donaldson report, Stem Cell Research: Medical Progress with Responsibility, is available free  from Department of Health, PO Box 777, London SE1 6XH, or from their website  www.doh.gov.uk/cegc The website also contains details of the Government response to the  Donaldson report, which has been printed as official paper, CM 4833. This is available from The  Stationery Office (tel: 0870 600 5522) at a cost of 2.40.  Further details on the safety and ethical issues raised by therapeutic cloning can be found in CARE's submission to the Donaldson review. The Movement Against the Cloning of Humans (MATCH) have a website, www.match.org.uk A group  of distinguished America scientists, doctors and ethicists issued a statement in Washington on  cloning in July 1999. Details of the statement and related papers can be found at  www.stemcellresearch.org They can also be obtained from CARE.  For information about why some people support the idea of cloning, go to the Human Cloning  Foundation's web site, www.humancloning.org This information is also available from CARE.


Answer by megan
Submitted on 1/31/2006
Rating: Not yet rated Rate this answer: Vote
umm yeh why not


Answer by Gower
Submitted on 7/3/2007
Rating: Not yet rated Rate this answer: Vote
yes i think it should happen because if some one needs a donor they can have one but t will be there own one so there body will not get rejected.


Your answer will be published for anyone to see and rate.  Your answer will not be displayed immediately.  If you'd like to get expert points and benefit from positive ratings, please create a new account or login into an existing account below.

Your name or nickname:
If you'd like to create a new account or access your existing account, put in your password here:
Your answer:

FAQS.ORG reserves the right to edit your answer as to improve its clarity.  By submitting your answer you authorize FAQS.ORG to publish your answer on the WWW without any restrictions. You agree to hold harmless and indemnify FAQS.ORG against any claims, costs, or damages resulting from publishing your answer.


FAQS.ORG makes no guarantees as to the accuracy of the posts. Each post is the personal opinion of the poster. These posts are not intended to substitute for medical, tax, legal, investment, accounting, or other professional advice. FAQS.ORG does not endorse any opinion or any product or service mentioned mentioned in these posts.


<< Back to: talk.politics.tibet: FAQ [1/1]

[ Home  |  FAQ-Related Q&As  |  General Q&As  |  Answered Questions ]

© 2008 FAQS.ORG. All rights reserved.