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talk.politics.tibet: FAQ [1/1]

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Archive-name: tibet-faq
Posting-frequency: monthly
Last-modified: 12 Oct 1997
Version: 4.40

See reader questions & answers on this topic! - Help others by sharing your knowledge
This FAQ was created for the Usenet newsgroup talk.politics.tibet and
addresses various issues that are discussed in that newsgroup on a recurring
basis. Also included are the addresses of various organizations that deal
with Tibet and a guide to the additional sources of information that are
available, both on the Internet and in print.

The maintainers of this FAQ are:
          Peter Kauffner (
          Nima Dorjee (

Suggestions for improvement should be sent to (
The e-mail addresses for the mailing list Tibet-L, given in question E3,
have been updated for this edition.


  A1) What are the meanings of specialized words used on TPT (glossary)?

Historical Issues
  B1) What are the major events of Tibetan history (timeline)?
  B2) What were the roles of the Dalai and Panchen Lamas in Tibetan history?
  B3) Did slavery exist in old Tibet?
  B4) Was human sacrifice practiced in old Tibet?
  B5) What is the historical basis of the Chinese claim to Tibet?
  B6) What was Tibet's status during China's Qing dynasty (1644-1912)?  
  B7) What was Tibet's status immediately prior to China's 1950-51 invasion?

Human Rights
  C1) Are Tibetan women being forced to have abortions?
  C2) How are Tibetan political prisoners treated?         
  C3) How many Tibetans have died as a result of the Chinese occupation?

Statistical Issues
  D1) What is the total population of Tibet?
  D2) How many ethnic Chinese live in Tibet (population transfer)? 
  D3) What are Tibet's economic statistics?

Further Information
  E1) What World-Wide Web sites have further information about Tibet?
  E2) Where do I find information concerning travel to Tibet?
  E3) What Tibet-oriented mailing lists can I subscribe to?
  E4) What are the addresses of some organizations that deal with Tibet?
  E5) What books about Tibet would you recommend?

F0) Sources


A1) What are the meanings of specialized words used on TPT (glossary)?

 The following is a glossary of words related to Tibet. When the
 pronunciation of a word differs from what one might expect from the 
 standard spelling, a phonetic spelling is given between slash marks (//).
 Words in all CAPITAL letters have glossary entries of their own. The tonal
 indicators for Tibetan are as follows: 1 -- high; 2 -- low; 3 -- falling;
 and 4 -- middle. For Chinese (Mandarin), the tonal indicators are: 1 --
 level; 2 -- high rising; 3 -- low rising; and 4 -- falling.

 AMBAN -- A representative of the QING emperor who resided in the territory of
      a tributary state or dependency. The Qing mission in Lhasa was usually
      headed by two Ambans of equal status. The mission was established in
      1728 and lasted until 1912.
 AMDO /ahm'doh'/ -- The Tibetan name for a region located northeast of Lhasa.
      It includes the bulk of QINGHAI province, as well as the Kanlho Tibetan
      Autonomous Prefecture in Gansu province. Along with KHAM and U-TSANG, 
      it is one of Tibet's three historic regions. Each of these regions 
      speaks its own distinctive dialect of Tibetan.
 BOD [Tibetan /puh3/] -- The Tibetan word for TIBET. The word Bod may be
      derived from BON.
 BODPA [Tibetan /puh4ba4/] -- The Tibetan word for "Tibetan," both as a noun
      and as an adjective.
 BON [Tibetan /puhm2/] -- Tibet's pre-Buddhist, animist religion.
 CCP -- Chinese Communist Party. The ruling party of China since 1949. (The 
      Chinese government prefers "CPC" -- Communist Party of China.)
 COMMISSION OF PEOPLE'S DEPUTIES -- TGIE's legislative branch. The Tibetan
      exile community has held CPD elections every three years since 1960.
 DALAI LAMA [Tibetan /ta1le4 la1ma4/] -- Tibet's most renown line of incarnate
      LAMAs. The Dalai Lamas reigned as kings of Tibet from 1642 until 1959.
      The current Dalai Lama has lived in exile since 1959. See question B2.
 GELUGPA /ge'luk'pa'/ -- The dominate Buddhist sect in Tibet and Mongolia. The
      literal translation of Gelugpa is "model of virtue." The sect was
      founded by the Tibetan monk Tsongkhapa in the 15th century and is also
      known as the Yellow Hat sect. Cf. RED HAT.
 HAN /han4/ -- The Chinese word for an ethnic Chinese. More precisely, a Han
      is someone whose primary or ancestral language is Chinese (_Han4yu3_)
      and who does not belong to any of China's various other officially
      recognized ethnic groups.
 KAGYUPA -- Tibet's third largest monastic order. The name means "transmitted
      word." The Kagyupa order consists of several sub-orders, including Karma
      Kagyupa, widely practiced in both Tibet and Sikkim, and Dukpa Kagyupa,
      the dominate faith of Bhutan. Cf. KARMAPA.
 KARMAPA -- A line of incarnate LAMAs whose traditional residence is at
      Tsurphu Monastery near Lhasa. The Karmapa heads the Karma KAGYUPA order
      and is also known as the Black Hat Lama. The 16th Karmapa died in
      Chicago in 1981. A successor was enthroned at Tsurphu in 1993, although
      some Karma Kagyupa members still support a rival candidate.
 KASHAG [Tibetan /ka1shaa3/] -- A group of four men appointed by the Dalai
      Lama to supervise day to day government administration. The group is
      often referred to as Tibet's cabinet. In 1992, TGIE's constitution was
      amended to make the Kashag responsible to the COMMISSION OF PEOPLE'S
 KHAM -- A region of eastern Tibet. Western Kham is now in TAR (q.v.) while
      eastern Kham is in China's Sichuan (Szechwan) province. 
 KMT -- Kuomintang [Chinese /gwo2min2dang3/] The ruling party of China from 
      1928 to 1949. The ruling party of Taiwan since 1949. It is also known
      as the Nationalist Party.
 LAMA [Tibetan /la1ma4/] -- The literal translation of this Tibetan word is
      "superior one." The word has several meanings, but is most commonly
      used to refer to incarnate lamas or TULKU. Other Buddhist spiritual
      teachers may be referred to as root lamas. Cf. YOGIN.
 LHASA [Tibetan /lhe1sa4/] -- The capital and largest city in Tibet with a
      population of 170,000. Lhasa is a shortened form of _lha sacha_, which
      means "god's place."
 LOSAR -- Tibetan new year. The next Losar will be on February 27, 1998.
      By the Tibetan calendar, it is currently 2124, the year of the fire ox.
 MCMAHON LINE -- The boundary for the eastern section of the frontier between
      Tibet and India. It runs from the eastern end of Bhutan to the great
      bend in the Brahmaputra River. British and Tibetan negotiators agreed
      to this boundary in a conference held in Simla, India in 1914. The line
      is named for Sir Henry McMahon, the head of the British negotiating
      team. Although China claims territory south the McMahon Line, it has 
      generally respected the line in practice.
 MANCHU -- a people who lived in what is now northeastern China for many 
      centuries. Until 1636, they were known as the Jurchen. From 1644 to
      1912, China was ruled by emperors of Manchu ancestry. Cf. QING.
 MONLAM CHENMO -- The "great prayer festival," which begins three days after
      LOSAR and continues for ten days. China currently prohibits the public
      celebration of Monlam and other Buddhist holidays in Tibet.
 NYINGMAPA -- "The old order," Tibet's second largest monastic order.
      Nyingmapa priests are not usually required to be celibate. The sect's
      rituals include many elements that were derived from BON.
 PANCHEN LAMA [Tibetan /pen1jeen4 la1ma4/] -- A title used by the head LAMA of
      Tashilhunpo Monastery in Shigatse. His spiritual authority is second
      only to that of the DALAI LAMA within the GELUGPA sect. See question B2.
 PAP -- People's Armed Police. A paramilitary force created in 1983 to patrol
      border areas and to guard government buildings. It was used extensively
      to suppress demonstrations in Lhasa between 1987 and 1991. Cf. PSB.
 PLA -- People's Liberation Army. The official name of the Chinese armed
      forces since 1949. The PLA is a combined service and includes ground,
      air, and naval units.
 PRC -- People's Republic of China. China's official long form name since
 PSB -- Public Security Bureau. China's principle agency for enforcing
      criminal law, i.e. the regular police. Cf. PAP.
 QING /ching1/ -- A dynasty of MANCHU origin which was founded in 1636 and
      ruled China from 1644 to 1912.
 QINGHAI /ching1hi3/ -- A Chinese province created in 1928 to administer the 
      bulk of Tibet's AMDO region. In 1992, the population of Qinghai was 
      estimated to be 4.61 million, [Fiske94] of whom 58 percent were ethnic
      Chinese, 20 percent were ethnic Tibetan, and 14 percent were Hui
      (Chinese Muslim). The ethnic Chinese population is concentrated in the
      vicinity of Xining, the capital. All six of the province's rural
      prefectures are classified as "Tibetan autonomous." Qinghai can also be
      referred to as Kokonor, the region's Mongolian name.
 RANG-BTSAN /rang2dsen4/ -- The Tibetan word for "independence" or "self- 
 RED HAT -- Any of various Tibetan monastic orders established prior to the
      15th century when the GELUGPA order was founded. The three largest Red
      Hat sects, in order of membership, are: NYINGMAPA, KAGYUPA, and Sakyapa.
      The Tibetan term corresponding to Red Hat (_Zhvamar_) refers only to
      the followers of the Sharmapa, a TULKU of the Karma Kagyupa sub-order.
 ROC -- Republic of China, China's official long form name from 1911 to 1949. 
      Although the ROC government has ruled only Taiwan since 1949, it still
      claims to be the legitimate government of all China, including Tibet.
 SELF-DETERMINATION -- The determining by a people of the form their
      government shall have, without reference to the wishes any other people.
      The Charter of the United Nations calls for, "respect for the principle
      of equal rights and self-determination of peoples." A 1961 U.N. General
      Assembly resolution describes Tibetans as a people entitled to the 
      right of self-determination.
 SERF -- A peasant bound to perform feudal obligations for a lord. In 1959,
      about 60 percent of Tibet's population were legally classified as serfs.
      (In Tibetan, serfs are known as _miser_ or "yellow people"). [Grunfeld1]
      The basic difference between a serf and a tenant farmer is that a serf
      pays rent and taxes in the form of labor, as opposed to money.
 TAR -- Tibet Autonomous Region. China created TAR in 1965 to administer the
      Tibetan regions of U-TSANG and western KHAM. Despite its name, the TAR 
      government does not in fact enjoy any significant degree of autonomy. 
      The region's top policymaker is CCP Secretary Chen Kuiyuan, an ethnic
      Chinese appointed by Beijing.
 TASHI DELEK -- A common Tibetan greeting.
 TGIE -- Tibetan government-in-exile. See question B2.
 TI -- Tibetan independence. TI can also stand for "Taiwan independence."
 TIBET -- The Tibetan government-in-exile refers to the entire Tibetan
      Plateau as "Tibet." But the word can also be used to refer to TAR (q.v.)
      only, thus excluding QINGHAI and eastern KHAM. "Tibet" is a word used
      in various European languages and was derived from the Arabic _Tubbat_,
      which was in turn derived from the Chinese TUFAN. [Partridge66]
 TPT -- talk.politics.tibet. The Usenet newsgroup for which this document is 
      the FAQ.
 TSAMPA -- roasted barley flour, a staple of the Tibetan diet. Various Tibetan 
      celebrations, such as LOSAR, are marked by tossing tsampa into the
 TSHONGDU -- Old Tibet's national assembly, established in the 1860s. It
      included the heads of major government departments as well as
      representatives from the larger monasteries. Decisions were made by
 TUFAN /tu3fan1/ -- A Chinese name for Tibet used during the Tang dynasty
      (618-907). The second syllable of Tufan was traditionally pronounced
      /bo/ and is probably a corruption of BOD. [Giles1] 
 TULKU [Tibetan /drue1ue1ku4/] -- A person who is considered to be the
      reincarnation of a great spiritual teacher. The preferred translation
      of tulku is "incarnate LAMA." An older, less accurate, translation is
      "living Buddha." The Dalai and Panchen Lamas are Tibet's best-known
 U-TSANG /oh'tsong'/ -- The Tibetan name for central Tibet, now included in 
      TAR (q.v.).
 XIZANG /she1tsong4/ -- The modern Chinese name for Tibet. The word is derived
      from U-TSANG and has been in use since the 18th century. [Kolmas67]
      The literal translation of Xizang is "western storehouse" or "western
      storeroom," not "western treasure house" as is sometimes claimed.
 YOGIN -- A spiritual teacher who is not bound by monastic vows.


B1) What are the major events of Tibetan history (timeline)?

  Year                           Description of Event

  416 BC Nyatri Tsenpo founds a dynasty in Yarlung valley, according to legend
  602 AD Tibet is unified under King Namri Songtsen of the Yarlung dynasty
  641    King Songtsen Gampo marries Princess Wencheng of China, his 2nd wife
  670    Tibet conquers Amdo, Tarim Basin; prolonged warfare with China begins
  747    King Trisong Detsen invites Padmasambhava, yogin of Swat, to Tibet
  763    Tibet captures Changan, capital of Tang China; tribute paid to Tibet
  779    Samye, Tibet's 1st monastery, built by Trisong Detsen & Padmasambhava
  792    Exponents of Indian Buddhism prevail in debate with Chinese at Samye
  821    Tibet signs its last peace treaty with Tang China: "Tibetans shall 
             be happy in Tibet and Chinese shall be happy in China." [Walt1]
  842    King Langdarma murdered by a monk; Tibet splits into several states
 1040    Birth of Milarepa, 2nd hierarch of Kagyupa order and a renown poet
 1073    Founding of Sakya, the first monastery of the Sakyapa monastic order
 1206    An assembly names Genghis Khan first ruler of a unified Mongol nation
 1227    Mongols destroy Xixia, a Tibetan-speaking kingdom of northwest China
 1247    Sakya Pandita submits to Godan Khan; beginning of the first priest/
             patron relationship between a Tibetan lama and a Mongol khan
 1261    Tibet is reunited with Sakya Pandita, Grand Lama of Sakya, as king
 1279    Final defeat of Song by Mongols; Mongol conquest of China complete
 1350    Changchub Gyaltsen defeats Sakya and founds the secular Sitya dynasty
 1368    China regains its independence from the Mongols under Ming dynasty
 1409    Ganden, 1st Gelugpa monastery, built by monastic reformer Tsongkhapa
 1435-81 In prolonged warfare, Karmapa supporters gain control of Sitya court
 1578    Gelugpa leader gets the title of Dalai ("Ocean") from Altan Khan
 1635    Sitya dynasty is overthrown by the ruler of Tibet's Tsang province
 1640    Gushri Khan, leader of Khoshut Mongols, invades and conquers Tibet
 1642    Gushri Khan enthrones the 5th Dalai Lama as temporal ruler of Tibet
 1644    Manchu overthrow Ming, conquer China, and establish the Qing dynasty
 1653    "Great Fifth" Dalai Lama meets Qing Emperor Shunzhi near Beijing
 1682    Fifth Dalai Lama dies; regent conceals death for the next 14 years
 1716-21 Italian Jesuit priest Ippolito Desideri studies and teaches in Lhasa
 1717    Dzungar Mongols invade Tibet and sack Lhasa; 5th DL's tomb looted
 1720    Dzungars driven out; Qing forces install Kesang Gyatso as the 7th DL
 1721    The position of Amban is created by a 13-point Qing decree on Tibet
 1724    A Chinese territorial government is created for Qinghai (Amdo)
 1750    Ambans murder regent; rioters kill Ambans; Qing troops sent to Tibet
 1792    Qing troops enter Tibet to drive out Gorkha (Nepalese) invaders
         29-point Qing decree prescribes "golden urn" lottery for picking DL
             and PL, bans visits by non-Chinese, and increases Ambans' powers
 1854-56 Nepal defeats Tibet; peace treaty requires that Tibet pay tribute
 1876    China agrees to provide passports for a British mission to Tibet
 1885    Tibet turns back British mission, rejects Chinese-granted passports
 1893    China and Britain agree to regulations on trade between India & Tibet
 1894    Tibetans build a wall north of Dromo to prevent trade with India
         The 13th Dalai Lama takes control of the Tibetan government at age 18
 1904    British troops under Colonel Younghusband enter Tibet & occupy Lhasa
         A treaty signed which required Tibet to pay an indemnity to Britain
 1906    The 1904 Anglo-Tibetan treaty is "confirmed" in Anglo-Chinese treaty
 1907    "Suzerainty of China over Thibet" recognized in Anglo-Russian treaty
 1910-12 Qing troops occupy Tibet, shoot at unarmed crowds on entering Lhasa
 1912    Last Qing emperor abdicates; Republic of China claims Mongolia,Tibet
 1913    13th Dalai Lama proclaims Tibet a "religious and independent nation"
         Mongolia and Tibet recognize each other in a treaty signed in Urga
 1914    Britain and Tibet agree to McMahon Line in a treaty signed in Simla
 1917-18 Tibet defeats Chinese forces in Kham, recovers Chamdo (lost in 1910)
 1921    Britain recognizes Tibet's "autonomy under Chinese suzerainty"
 1924    At a KMT congress, Sun Yat-sen calls for "self-determination of all
             national minorities in China" within a "united Chinese republic"
 1924-25 Pressure from monks causes DL to dismiss his British-trained officers
 1928    Chiang Kai-shek defeats northern warlords, reunites China under KMT
 1930-33 China captures Derge in Kham in first Sino-Tibetan clash since 1918
 1933    Truce ends China/Tibet fighting; the 13th Dalai Lama dies at age 58
 1934    Reting Rimpoche named regent; China permitted to open Lhasa mission
 1940    The five-year-old Tenzin Gyatso is enthroned as the 14th Dalai Lama
 1941    Unable to keep celibacy vow, Reting is replaced as regent by Taktra
 1942    U.S. army officer goes to Lhasa to present a letter for DL from FDR
 1944    U.S. military aircraft crash lands near Samye; crew escorted to India
 1945    Newly opened English-language school is closed after monks protest
 1947    ex-Regent Reting attempts to kill Regent Taktra with a package bomb
         Reting dies while under house arrest; he was apparently poisoned
         British mission in Lhasa is transferred to a newly independent India
 1947-49 Tibetan Trade Mission travels to India, China, U.S., and Britain;
             mission meets with British Prime Minister Clement R. Attlee
 1949    People's Republic of China is proclaimed by Chinese Communist Party
         PRC recognizes Mongolia, announces its intention to "liberate" Tibet
 1950    Red China invades Tibet; Tibetan army destroyed in battle at Chamdo
 1951    17-point agreement between China and Tibet; Chinese occupy Lhasa
 1955    Tibetans in Kham and Amdo (Qinghai) begin revolt against Chinese rule
 1956    Dalai Lama visits India for 2,500th anniversary of the Buddha's birth
         The United States begins to arm the Tibetan resistance via CIA
 1959    DL flees to India; 87,000 Tibetans die in anti-Chinese revolt [Walt2]
 1960    International Commission of Jurists: "acts of genocide [have] been
    destroy the Tibetans as a religious group." [ICJ1]
 1960-62 Tibet experiences its first famine as grain is requisitioned by PLA
 1962    China-India War: China advances beyond McMahon Line, then withdraws
 1962-75 TAR's peasants are herded into communes by collectivization campaign
 1963    DL approves a democratic constitution for the Tibetan exile community
 1964    The Panchen Lama is arrested after calling for Tibetan independence
 1965    China sets up Tibet Autonomous Region in U-Tsang and western Kham
 1966    The United States America recognizes China's sovereignty over Tibet
 1966-69 Cultural Revolution: Red Guards vandalize temples, attack "four olds"
 1969-71 Tibet is put under PLA military rule in order to suppress Red Guards
 1971    The United States cuts off military aid to the Tibetan resistance
 1974    Nepal forces the Tibetan resistance to abandon its base in Mustang
         Sikkim votes overwhelmingly to join India; Ladakh opened to tourists
 1976    The first permanent ethnic Chinese settlers arrive in TAR [Donnet94] 
 1977    Resistance burns 100 PLA vehicles in last major military operation
 1978    Visitors find 8 temples left in TAR, down from 2,700 in 1959 [Far95]
 1979    Tibet is opened to non-Chinese tourism for the first time since 1963
 1979-80 China allows a series of three delegations from DL to visit Tibet
 1980    CCP leader Hu Yaobang visits Lhasa; he promises to "relax" controls 
             and "restore the Tibetan economy to its pre-1959 level."[Strauss]
         "Responsibility system" distributes collectivized land to individuals
 1982    Writer Alexander Solzhenitsyn calls CCP regime in Tibet "more brutal
             and inhuman than any other communist regime in the world."[Walt3]
 1985    Bomb defused in Lhasa during the TAR 20th anniversary celebration
 1987    Police fire on a massive pro-independence demonstration in Lhasa 
 1988    Qiao Shi, politburo member and internal security chief, visits Tibet
             and vows to "adopt a policy of merciless repression." [Asia90] 
         Speaking in Strasbourg, France, the Dalai Lama elaborates on his 1987
             "five point" proposal for Tibetan self-government within China. 
 1989    Police kill 80-150 in Lhasa's bloodiest riots in 30 years[Schwartz94]
         Martial law imposed in Lhasa; Dalai Lama receives Nobel Peace Prize
 1990    China lifts martial law in Lhasa 13 months after imposing it
         The Voice of America initiates a Tibetan-language broadcast service
 1992    Chen Kuiyuan named CCP leader for Tibet, calls for a purge of those 
             who "act as internal agents of the Dalai Lama clique."[Kristof93]
         Over 30,000 visitors arrive in TAR's "Golden Year of Tibetan Tourism"
 1991    1,000 Tibetan refugees, chosen by lottery, are admitted to the U.S.
 1993    Residents of Lhasa protest for independence, against inflation and
             the charging of fees for formally free medical services [Kaye93]
 1994    Potala, former residence of the DL, is restored at a cost of $9 mln.
 1995    A report on Chinese human rights violations, including one case where
             a Tibetan nun was beaten to death, is narrowly rejected by the UN
         DL recognizes six-year-old Gedhun Choekyi Nyima as 11th Panchen Lama
         China denounces the Dalai Lama's choice of Panchen Lama as a "fraud,"
             selects rival candidate Gyaincain Norbu by golden urn process
         Tibet's worst snowstorm in a century leaves more than 50 dead
 1996    Earthquake in Lijang rates 7.0 on the Richter scale and kills 200
         The U.S.-funded Radio Free Asia begins broadcasting on shortwave
         Bomb explodes near government offices in Lhasa on Christmas day;
             a 1 million yuan ($120,000) reward is offered to solve crime
         DL takes steps to limit Shugden worship in Tibetan exile community
 1997    Three monks close to DL are murdered; Shugden supporters suspected
         Dalai Lama visits Taiwan and meets with ROC President Lee Teng-hui
         Several major movies on Tibet, including _Kundun_ are released

B2) What were the roles of the Dalai and Panchen Lamas in Tibetan history?

 The Dalai Lama was traditionally considered supreme in both temporal and 
 spiritual matters while the Panchen Lama was traditionally considered  
 supreme in spiritual matters. A contradiction is therefore created when the
 two lamas disagree, a recurring problem in Tibetan history.

 Tenzin Gyatso, the current Dalai Lama, was born to a Tibetan peasant family
 in Qinghai in 1935. He was discovered at the age of two by a search party of
 high-ranking monks who gave him various traditional tests and concluded that
 he was the reincarnation of the 13th Dalai Lama (1876-1933). He was
 proclaimed 14th Dalai Lama in 1939 by the Tshongdu, Tibet's national

 When the Chinese occupied Tibet in 1951, the Dalai Lama at first attempted to
 cooperate with the new rulers. But concern for his personal safety sparked an
 anti-Chinese revolt in 1959. He then fled to India, crossing the border just
 ahead of pursuing Chinese troops. He now heads a government-in-exile which
 administers Tibetan refugee camps and has its headquarters in Dharamsala,
 India. He won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1989 and has met with U.S. presidents
 George Bush and Bill Clinton. His autobiography, entitled _Freedom in Exile_
 (1990), is banned in Tibet.

 "Panchen" is a traditional title of the abbot of Tashilhunpo and means
 "great scholar." In the 17th century, the "great fifth" Dalai Lama (1617-
 1682) declared that his tutor, the fourth abbot of Tashilhunpo (1570-1662),
 would reincarnate. Although the three earlier abbots did not reincarnated,
 they are usually counted as the first three Panchen Lamas.

 As a result of a dispute between the Tibetan government and the Tashilhunpo
 Monastery over tax arrears, the 9th Panchen Lama (1883-1937) fled to
 Mongolia in 1923. He died fourteen years later at Jyekundo in Qinghai,
 still an exile. 

 His officers (_labrang_) chose as 10th Panchen Lama (1938-89) a boy born in 
 Qinghai. At the insistence of China, the Tibetan government confirmed this 
 choice in 1951. The Panchen Lama was then brought to Tibet by a Chinese 
 military escort and enthroned.

 In 1962, the Panchen Lama sent a "70,000 character letter" to the CCP
 Central Committee in which he accused China of pursuing a policy aimed at
 "genocide and elimination of religion." In a 1964 sermon delivered to an
 enormous crowd in Lhasa, the Panchen Lama hailed the Dalai Lama's leadership
 and declared that, "Tibet will soon regain her independence." [Dhondup78]

 In response, the Chinese accused the Panchen Lama of "counterrevolutionary
 crimes." He was then arrested, imprisoned, and tortured. He was released in
 1978, married an ethnic Chinese, and moved to a large house near the center
 of Beijing. As a vice chair of the National People's Congress, China's
 national assembly, he often appeared on Chinese television. He died in 1989
 of a heart attack, according to reports in the Chinese media. [Southerland89]
 In 1995, the Dalai Lama recognized the six-year-old Gedhun Choekyi Nyima as
 the 11th Panchen Lama. China denounced this choice as a "fraud" and instead
 recognized Gyaincain Norbu, the six-year-old son of a security officer.

B3) Did slavery exist in old Tibet?

 The following account was written by Sir Charles Bell, who was the British
 administrator for Chumbi Valley in 1904-05. At that time, Chumbi Valley was
 under British occupation pending payment by Tibet of an indemnity which
 resulted from the Younghusband Expedition of 1904.

     Slaves were sometimes stolen, when small children, from their parents.
     Or the father and mother, being too poor to support their child, would
     sell it to a man, who paid them _sho-ring_, "price of mother's milk,"
     brought up the child and kept it, or sold it, as a slave. These children
     come mostly from south-eastern Tibet and the territories of the wild
     tribes who dwell between Tibet and Assam. [Bell24]

 Although the CCP cites slavery as a justification for liquidating the Dalai
 Lama's government, the practice was by no means confined to Tibet. It is
 estimated that in 1930 there were about 4 million child slaves in China
 proper (Cantonese: _mui1jai_). [Meltzer93] 

B4) Was human sacrifice practiced in old Tibet?

 The Chinese Communists put a great deal of emphasis on the ritual use of
 human body parts in Tibetan Buddhism, especially with regard to human skulls
 and thigh-bones. It is implied that these body parts were obtained by human
 sacrifice -- an idea firmly rejected by scholars of Tibetan culture.

 Another version of the human sacrifice charge is that Tibetans would
 commonly, "bury living boys beneath important buildings or images, so that
 they would `stand forever.'" It appears that this version is also
 uncollaborated by independent scholarship. Perhaps this claim has it's origin
 in the occasional Tibetan practice of burying bodies in the walls of houses.

 Human sacrifice was a part of pre-Buddhist Tibetan tradition and there are
 reports which suggest that it was occasionally practiced in more recent
 times. [Grunfeld2], [Epstein83]

B5) What is the historical basis of the Chinese claim to Tibet?

 Here is how the Chinese Communist magazine _Beijing Review_ explains it:

     From ancient times, the Mongolians had been one of China's
     nationalities. In the 13th century, their power expanded rapidly.
     Genghis Khan united the tribes under a centralized Khanate in 1206.
     The outcome was a unified country [China] and the formation of the
     Yuan Dynasty in 1271.

     In the process, the Mongol Khanates peacefully incorporated Tibet
     in 1247 after defeating the Western Xia [1227] and the Jin [1234].

     With a unified China, the Yuan Dynasty  contributed greatly to the
     political, economic and cultural development of the nation's various
     nationalities -- in strict contrast to the feuding that had gone on
     since the late years of the Tang Dynasty (618-907). To argue that the
     Mongolians' campaign to unify China was fundamentally the imposition
     of rule by a foreign power is wrong because it misses the basic point
     of Chinese history that China is a multi-national country. Whether it
     was the Mongolians, the Manchus (who founded the Qing Dynasty [1644-
     1912], or any other peoples, it has always been a case of one Chinese
     nationality replacing another. It is completely out of the question to
     claim that the Mongolians or the Manchus were outsiders who conquered
     China. [BR-F89]

 The Dalai Lama's view is as follows:

     During the Vth Dalai Lama's time [1617-1682], I think it was quite
     evident the we were a separate sovereign nation with no problems. The
     VIth Dalai Lama [1683-1706] was spiritually pre-eminent, but
     politically, he was weak and disinterested. He could not follow the
     Vth Dalai Lama's path. This was a great failure. So, then the Chinese
     influence increased. During this time, the Tibetans showed quite a
     deal of respect to the Chinese. But even during these times, the
     Tibetans never regarded Tibet as a part of China. All the documents
     were very clear that China, Mongolia and Tibet were all separate
     countries. Because the Chinese emperor was powerful and influential,
     the small nations accepted the Chinese power or influence. You cannot
     use the previous invasion as evidence that Tibet belongs to China. In
     the Tibetan mind, regardless of who was in power, whether it was the
     Manchus, the Mongols or the Chinese, the east of Tibet was simply
     referred to as China. In the Tibetan mind, India and China were
     treated the same; two separate countries. [Gyatso89]

B6) What was Tibet's status during China's Qing dynasty (1644-1912)?

 The Tibetan view of their relationship with the Qing Empire was expressed
 by the 13th Dalai Lama in his 1913 proclamation of independence: "The
 relationship between Tibet and [imperial] China was that of priest and
 patron and was not based on the subordination of one to the other."

 Subordination was, however, an integral part of the Chinese view of 
 international affairs. In traditional Chinese legal doctrine, the emperor
 was a universal ruler. Any territory that was not under direct imperial 
 administration was considered to be either tributary or rebellious. In
 the official records of the Qing dynasty, _Da Qing Lichao Shilu_, various
 countries with a wide variety relationships with the Qing Empire are
 listed as vassal states (_shu2guo2_), including Korea, Vietnam, Tibet,
 Britain, and even the Papacy. [Walt5]

 In Qing documents written during the early years of the dynasty, Tibet is 
 referred to as a _guo2_ (nation). [Brunnert12] This suggests a status 
 equivalent to that of, say, Korea or Vietnam. In later years, however, Tibet
 was referred to as a _bu4_ (dependency), a term that was also applied to
 Mongolia. [Walt6]

 In reaction to a British military expedition to Lhasa in 1904, the Qing
 government asserted, for the first time, a claim of sovereignty over
 Tibet. [Walt7] An atlas published in Shanghai in 1910 helped publicized this
 new territorial claim. [Atlas10] In contrast, a popular Chinese atlas first
 published in 1879 has a map of the Qing Empire which shows Korea, Manchuria,
 Taiwan, and China proper, but not Tibet. [Yang75]

 While the Qing (or Manchu) Empire is often referred to as "China," it was 
 in fact a multi-national dynastic state. Muslims, Mongols, Manchus, Koreans,
 and ethnic Chinese (Han) were each governed on a separate basis and no
 attempt was made to create a common nationality or citizenship. Since 1911,
 however, the Chinese government has based its legitimacy on ethnic Chinese

B7) What was Tibet's status immediately prior to China's 1950-51 invasion?

 The International Commission of Jurists, a Geneva-based human rights
 organization, issued a report in 1960 which examined the legal status of the
 Tibetan government:

     The view of the COMMITTEE was that Tibet was at the very least a _de
     facto_ independent State when the Agreement on Peaceful Measures in
     Tibet was signed in [23 May] 1951, and the repudiation of this
     agreement by the Tibetan Government in [20 June] 1959 was found to
     be fully justified....In 1950, there was a people and a territory,
     and a government which functioned in that territory, conducting its
     own domestic affairs free from any outside authority. From 1913-1950
     foreign relations of Tibet were conducted exclusively by the
     Government of Tibet and countries with whom Tibet had practice as an
     independent State. [ICJ2]

 Tibet was accorded differing degrees of recognition by various governments.
 Mongolia, for example, explicitly recognized Tibet's independence in a 1913
 "Treaty of Friendship and Alliance" which was signed by representatives of
 both nations in Urga, Mongolia. [Walt8]

 Nepal's 1949 application for U.N. membership lists Tibet as a country that
 Nepal had full diplomatic relations with. [Walt9] The chief Nepalese
 diplomat in Lhasa held the title _vakil_ ("ambassador") up until 1962.

 In 1943, the British embassy in Washington told the U.S. State Department
 that, "Tibet is a separate country in full enjoyment of local autonomy,
 entitled to exchange diplomatic representatives with other powers." [Walt10]
 In a note presented to Chinese Foreign Minister T. V. Song a few months
 later, British Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden described Tibet as, "an
 autonomous State under the suzerainty of China" which "enjoyed de facto
 independence." [Goldstein89]

 The U.S. State Department issued the following public statement in
 December, 1950: 

     The United States, which was one of the early supporters of 
     the principle of self-determination of peoples, believes that 
     the Tibetan people has the same inherent right as any other to 
     have the determining voice in its political destiny....[T]he 
     United States Government recognizes the de facto autonomy that 
     Tibet has exercised since the fall of the Manchu Dynasty [1912],
     and particularly since the Simla Conference. [Walt11]

 Chinese President Yuan Shikai issued the following order in 1912:

     Now that the Five Races [i.e. ethnic Chinese, Manchus, Mongols,
     Tibetans, and Muslims/Turkestanis] are joined in democratic union,
     the lands comprised within the confines of Mongolia, Tibet and
     Turkestan all become a part of the territory of the Republic of
     China. [Walt12]

 The CCP drew up a proposed constitution for China in 1931 which stated that
 "national minorities," including Tibetans, "may either join the Union of
 Chinese Soviets or secede from it." [Grunfeld3] By 1949, however, a CCP-
 controlled Radio Beijing was expressing quite a different view:

     The Tibetan people are an indivisible part of the Chinese people.
     Any aggressor who fails to recognize this point will "crack his skull
     against the mailed fist of the PLA." [Walt13]

Section C: HUMAN RIGHTS                                    

C1) Are Tibetan women being forced to have abortions?

 The following account is from _Sky Burial_ (1993) by Blake Kerr. Kerr is 
 an American physician who visited Tibet in 1987.

     I spoke with a Tibetan nurse named Chimi who had worked for three 
     years at Lhasa's People's Hospital. She explained to me China's 
     family-planning policy for urban Tibetans....

     "If a woman has a second child," she continued, "the child will have 
     rights. But this is discouraged. Sterilization is done automatically 
     on many women delivering their second child at Chinese hospitals.

     "Having a third child is strongly discouraged. An illegal child has 
     no ration card for the monthly allotment of Tibetan dietary staples 
     at government stores: seven kilos of _tsampa_, one-half kilo yak 
     butter, and cooking oil. Without a ration card a child cannot go to 
     school, do organized work, travel, or own property....

     My stomach felt queasy as Chimi described how "unauthorized" 
     pregnancies were routinely terminated with lethal injections. Chimi 
     said that she herself had given hundreds of these injections....[Kerr93]

C2) How are Tibetan political prisoners treated?

 The following quote is from a 1988 news story that appeared in _The 
 Washington Post_. It is based on the statements of two former prisoners 
 arrested on March 5, 1988 during a large pro-independence demonstration. 
 Both former prisoners were held at the Gutsa detention center near Lhasa.

     [The released lay prisoner] said that interrogators beat seven monks 
     from one monastery, and then stuffed all seven into a small confined 
     water channel. The guards then "stomped all over their bodies," he said.

     "They beat us with whatever was at their disposal, including wash 
     basins and mugs," he said. "They kicked us and used pistol butts and 
     ...wooden sticks on us."

     The released prisoner said that interrogators used electric cattle 
     prods as an instrument of torture. Some prisoners also underwent the 
     "Chinese rope torture," he said.

     "I saw people hanging from ropes tied to their arms behind their 
     backs, suspended with their feet off the ground. Two of the people I 
     saw had their shoulders dislocated by the rope. Many became 
     unconscious as a result."

     Both former prisoners said that those who were treated most harshly 
     in the prisons were Tibetan nuns. Most of the imprisoned nuns have 
     been released from prison but were said to be reluctant to talk about 
     the experience. 

     The most brutal of the guards were said to be Tibetans, not Chinese. 

 A recent Amnesty International report includes a list 628 Tibetans who spent 
 at least some time in prison during the period 1992-94 as result of their 
 political beliefs. [Strib95]

 The 10th Panchen Lama gave the following account of human rights conditions
 in Tibet in a 1987 speech delivered in Beijing:

     In 1959 there were rebellions in Tibet.... People were arrested and
     jailed indiscriminately. There were no interrogations. On sight
     Tibetans were taken to jail and beaten. Things like this are still
     common in Tibet....

     If there was a film made on all the atrocities perpetrated in Qinghai
     province, it would shock the viewers. In Golok area, many people were
     killed and their dead bodies were rolled down the hill into a big
     ditch. The soldiers told the family members and relatives of the dead
     people that they should all celebrate since the rebels had been wiped
     out. They were even forced to dance on the dead bodies. Soon after, they 
     were also massacred with machine guns. They were all buried there....

     In Amdo and Kham, people were subjected unspeakable atrocities. People
     were shot in groups of ten or twenty. I know that it is not good to
     speak about these things. But such actions have left deep wounds in the
     minds of the people. [Donnet94]

C3) How many Tibetans have died as a result of the Chinese occupation?

 The following table was made up by the Bureau of Information of the
 Tibetan government-in-exile:


  CAUSE OF DEATH       U-Tsang            Kham         Amdo          Total
  Tortured in prison    93,560           64,877       14,784        173,221
  Executed              28,267           32,266       96,225        156,758
  Killed in fighting   143,253          240,410       49,042        432,705
  Starved to death     131,072           89,916      121,982        342,970
  Suicide                3,375            3,952        1,675          9,002
  "Struggled" to death  27,951           48,840       15,940         97,731

  TOTAL                427,478          480,361      299,648      1,207,387

 Source: [Info94]


D1) What is the total population of Tibet?

                      Tibetan Population (in millions)

     Year     All Ethnic Tibetans    Central Tibet (TAR)         Source
     1268           1.0                     --                 [Goldstein81]
     1737                                 0.316 (monks)
                                          0.127 (lay families) [Rockhill91]
     1900           1.0                     --                 [McEvedy78]
     1953           2.776                 1.274                [Banister87]
     1964           2.501                 1.251                [Banister87]
     1982           3.870                 1.892                [Banister87]
     1990           4.593                 2.196             [BR-D90], [BR-N90]
     1995            --                   2.389                 [Reuter96]
 The figure for 1268 is an estimate made by American scholar Melvyn Goldstein
 on the basis of a Mongol census taken during that year. The figures for 1737,
 1953, 1964, 1982, and 1990 are Chinese census results. The 1995 figure is an
 estimate produced by China's State Statistical Bureau. The SSB's report on
 the 1990 census estimates that Tibet had a population of about 1.05 million
 in 1951. This suggests that the 1953 census result is now regarded as an

D2) How many ethnic Chinese live in Tibet (population transfer)?

 The view of the Tibetan government-in-exile is provided by its Department
 of Information and International Relations:

     Despite the lack of exact figures, and despite Chinese denials, the
     evidence points to a deliberate and long-standing population transfer
     policy. The policy is carried out largely with the help of Government
     incentive programs for Chinese from various Chinese provinces to
     relocate in Tibet. Higher wages, special housing, business and pension
     benefits are but some of the incentives provided. China's fourth
     population census in 1990 put the Chinese population (including a
     small number of Mongols) in the Tibetan provinces of Kham and Amdo at
     4,927,369. However, it is said that there is at least one unregistered
     Chinese against every two registered ones. The actual Chinese
     population, both registered and unregistered, in these areas should be
     about 7.5 million. In the recent years, China is reported to have
     stepped up the transfer of its population to the "TAR" also. [Info93]

 Article 49 of the Fourth Geneva Convention (1949) states that, "The 
 Occupying Power shall not deport or transfer parts of its own civilian 
 population into the territory it occupies."

 In the previous quote, the word "Tibet" is used to refer to the entire 
 Tibetan Plateau. In contrast, the quote below, from a 1994 _Washington Post_
 news article, uses the word to refer to TAR only, a much smaller area.

     Accurate figures for the ethnic breakdown of Tibet's population are
     difficult to obtain and are disputed by Chinese officials and the
     Tibetan exile community. Many Western analysts say the exile
     community's figures are highly exaggerated.

     Of Tibet's population of about 2.2 million, there are an estimated
     66,000 ethnic Chinese with permanent residence status, according to
     Chinese officials. Not included are another 40,000 Chinese 
     entrepreneurs who are part of an unofficial "floating population" and
     between 40,000 and 65,000 soldiers and paramilitary police, putting
     the total Chinese population in Tibet at no more than 8 percent...

     In Lhasa, about 50 percent of the population of 150,000 is now
     Chinese, longtime residents and Western analysts say. [Sun94]

 A 1995 report by the Free Tibet Campaign estimated TAR's "total non- 
 Tibetan population to be between 250,000 and 300,000, not including small 
 groups of peoples indigenous to the region." The report also concluded that,

     For all the Chinese defined Tibetan autonomous areas (including the
     TAR) we estimate the total non-Tibetan population to be between 2.5
     to 3 million; figures based on Chinese statistics from 1990 claimed
     the non-Tibetan total population to be 1.5 million; figures based on
     Chinese statistics from 1990 claimed the total Tibetan population for
     all the Tibetan autonomous areas to be 4.34 million. [Free95]  

D3) What are Tibet's economic statistics?

                               Tibet (TAR)    China (PRC)      USA
  Per capita GDP in U.S.
    dollars (1993)                242            462          24,700
  Average annual growth in  
    real income (1985-91)         5.5            8.1            0.8
  Telephone main lines per
    100 population (1992)         0.01            1             56
  Percentage of adults who
    are literate (1990)            56            74             97
  Percentage of adults who
    are high school grads (1990)  2.12          8.04           77.6
  Percentage of adults who
    are college grads (1990)      0.57          1.42           21.3 

  Sources: [Bennett95], [Fiske94], [Overholt93], [US Census94], [World94],


E1) What World-Wide Web sites have further information about Tibet?

 Tibet Online Resource Gathering

     The top source for Tibet-related information on the Internet. 

 Channel #Tibet's Homepage

 DharmaNet Electronic 
   Files Archive      

     An online Buddhist library maintained by DharmaNet International.

 Free Tibet Home Page 

     This site maintains a list of Tibetan support organizations and their 
     programs; articles with suggestions for action you can undertake to 
     help Tibetans; and a Tibetan reading and resource list.

 Home Page of Tibet

     This site includes an outline of Tibet's history from a pro-Chinese point
     of view.

 IHEP/China (US mirror site)

     This site is maintained by the Institute of High Energy Physics in 

 International Campaign for Tibet        

 Magic of Tibet                          

 Multimedia site with Tibetan music

 Shugden Supporters Community   

 Snow Lion Web Site             

     A catalog of books on Tibet available from Snow Lion Publications.

 Students for a Free Tibet      

 talk.pol.tibet FAQ

     An indexed version of this document.

 Tibetan language radio broadcasts

 Tibetan Studies WWW Virtual Library 


     These URLs are part of the Asian Studies WWW Virtual Library maintained 
     by the COOMBS Computing Unit of Australian National University, 
     Canberra. They provide web links to 116 facilities worldwide with Tibet- 
     related information.

 Tibet Current Affairs

     An on-line archive of current affairs analyses and news bulletins 
     maintained by the London-based Tibet Information Network.

 World Tibet Network News    
           alternate site    

E2) Where do I find information concerning travel to Tibet?

 FAQs on travelling to Tibet can be found at the following URLs:

 Campaign Free Tibet, listed under question E4, offers several fact sheets on
 travelling to Tibet. These are available by either e-mail or by postal mail.

E3) What Tibet-oriented mailing lists can I subscribe to?

 World Tibet Network News is a weekly electronic newsletter which contains
 news and comment about Tibet from a variety of viewpoints. To subscribe,
 e-mail a request to ( In the body of the message,
 type "SUB WTN-L [your name]". For example: SUB WTN-L Jane Q. User                
 To cancel your subscription, send a message with command, "SIGNOFF WTN-L"
 to ( WTN is also available from a Web site listed
 in question E1.

 Tibet-L is a mailing list for discussing issues related to Tibet. According
 to the description provided by Conrad Richter (tibet@RICHTERS.COM), owner of
 the list, "News and views, comments and questions are welcome on topics such
 as tours of lamas, conferences, exhibitions, and seminars too. Particularly
 welcome are submissions on political developments in Tibet."

 To subscribe, send a request to ( In the
 body of the message, type "SUBSCRIBE TIBET-L [your name]". Send articles to
 be posted on the list to ( To cancel your
 subscription, send the command "SIGNOFF TIBET-L" to
 Tibetan-Studies-L is a mailing list maintained by the Australian National
 University "for exchange of scholarly and factual information dealing with
 Tibet." To subscribe, send a e-mail to ( with
 the message "SUBSCRIBE Tibetan-Studies-L [your e-mail address]".

E4) What are the addresses of some organizations that deal with Tibet?


 Office of Tibet
  3 Weld Street, Yarralumla, Canberra ACT, 2600
  Tel.: (61-6) 285-4046 and (61-6) 282-4306  Fax: (61-6) 282-4301
  [The Australian office of the Tibetan government-in-exile.] 


 Canada-Tibet Committee
  4675 Coolbrook, Montreal, Quebec H3X 2K7
  Tel.: (1-514)-487-0665      Fax: (1-514)-487-7825
  E-mail: (
  [CTC is a cross-Canada network dedicated to fighting human
  rights abuses in Tibet and advancing the Tibetan people's right
  to independence. It is currently raising funds to improve Internet
  access for Tibetans living in India. CTC also publishes World Tibet
  Network News. (See question E3).]


 Bureau of His Holiness the Dalai Lama
  10 Ring Road, Lajpat Nagar IV, New Delhi 110024
  Tel.: (91-11) 647-3386      Fax: (91-11) 646-1914
  [The Dalai Lama can be e-mailed at the Tibetan Computer Resource 
  Center ( Use "TO: His Holiness" as the 

 Department of Information and International Relations
  Central Tibetan Administration, Gangchen Kyishong, Dharamasala 176 215


 International Campaign for Tibet                     
  1825 K St. NW Suite 520, Washington, D.C. 20006
  Tel.: (1-202) 785-1515      Fax: (1-202) 785-4343
  E-mail: (
  [The ICT has produced a tourist map entitled "On This Spot: An 
  Unconventional Map and Guide to Lhasa," which includes "uncensored 
  stories behind Lhasa's tourist sites." The mail order cost is $6.95.
  The ICT also publishes _Tibet Press Watch_, a bi-monthly magazine
  for ICT members. Membership costs $25 a year. ICT has a Web site 
  listed under question E1.]

 Office of Tibet
  241 E 32nd St., New York, NY 10016
  Tel.: (1-212) 213-5010      Fax: (1-212) 779-9245
  E-mail: (
  [The North American office of the Tibetan government-in-exile.]

 Students for a Free Tibet
  241 E 32nd St., New York, NY 10016 
  Tel.: (1-212) 213-5011      Fax: (1-212) 779-9245
  E-mail: (

 Tibetan Review, Potala Publications                              
  241 East 32nd St., New York, NY 10016               
  [_Tibetan Review_ is published monthly in New Delhi by Tibetans. A 
  subscription costs $20 a year.]


 Free Tibet Campaign (formerly Tibet Support Group UK)
  9 Islington Green, London N1 2XH
  Tel.: (44-171) 359 7573       Fax: (44-171) 354 1026   
 Independent Tibet Network (formally Campaign Free Tibet)
  30 Hollingbourne Gardens, Ealing, London W13 
  Tel.: (44-181) 998-8368

 Office of Tibet
  Tibet House, 1 Culworth Street, London NW8 7AF
  Tel.: (44-171) 722-5378      Fax: (44-171) 722-0362
  [The British office of the Tibetan government-in-exile. Its has a web 
  site at]

 Tibet Information Network
  City Cloisters, 188-196 Old St.,
  London EC1 9FR, United Kingdom
  Tel.: (44-171) 814-9011  Fax: (44-171) 814-9015
  E-mail: (
  [Independent news gathering and distribution service]

E5) What books about Tibet would you recommend?

 Avedon, John F. _In Exile From the Land of Snows_, New York, 1984, xii +
     383 pages. An account of Tibet's recent history from the perspective of
     the Tibetan exile community.

 Epstein, Israel. _Tibet Transformed_, Beijing, 1983, 566 pages. Beijing's
     view of matters Tibetan.

 Feigon, Lee. _Demystifying Tibet: Unlocking the Secrets of the Land of
     Snows_, Chicago, 1996, xi + 242 pages. A general survey of Tibetan

 Goldstein, Melvyn C. _A History of Modern Tibet, 1913-1951: the Demise of
     the Lamaist State_, Berkeley, 1989, xxv + 898 pages. A nonpartisan, 
     authoritative account by the foremost scholar of modern Tibetan 

 Harrer, Heinrich. _Seven Years in Tibet_, New York, 1953, xiii + 288 pages. 
     A classic tale of travel and adventure, told by an Austrian mountain 
     climber who became a tutor to the Dalai Lama. Recently released 
     as a major motion picture.

 Richardson, Hugh Edward. _Tibet and Its History_, Boulder, 1984, 327 pages.
     A British view of Tibet's history, now in its second revised edition. 
     Richardson was head of the British/Indian mission in Lhasa in 1936-40
     and 1946-50.

 Walt van Praag, Michael C. van. _The Status of Tibet: History, Rights and
     Prospects in International Law_, Boulder, 1987, xxiv + 381 pages. Makes
     a thoroughly documented legal case for Tibet's status as an independent

Section F: SOURCES

 [Atlas10] _Atlas of China = Ta-Ch'ing Ti-kuo Ch'uan-t'u_, Shanghai, 1910,
     map I.
 [Asia90] Asia Watch Committee. _Merciless Repression: Human Rights Abuses 
     in Tibet_, New York, 1990, p. 1. A UPI report said that this remark 
     was made in a meeting with TAR local administrators in July 1988.
 [Banister87] Banister, Judith. _China's Changing Population_, Stanford, 1987,
     pp. 322-23.
 [Bell24] Bell, Charles, _Tibet: Past and Present_, Oxford, 1924, pp. 78-79.
 [Bennett95] Bennett, Gary M. _China Facts & Figures Annual: 1995_, Gulf
     Breeze, 1995, p. 134.
 [BR-D90] "Population of China's Ethnic Nationalities," _Beijing Review_, 
     Beijing, 24 Dec 1990, p. 34. 
 [BR-F89] "`Tibetan Independence' -- Fact or Fiction?" _Beijing Review_,
     Beijing, 13 Feb 1989, pp. 25-30.
 [BR-N90] "Tibetan Population Outgrows Average," _Beijing Review_, Beijing,
     26 Nov 1990, p. 10.
 [Brunnert12] Brunnert, H. S. and Hagelstrom, V.V. _Present Day Political 
     Organization of China_, Shanghai, 1912. p. 467. This example is from 
     a 1694 decree issued by the Kangxi emperor.               
 [Dhondup78] Dhondup, K., "Panchen Lama, the Enigmatic Tibetan," _Tibetan
     Review_, Feb-March 1978, pp. 13-17.
 [Donnet94] Donnet, Pierre-Antoine. _Tibet: Survival in Question_, London and
     New Jersey, 1994, pp. 234, 236, 244.
 [Epstein83] Epstein, Israel. _Tibet Transformed_, Beijing, 1983, 
     pp. 140-141.
 [Far95] "High Stakes," _Far East Economic Review_, Hongkong, 22 June 1995.
 [Fiske94] Fiske, John D., _China Facts & Figures Annual: 1994_, Gulf Breeze,
     1994, pp. 88, 260, 293, 296.
 [Free95] Free Tibet Campaign. _New Majority Chinese Population Transfer
     into Tibet_, London, 1995.
 [Giles1] Giles, Herbert A. _A Chinese English Dictionary_, London, 1912, 
     pp. 415, 1496.
 [Giles2] Ibid. pp. 504, 1434-35.
 [Goldstein81] Goldstein, Melvyn C. "New Perspectives on Tibetan Fertility 
     and Population Decline," _American Ethnologist_, Washington, Nov 1981,
     pp. 721-38.  
 [Goldstein89] Goldstein, Melvyn C. _A History of Modern Tibet, 1913-1951:
     The Demise of the Lamaist State_, Berkeley, 1989, p. 401.
 [Grunfeld1] Grunfeld, Tom A. _The Making of Modern Tibet_, London, 1987,
     pp. 11, 13, 237n77.
 [Grunfeld2] Ibid. pp. 27-28. 
 [Grunfeld3] Ibid. p. 228.
 [Gyatso89] Gyatso, Tenzin, Dalai Lama XIV. _Tibet, China and the World: A 
     Compilation of Interviews_, Dharamsala, 1989, p. 31.
 [ICJ1] International Commission of Jurists, Legal Inquiry Committee on Tibet.
     _Tibet and the Chinese People's Republic_, Geneva, 1960, p. 3.    
 [ICJ2] Ibid. pp. 5-6.
 [Info93] Department of Information and International Relations, Central 
     Tibetan Administration. _Tibet: Proving Truth from Facts_, Dharamasala,
 [Info94] Department of Information and International Relations, Central 
     Tibetan Administration. _Tibet: Proving Truth from Facts_, Dharamasala,
     1994, p. 54.
 [Kaye93] Kaye, Lincoln. "Raging Inflation: Lhasa Price Protest Escalates into
     Anti-Chinese Riot," _Far Eastern Economic Review_, Hongkong, 3 Jun 1993,
     p. 13.  
 [Kerr93] Kerr, Blake. _Sky Burial: An Eyewitness Account of China's Brutal
     Crackdown in Tibet_, Chicago, 1993, pp. 163-64.
 [Kolmas67] Kolmas, Josef. _Tibet and Imperial China: A Survey of Sino- 
     Tibetan Relations up to the End of the Manchu Dynasty in 1912_, 
     Canberra, 1967, pp. 27-28.    
 [Kristof93] Kristof, Nicholas D. "Communist Party Chief Calls for a Purge 
     in Tibet," _The New York Times_, New York, 14 Feb 1993, p. 11.
 [Meltzer93] Meltzer, Milton, _Slavery: A World History_, New York, 1993, 
     Vol. II, p. 258.
 [McEvedy78] McEvedy, Colin, and Jones, Richard. _The Atlas of World
     Population History_, London, 1978, pp. 168-169.
 [Overholt93] Overholt, William H. _The Rise of China: How Economic Reform
     is Creating a New Superpower_, New York, 1993, pp. 103, 105.
 [Partridge66] Partridge, Eric. _Origins: A Short Etymological Dictionary of
     Modern English_, New York, 1966, p. 719.
 [Poston92] Poston, Dudley L. Jr. and Yaukey, David. _The Population of Modern
     China_, New York, 1992, overleaf.
 [Reuter96] Reuter wire service report, March 19, 1996.
 [Rockhill91] Rockhill, W. Woodville. "Tibet from Chinese Sources," _Journal
     of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland_, Cambridge,
     1891, p. 13.
 [Savada93] Savada, Andrea M. _Nepal and Bhutan: Country Studies_, Washington,
     1993, p. 186.
 [Southerland88] Southerland, Daniel. "Tibetan Tells of Torture: Monk Says 
     Chinese Abuse Prisoners in the Region," _The Washington Post_, 
     Washington, 6 Sept 1988, p. A23:1.     
 [Southerland89] Southerland, Daniel. "The Panchen Lama, Religious Leader 
     in Tibet, Dies 50," _The Washington Post_, Washington, 30 Jan 1988, 
     p. D4:1.
 [Strauss] Strauss, Robert. _Tibet -- A Travel Survival Kit_, Berkeley, 1992, 
     pp. 18-19.
 [Strib95] "Report: Hundreds Jailed, Tortured in Tibet," _Minneapolis 
     Star-Tribune_, 30 May 1995, p. 4A.  
 [Sun94] Sun, Lena H. "Ethnic Animosities Reborn as Chinese Traders Flood
     Tibet," _The Washington Post_, Washington, 15 Sept 1994, p. A27:1.
 [Schwartz94] Schwartz, Ronald D. _Circle of Protest: Political Ritual in the
     Tibetan Uprising_, New York, 1994, pp. 160-61.
 [US Census94] U.S. Bureau of the Census. _Statistical Abstract of the United
     States: 1994_, Washington, 1994, tables 696, 1375.
 [Walt1] Walt van Praag, Michael C. van. _The Status of Tibet: History, Rights
     and Prospects in International Law_, Boulder, 1987, pp. 287-288.
 [Walt2] Ibid. p. 163. Captured PLA documents are cited as the source of the
     claim that 87,000 Tibetans died in the 1959 revolt.
 [Walt3] Ibid. p. 196. The quote is from a speech Solzhenitsyn made in Tokyo.
 [Walt4] Ibid. p. 318.
 [Walt5] Ibid. p. 112.
 [Walt6] Ibid. p. 36. This example is from a telegram sent by the Qing Foreign
     Ministry to the Ambans in Lhasa in 1904.
 [Walt7] Ibid. p. 37.
 [Walt8] Ibid. p. 228n20.
 [Walt9] Ibid. pp. 139-40.
 [Walt10] Ibid. p. 79.
 [Walt11] Ibid. p. 146.
 [Walt12] Ibid. p. 51.
 [Walt13] Ibid. p. 89.
 [World94] _World Almanac and Book of Facts: 1995_, New York, 1994, p. 833.
 [Yang75] Yang Shou-ching. _Li Tai Yu Ti Yen Ko T`u_, Taipei, 1975, Vol 1,
     pp. 13-71. This atlas was originally published in 1879 as _Li Tai Yu
     Ti Yen Ko Hsien Yao Tu_.

Peter Kauffner                                     Copyright 1994-1997
Minneapolis, Minnesota

"There are many great nations on this earth who have achieved unprecedented
wealth and might, but there is only one nation which is dedicated to the well-
being of humanity and that is the religious land of Tibet, which cherishes a
joint spiritual and temporal system." -- letter drafted by the Tibetan
National Assembly, 1946

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