376. Society


See also 93. COMMUNALISM ; 185. GOVERNMENT ; 322. POLITICS .

activism
the attitude of taking an active part in events, especially in a social context. —activist, n.
anthropophobia
an abnormal fear of people, especially in groups.
aristocracy
1. government by the best people.
2. an upper class based on quality, nobility, etc.
aristocraticism
a dedication to aristocratie behavior.
aristocratism
the attitudes and actions of aristocrats.
autocracy
a society or nation ruled by a person with absolute authority. —autocrat, n. —autocratie, adj.
beerocracy
In England. the aristocracy that gained its wealth and social posi-tion from the ownership of breweries.
chemocracy
a Utopian society in which all foods and other material needs will be prepared by chemical processes. —chemocrat, n.
chrysocracy
an upper class based on wealth. Also chrysoaristocracy .
civics
the area of political science concerned with citizenship.
confraternity
a brotherhood, especially a group of men bound by a common goal or interest.
cottonocracy
that portion of the upper class whose wealth comes from the cotton trade. —cottonocrat, n.
democratism
a doctrine of or belief in social equality or the right of all people to participate equally in politics.
do-goodism
attitudes or actions of well-intentioned but sometimes ineffectual people, especially in the area of social reform.
ecology, oecology
the branch of sociology that studies the environmental spacing and interdependence of people and their institutions. — ecologist, oecologist , n. ecologie, oecologic, ecological, oecological , adj.
enculturation
the process by which a person adapts to and assimilates the culture in which he lives.
exclusionism
the doctrine or practice of excluding certain groups or individuals from enjoyment of certain rights or privileges. —exclusionist, n.
Fichteanism
theories and beliefs of J. G. Fichte (1762-1814), German philosopher and social thinker, a precursor of socialism. — Fichtean, n., adj.
foolocracy
government or domination of society by fools.
fractionalism
the state of being nonhomogeneous or inharmonious. —fractionalization, n.
fraternity
a fellowship or association of men, as for a benevolent or charitable purpose or at a college.
kakotopia
a state in which the worst possible conditions exist in government, society, law. etc. See also 406. UTOPIA .
landocracy
a ruling class that owes its power to its possession of land. —landocrat, n.
manorialism
1. the system of manorial social and political organization, as in the Middle Ages.
2. its principles and practices.
3. Sometimes Pejorative. any small, strong unit of local political and social organization.
matriarchate
1. a matriarchal form of government.
2. a family, tribe, or other social group ruled by a matriarch or matriarchs. —matriarchic, adj.
mediocracy
government or dominance of society by the médiocre.
meritocracy
a powerful class composed of people who have achieved position on the basis of their merit rather than by birth or privilege. —meritocrat, n.
moneyocracy
government or domination of society by the rich.
oecology
ecology.
oiligarchy
Facetious. a wealthy and dominant force in society whose wealth and power is based on control of oil.
orthogenesis
the sociological theory that all cultures or societies follow the same fixed course of determinate evolution. See also 147. EVOLUTION . —orthogenetic, adj.
pariahism
the condition of being outcast from society. —pariahdom, n.
parsonarchy
the domination of a social group, especially a small rural com-munity, by the parson.
parvenuism
1. behavior or attitudes typical of one who has recently acquired wealth or social position.
2. the state or quality of being a parvenu or upstart. —parvenu, n., adj.
phratry
1. a subdivision of an ancient Greek tribe or phyle.
2. a clan or other unit of a primitive tribe.
reclusion
the state of living apart from society, like a hermit. —recluse, n. —reclusive, adj.
seneschalship
the rank, position or jurisdiction of a steward of a medieval prince or nobleman.
snobocracy
Facetious. snobs as a class in society.
socialization
the process of adapting to a social group; social intercourse or activity.
sociocracy
collective government or government by society as a whole.
sociologism
a theory asserted sociologistically. —sociologistic, adj.
sociology
1. the science or study of the origin, development, organization, and functioning of human society.
2. the science of the fundamental laws of social relations, institutions, etc. —sociologist, n. —sociologie, sociological, adj.
sociometry
the measurement of social attitudes within a group by sampling expressions of social acceptance or rejection. —sociometrist, n. —sociometrie, adj.
socionomy
Rare. the study of the laws that govern the development of society.
sodality
a fellowship, brotherhood, or other association of a benevolent nature, especially in the Roman Catholic Church. —sodalist, n. , adj.
solidarism
Sociology. a theory that the possibility of founding a social organization upon a solidarity of interests is to be found in the natural interde-pendence of members of a society. —solidarist, n. —solidaristic, adj.
solidarity
the feeling or expression of union in a group formed by a common interest.
sorority
a fellowship or association of women, as for a benevolent or charitable purpose or at a college.
sorosis
a woman’s club or society, named after a club of that name, founded in 1869.
squirearchy
In Britain. the squires or landed gentry as a class.
syssitia
the practice or custom, as among the ancient Spartans and Cretans, of eating the main meal of the day together in public to strengthen social and political bonds.
telesia, telesis
the harnessing of natural and social forces for a beneficial goal.
totemism
1. the practice of having a natural object or animate being, as a bird or animal, as the emblem of a family, clan, or group.
2. the practice of regarding such a totem as mystically related to the family, clan, or group and therefore not to be hunted.
3. a system of tribal organization according to totems. —totemic, adj.
welfarism
the beliefs and policies associated with the welfare system.

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