147. Evolution


See also 44. BIOLOGY ; 74. CHANGE ; 191. GROWTH ; 219. IMPROVEMENT .

Darwinism
the theory of evolution by natural selection of those species best adapted to survive the struggle for existence. — Darwinian , n., ad) .
evolutionism
a principle or theory of evolution. — evolutionist , n., adj .
Lamarckism
the theory of organic evolution advanced by the French naturalist Lamarck that characteristics acquired by habit, diseases, or adaptations to change in environment may be inherited. — Lamarckian , n., adj .
Neo-Darwinism
the theory that maintains natural selection to be the major factor in plant and animal evolution and denies the possibility of inheriting acquired characteristics. — Neo-Darwinist , n ., adj . — Neo-Darwinian , n ., adj .
Neo-Lamarckism
a modern theory based on Lamarckism that states that acquired characteristics are inherited. — Neo-Lamarckian , n., adj .
orthogenesis
progressive evolution, leading to the development of a new form, as can be seen through successive generations. See also 376. SOCIETY . — orthogenetic , adj .
pangenesis
the theory advanced by Darwin, now rejected, that each part of the body is represented in each cell by gemmules, which are the basic units of hereditary transmission. — pangenetic , adj .
phylogeny
the history of the development of a plant, animal, or racial type. — phylogenist , n . — phylogenetic , adj .
primordialism
a devotion to the conditions which existed at the beginning of creation.
transformism
the ability of one species to change into another. — transformist , n .
tychism
1 . the theory that chance is involved in evolution and that variation within a species is accidental.
2 . the belief that chance rather than mere determinism operates in the cosmos. Cf. uniformitarianism .
uniformitarianism
1 . Philosophy . a doctrine that the universe is governed only by rigid, unexceptionable law.
2 . Geology . the concept that current geological processes explain all past geological occurrences. — uniformitarian , n., adj .

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