Search the FAQ Archives

3 - A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M
N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X - Y - Z - Internet FAQ Archives

comp.apps.spreadsheets FAQ

[ Usenet FAQs | Web FAQs | Documents | RFC Index | Forum ]
Archive-name: spreadsheets/faq
Author: casfaq@locutus.ofB.ORG (Russell Schulz)
Comp-apps-spreadsheets-archive-name: faq
Posting-Frequency: biweekly
Last-modified: 2002-Mar-28
Posting-Via: (mail2news)
Not-Posting-Via: my connectivity provider who doesn't do news for uucp now
Not-Posting-Via-The-Cable-Modem-Because: I don't want to

See reader questions & answers on this topic! - Help others by sharing your knowledge
comp.apps.spreadsheets     == cas
Frequently Asked Questions == FAQ

The FAQ list for comp.apps.spreadsheets can be found on the Internet:



   1. Disclaimer
   2. Spam
   3. Can you answer my spreadsheet question?
   4. How can I add a FAQ and its answer to the FAQ list?
   5. Should I post a spreadsheet utility I just created/found?
   6. Where can I learn about spreadsheets?
   7. General spreadsheet issues
   8. For the masses: Lotus 1-2-3
   9. For the masses: Quattro
  10. For the masses: Excel
  11. Spreadsheet runtimes/compilers
  12. Optimizers (Solvers)
  13. Errors, Checkers, Auditors
  14. Obscure: File formats
  15. Obscure: Free spreadsheets, and source code
  16. Obscure: Commercial spreadsheets for UNIX
  17. Obscure: Legal issues
  18. Miscellaneous
  99. Credits


1. Disclaimer

Read at your own risk.  The current, previous, or original authors
make no claim as to fitness for any purpose or absence of any errors,
and offer no warranty.  Do not eat.


2. Spam

you wouldn't believe how much spam I get to this address.


3. Can you answer my spreadsheet question?

Probably not.  Please don't mail it to me.  There is no reason to assume
I, personally, have ever even USED the spreadsheet you're wondering about.

Read the manuals, and the FAQ, and the materials pointed to by it.  If
you can't find an answer there, by all means post to the newsgroup.

If you need help posting, see <> among others.

A FAQ list is intended to reduce traffic on a newsgroup, not eliminate it.

The newsgroup readers can be very helpful.  Don't be shy in asking
questions.  But do make sure that you:

  - show you've put in effort beforehand (including reading the manual
    for your software), and aren't just being lazy and abusing the
    newsgroup participants

  - give enough details -- some people don't even mention what
    spreadsheet they're using!

  - use a descriptive Subject: header (not just `Excel help' or
    `Two Lotus Questions' or `Quattro problem' or `Formula needed'
    or, probably worst of all, `Help me!!!!!!1')

  - clearly ask your question.  your message will be travelling
    to thousands of computers around the world, so it's courteous
    to spend a few minutes reading it over and making it perfect.

  - give an example if you have a complex formula request (sometimes
    a small example will say more than a lot of text.  if you want a
    particular result from 5 numbers, give the numbers and the result
    you'd expect.  or give 3 sets of 5 numbers and 3 results.)

  - don't post a large attachment (these are almost ALWAYS a waste of
    space, which is very rude to people whose net access is expensive;
    a small example is good; a large attachment, including the example
    and an extra 100k of data and file format overhead, is bad.)

These observations and suggestions hold for most newsgroups.

My personal interest is in obscure, technical and/or historical trivia,
like source code, free spreadsheets, and file formats, but not with how
to do things which are documented in the manuals.  I assume that future
maintainers will rectify this imbalance.

In the mean time, the whole of section 6 lists pointers to other places
you can look which will probably have what you want.


4. How can I add a FAQ and its answer to the FAQ list?

Mail BOTH of them to me.  Then I can add them to the FAQ and it should
help people who have that same question later, as well as everyone who
reads the group, because they won't see it asked and answered so often.

Do not just post the message and hope that I will see it -- I don't
read every message in the group.

I do not work on this FAQ every day, but I will try to get updates
incorporated in a timely manner.

Of course, don't mail me my entire FAQ!  I already have a copy!  There
are copies available all over the web that I could use if I lost mine!
I pay for my access; don't you?


5. Should I post a spreadsheet utility I just created/found?

Please, no.  While it's nice that you want to share, posting files
is not the way to do it.  Not everyone will want the file, and for
many people net access is too expensive to waste it this way.

If you have a web page, please put it on the web page, and post an
announcement to the group telling us where it is.  Then not only
will people reading the group today have it, but people searching
archives of the group next month will be able to find it, too.

And only people who actually want it will pay for transmitting it.

If you don't have a web page, you may want to use one of the many
free web page services.  Or possibly post a `space wanted' message
to the group, asking people who have web pages (e.g., collections
of spreadsheet utilities) if you can send it (once!) to them, and
they will let us know where to find it.


6. Where can I learn about spreadsheets?

                                 More entries are always helpful!
                                 Have any moved?  Please let me know.

Here are some places to look on the Internet I've seen suggested:

  History of Spreadsheets [error 1999/Feb/14] [error 1999/Apr/10]

  John Walkenbach's "The Spreadsheet Page"
      it's more than a page -- it's a large site with information on
      many spreadsheets and spreadsheet-related material, including
      his own advanced books

  IUPUI's FAQs for many spreadsheets [no more FAQs?!]

  Microsoft Excel 97 and VBA [error 1998/Sep/08]

  Rick Desrosiers

  Writing Excel Macros, by Steven Roman

  spreadsheets in mathematics, statistics, and science education

  spreadsheets and statistics

  spreadsheets and differential equations
    (look for spreadsheet.sea.hqx)

  Richard Warr's spreadsheet page

  Excel (in German)
    [error 1998/Dec/01]

  Excel (in German) [frames-only!  boo hiss!]

  Excel (in Russian)

  Excel utilities

  The Byg Utilities Lite (including Number to Text)

  University of British Columbia Excel Tips

  Frank Isaacs' VBA Pro

  Arun Ubale's spreadsheet written in Java [error 1998/Sep/08]

  Spreadsheet written in Java

  Christopher B. Browne's spreadsheet history and Linux implementations

  Linux spreadsheets

  Linux Software (including spreadsheets)

  Excel page with lots of examples; also, finding and removing links

  Joseph Moosman's Excel (including permutations and combinations)

  Excel and VBA examples

  Alan's Excel pages

  Chip's Excel pages
    [error 2000/Jan/29]

  Laurent Longre's XLLs

  NerdWorld Spreadsheet Links

  MIT Excel User Group

  Excel Companion -- introduction to mathematical modeling

  Byte accolades for Improv (an MS-Windows port of the NeXT product)

  Ture Magnusson Excel Pages
    [error 2000/Jan/29]

  Sam L. Savage -- Spreadsheets in analytical modeling

  Use of spreadsheets to analyze political data
    [error 2000/Jan/29]

  Tutorial on adding custom functions to Excel;
  includes least-squares fitting for data with uncertainty
    [error 2001/Apr/18]

  Generalized Linear Models on a spreadsheet

  Inside Microsoft Excel (formerly the Cobb Group, Ziff Davis)

  Village Software -- commercial spreadsheets for Excel, Lotus, Quattro

  John Lacher -- spreadsheet application development

  Baarns Publishing

  PC World spreadsheets,aid,15489,00.asp

  Spreadsheet Shareware Utility CD
    [error 2001/Apr/18]

  Excel Solutions Letter (with VBA tips) [totally frames-dependent!  boo hiss! ]

    Excel (and VBA) training, spreadsheets, add-ins, tips and tricks


  Search Engines

Official product web pages:

    [yay!  they fixed their no-frames brokenness!]

  Lotus information
    ... Improv/technotes/next/
    ... Improv/technotes/windows/
    ... Symphony/technotes/standalone/
    ... Symphony/technotes/server_edition/
    ... SmartSuite/technotes/windows/standalone/
    ... SmartSuite/technotes/windows/server_edition/
    ... 123/technotes/dos/standalone/
    ... 123/technotes/dos/server_edition/
    ... 123/technotes/windows/server_edition/
    ... 123/technotes/windows/standalone/

  Lotus 123 user discussion area


  Microsoft Excel (VBA guide) (Office Resource Kit)

  Microsoft Knowledge Base
      [back to being accessible without cookies!  finally!]
      [not searchable except through index]

  Wingz [error 2000/Jan/29]



  VistaSource Applixware and Anyware

  Star Office (includes spreadsheet)


  XQuad (Axene Office)

  Spreadsheet 2000 (formerly Let's Keep It Simple) [error 2001/Apr/18] [error 2001/Apr/18]



  Quantrix [error 1997/Jun/01] [error 1999/Apr/10] [error 1999/Apr/10]

  ParaSheet [error 1997/Jun/01] [error 1999/Apr/10] [error 1999/Apr/10]

  As Easy As and Alite


  Lucid 3-D [error 2001/Apr/18] [error 2001/Apr/18]

  Sum*It (for Mac and Be)

  Sphygmic Spreadsheet

  Advance by APS [error 2001/Apr/18]


  KMT Software; developers of templates, add-ons and developer tools

  XRT/table widgets

  JClass LiveTable

  xlSTAT (a data analysis toolbox for Excel)

  Bob Flanagan's `Microsoft Visual Basic Macros Made Easy' online book
    [error 2000/Jan/29]

  Bob Flanagan's `Home of Great Excel Add-ins'

  Interval Solver for Microsoft Excel
    [error 2001/Apr/18]

  OMDI Add-ins for Microsoft Excel Linear Programming Image Tools Unit Tools Element Tools Pure Component Tools

  Analyse-it statistics add-in for Microsoft Excel

  Concept Data

  FarPoint Spread (VBX)

  Forms Processing Engine (JavaScript spreadsheet)

  Athena's Integer Spreadsheet in Java
    [error 2001/Apr/18]

  ExcelGrid for Delphi

  Enhance23 add-in for Lotus123

  DPS Small Business Solutions -- examples in Excel, 123, MS Works, ...


  Mailing list: Excel General

    for information, send mail with the line

    to subscribe to the list, send mail with the line
    SUB EXCEL-G Firstname Lastname

  Mailing list: Excel Developer

    for information, send mail with the line

    to subscribe to the list, send mail with the line
    SUB EXCEL-L Firstname Lastname

  Newsgroups: Quattro
    access via NNTP at news://

    note that this is not a legitimate RFC 1036bis name, so
     it may not work with your particular newsreader

  Newsgroups: Microsoft Excel
    access via NNTP at news://

    note that many of these are not legitimate RFC 1036bis names, so
     they may not work with your particular newsreader

      Support for converting 1-2-3 or Quattro sheets
       into Microsoft Excel sheets.

      Support for building charts with Microsoft Excel

      Post here for help with crashes or General Protection Faults. 

      Support for the Data Map feature 

      Assistance with OLE - DDE and other cross application issues.

      Support for using links in Excel. 

      Support for Excel issues on the Macintosh Operating System Platform 

      Post general questions or questions that do not fit
       one of the other categores.  

      Support for printing spreadsheets with Microsoft Excel

      Programming Excel using VBA or XLM.

      Support of the Microsoft Query Tool and
       using Data Access Objects (DAO) in Excel.

      Setup and Installing Microsoft Excel.

      Assistance with the Village templates and other XLT files.

      Support for Worksheet functions only like =Lookup(), or =Linest().
      Deutsche Newsgroup fuer EXCEL


7. General spreadsheet issues

7.0 Introductions
  [error 2000/Jan/29]

7.1 Why does my spreadsheet say 0.1+0.1+0.1+0.1+0.1-0.5 isn't 0?

  if any computer package uses binary floating point numbers (and
  the vast majority do), then it can not represent the value 1/10
  exactly (just like it can't represent the value 1/3 exactly).

  so, in each 0.1 there's a little roundoff error, and when you get
  enough of those errors together, you can sometimes see them.

  this is why you cannot reliably use simple equality tests on a
  binary-arithmetic computer (including in a spreadsheet) unless it
  is designed to represent such quantities exactly (for instance,
  by using integer hundredths, or using Binary Coded Decimal form).

  so, instead of testing for equality like
  you have to do it something like

  because the first method MAY FAIL when you encounter this type
  of roundoff error.  the numbers will _look_ the same on the
  screen, but they won't _be_ the same, when examined to the full
  precision the computer has used.

  frustratingly, Microsoft Excel _does_ store values as integer
  hundredths to make the files smaller, but it does _not_ use these
  precise values in its calculations, as that perfect accuracy
  would make it slower!

  if you're using dollars and cents, testing if the values agree
  to within 1 cent (0.01) usually makes more sense than 0.0000001 .

  even though later versions of Microsoft Excel do have an option
  `use values as displayed', it does not wholly work around this
  problem, as the calculations are still done internally in binary.
  however, the final test against `0' _could_ work, if placed in
  separate cells:  the displayed value for 0.1+0.1+0.1+0.1+0.1-0.5
  (when forced to show at most 2 decimal places) is exactly 0.
  but if you were testing `0.1+0.1-0.1' against `0.1', all bets
  are off -- it may work, or it may not, depending on how careful
  the different parts of the spreadsheet are in being consistent
  with rounding to impossible-to-store-exactly values like `0.1'.

7.2 How can I round to the nearest multiple of 3?  or the nearest nickel?

  if you have a ROUND() function, simply divide by your grouping,
  round your value, and multiply by your grouping.

  e.g., to round to the nearest  use
     3                           ROUND(value/3)*3
     0.05                        ROUND(value/0.05)*0.05
     0.05                        ROUND(value*20)/20     [equivalent]

  these results will still be subject to computer accuracy -- if you
  round 0.15 to the nearest 0.3, you might get 0 or you might get 0.3
  or you might get 0.29999999999.

7.3 How can I save-as HTML, or otherwise view foreign spreadsheets?

7.3.1 built-in save-as HTML

  some spreadsheets have this built-in now.  contact your vendor
  to see if there is a patch or add-on which will work for you.

7.3.2 dbQuickPage (HTML)

  dbQuickPage supports the following [...]

    Lotus 1-2-3 wk1, wk3, wk4 
    Excel 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 8.0

7.3.3 XTML (Excel to HTML)

7.3.4 perl source code

  (source code!)
  (doesn't require MS-Windows!)
  (free!) Herbert, a free platform independent MS Excel to HTML convertress Spreadsheet::ParseExcel

7.3.5 Quick View
  [error 2001/Apr/18]

  add-in for Netscape Navigator
  views many spreadsheet file types

7.3.6 Corel Quattro Viewer Plugin

7.3.7 Drag and View

7.3.8 ReadWk

7.3.9 QView

7.3.10 xl2html [hard to reach] [unofficial mirror]

7.4 How many columns or rows does my spreadsheet allow?

  look in your manual!  why do so many people post this question

7.4.1 Can I get more columns or rows than that?

  no -- did you think the manual was joking?

  a. perhaps there is another spreadsheet package which has
     enough columns or rows for your needs.
  b. if you cannot switch packages, try to rotate the data
     (since most spreadsheets allow many more rows than columns).
  c. if none of these work, split the data over multiple sheets,
     if your package has this capability.

7.5 Spreadsheets in Science and Engineering

7.5.1 Science and Engineering

  Spreadsheets in Science and Engineering ed. W. G. Filby
  ISBN 3-540-61253-X

7.5.2 Chemistry

  Excel for Chemists: A Comprehensive Guide, by Dr. E. Joseph Billo
  (Wiley-VCH, 1997, 480 pp, $49.95)

7.5.3 MoreVision Layout

7.6 How do I deal with dates and times in my spreadsheet?

this depends on your spreadsheet.

the most common method is to ignore dates entirely -- just
represent the dates as numbers, and use them like any other numbers.

in particular, every number is treated as the number of whole
days starting with some particular date long ago (it is called
the epoch, and usually has a value of 1).  so a value of 2 would
be the day after the epoch, 3.5 would be noon (12 hours=0.5 days)
2 days after the epoch, and 12.25 would be 6 am (6 hours=0.25 days)
11 days after the epoch.

(Unix keeps its time in a similar way, except it only uses integers;
it counts the number of seconds since the start of 1970.  this is
why many Unix systems are in danger of severe clock problems in 2038 --
the signed 32-bit counter will overflow.)

when you format the numbers as dates or times, a lot of things just
magically work.  for instance, you can add 7 to a date, and it will
always be a week later, even if it wrapped around a month or year or
century -- it's the formatting that does all the hard work of deciding
what date (and time) a given number actually represents.

there are two big problems:

  1. there was no February 29 in 1900:

     by the 4/100/400 rule, 1900 was not a leap year (and 2000 was).
     but for backward compatibility with an error in an early
     spreadsheet that used the epoch of 1900/Jan/01, many spreadsheets
     treat 1900 as if it was (and claim that `60' should be treated as
     the nonexistent 1900/Feb/29).  this means any date calculations
     that use dates before 1900/Mar/01 are suspect.

  2. the epoch can change:

     perhaps to avoid that problem, the Macintosh system has used
     an epoch of 1904/Jan/01.  but since the dates are stored only
     as numbers, you can suddenly find your dates shifting by about
     4 years when opening spreadsheets on different computers
     (notably, Microsoft Excel allows you to switch between the
     `1900 date system' and the `1904 date system' interpretations
     on the same computer).

there are 3 small problems:

  1. the difference between two dates can't be formatted as a date:

     if you want to show the difference between two dates (e.g., age)
     you simply subtract the two numbers -- but do NOT format them
     as dates (since a difference of 3 days might show up as the
     confusing 1900/Jan/04).  always treat (and format) the difference
     as a number of days, possibly dividing by

        7             to show the number of weeks;
        365[.2422...] to show an approximate number of years;
        30[.416...]   to show an approximate number of months.

  2. times over 24 hours may be hard to format:

     if you add 18 hours (0.75) and 12 hours (0.5), you may not get
     the 30 hours (1.25) you expect, but 1 day with 6 hours (0.25)
     left over.  you may need to format the result as a number, in days,
     or multiply by 24 to show the time in hours.  many newer versions
     have a special `overflow' format to treat a number as time only,
     without using the integer part as a day count.

  3. two digits for the year were never enough (past 1900, anyway):

     if you enter data with 2-digit years, shame on you.  but if you
     insist, your software may be trying to outsmart you -- some packages
     treat any two-digit year from 00-29 as 2000-2029.  if this happens,
     and you format the date with a 2-digit year (shame on you!), you may
     never notice this switch until the day you accidentally discover that
     your `average age' calculation is just a little too low, because of a
     few negative ages you used!


8. For the masses: Lotus 1-2-3

8.0 1-2-3 history

    I've been mailed a as-I-remember-it history, but I'd love to have
    an official one to point to here

8.1 What file extensions do different versions use?

  WKS : release 1A
  WK1 : release 2
  FMT : format of release 2 (wysiwyg)
  WK3 : release 3
  FM3 : format of release 3 (wysiwyg)
  WK4 : release 4 and 5 (includes format (wysiwyg))
  123 : release 97

8.2 How can I recover a corrupted file?

  see [removed? 1998/Jan/23]

8.3 Opening Quattro Files



9. For the masses: Quattro

9.0 Quattro history

  1-2-3 was the dominant spreadsheet on PCs for a long, long time.
  `quattro' is similar to the Latin and Spanish words for `4'.  Get it?

  According to the 1994 Computer Bowl, the code name for Quattro was
  `Buddha', since it was intended to assume the Lotus position.

9.1 Quattro file extensions

  Felix Miata wrote:

  > All versions of Quattro Pro I have used can read and write the
  > Lotus WKS and WK1 file formats.  A file saved as both a WK1 file
  > and a WQ1 file results in the WQ1 file being the larger.  Maximum
  > cell contents length in the Lotus formats is 240 characters. For
  > the QPro formats I have used (WQ1 & WQ2) the limit is 255
  > characters.  The special WQ! compressed format available to QPro
  > DOS users reduces the contents length to a 245 character maximum.
  > So, something is obviously different about the formats.

  > The original Quattro used the WKQ format. Quattro Pro introduced
  > the WQ1 format.  The WQ2 format was introduced to offer multipage
  > spreadsheet "notebooks" with version 5.0.  The Windoze version
  > readable by the DOS program is WB1.


10. For the masses: Excel

10.0 Excel history
      [error 1999/Apr/10]

10.1 Why would anyone want to convert Excel 4 macros to VBA?

    - there are some compatibility problems with later versions
    - so they are easier to understand
    - so they are easier to modify
    - so you can learn VBA

10.1.1 Is there a tool which will convert Excel 4 macros to VBA?

    not that anyone knows of -- if you find one, tell us all

10.2 How can I do a Save-As or Exit without prompting the user?


      You can suppress the messages with:
        Application.DisplayAlerts = False

      Don't forget to turn them back on when you are finished with:
        Application.DisplayAlerts = True

10.3 How do I put multiline text string in a message box?


      MsgBox _
         "This will print on line one" & Chr(13) & _
         "this will print on line two"

10.4 Why do I get "File format no longer supported"?

    If some other application overwrites the OLE DLLs, you will get
    this error at odd times.

    One fix posted by Scot Foss follows:

      Move these files to a different directory and then Uninstall
      Excel. If you reinstall Excel every thing should work. After
      reading through the related articles in dejanews one person
      said that Microsoft Video was the culprit that overwrote the
      DLLs. The only thing that I can think of that I installed
      in the last month was Microsoft Encarta, I haven't
      experimented to see if it was Encarta that messed up the
      DLLs, so I can't be sure.

      Here's the list of the files:

      I deleted Excel and backed up and deleted the following
      files, and reinstalled Excel from the MS-Office disks.


10.5 What's this about the 15 digit numbers that return 0.64 or 1.28?

  according to Microsoft, the problem numbers are:

> 140737488355328   = 2^47
> 281474976710656   = 2^48
> 562949953421312   = 2^49

> multiples of ten also cause problems, such as 1.40737488355328


10.6 How can I read Excel files without Excel?

10.6.0 from a program

  see the section on `Excel formats' to see if there is a library
  that will work on your system.

  also see the section on `Spreadsheet runtimes/compilers'

10.6.1 using MS-Windows (Excel Viewer)


10.6.2 not using MS-Windows

  see the section on converting to HTML to see if that will satisfy.

  if not, you will probably have to buy a spreadsheet package for your
  system that can read Excel files.  or see if you can get the Excel
  user to use a non-proprietary format.

10.7 What's this about an Excel virus?



  Even with Macro Virus Protection (Excel 97 and later) enabled,
  code can run upon opening files, without your approval:


10.8 When I start up Excel, it tries to open a lot of files; some of
  them are non-Excel files (sometimes my AUTOEXEC.BAT and CONFIG.SYS,
  sometimes all my Windows files) that it tries to open as Excel
  workbooks.  What happened?

  it is opening all the files in the Alternative Startup File Location.
  delete the setting via:

  Excel 4:
    load the AltStart addin and clear the entry

    Tools|Options|General|Alternate Startup File Location

  with some later versions, you can start Excel with a flag
    excel /AUTOMATION
  to temporarily disable this action (which makes it easier to
  get to the menus to turn it off)

10.9 Any number I type in gets divided by a power of 10.  Why?

  Excel has an option `Fixed Decimal Places', which divides all
  constants entered directly in the cell by a power of 10 (e.g.,
  entering 622 would change to 6.22).

  change the setting to `0' via:

  Tools|Options|Edit|Fixed Decimal Places

10.10 Excel complains about TIMER.DRV on startup.  What can I do?


10.11 I get odd (square?) characters where I expect commas (thousands)
  or slashes (dates).  What happened?

  check your International settings in Control Panel.  when these get
  corrupted, Excel will still use them, with ugly results.

10.12 How can I add 14:00 to 14:00 and get the cell to say 28:00
  instead of 04:00?

> For Excel 5, 7, 8
>   format the cell:           [h]:mm
> Excel 97 makes it easier now, by including the format among the pull
> down choices for a time format.

10.13 Why is =-1^2 positive and =0-1^2 negative?

  nonstandard operator precedence -- the `unary minus' has a high
  precedence, as normal, but the `exponentiation operator' has a
  higher one, which is NOT normal.


  Excel treats -1^2 as (-1)^2, while most languages would as -(1^2).
  (you can ALWAYS use parentheses to force either interpretation.)

  note that Excel formulas and VBA formulas disagree on the order.

  I had thought it might have been there for Lotus 1-2-3
  compatibility; however, the Microsoft Excel Knowledge Base mentions
  this incompatibility explicitly:


Results of -1^2 (or -1**2)

All known versions of Excel:
     1 Excel =FORMULA

Bill Clark tested it and reported:
    -1 Excel 5 VBA
    -1 DOS Quattro Pro V5
    -1 Lotus 123r5w
    -1 Qbasic
    -1 GNU G77 Fortran (OS/2)
     1 dBase 4
     1 Base32 (OS/2 Dbase clone)

John Whittington reported:
    -1 SAS
    -1 Minitab
    -1 MS BASIC
     1 MS Word for Windows Table Formula

The comp.lang.perl.misc FAQ mentions:
    -1 Perl

Anthony Berglas pointed out an odd problem with precedence between
floating-point division (/) and integer division (\) in VBA:
> ? 60 \ 5 * 2
> 6
> ? 60 / 5 * 2
> 24

10.14 How can I save a chart as a GIF file?


10.15 Excel says I have links -- but I can't find them.  Where are they?


  see [no more Excel content?]

  1. formulas
    find the filename the link is to (Edit|Links)
    select all sheets
    search for that filename

  2. names
    search through the list of names

  3. buttons
    [ is there a good way to search these? ]

  4. charts
    [ is there a good way to search these? ]

10.15.1 How can I get a list of names defined in a spreadsheet
  in a form I can search for, print, compare with others, etc.?

  it's built-in => Insert|Name|Paste|Paste List


10.16 How can I recover a corrupted file?



10.17 Why doesn't my spreadsheet recalculate?

  Microsoft Excel has been notorious for not recalculating
  automatically, the last few releases.  this is scary.


  to force a recalc (perhaps after every formula or data change!),
  type Ctrl+Alt+F9, or `Application.SendKeys "^%{F9}"' in VBA.

  a search-and-replace of `=' with `=' will also force recalculation
  (which might be required after a Copy and Paste).

10.17.1 Why do my User-Defined Functions return #VALUE! occasionally?

  there is a problem with Excel 95 user-defined functions, in which they
  are sometimes replaced by #VALUE when sheet operations take place.  for
  example, inserting or moving a sheet from one spreadsheet to another
  will often result in all user-defined functions being replaced by a
  #VALUE.  forcing the sheet to recalculate will not remove the #VALUE.
  re-entering the formula (and clicking the little green check box)
  resolves the problem; also, global replacement of `=' with `=' (which
  is no functional change) throughout the sheet will simulate this and
  restore the correct values.

10.18 How do I use array formulas?

10.18.0 Matrix operations in Excel (Macro-Investment Analysis)

10.18.1 How do I sum up or count column A when corresponding cells
  in column B match some condition?

  use an array formula; in MS-Windows, you enter an array formula
  with Ctrl+Shift+Enter.  on a Mac, use Command+Shift+Enter (I think).
  Excel will add {braces} to the display to remind you it's an array.

  SUMIF() and COUNTIF() functions in recent versions of Excel can
  be simpler, but reduce portability, and can't handle the more
  complex cases.

  examples:  data is in rows 10:50

    - count entries in column B that are >10

    - sum entries in column B that are >10

    - average entries in column B that are >10
      =SUM(IF(B10:B50>10,B10:B50,0)) / SUM(IF(B10:B50>10,1,0))

    - sum column A when column B is >10

    - sum column A * column B when column C is "blue"

    - sum column A when column B is >10 and column C is "blue"
      [don't use AND(), see below]

    - sum column A when column B is >10 or column C is "blue"
      [don't use OR(), see below]

10.18.2 How come my SUM(IF()) array formula doesn't work?

  Excel (even v8, Excel 97) does not handle AND() or OR() in array
  formulas; other versions have also had problems with MIN() and
  MAX() in array formulas.


  but I recommend avoiding their booleans-are-numbers type coercion,
  by changing

    IF( if(a=b,1,0) * if(c=d,1,0) <>0 ,x,y)

    IF( if(a=b,1,0) + if(c=d,1,0) <>0 ,x,y)

  it makes the formulas longer, but should make your intent clearer to
  everyone who didn't use this to get AND/OR in BASIC 20 years ago.

  for AND(), you can just use multiplication (since only 1*1=1 and
  0*anything=0) and SUM() the results.  but for OR(), this won't
  work (since 1+1=2).  however, you can use the SIGN() function
  when SUM()ing; e.g.,


  will result in the count of rows where A1:A10 is 6 and B1:B10 is 22,
  since SIGN(0) is 0 while SIGN(1) and SIGN(2) are both 1.

10.19 What is the correct, registered MIME Content-Type for Excel files?



  so don't use any of these:

10.20 How do I protect myself in Excel against "unary" minus type bugs
      in my formulas?

You can use the AutoCorrect feature to prevent yourself from
incorporating hard-to-spot logic errors into your spreadsheets:

is   replace with
,-   ,(0-
(-   (0-
=-   =0-      <-- this one is IMPORTANT, since = and - are adjacent
                  on most keyboards, and it's easy to type `=-' when
                  you only meant to type `='

10.21 Why does Excel claim I have an invalid `SYLK' file?

Because the Excel programmers are sloppy.  A valid SYLK file begins
with `ID;' or `ID' alone on a line.

Sometimes Excel incorrectly says `SYLK:  file format is not valid.'.

When you try to open a text file that begins with, say, `ID' and a tab,
it could not possibly be a valid SYLK file, but Excel claims it thought
it was, to no avail.

Simply rename `ID' to `Ident' or `Id' or something similar.


11. Spreadsheet runtimes/compilers

11.0 References

11.1 Baler and Visual Baler

11.2 xlsexe

   Compuserve:      71031,1123 <>
   America Online:  RobertL469
               Centerline Software
               3351 Turner Plaza #108
               Abilene, TX  79606

11.3 Formula One (Java)

11.4 SmartTable

11.99 Can't find them

  3-2-1 Blastoff, by Looking Glass / Frontline Systems
  King Jaguar, by Sheng Laboratories Inc.


12. Optimizers (Solvers)

12.0 Discussion

these products take as inputs:

  - starting data
  - relations
  - desired outcome

and attempt to vary the data to achieve the outcome exactly.  they
do this by making small changes to the data, observing whether the
outcome is closer or further, and either making a larger change or
making the change in the opposite direction.
  [error 2001/Apr/18]
  [error 2001/Apr/18]

A Linear Programming Example
  [error 2001/Apr/18]

12.1 included

  many spreadsheets include such a rudimentary facility

12.2 Frontline Systems

12.3 New Light Industries

  These are general-purpose optimizers that work with Excel, and which
  can be used to find the set of inputs that maximize or minimize a
  profit, cost, or other value calculated in an Excel spreadsheet.

12.4 What'sBest [sic]

12.5 Mathematical Programming Services

12.6 MoreVision Layout


13. Errors, Checkers, Auditors

13.0 Discussion

  Raymond Panko's Spreadsheet Research

  Jocelyn Paine

    Model Master (spreadsheet front-end; fewer errors; easier to read+maintain)
    New Scientist articles

  Frontline Systems Hints for Building Readable, Manageable Models

  Spreadsheet Style - including readability tips, auditing help

13.1 Minimal

  There should be 2 trivial checks any spreadsheet should be able to
  make on its formulas:

    1. no formula refers to an empty cell
       - except as part of a larger SUM() perhaps
    2. no nonempty cell is unreferenced
       - except those that are intended as final results or displays

13.2 The Excel Auditor

13.3 Spreadsheet Detective

13.4 Professional's Guide to Robust Spreadsheets

  ISBN 0-13262320-X

13.5 The Campgridge Spreadsheet Analyst

  from 1986 (Version 2.0)
  The Cambridge Software Collaborative

  identifies a variety of suspicious references

  one web site claims it is now owned by Intex; one claims Symantec.

13.99 Can't find them

  Spreadsheet Auditor, by Consumers Software (or Consumer Software?)


14. Obscure: File formats

14.0 General References

  Wotsit:  Database and Spreadsheet

  File Formats for Popular PC Software
    by Jeff Walden
    ISBN 0-471-83671-0
    John Wiley & Sons
    Copyright 1986

    Spreadsheet file formats for:
      Lotus 1-2-3 1, 1A, 2.0
      Symphony 1, 1.1
      DIF (Data Interchange Format)
      Multiplan (SYLK) 1.2
      IBM Plans+ 1.0
      Supercalc 3 Release 2
      SDI (Super Data Interchange) 2.0
      Visicalc 177Y2

  More File Formats for Popular PC Software
    by Jeff Walden
    ISBN 0-471-85077-2
    John Wiley & Sons
    Copyright 1987

    Spreadsheet file formats for:
      Framework II
      Supercalc 4

  The File Formats Handbook
    by Guenter Born
    ISBN 1-85032-117-5
    International Thomson Publishing, London
    1274 pages
    Copyright 1995 (I think)

    Spreadsheet file formats for:

      Lotus 1-2-3 WKS/WK1 file format
      Lotus 1-2-3 WK3 file format
      Lotus 1-2-3 FRM file format
      Lotus 1-2-3 PIC format
      Lotus Symphony format
      Data Interchange Format (DIF)
      Super Data Interchange format (SDI)
      Standard Interface format (SIF)
      Symbolic Link Format (SYLK)
      Excel binary interchange format (BIFF)

  Dr. Dobb's Essential Books on File Formats
    6 books on one CD
      Born: The File Formats Handbook
      Walden: More File Formats for Popular PC Software
      Kay: Graphics File Formats
      Kientzie: Internet File Formats
      Swan: Inside Windows File Formats
      Taylor: File Formats

  Graphics File Formats Encyclopedia
    by James D. Murray, William vanRyper
    ISBN 1-56592-161-5 (2nd edition)
    O'Reilly and Associates

    book and CD

    Spreadsheet file formats for:

      Lotus 1-2-3 WKS/WK1
      Lotus 1-2-3 PIC
      Data Interchange Format (DIF)
      Symbolic Link Format (SYLK)

14.1 Tab-delimited format

  Stores:  Values

  this is generally an excellent format, except that it can be
  corrupted easily by any text manipulator (including editors
  and e-mail systems) that remove or add tabs, and it uses
  non-printable characters that may not have an equivalent in
  non-ASCII character sets.  also, it tends to have long lines,
  which may cause further problems.

  each column is separated by ASCII tabs (9).  each row is separated
  by local end-of-line, most commonly ASCII LF (10), ASCII CR (13),
  or ASCII CRLF pair (13,10).

    First[TAB]Second[TAB]3[TAB]Fourth, and Second-Last[TAB]Fifth

14.2 CSV (Comma-Separated Values) format

  Stores:  Values

  this is generally not a good format, as it has two special cases
  (commas and quotation marks) that are often misimplemented.  it
  can work very well for purely numeric data, which use neither of
  these two characters -- unless your radix separator is the comma,
  as is still common in some parts of Europe.  in these cases,
  software often uses a semicolon (;) instead of the comma (,) to
  separate fields.

  each column is separated by commas.  each row is separated by local
  end-of-line, most commonly ASCII LF (10), ASCII CR (13), or ASCII CRLF
  pair (13,10).

  if a comma is needed, the entire field will be surrounded by
  quotation marks (though there is software that gets even this
  wrong -- the Windows NT 3.51 Event Log export function is one
  example).  some packages enclose any string value (and even numeric
  values) in quotation marks.  to represent a quotation mark within
  a field, double it (don't use `\"') and quote the whole field.

  e.g., (examples marked with [*] are unusual)
    First,Second,3,"Fourth, and Second-Last",Fifth
    "First","Second",3,"Fourth, and Second-Last","Fifth"
[*] "even","numeric","fields","are","in","quotes","1","2","3"
    "this field has a ""quoted"" word","yes, and this one has a comma"

14.3 DIF (Data Interchange Format)

  note that this is not Directory Interchange Format, documented
  at .

  Stores:  Values

  this is generally a good format, as it clearly distinguishes
  between numeric and string data.
    (ignore the `O' vs. `0' mixup throughout) [error 1999/Feb/14]
    [error 1998/Jan/24]

  Byte Magazine
  Nov 1981
  DIF:  A Format for Data Exchange between Application Programs
  Candace E Kalish & Malinda F Mayer
  DIF Clearinghouse
  POB 527
  Cambridge MA 02139

    contains file format description
    contains BASIC program to write DIF
    contains BASIC program to read DIF
    contains Apple Pascal program to read DIF

  The DIF File
  For Users of VisiCalc & Other Software
  Donald H Beil
  Reston Publishing Co (part of Prentice-Hall)
  Reston VA
  ISBN 0-8359-1305-8 (paper)

  This file format requires more explanation than just a simple example.

  _File Formats..._ says:

    And special thanks to Lotus Development Corporation for the foresight
    and kindness to place the information about their file format in the
    public domain.

    [ is this WKS only or DIF only or both or what? ]

14.4 Lotus 1-2-3 and Symphony formats

  these are capable formats, but their complexity makes them unusable
  for all but the most dedicated user.

    14.4.1 WKS format

      Stores:  Values, Equations, Simple formatting

      File format descriptions can be found via the following anonymous
      ftp sites [defunct]

      FILE:  SIZE: 22,575  DATE: 900626
        Description of Lotus .WKS & .WK1 file formats

      Lotus File Formats for 1-2-3, Symphony, and Jazz
        by the people at Lotus Development Corporation
        ISBN 0-201-16824-3
        Lotus Books
        Published 1986

        compares VisiCalc files to 1-2-3 files; details file formats
        for 1-2-3 1A, 2; Symphony 1.0, 1.1; PIC; Jazz; includes
        Turbo Pascal program to convert text into WKS.

        Turbo Pascal program obviously not typeset directly from
        working source, and independently has various out-of-bounds
        errors; table on p127 claims hex 0=dec 1; p141 claims Jazz
        had 8192 (and 8191) columns and 256 (and 255) rows.

    14.4.2 WK1 format

      Stores:  Values, Equations, Formatting, Named Regions [?]

      Also See WKS format

    14.4.3 WK3 format

      Stores:  Values, Equations, Formatting, Named Regions [?]

      Also See WKS format

14.5 Quattro and Quattro Pro formats

  this is a capable format, but its complexity makes it unusable
  for all but the most dedicated user.

  Stores:  Values, Equations, Formatting, Named Regions [?]

  [is this the same as any Lotus format?]

14.6 SYLK format

  this is a capable single-sheet format, and would be best for any
  non-trivial single-sheet spreadsheet interface needs, except for the
  historical difficulty in locating electronic documentation.

   if ANYONE has a pointer to the official Microsoft specification of
   this format on the web, PLEASE tell me; only unofficial locations
   (of what appear to be official specifications) are known

    14.6.1 documented SYLK

      Stores:  Values, Equations, Formatting, Named Regions

      used by Excel 4 and earlier, and all other SYLK software

      used by Excel 7 and later (as far as I can tell, except where
      using features not covered by the original specification)

      documented in Multiplan manuals (and Walden's and later books)

      documented in `sylksum.doc' (plain text), which I can no longer
      find on Microsoft's ftp site or web site, but is temporarily at .

      [ do they still have a BBS I could check? ]

      simple awk code to parse a SYLK file is at .

    14.6.2 Excel 5 SYLK

      Stores:  Values, Equations, Formatting, Named Regions, Charts [?]

      used by Excel 5 (only?)

      Born's book documents some (all?) extensions, but I am still looking
      for documention for them from Microsoft -- what good is having two
      families of file formats (Excel XLS and Excel SYLK) that pretty much
      only Excel can read?!

      in particular, the erroneous `M'atrix modifier has caused me
      problems with software expecting to read a documented SYLK file.

      Excel 7 (95) and later seem to be MUCH better at following the
      documented format (in that they no longer add spurious `M'atrix
      modifiers like Excel 5 did).

    14.6.3 non-English Excel SYLK

      French Excel 97 saves SYLK files with () around relative
      references instead of [].  I do not know if this problem
      is present in any other version of Excel.

14.7 Excel formats

  these are capable formats, but their extreme complexity and
  volatility makes them unusable for practically everyone except
  Microsoft and licensees.
      includes code to write (not read) Excel files [error 1999-Jun-12]
      how to get MS Office file format information for free
      from Microsoft; includes code; for Excel 4
      [error 1999-Jul-02]
      [error 1999-Jul-02] [error 1999-Jul-02]
      libraries for MS Windows, DOS, and Unix (!) to read/write Excel files
      search for OpenExchange (and OpenExchange DLL)

    14.7.1 Excel 1.0 format

    14.7.2 Excel 1.5 format

    14.7.3 Excel 2/2.1 format

    14.7.4 Excel 3 format

    14.7.5 Excel 4 format

      Stores:  Values, Equations, Formatting, Named Regions, Charts,
        Multiple Worksheets, ...

      Try to find the Excel 4 SDK (out of print) from Microsoft Press.

    14.7.6 Excel 5/7 format

      Stores:  Values, Equations, Formatting, Named Regions, Charts,
        Multiple Worksheets, ...

      Buy the Excel 5 SDK from Microsoft -- your bookstore can order
      it from Microsoft Press (1-800-MS-PRESS).

        Microsoft Excel Developer's Kit
        Version 5
        Microsoft Press
        ISBN 1-55615-632-4

      Rumor has it that, because they are OLE compound documents,
      there will be NO official Microsoft libraries to manipulate
      them, except those on the MS-Windows platform.

      The 'LAOLA' package is an OLE wrapper library for non-windows platforms.

        (this non-API method is not guaranteed to work for
        future versions of OLE -- it only attempts to unravel
        the current binary file formats.)

      xls2csv is another project to read xls files:

      biffview is another project to read xls files: [error 2001/Apr/18]

    14.7.7 Excel 8 format

      Microsoft Excel 97 Developer's Kit
      Microsoft Press
      ISBN 1-57231-498-2

14.8 Applixware/Anyware Spreadsheet format (.as)


15. Obscure: Free spreadsheets, and source code

15.1 sc

  Spreadsheet Calculator

  SimTel: [defunct] [defunct]

15.1.1 ss

  interface additions to sc 6.2.1
  by: Art Mulder (
  latest version: 1.3.3 [error 1999/Apr/10]

15.1.2 xspread

  xspread was based on sc.

  The program xspread is a public domain spreadsheet which runs under X
  Windows or ascii terminals.  Xspread uses the X Window system if available
  or curses and term[cap/info] for ascii displays.  A manual is included.

  They are available from the usual X ftp places, and locally at [error 2001/Apr/18] Dismal (Dis Mode Ain't Lotus)

  ... a copylefted spreadsheet that runs in GNU Emacs (and Xemacs).
  In addition to most spreadsheet things, it includes: optional
  logging of user actions, a full programming language and access
  to all internal functions, and some existing functions for HCI
  design work.  A manual is included.

15.1.3 slsc

  additions to sc, including s-lang

15.2 oleo

  GNU spreadsheet
  (handles SYLK)

  If you want to participate in the alpha/beta cycle, you
  should subscribe to the bug-oleo list by sending an e-mail
  to with the word "subscribe" in the
  body of the message.

15.3 teapot

  Teapot (Table Editor And Planner, Or: Teapot!)

15.4 Borland MicroCalc

  Borland's Turbo Pascal and Turbo C and Turbo C++ compiler packages
  have often included source code to a small spreadsheet.

15.5 Herb Schildt's sparse array code

  Herb Schildt's book _C: The Complete Reference_ has a section on sparse
  arrays.  His main example of where you'd use them is in a spreadsheet.

  ISBN 0-07-881263-1 (McGraw-Hill 1987)

15.6 siag (Scheme In A Grid) [error 2001/Apr/18]

15.6.1 ksiag (K Desktop Environment SIAG)
    [error 2001/Apr/18]

15.7 kspread (K Desktop Environment spreadsheet)

15.8 ABS

  abs is a free basic spreadsheet with a graphical user interface.
  It runs on Linux 2.0 and AIX 4.2.1 .

15.9 1996 CalPoly VT100 Spreadsheet Project

15.10 gnumeric

  includes source for reading Excel files

15.11 abacus

15.12 moodss (modular object-oriented dynamic spreadsheet)

15.13 qtmx
    [error 2001/Apr/18]

15.14 topological sorting
    [error 2001/Apr/18]

15.15 xxl

15.16 tknum (tk#)


16. Obscure: Commercial spreadsheets for UNIX

16.0 Section criteria

  I will happily include a pointer to any Internet resource (in
  Section 6) for any spreadsheet manufacturer.

  In this section, I will also put email addresses and a few
  telephone numbers (toll-free wherever you are, and
  internationally-accessible for the rest of the world) for ones
  which run natively on Unix.

16.1 WingZ

16.2 Xess,
  +1 919-942-7801

16.3 NeXS
  +1 919-387-0076

16.4 MacroCALC

16.5 XQuad

16.6 Mesa
  +44 1494 432422


17. Obscure: Legal issues

17.1 Patents

  17.1.1 Natural Order Recalc (US Patent 4,398,249)

      [error 1998/Jan/24 -- no longer the League for Programming Freedom]
    see [error 1999/Apr/10]
      [error 2001/Apr/18]
      [error 1998/Sep/02]
      [error 2001/Apr/18]

17.2 Interface Copyright

  17.2.1 Lotus vs. Borland and Paperback Software

      [error 1997/Jun/01]
      [error 2001/Apr/18]
      [error 2001/Apr/18]
      [error 2001/Apr/18]
    see [error 1999/Apr/10]


18. Miscellaneous


99. Credits

I expect most of the information in this FAQ to be supplied by people
other than myself -- it's just going to work better that way.  The
newsgroup readers have a LOT more spreadsheet experience than I ever
will (unless I multiply myself by a few thousand, which is not legal
with today's tax laws).

These people have contributed to the well-being of the FAQ:

  jwalk [at] (John Walkenbach)
  RussTiller [at]
  lyn.jolliffe [at]
  negandhi [at] (Neil Negandhi)
  cingram [at] (Chris Ingram)
  arthur [at]
  BaarnsDon [at] (Donald Baarns)
  nachum [at] (Nachum Ginat)
  dtsmith [at] (Dale Smith)
  neuwirth [at] (Erich Neuwirth)
  hans [at] (Ed Hansberry)
  tkm [at] (Tom Miller)
  helberg [at] (Clay Helberg)
  booter [at] (Elaine Richards)
  richard [at] (Richard Warr)
  100322.1465 [at] (Born Guenter)
  vlod [at] (vlod kalicun)
  steve [at] (Steve Wilson)
  fahmy [at] (Dr. Thierry Fahmy)
  steelera [at] (Ray M. Steele)
  pjraval [at] (P. Raval)
  dsherman [at] (David Sherman)
  Dave_Weintraub [at]
  michael [at] (Michael Haardt)
  aroberts [at] (Tony Roberts)
  eonsol [at] (Jeff Hall)
  softbase [at] (Scott McMahan)
  nlunger [at] (Norman Lunger)
  phillip [at] (Phillip Musumeci)
  andy.wiggins [at] (Andy Wiggins)
  the_mrs [at]
  abarr [at] (Allen F. Barr)
  scotfos [at] (Scot Foss)
  joseph.billo [at] (Dr. E. Joseph Billo)
  gharmer [at] (Greg Harmer)
  G.Dunn [at] (George Dunn)
  ma [at] (Martin Ameskamp)
  peter.allan [at]
  Rsclient [at] (Peter Smith)
  T.Harden [at] (Torsten Harden)
  eschner [at] (Hanfred Eschner)
  goinssouth [at] (Steven Goins)
  gswebstr [at] (Graham Webster)
  panko [at] (Ray Panko)
  arun [at] (Arun Ubale)
  dcromley [at] (Dave Cromley)
  apd230 [at] (Maciej Gorny)
  october [at] (Kris Plasun)
  wclark [at] (Bill Clark)
  berglas [at] (Anthony Berglas)
  johnw [at] MAG-NET.CO.UK (John Whittington)
  stimpy [at] (Jon Dalberg)
  anonymous (Brian Ewins)
  hidronet [at] (R. Carvalho)
  jrlatour [at] (John)
  n.youngman [at] (Neil Youngman)
  paul-lemay [at]
  breiter [at] mathematik.Uni-Osnabrueck.DE (Bernhard Reiter)
  jkinlan [at] (Jim Kinlan)
  mbetz [at] (Mark Betz)
  cbbrowne [at] (Christopher B. Browne)
  warren [at] (Warren A. Hall) [at] (Ricardo Carvalho)
  reckteac [at] (Achim Rectenwald)
  greg [at] (Gregory R. Travis)
  bod [at] (Brendan O'Dea)
  ats [at] (Alan Shutko)
  aswerle [at] (ASWERLE)
  hadleysw [at] (Stanton W. Hadley)
  Frank.Ritter [at]
  munged (Eric Brunelle)
  walterg [at] (Walter George)
  Gordon.Filby [at]
  munged (Adam Schneider)
  mixa [at] (Michael Zemljanukha)
  eero.hyvonen [at] (Eero Hyv o: nen)
  m.strandgard [at] (Martin Strandgard)
  Brian.Farrelly [at]
  Par-Golfer [at] (Alan P. Moynihan)
  stevem [at] (Steve McGrew)
  tehall [at] (Troy Hall)
  john-d [at] (John Douglas)
  emil [at] (Emil Sildos)
  104074.3422 [at] (David Hager)
  bernie [at] (Bernie Wieser)
  mmartin [at] (Mike Martin)
  jbailey [at] (Jeff Bailey)
  S_Kelly [at] (Shauna Kelly)
  schwartz [at] (Martin Schwartz)
  munged (Bob Flanagan)
  tonypay [at] (Tony Pay)
  munged (Marc Bjorklund)
  cpearson [at] (Chip Pearson)
  gary.barlow [at]
  LEEPF [at] (Phil Lee)
  longre [at] (Laurent Longre)
  svass [at] (Steven)
  dcm [at] (David)
  yalmog [at]
  Larry_Warner [at] (Larry Warner)
  mq [at]
  popx [at] (Jocelyn Paine)
  visser.b [at] (Ber Visser)
  jplerat [at] (Jean-Philippe LERAT)
  ahaag [at] (Haag, Achim)
  gmckitt [at]
  rudyf [at] (Rudy Forsberg)
  frank [at] (Frank Isaacs)
  mrmazda [at] (Felix Miata)
  jh [at] (James Huntington)
  munged (Kevin Romero)
  vitus [at] (Victor Wagner)
  pgc [at] (Paul Crissy)
  harald.staff [at] (Harald Staff)
  myotis [at] (Graham M Smith)
  rodney [at] (Rodney Powell)
  sue.baker [at] (Sue Baker)
  support [at]
  flip [at] (Philip Flip Kromer)
  timdavis [at] (Tim Davis)
  harke [at] (Tom Harke)
  pae [at] (Phil Earnhardt)
  scottcleave [at] (Scott Cleave)
  DMcRitchie [at] (David McRitchie)
  dhawley [at] (David Hawley)



thus endeth the cas FAQ.

User Contributions:

Comment about this article, ask questions, or add new information about this topic:

[ Usenet FAQs | Web FAQs | Documents | RFC Index ]

Send corrections/additions to the FAQ Maintainer:

Last Update March 27 2014 @ 02:12 PM