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Satellite Imagery FAQ - 4/5

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Archive-name: sci/Satellite-Imagery-FAQ/part4

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   This document is part of the Satellite Imagery FAQ
Satellite Information

   ADEOS was successfully launched on August 17th, 1996. Information from
   the NASDA Front Page at
   Russian SAR imagery, ground resolution believed to be up to 15m.
   Images approx 40Km square. Available in four standard levels. Product
   details are at
   ERS-1, the first European Remote Sensing Satellite, was launched by
   ESA in July 1991.
   Stop press: reorganisation of Esrin's pages invalidates former links
   under "services". GDS links, including the ERS-1 mission front page at still work.
   This now includes ERS-1 FAQ, mission information, applications &
   bibliography, imagery and services. Further information, including
   _Earth Observation Quarterly_ continue to be available through
   Online browsing of ERS-1 SAR images is available through Esrin's
   Multi-Mission Browse Service (MMBS) at
   For ground station availability, see
   ERS User Handbook, esa SP-1148, ed. Bruce Battrick ISSN 0379-6566 ISBN
   92-9092-029-7 published by ESA-ESTEC, Nordwijk, NL.
   Extensive set of WWW pages unveiled just before the April 21st Launch
   under including daily reports during
   calibration phase. The new GOME equipment is described under
    ATSR (Along Track Scanning Radiometer - ERS 1 and 2)
   Homepage at
   IRS-1C was launched successfully on December 28th, 1995. Information
   is available from the homepage at
   Information posted by Nick Rollings and (nrolling@METZ.UNE.EDU.AU) and
   Guy Pierre (; reformated with possible errors by me:

IRS-1C charactersitics

                 PAN             LISS-III                     WIFS

Type          Pushbroom         Pushbroom                  Whisk-broom

Quantisation     64               128                           128

repeat cycle     24                24                           5 off-nadir

Swath (km)       70               142                           810

Spatial Res.(m)  5.8              23.5 (B2-4) 70.5 (B5)         188

Spectral Bands B1 0.50-0.75 B2 0.52-0.59 B3 0.62-0.68 B4 0.77-0.86 B5 1.55-1.70
(source: Australian Centre for Remote Sensing ACRES)

- the PAN camera is a high resolution (5.8m) single band sensor
(0.5-0.75 microns) with ground swath of 70 kms. It can be steered
up to +/- 26 degrees for obtaining stereoscopic data and 5 day
- IRS-1C has an on-board recorder allowing to store 24 minutes of
data, over half a swath (35 km) in PAN mode
(Source: INTERFACE bulletin from the NRSA data centre)

   Japanese Earth Resources Satellite -1
   NASDA's WWW page on this satellite is at
   and includes brief details & a couple of images.
    Sensor Characteristics
    OPS (Optical) Imagery - Online Browse
   Russian imagery; currently the highest spatial resolution of any
   available. The KVR-1000 camera produces imagery at up to 2-meter
   resolution (panchromatic). There are online samples at
   A fine sample in the Eurimage 1995 calender shows KVR-1000 combined
   with Landsat TM to give the effect of ultra-high-resolution colour
   imagery. The TK-350 camera offers 10-meter resolution, and stereo
   Technical information on the net is (AFAIK) sparse, but Ivan Krasnyj
   ( at the time) posted the following:

   TK-350   (Topographic  Camera)     has     high      measuring
characteristics. The images obtained  by  this  camera  have 10 m
ground resolution, average  scale  is  1:660000,  image  size  is
30x45 cm, one image covers the area 200x300 km, and  longitudinal
stereoscopic overlap is 60% or 80%.
   Stereoscopic overlap of TK-350 camera  images  (maximum  value
of B/H ratio is close to 1)  provides  the  obtaining  of  ground
relief mean error of 7 m, which is more  better  than  for  other
existing systems.
   The image can be enlarged up to 1:50000 scale.

   KVR-1000 (High  Resolution  Camera)  can  work  together  with
TK-350 and provides the obtaining of the images with 2  m  ground
resolution, 1:220000 average scale, image size is 18x18  cm,  and
one image covers area  40x40  km.  Camera  works  in panchromatic
spectral range. The materials obtained by means of  KVR-1000  let
one to  perform  the  detailed  identification  of  the  area  of
shooting. The images can be enlarged up to 1:10000 scale  without
significant loss of quality, which makes possible  to  create  on
their basis photomaps, photoplans and  other  products  of  scale
1:10000 and smaller.

   Joint use of photo  materials  made  by  TK-350  and  KVR-1000
cameras together with the numerical measuring  parameters,  which
are registered at the moment of  shooting,  let  one  to  perform
photogrammetric  processing  and   to   create  topographic   and
photomaps of 1:50000  scale  and  smaller.   It  is  possible  to
create maps practically  of  any  region  of  the  Earth surface,
including the territories, where  geodetic reference  network  is

   Images can be delivered in the form of film, paper  print  and
as digital data.

   Landsat's mission is "to provide for repetitive acquisition of high
   resolution multispectral data of the earth's surface on a global
   basis". Landsat is the "classic" Earth Observation satellite, dating
   back to 1972. The MSS (Multispectral Scanner) instrument provides
   visible/infrared imagery at 80m resolution; the TM (Thematic Mapper),
   first deployed on Landsat 4 in 1982, improves this to 20-30m.
   Comprehensive guides are available at
   World-map based WWW browsing of Landsat TM imagery is available from or
   1982-1985 TM, and 1972-1992 MSS data are available at reduced prices
   from USGS. See See
   also the Landsat Pathfinder, at
   Meteosat homepage is at
   Description and imagery at
   (AFAIK) most noted for the CZCS ocean colour and other marine maps.
   This data is available in a variety of net locations and on CDROM. See
   the SeaWiFS project's pages at
  NOAA Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites (POES)
   This long-running (1978-) series of satellites carry the AVHRR
   instrument. A passive visible/infrared instrument imaging a broad
   (2400Km) swath, this is the most widely used of any in large-area
   (including continental and global scale) Earth Observation.
   A very comprehensive collection listing sources for data, information,
   technical reference, and describing applications is actively
   maintained by FAQ co-author Wim Bakker at
   There is a comprehensive technical guide to AVHRR imagery at
   Sources for AVHRR data on the net are numerous - here are a few:
    1. (near) real-time: (see also Weather Pics)
                Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science
                "Global Satellite Imagery"
    2. Datasets (see also Whole-World Images)
                USGS/EDC Land DAAC
                Global AVHRR 1KM Server from ESA/ESRIN.
                _Ionia_ browser from ESA/ESRIN
                Land Pathfinder from NASA/GSFC.
                SST Pathfinder from NASA/JPL
                Atmosphere pathfinder from NOAA
                NOAA Satellite Active Archive (DAAC)
                Modern Average Global Sea Surface Temperature (USGS)
                Ocean Remote Sensing Group of the Johns Hopkins
                University / Applied Physics Laboratory.
                The USA from Space
   Canadian Space Agency's major Earth Observation satellite, due for
   1995 launch. Pending a proper entry here, see their homepage at It's good and
   comprehensive, but slow!
   Another introduction is available from CCRS, at
   December 1995: Radarsat Imagery is now online from MDA at
   Resurs imagery represents an important intermediate between the high
   spatial resolution of TM or SPOT and the high coverage of AVHRR or
   ATSR. A good writeup of this satellite available from SSC at
   An Inventory/browse service is available from Eurimage, at
   Ocean colour monitoring satellite; successor to CZCS(Nimbus). SeaWiFS
   - High temporal and spectral resolution optical instrument.
   Comprehensive information on homepage at
   The principal Earth Observation missions (AFAIK) are Imaging Radar.
   There is also a collection of Earth Observation imagery at NASA/JSC
    Shuttle Imaging Radar
   Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar
   The most recent Shuttle Imaging Radar mission is a joint venture of
   NASA and the German and Italian national space agencies. It is
   equipped with an advanced imaging radar operating at three different
   wavelengths, and a variable viewing angle. SIR-C missions took place
   in April and October 1994. It is well covered by several good
   webpages, including:
     * NASA JPL have an excellent imaging radar homepage at, the serious contents of which is
       at Links from this
       page include information and browse images, and also an
       interactive _bulletin board_ (nice)! for discussion of imaging
     * DLR have a SIR-C/X-SAR page,
       containing general and mission information and online imagery, and
       an excellent description.
     * USGS/EDC have a SIR-C/X-SAR page at, with general
       information and browse facility.
   There is also a new browser at
   However, it refused to serve me images: someone tell me whether it's
   broken or whether I have a problem?
    Shuttle Handheld Photography
   Information and imagery is available from JSC at
  Satellite Pour L'Observation de la Terre (SPOT)
   The French SPOT satellites provide high-resolution visual/infrared
   Earth Observation imagery. At 10m (Panchromatic) / 20m
   (Multispectral), SPOT imagery offers higher resolution than the major
   alternative Landsat. In addition, SPOT is the leading provider of
   stereoscopic (3-dimensional) imagery.
   Spot is on the Web at two apparently identical sites: and There is a
   comprehensive technical guide to SPOT at
   Browsing SPOT imagery can be challenging (but check out
   For the time being, Spot Image's DALI catalogue system is no longer
   accessible through IDN, as previously reported here. It is available
   on WWW through SPOT's websites on payment of a fee, or by X29
   connection. As usual, Wim Bakker tracked down the currently valid

To be complete:

OLD X29 numbers:

NEW X29 numbers:

For me the following command on a VAX/VMS works for connecting to DALI:

        $set host/x29 02080310811413

Username and password (as used by the CEOS-IDN "LINK") QLEMAST and MASTER
still work!

   _(the IDN presumably *could* gateway to the new X29 numbers and thus
   reinstate the service as previously described)_
   Details and imagery at the homepage
   Sea-Surface Height Map - an interactive browser is available at
  Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM)

User Contributions:

Russian 'flower rentals' for international Women's Day

Russians who want to impress their social media followers can now rent huge bouquets of flowers for just long enough to snap an Instagram worthy photo, It's revealed.

Pop up services are advertising on social networks in planning for International Women's Day on 8 March, A public holiday in Russia when women are in the past feted with flowers and other gifts. They're offering 10 minutes with an enormous bouquet sufficient time to perfect the best angle and pose before the courier takes it back, The TJournal news blog reports. One account offers women a fleeting visit from 101 roses for 700 roubles ($12; 10).

Posting selfies with huge bouquets seemingly sent by a boyfriend or secret admirer has been a trend among Russian Instagram and VKontakte social network users for quite a while.

The 360 TV website contacted the master of one flower rental Instagram account, [url=]russian sexy girls[/url] Who insisted his service was real and had received many asks. He says the 10 minutes can be drawn out a little, But not consistently. "the most important thing to avoid is: 'I'm obtaining put some make up on and tidy up' and all that', according to him.

Another account that 360 TV contacted ended up being a joke set up to mock the new trend, And there was plenty of ridicule from Russians placing comments online. "the secret of a mysterious bunch of flowers from a stranger has been EXPOSED, Writes an individual on Twitter. "might be quintessence of modern values, Says an Instagram surfer, Who suggests similar service aimed at men: "A Rolex download, Two iPhones shared and a selfie taken in a Moscow office with a panoramic view.

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