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rec.puzzles Archive (language), part 19 of 35

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Archive-name: puzzles/archive/language/part3
Last-modified: 17 Aug 1993
Version: 4

See reader questions & answers on this topic! - Help others by sharing your knowledge
==> language/english/spelling/operations.on.words/transposition.p <==
What exceptional words turn into other words by transposition of letters?

==> language/english/spelling/operations.on.words/transposition.s <==
   longest reversal  DESSERTS,STRESSED (8)
   longest well-mixed transposal 
    CINEMATOGRAPHER, MEGACHIROPTERAN  (15)
   longest transposition list
    APERS, APRES, ASPER, PARES, PARSE, PEARS, PRASE, PRESA, RAPES, REAPS, SPARE,
    SPEAR (12)
    ANGRIEST, ANGRITES, ASTRINGE, GAIRTENS, GANISTER, GANTRIES, GRANITES,
    INGRATES, RANGIEST, TEARINGS  (10) [SATING(ER), SIGNATE(R), TANGIER(S) (3)]
    ANORETICS, ATROSCINE, CANOTIERS, CERTOSINA, CONARITES, CREATIONS, REACTIONS,
    TRICOSANE (8)

  transposition with deletion, insertion, or substitution 
   longest well-mixed transdeletion 
    SONOLUMINESCENCES, UNECONOMICALNESSES (17/18)
   longest word transdeletable to a single letter
    CONCENTRATIONS-CONSTERNATION-CONTORNIATES-TRANSECTION-
    STENTORIAN-TRANSIENT-ENTRAINS-NASTIER-ASTERN-TEARS-SATE-TEA-AT-A (14)
   longest Baltimore transdeletion (word transdeletable on every letter)
     IDOLATERS: DELATORS, SOTERIAL, DILATERS, ASTEROID,
    STOLIDER, SOREDIAL, DILATORS, DIASTOLE, TAILORED  (9)
   shortest word that cannot be transadded to another word  SYZYGY (6)
   longest well-mixed transubstitution 
    MICROELECTROPHORESIS, SPECTROCOLORIMETRIES (20)
****
Unless noted otherwise, all words occur in Webster's Third New International
Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, Springfield, MA, 1961.

==> language/english/spelling/operations.on.words/words.within.words.p <==
What exceptional words contain other words?

==> language/english/spelling/operations.on.words/words.within.words.s <==
   longest non-trivial charade  IN-DISC-RIM-IN-A-TI-ON (16)
    longest forward and reverse charade 
     MAT-HE-MA-TI-CAL, LAC-IT-AM-EH-TAM 
   longest snowball or rhopalic  T-EM-PER-AMEN-TALLY (15)
   longest reverse rhopalic  HETERO-TRANS-PLAN-TAT-IO-N (21)
   highest ratio of subwords/length (logogram) 
    FIRESTONE: RE, TO, ON, NO, IF, FIR, IRE, RES, TON, ONE, NOT, RIF, FIRE,
    IRES, REST, TONE, FIRES, STONE, SERIF (20/9)
   longest charlinkade  FORESTALL: FOREST, ALL; FORE, REST, TALL (9)
   longest alternade  TRIENNIALLY: TINILY, RENAL (11)
   shortest three-letter-minimum word deletions 
    PILGRIMAGE: RIM, GAG, PILE; GRIM, LAG, PIE 
****
Unless noted otherwise, all words occur in Webster's Third New International
Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, Springfield, MA, 1961.

==> language/english/spelling/palindromes.p <==
What are some long palindromes?

==> language/english/spelling/palindromes.s <==
The first words spoken were a palindrome:
    Madam, I'm Adam.
or perhaps:
    Madam in Eden, I'm Adam.
The response, of course, must have been:
    Eve

Napolean's lament:
    Able was I ere I saw Elba.
Has been improved with:
    Unremarkable was I ere I saw Elba, Kramer, nu?

A fish is a:
    laminar animal

The timeless classic:
    A man, a plan, a canal; Panama?
Has been improved by:
    A dog, a plan, a canal: pagoda!
	-- Roger Angell

    A man, a plan, a cat, a canal; Panama?
	-- Jim Saxe, plan file @ CMU, 9 October 1983

    A man, a plan, a cat, a ham, a yak, a yam, a hat, a canal--Panama!
	-- Guy Jacobson, plan file @ CMU late 1983

    A man, a plan, a caret, a ban, a myriad, a sum, a lac, a liar, a hoop, a
pint, a catalpa, a gas, an oil, a bird, a yell, a vat, a caw, a pax, a wag,
a tax, a nay, a ram, a cap, a yam, a gay, a tsar, a wall, a car, a luger, a
ward, a bin, a woman, a vassal, a wolf, a tuna, a nit, a pall, a fret, a
watt, a bay, a daub, a tan, a cab, a datum, a gall, a hat, a fag, a zap, a
say, a jaw, a lay, a wet, a gallop, a tug, a trot, a trap, a tram, a torr, a
caper, a top, a tonk, a toll, a ball, a fair, a sax, a minim, a tenor, a
bass, a passer, a capital, a rut, an amen, a ted, a cabal, a tang, a sun, an
ass, a maw, a sag, a jam, a dam, a sub, a salt, an axon, a sail, an ad, a
wadi, a radian, a room, a rood, a rip, a tad, a pariah, a revel, a reel, a
reed, a pool, a plug, a pin, a peek, a parabola, a dog, a pat, a cud, a nu,
a fan, a pal, a rum, a nod, an eta, a lag, an eel, a batik, a mug, a mot, a
nap, a maxim, a mood, a leek, a grub, a gob, a gel, a drab, a citadel, a
total, a cedar, a tap, a gag, a rat, a manor, a bar, a gal, a cola, a pap, a
yaw, a tab, a raj, a gab, a nag, a pagan, a bag, a jar, a bat, a way, a
papa, a local, a gar, a baron, a mat, a rag, a gap, a tar, a decal, a tot, a
led, a tic, a bard, a leg, a bog, a burg, a keel, a doom, a mix, a map, an
atom, a gum, a kit, a baleen, a gala, a ten, a don, a mural, a pan, a faun,
a ducat, a pagoda, a lob, a rap, a keep, a nip, a gulp, a loop, a deer, a
leer, a lever, a hair, a pad, a tapir, a door, a moor, an aid, a raid, a
wad, an alias, an ox, an atlas, a bus, a madam, a jag, a saw, a mass, an
anus, a gnat, a lab, a cadet, an em, a natural, a tip, a caress, a pass, a
baronet, a minimax, a sari, a fall, a ballot, a knot, a pot, a rep, a
carrot, a mart, a part, a tort, a gut, a poll, a gateway, a law, a jay, a
sap, a zag, a fat, a hall, a gamut, a dab, a can, a tabu, a day, a batt, a
waterfall, a patina, a nut, a flow, a lass, a van, a mow, a nib, a draw, a
regular, a call, a war, a stay, a gam, a yap, a cam, a ray, an ax, a tag, a
wax, a paw, a cat, a valley, a drib, a lion, a saga, a plat, a catnip, a
pooh, a rail, a calamus, a dairyman, a bater, a canal--Panama.
		--Dan Hoey, 'discovered' in 1984.

Dan goes on to say "...a little work on the search algorithm could make
it several times as long."

Those wonderful proper names:
    Dennis, Nell, Edna, Leon, Nedra, Anita, Rolf, Nora, Alice, Carol, Leo,
    Jane, Reed, Dena, Dale, Basil, Rae, Penny, Lana, Dave, Denny, Lena,
    Ida, Bernadette, Ben, Ray, Lila, Nina, Jo, Ira, Mara, Sara, Mario, Jan,
    Ina, Lily, Arne, Bette, Dan, Reba, Diane, Lynn, Ed, Eva, Dana, Lynne,
    Pearl, Isabel, Ada, Ned, Dee, Rena, Joel, Lora, Cecil, Aaron, Flora,
    Tina, Arden, Noel, and Ellen sinned.

A poem:
Mood's mode!
Pallas, I won!
(Diaper pane, sold entire.)
Melt till ever sere, hide it.
Drown a more vile note;
(Tar of rennet.)
Ah, trowel, baton, eras ago.
The reward? A "nisi." Two nag.

Otary tastes putrid, yam was green.
Odes up and on; stare we.
Rats nod. Nap used one-erg saw.
(May dirt upset satyr?)

A toga now; 'tis in a drawer, eh?
Togas are notable.
(Worth a tenner for Ate`.)
Tone liver. O Man, word-tied I.

Here's revel!
Little merit, Ned? Lose, Nap?
Repaid now is all apedom's doom.
    -- Hubert Phillips:

     Headmaster's Palindromic List on his Memo Pad:
 
Test on Erasmus                       Dr of Law
Deliver slap                          Stop dynamo (OTC)
Royal: phone no.?                     Tel: Law re Kate Race
Ref. Football.                        Caps on for prep
Is sofa sitable on?                   Pots- no tops
XI--Staff over                        Knit up ties ('U')
Sub-edit Nurse's order                Ned (re paper)
Caning is on test (snub slip-up)      Eve's simple hot dish (crib)
Birch (Sid) to help Miss Eve          Pupil's buns
Repaper den                            T-set: no sign in a/c
Use it                                Red roses
Put inkspot on stopper                Run Tide Bus?
Prof.--no space                       Rev off at six
Caretaker (wall, etc.)                Noel Bat is a fossil
Too many d*** pots                    Lab to offer one 'Noh' play--
Wal for duo?  (I'd name Dr. O)           or 'Pals Reviled'?
See few owe fees (or demand IOU?)     Sums are not set.
    -- Joyce Johnson
	(_New_Statesman_ competition in 1967.  126 words, 467 letters)
 
The entire book _Satire: Veritas_ is a palindrome, it starts
"Sir, I stra..." and ends "...  Art, sir, is Satire: Veritas."

Other palindromes in ascending length (drum roll please):
    O, no!
    Do God!
    We few.
    Go, dog!
    Old? Lo!
    Top pot.
    A Toyota.
    Redivider
    Top spot.
    Live evil.
    Semi limes
    Stun nuts.
    Taft: fat!
    Go do, dog.
    Never even.
    Stop spots.
    Regal lager.
    Dot sees Tod.
    Lepers repel.
    Ma has a ham.
    Dennis sinned.
    Sir, I'm Iris.
    Dee saw a seed.
    Del saw a sled.
    I met System I.
    Lee had a heel.
    Lonely Tylenol.
    Not so, Boston.
    Senile felines.
    Sup not on pus.
    "Naomi," I Moan.
    He won snow, eh?
    Laid on no dial.
    Name no one man.
    Peel Sam asleep.
    Redraw a warder.
    Step on no pets.
    Do geese see God?
    Ed is on no side.
    Emil saw a slime.
    Dot saw I was Tod.
    Eros' sis is sore.
    Gateman's nametag.
    God saw I was dog!
    Lem saw I was Mel.
    Naomi, did I moan?
    Never odd or even.
    Rise to vote, sir.
    Sleep on no peels.
    Enid and Edna dine.
    He stops spots, eh?
    Revenge Meg? Never!
    Sleep not on peels.
    Was it a rat I saw?
    Wendel's sled: new?
    A Toyota's a Toyota.
    No lemons, no melon.
    O, stone, be not so.
    God, a saw was a dog!
    Ma is a nun, as I am.
    No, I met System Ion.
    No, it is opposition.
    Now I see bees I won.
    Delia saw I was ailed.
    Dr. Lime, 121 Emil Rd.
    He goddam mad dog, eh?
    He harasses Sarah, eh?
    Niagara, O roar again!
    No evil shah lives on.
    Dennis and Edna sinned.
    Rats drown in WordStar.
    Star comedy: Democrats!
    Drat Saddam mad dastard.
    He lived as a devil, eh?
    He won a Toyota now, eh?
    Red rum, sir, is murder.
    Sit on a potato pan Otis!
    A slut nixes sex in Tulsa.
    A slut nixes sex in Tulsa.
    Ma is as selfless as I am.
    Nurse, I spy gupsies, run!
    Rats live on no evil star.
    Slap a ham on Omaha, pals!
    Top step's pup's pet spot.
    A dog! A panic in a pagoda!
    Go deliver a dare, vile dog.
    I won, Karen, an era know I.
    May a moody baby doom a yam?
    Murder for a jar of red rum.
    No "x" in "Mr. R. M. Nixon"?
    Swen, on gnus, sung no news.
    Ten animals I slam in a net.
    Was it Eliot's toilet I saw?
    Was it a car or a cat I saw?
    Al lets Della call Ed Stella.
    No, she stops spots, eh, son?
    Eros?  Sidney, my end is sore!
    Devil Natasha, ah, Satan lived.
    Draw, O Caeser, erase a coward.
    Emil's Nip eels sleep in slime!
    Did Eve salt an atlas?  Eve did.
    I, man, am regal; a German am I.
    Golf? No sir, prefer prison flog.
    No pinot noir on Orion to nip on.
    O, memsahib Bart, rabbi has memo.
    Trap all afoot; I too fall apart.
    Evil I did dwell; lewd did I live.
    Norma is as selfless as I am, Ron.
    "Naomi, sex at noon taxes," I moan.
    Yo, bad anaconda had no Canada boy.
    "Asi, Buenos Dias!" said Son Eubisa.
    Egad! A base tone denotes a bad age.
    Egad, a base life defiles a bad age.
    Kay, a red nude, peeped under a yak.
    Satan, oscillate my metallic sonatas.
    Sums are not set as a test on Erasmus.
    Marge lets Norah see Sharon's telegram.
    Red dude kill lion. No ill-liked udder.
    Anna: "Did Otto peep?" Otto: "Did Anna?"
    Address of Emil Otto Lime: Fosse Rd., DA.
    Aim a Toyota tatami mat at a Toyota, Mia.
    Did I draw Della too tall, Edward? I did?
    I roamed under it as a tired, nude Maori.
    He won't, ah, wander, Edna.  What now, eh?
    To Peru, named llama mall 'De Manure Pot'.
    Anne, I vote more cars race Rome to Vienna.
    Stop, Syrian! I start at rats in airy spots.
    I roamed under rats as a starred, nude Maori.
    Paget saw an Irish tooth, Sir, in a waste gap.
    We few erase cares, Al; laser aces are we few.
    Level? No, I tan, I'm at no contamination level.
    Straw? No, too stupid a fad; I put soot on warts.
    Live dirt up a side track carted is a putrid evil.
    No gnu have never after fret far, even Eva hung on.
    Now, Ned, I am a maiden nun; Ned, I am a maiden won.
    We repaid a no name Pacific ape man on a diaper, ew!
    Here we no got conical ill lilac in octogon ewer, eh?
    Salamander a ton now. Raw war won not, a Red Nam, alas.
    I prevent U-boats, tar, evil live rats, Tao but never pi.
    Fool! A dog lives sad a boxer, Rex. O bad ass evil god aloof!
    'Tenor Octopus Night' netted a cadet tenth ginsu pot, coronet.
    Won total, I am a pro. Bali radar I labor. Pa, mail a tot now!
    Yo, boy! Trap gnus, nude. 'Kangaroo Rag' naked unsung party, O boy!
    Did I strap red nude, red rump, also slap murdered underparts? I did!
    Doc, note: I dissent.  A fast never prevents a fatness.  I diet on cod.
    So regards Rat's Lib: regrets no more hero monster gerbil stars' drag Eros.
    Degas, are we not drawn onward, we freer few, drawn onward to new eras aged?
    Garret, I ogle. Enemy democrats party; trap star comedy men, eel goiter rag.
    Named undenominationally rebel, I rile Beryl?  La, no! I tan.  I'm, O Ned, nude, man!
    Sagas emit taxes, rat snot, or pastrami. I'm Arts, a proton star - sex at times a gas.
    Dr. Ana, Cataracts. Uranium enema smarts if fist rams, Amen! Emu in a rust car at a canard.
    T. Eliot, top bard, notes putrid tang emanating, is sad; I'd assign it a name: gnat dirt upset on drab pot toilet.

Some word (not letter) palindromes:

    So patient a doctor to try to doctor a patient so.
    You can cage a swallow, can't you, but you can't swallow a cage, can you?
    Girl, bathing on Bikini, eyeing boy, finds boy eyeing
      bikini on bathing girl.
    Amusing is that company of fond people bores people fond of
      company that is amusing.

Line palindrome poems:

    As I was passing near the jail
    I met a man, but hurried by.
    His face was ghastly, grimly pale.
    He had a gun.  I wondered why
    He had.  A gun?  I wondered... why,
    His face was *ghastly*!  Grimly pale,
    I met a man, but hurried by,
    As I was passing near the jail.

		DOPPELGANGER  (umlaut on the A)

    Entering the lonely house with my wife,
      I saw him for the first time
    Peering furtively from behind a bush--
	    Blackness that moved,
      A shape amid the shadows,
    A momentary glimpse of gleaming eyes
      Revealed in the ragged moon.
    A closer look (he seemed to turn) might have
    Put him to flight forever--
      I dared not
    (For reasons that I failed to understand),
      Though I knew I should act at once.

    I puzzled over it, hiding alone,
    Watching the woman as she neared the gate.
      He came, and I saw him crouching
	    Night after night.
	    Night after night
      He came, and I saw him crouching,
    Watching the woman as she neared the gate.

    I puzzled over it, hiding alone--
      Though I knew I should act at once,
    For reasons that I failed to understand
		I dared not
	    Put him to flight forever.
    A closer look (he seemed to turn) might have
      Revealed in the ragged moon
    A momentary glimpse of gleaming eyes,
      A shape amid the shadows,
	    Blackness that moved.

    Peering furtively from behind a bush,
      I saw him, for the first time,
    Entering the lonely house with my wife.

Some palindromic names:

    Lon Nol	
    (former premier of Cambodia)

    U Nu
    (former premier of Burma)

    Revilo P. Oliver
    (professor at U. of Illinois; his father and grandfather have/had
     the same name, which was deliberately contrived)

    Wassamassaw
    (a swamp north of Charleston SC)

    Yreka Bakery
    (a former business in Yreka CA)

    Yrella Gallery
    (a business which later occupied the same premises)

References:
    Palindromes and Anagrams
    Howard W. Bergerson
    Dover Publications
    New York, 1973
    ISBN 0-486-20664-5.

    The Oxford Guide to Word Games, chapter 11, titled "Palindromes"
    Tony Augarde

    Lid Off a Daffodil
    John Pool
    Holt, Rinehart and Wilson
    1982

    The Palindromicon
    Jeff Grant
    Word Ways
    Spring Valley Road
    Morristown, NJ 07960

    From A to Zotamorf: The Dictionary of Palindromes
    Stephen Chism
    Word Ways
    Spring Valley Road
    Morristown, NJ 07960

==> language/english/spelling/sets.of.words/ladder.p <==
Find the shortest word ladders stretching between the following pairs:
hit - ace
pig - sty
four - five
play - game
green - grass
wheat - bread
order - chaos
order - impel
sixth - hubby
speedy - comedy
chasing - robbers
effaces - cabaret
griming - goblets
vainest - injects
vainest - infulae

==> language/english/spelling/sets.of.words/ladder.s <==
Using every unabridged dictionary available, the best yet found are:
hit ait act ace
pig peg seg sey sty
four foud fond find fine five
play blay bray bras baas bams gams game
green grees greys grays grass
wheat theat treat tread bread
order older elder eider cider cides codes coles colls coals chals chaos
order ormer armer ammer amper imper impel
sixth sixty silty silly sally sably sabby nabby nubby hubby
speedy speeds steeds steers sheers shyers sayers payers papers papery popery
popely pomely comely comedy
griming priming prising poising toising toiling coiling colling collins collies
dollies doilies dailies bailies bailees bailers failers fablers gablers gabbers
gibbers gibbets gobbets goblets
chasing ceasing cessing messing massing masting marting martins martens martels
cartels carpels carpers campers cambers combers cobbers combers robbers
vainest fainest fairest sairest saidest saddest maddest middest mildest wildest
wiliest winiest waniest caniest cantest contest confest confess confers conners
canners fanners fawners pawners pawnees pawnces paunces jaunces jaunced jaunted
saunted stunted stented stenned steined stained spained splined splines salines
savines savings pavings parings earings enrings endings ondings ondines undines
unlines unlives unwives unwires unwares unbares unbared unpared unpaged uncaged
incaged incased incised incises incites indites indices indicts inducts indults
insults insulas insulae infulae

This is not another travelling salesman - it is merely finding the diameter of 
connected components of that graph.  The simple algorithm for this is to do 
one depth first search from each word, resulting in an O(n*m) worst case 
algorithm (where n is the number of words, and m is the number of arcs).  In 
practice, it is actually somewhat better, since the graph breaks down into 
many connected components.  However, the diameters (and solutions) depend on 
what dictionary is used.  Here are the results from various dictionaries:

From /usr/dict/words (restricted to words all lower case alphabetical) (19,694 
words): sixth - hubby (46 steps)

From the official scrabble players dictionary (94,276 words): effaces - 
cabaret (57 steps)

From the british official scrabble words (134,051 words): vainest - infulae 
(73 steps)

From webster's ninth new collegiate dictionary (abridged) (78, 167 words): 
griming - goblets (56 steps)

From all of the above, merged  (180,676 words): vainest - injects (58 steps)

To see the effect the dictionary has on paths, here are the lengths of the 
shortest paths these pairs, and for the ones mentioned in previous posts, for 
each dictionary (a - means that there is no path using only words from that 
dictionary):

                  UDW OSPD OSW  W9 ALL
    hit - ace      5    3   3   5   3
    pig - sty      -    5   4   5   4
   four - five     6    6   5   7   5
   play - game     8    7   7   8   7
  green - grass   13    4   4   7   4
  wheat - bread    6    6   6   6   6
  sixth - hubby   46    9   9   -   9
effaces - cabaret  -   57   -   -  33
vainest - infulae  -    -  73   -  52
griming - goblets  -   22  19  56  15
vainest - injects  -    -  72   -  58

==> language/english/spelling/sets.of.words/nots.and.crosses.p <==
What is the most number of letters that can be fit into a three by three grid
of words, such that no letter is repeated in any row, column or diagonal?

==> language/english/spelling/sets.of.words/nots.and.crosses.s <==
Games magazine ran a contest on this.  The winner had 62:

		proxying|   buckwash  |   veldt
		------------------------------------
		stumbled|      j      |  zincography
		------------------------------------
		whack   | providently |   bumfs

Here are some good tries:

		backsword |thumpingly |   fez
		----------------------------------
		vexingly  |      q    | throwbacks = 61
		----------------------------------
		thump     | beadworks |   jingly

		backsword | thumpingly|  vex
		----------------------------------
		vexingly  |      q    | throwbacks = 60
		----------------------------------
		thump     |  bedrocks |   flying

		subjack   |downrightly|    fez
		----------------------------------
		novelwright|     q    |  backups   = 59
		---------------------------------- 
		pyx       |  subface  | downright

		krafts    | exhuming  | blowzy
		----------+-----------+-----------
		phylum    |     j     | transfixed = 56
		----------+-----------+-----------
		vexing    | folkways  | chump

		klutz     | cymograph |   fend
		----------+-----------+-----------
		exscind   |     j     | kymograph = 54
		----------+-----------+-----------
		myograph  |flunked    |   vibs
****
Unless noted otherwise, all words occur in Webster's Third New International
Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, Springfield, MA, 1961.

==> language/english/spelling/sets.of.words/perfect.ladder.p <==
A "perfect" ladder comprises five-letter words where every letter is
the new letter once, no position is changed twice in a row, and fifth
letter changes are better than fourth letter changes are better than
third letter changes, etc. (as defined by "Games" magazine, July 1993)

==> language/english/spelling/sets.of.words/perfect.ladder.s <==
The winning entry:

Score: 9, 4, 8, 1, 4

SOAPS
SOUPS	U	3
COUPS	C	1
COMPS	M	3
COMBS	B	4
COMBO	O	5
COMPO	P	4
COMPT	T	5
COMET	E	4
COMES	S	5
COXES	X	3
COXEY	Y	5
COZEY	Z	3
COZEN	N	5
COVEN	V	3
COVED	D	5
CAVED	A	2
CAVEL	L	5
JAVEL	J	1
JAVER	R	5
JAGER	G	3
WAGER	W	1
WAKER	K	3
FAKER	F	1
FAKIR	I	4
FAQIR	Q	3
FAQIH	H	5

==> language/english/spelling/sets.of.words/squares.p <==
What are some exceptional word squares (square crosswords with no blanks)?

==> language/english/spelling/sets.of.words/squares.s <==
Word squares are a particular example of a type of crossword known
as "forms".  They were more popular early in the late 19th and early
20th century than they are now, but people still like to compose and
solve them.  Forms appear every month in the _Enigma_ (as well as many
other puzzle types), which is the monthly publication of the National
Puzzlers' League.  The membership fee is $13 for the first year, $11
a year thereafter.  Information (or a free sample) may be obtained from:

  Joseph J. Adamski
  2507 Almar
  Jenison, MI 49428

All members have the option of choosing a nom de plume ("nom"); for
example, I go by the nom "Cubist".  Another good place to find information
on forms is in _Word Ways_, which is a quarterly journal of recreational
linguistics:

  Word Ways
  Faith and Ross Eckler, editors
  Spring Valley Road
  Morristown, NJ  07960

I had a paper appear in the February 1993 issue (Vol. 26 Num. 1) on the
mathematics of word squares, and the ideas extend to more general forms.

Word squares come in two traditional types, regular and double.  In
regular word squares the words are the same across and down; in double
word squares all words are different.  The largest "legitimate" word
square has order 9 (although Jeff Grant has come close to the 10), and
what is considered to be one of the finest examples was discovered by
Eric Albert via computer search:

  necessism
  existence
  circumfer
  escarping
  sturnidae
  sempitern
  infidelic
  scenarize
  mergences

All words appear in from Webster's New International Dictionary, Second
Edition.  It's the *only* single-source 9-square known, and the only
(minor) flaw is that "Sturnidae" is a proper (capitalized) word.  All
words are also solid-form (no phrases, spaces, punctuation marks, etc.).

Eric was using about 63,000 words when he discovered his square.  Using
about 78,500 9-letter words, I found the square on the left; adding
another 4,000 I found the square on the right:

             bortsches           karatekas
             overtrust           apocopate
             reparence           rosecolor
             trabeatae           acetoxime  
             strestell           tokokinin
             creatural           epoxidize
             hunterite           kalinites
             escalates           atomizers
             steelless           serenesse

For the left square, all are in the OED, except for "trabeatae", which
is in NI2.  This makes this square arguably the second-best ever
discovered.  All words are uncapitalized and solid-form, and it is the
only known 9-square that uses only uncapitalized, solid-form dictionary
words.  I consider the square on the right to be one of the most
interesting ever found, as it has two rare letters ("x" and "z") not on
the main diagonal.  Since then I've found four additional squares, which
will be appearing in a _Word Ways_ article sometime in the near future.

There are about 1000 9-squares known, all of which were constructed
by hand except for the seven noted above.  Almost all of these use
very obscure sources of words.  As a general rule of thumb, if you
discover a new square via computer search, it is probably going to
be of high quality, since it is hard to obtain computer-readable word
lists that contain very obscure words.

The largest known double word-squares are of order 8.  They are
considered to be about as hard to construct as a regular word
square of order-9, and this is substantiated by the work I've
done on the mathematics of square construction.   The following
fine example was constructed by Jeff Grant (see his article in
_Word Ways_, Vol. 25 Num. 1, pp. 9-12):

  trattled
  hemerine
  apotomes
  metapore
  nailings
  aloisias
  tentmate
  assessed

All are dictionary terms, but there are some weak entries, e.g.

  Aloisias: individuals named Aloisia, a feminine form of Aloysius
  occurring in the 16th and 17th century in parish registers of
  Hinton Charterhouse, England (The Oxford Dictionary of English
  Christian Names, 3rd Edition, E.G. Withycombe, 1977)

Such words are, however, dear to the heart of logologists!  For
other examples of double squares see the article mentioned above.
One addition to this article is that I've discovered a new double-7
square which may be the best found to date:

  smashes
  pontine
  ingrate
  relater
  asinine
  lingots
  sagenes

A new type of form which is in a certain sense as natural as the
regular and double square is the inversion square (so named by
Frank Rubin).  So far I've discovered the only known proper
inversion 10-square:

  detasseled
  exercitate
  tectonical
  arthrolite
  scorpionis
  sinoiprocs
  etilorhtra
  lacinotcet
  etaticrexe
  delessated

Based on analysis I've done inversion 10-squares are about as rare as
regular 9-squares.

Some interesting foreign language squares I've discovered include:

   Dutch      German    Italian    Norwegian    Swedish

  zaklamp    waelzte    accosto    kaskade      apropaa
  acribie    abhauen    ciascun    apparat      primaer
  krijsen    ehrtest    campato    spinett      riddare
  lijmers    latente    ospiter    kantate      omdomen
  absente    zuenden    scatola    arealer      paamind
  miertje    testest    tuteler    dattera      aerende
  penseel    entente    onorare    etterat      arenden

And an 8-square:

   French

  marbrier
  amarante
  rabattes
  brasiers
  rationna
  intenses
  eternels
  ressassa

These aren't the largest known.  For example, a French 10-square has
been constructed.

Polyglot 9-square that uses 6 different languages:

  absorbera Swedish
  betoertem German
  storpiavo Italian
  oorhanger Dutch
  repandent French
  brinderai Italian
  etagerons French
  revenants English
  amortisse French

Polyglot double 5-square that uses 10 different languages:

  a a g j e  Dutch
  f a l o t  French
  f l i r t  English
  y t t r a  Swedish
  r o t o l  Italian

  D F G S N
  a i e p o
  n n r a r
  i n m n w
  s i a i e
  h s n s g
    h   h i
          a
          n

There are also many other types of forms.  Some of the most common
are pyramids, stars, and diamonds, and some come in regular and double
varieties, and some are inherently double (e.g. rectangles).

How hard is it to discover a square, anyway, and how many are there?
As a data point, my program using the main (Air Force) entries in
NI2 (26,332 words), found only seven 8x8 squares.  This took an hour
to run.  They are:

outtease  appetite  unabated  acetated  interact  repeated  repeated
unweaned  prenaris  nopinene  cadinene  neomenia  evenmete  evenmete
twigsome  perscent  apostate  edentate  toxicant  pectosic  pectosic
teguexin  ensconce  bistered  tindered  emittent  entresol  entresol
easement  taconite  antehall  antehall  rectoral  amoebula  amoebula
anoxemia  irenicum  tearable  tearable  anaerobe  tessular  tessular
seminist  tincture  entellus  entellus  cinnabar  etiolate  etiolate
edentate  esteemer  deedless  deedless  tattlery  declarer  declared

If the heuristic mathematics are worked out, the number of different
words in your word-list before you'd expect to find a regular word
square of order-n (the "support") is about e^{(n-1)/2}, where e ~ 15.8.
For a double word square of order-n the support is about e^{n/2}.
There is a simple algorithm which is more precise, and this gives a
support of 75,641 for a regular 9-square, and a support of 272,976
for a double 9-square (using my 9-letter word list).

Bibliography:

  Albert, E. "The Best 9x9 Square Yet" _Word Ways_ Vol. 24 Num. 4
  Borgmann, D. "More Quality Word Squares" _Word Ways_ Vol. 21 Num. 1
  Brooke, M. "A Word Square Update" _Word Ways_ Vol. 16 Num. 4
  Grant, J. "9x9 Word Squares" _Word Ways_ Vol. 13 Num. 4
  Grant, J. "Ars Magna: The Ten-Square" _Word Ways_ Vol. 18 Num. 4
  Grant, J. "Double Word Squares"_Word Ways_, Vol. 25 Num. 1
  Grant, J. "In Search of the Ten-Square" _Word Ways_ Vol. 23 Num. 4
  Long, C. "Mathematics of Square Construction" _Word Ways_ Vol. 26 Num. 1
  Ropes, G. H. "Further Struggles with a 10-Square" _Word Ways_ Vol. 23 Num. 1
  Rubin, F. "Inversion Squares" _Word Ways_ Vol. 23 Num. 3

Chris Long
265 Old York Road
Bridgewater, NJ 08807
clong@remus.rutgers.edu


==> language/english/spelling/sets.of.words/variogram.p <==
What is the largest known variogram (word square where repeated letters count
as one square)?

==> language/english/spelling/sets.of.words/variogram.s <==
  o  c  c  u  p  a  t  e  s
  c  h  i  n  a  m  i  n  e
  c  i  g  a  r  e  t  t  e
  u  n  a ll  o  t  t  e  d
  p  a  r  o  c  h  i  n  e
  a  m  e  t  h  y  s  t  a
  t  i  t  t  i  s  h  e  r
  e  n  t  e  n  t  e  s  t
  s  e  e  d  e  a  r  t  h
-- 
Chris Long, 265 Old York Rd., Bridgewater, NJ 08807-2618

==> language/english/spelling/sets.of.words/word.torture.p <==
What is the longest word all of whose contiguous subsequences are words?

==> language/english/spelling/sets.of.words/word.torture.s <==
This problem was discussed in _Word Ways_ in 1974-5.  In August 1974,
Ralph Beaman, in an article titled "Word Torture", offered the word 
SHADES, from which one obtains HADES, SHADE; ADES, HADE, SHAD; DES, ADE,
HAD, SHA; ES, DE, AD, HA, SH; S, E, D, A, H.  All of these are words
given in Webster's Third.

Since that time, a serious search has been launched for a seven-letter
word.  The near misses so far are:
Date    Person           Word     Missing
Aug 74  Ralph Beaman     GAMINES  INES, GAMI, NES, INE
Nov 74  Dmitri Borgmann  ABASHED  INE, NES, ABASHE, BASHE, ASHE (all in OED)
May 75  David Robinson   GUNITES  GU, GUNIT (using Webster's Second)
May 75  David Robinson   ETAMINE  ETAMI, TAMI (using Webster's Second)
May 75  Ralph Beaman     MORALES  RAL (using Webster's Second)
Aug 75  Tom Pulliam      SHEAVES  EAV (using Webster's Second)

Webster's Second has been used for most of the attempts since it
contains so many more words than Webster's Third.  The seven-letter
plateau remains to be achieved.

==> language/english/spelling/single.words.p <==
What words have exceptional lengths, patterns, etc.?

==> language/english/spelling/single.words.s <==

Spelling

Letter Patterns

Entire Word
longest word trinitrophenylmethylnitramine (29,1)  
longest palindrome kinnikinnik (11,1)  
longest beginning with a palindrome adinida (7,1)  
longest beginning with b palindrome boob (4,1)  
longest beginning with c palindrome carac civic (5,2)  
longest beginning with d palindrome deified devoved (7,2)  
longest beginning with e palindrome ecce esse (4,2)  
longest beginning with f palindrome FF (2,1) !
longest beginning with g palindrome goog (4,1)  
longest beginning with h palindrome hagigah halalah (7,2)  
longest beginning with i palindrome igigi imami (5,2)  
longest beginning with j palindrome j (1,1)  
longest beginning with k palindrome kinnikinnik (11,1)  
longest beginning with l palindrome lemel level lysyl (5,3)  
longest beginning with m palindrome malayalam (9,1)  
longest beginning with n palindrome nauruan (7,1)  
longest beginning with o palindrome oppo otto (4,2)  
longest beginning with p palindrome peeweep (7,1)  
longest beginning with q palindrome qazaq (5,1)  
longest beginning with r palindrome reviver rotator (7,2)  
longest beginning with s palindrome sawbwas seesees seities sememes (7,4)  
longest beginning with t palindrome terret tibbit tippit (6,3)  
longest beginning with u palindrome uku ulu utu (3,3)  
longest beginning with v palindrome vav (3,1)  
longest beginning with w palindrome waw wow (3,2)  
longest beginning with x palindrome x (1,1)  
longest beginning with y palindrome yaray (5,1)  
longest beginning with z palindrome z (1,1)  
longest with middle a palindrome halalah rotator (7,2)  
longest with middle b palindrome sawbwas (7,1)  
longest with middle c palindrome soccos succus (6,2)  
longest with middle d palindrome murdrum (7,1)  
longest with middle e palindrome sememes (7,1)  
longest with middle f palindrome deified (7,1)  
longest with middle g palindrome degged (6,1)  
longest with middle h palindrome aha ihi oho (3,3)  
longest with middle i palindrome hagigah reviver (7,2)  
longest with middle j palindrome kajak (5,1)  
longest with middle k palindrome kinnikinnik (11,1)  
longest with middle l palindrome hallah selles (6,2)  
longest with middle m palindrome sammas (6,1)  
longest with middle n palindrome adinida (7,1)  
longest with middle o palindrome devoved (7,1)  
longest with middle p palindrome tippit (6,1)  
longest with middle q palindrome q (1,1)  
longest with middle r palindrome nauruan (7,1)  
longest with middle s palindrome seesees (7,1)  
longest with middle t palindrome seities (7,1)  
longest with middle u palindrome alula arura (5,2)  
longest with middle v palindrome civic level rever tevet (5,4)  
longest with middle w palindrome peeweep (7,1)  
longest with middle x palindrome sexes (5,1)  
longest with middle y palindrome malayalam (9,1)  
longest with middle z palindrome kazak qazaq (5,2)  
longest tautonym tangantangan (12,1)  
longest beginning with a tautonym akeake atlatl (6,2)  
longest beginning with b tautonym bellabella (10,1)  
longest beginning with c tautonym caracara chowchow couscous (8,3)  
longest beginning with d tautonym dugdug dumdum (6,2)  
longest beginning with e tautonym EE ee (2,2)  
longest beginning with f tautonym froufrou (8,1)  
longest beginning with g tautonym ganggang greegree guitguit (8,3)  
longest beginning with h tautonym hotshots (8,0) ?
longest beginning with i tautonym ipilipil (8,1)  
longest beginning with j tautonym juju (4,1)  
longest beginning with k tautonym kavakava kawakawa khuskhus kohekohe kouskous kukukuku (8,6)  
longest beginning with l tautonym lapulapu lavalava lomilomi (8,3)  
longest beginning with m tautonym mahimahi makomako matamata murumuru (8,4)  
longest beginning with n tautonym nagnag (6,1)  
longest beginning with o tautonym oo (2,1)  
longest beginning with p tautonym palapala pioupiou piripiri poroporo (8,4)  
longest beginning with q tautonym quiaquia (8,1)  
longest beginning with r tautonym riroriro (8,1)  
longest beginning with s tautonym sweeswee (8,1)  
longest beginning with t tautonym tangantangan (12,1)  
longest beginning with u tautonym ulaula (6,1)  
longest beginning with v tautonym valval verver (6,2)  
longest beginning with w tautonym wallawalla (10,1)  
longest beginning with x tautonym ? (0,0) ?
longest beginning with y tautonym yariyari (8,1)  
longest beginning with z tautonym zoozoo (6,1)  
longest head 'n' tail einsteins muckamuck okeydokey overcover pungapung tarantara trinitrin (9,7)  
longest with middle a head 'n' tail muckamuck pungapung (9,2)  
longest with middle b head 'n' tail SBs aba (3,2)  
longest with middle c head 'n' tail overcover (9,1)  
longest with middle d head 'n' tail okeydokey (9,1)  
longest with middle e head 'n' tail arear caeca (5,2)  
longest with middle f head 'n' tail efe ofo (3,2)  
longest with middle g head 'n' tail aggag algal edged magma (5,4)  
longest with middle h head 'n' tail outshouts (9,0) ?
longest with middle i head 'n' tail trinitrin (9,1)  
longest with middle j head 'n' tail anjan (5,1)  
longest with middle k head 'n' tail arkar kokko (5,2)  
longest with middle l head 'n' tail ingling khalkha (7,2)  
longest with middle m head 'n' tail bamba bombo mamma pampa (5,4)  
longest with middle n head 'n' tail tarantara (9,1)  
longest with middle o head 'n' tail ingoing mesomes (7,2)  
longest with middle p head 'n' tail SPs apa (3,2)  
longest with middle q head 'n' tail q (1,1)  
longest with middle r head 'n' tail adrad kurku ugrug verve (5,4)  
longest with middle s head 'n' tail hotshot (7,1)  
longest with middle t head 'n' tail einsteins (9,1)  
longest with middle u head 'n' tail mauma shush siusi veuve (5,4)  
longest with middle v head 'n' tail ava eve (3,2)  
longest with middle w head 'n' tail abwab (5,1)  
longest with middle x head 'n' tail manxman (7,1)  
longest with middle y head 'n' tail calycal (7,1)  
longest with middle z head 'n' tail z (1,1)  

Subset of Word
longest internal palindrome kinnikinniks sensuousness sensuousnesses (11,3)  
longest internal tautonym anhydrohydroxyprogesterone anhydrohydroxyprogesterones kinnikinnick kinnikinnicks kinnikinnics kinnikinniks magnetophotophoresis methylethylpyridine micromicrofarad neuroneuronal ... (10,11)  
longest repeated prefix kinnikinnick kinnikinnicks kinnikinnics kinnikinniks micromicrofarad neuroneuronal (10,6)  
most consecutive doubled letters bookkeeper bookkeeping (3,2)  
most doubled letters possessionlessness possessionlessnesses successlessness successlessnesses (4,4)  
longest two cadence humuhumunukunukuapuaa humuhumunukunukuapuaas (8,2)  
longest three cadence effervescence effervescences extendednesses neglectednesses pervertednesses redheadednesses reflectednesses unexpectednesses vallabhacharya vallabhacharyas (5,10)  
longest four cadence alveolopalatal coproporphyrinuria coproporphyrinurias distributivities gastroschisises humuhumunukunukuapuaa humuhumunukunukuapuaas inevitabilities roentgenometries somesthesises ... (4,12)  
longest five cadence indecipherablenesses recollectivenesses (4,2)  

Letter Counts

Lipograms
longest letters from first half hamamelidaceae (14,1)  
longest letters from second half nonsupports (11,0) ?
longest without ab hydroxydesoxycorticosterone (27,1)  
longest without abcd philoprogenitivenesses (22,1)  
longest without a to h supposititiously (16,1)  
longest without a to k monotonously synonymously tumultuously voluptuously (12,4)  
longest without a to n prototropy zoosporous (10,2)  
longest without a to q susurrus (8,1)  
longest without a to s tutty (5,1)  
longest without e humuhumunukunukuapuaas macracanthorhynchiasis phonocardiographically prorhipidoglossomorpha supradiaphragmatically (22,5)  
longest without et humuhumunukunukuapuaas phonocardiographically prorhipidoglossomorpha (22,3)  
longest without eta coccidioidomycosis (18,1)  
longest without etai phyllospondylous (16,1)  
longest without etain chlorophyllous chromosomology chrysochlorous phyllomorphous polymorphously scolopophorous (14,6)  
longest without etains promorphology (13,1)  

Letter Choices

Vowels
longest all vowels aiee ieie (4,2)  
longest each vowel once entwicklungsroman (17,1)  
longest each extended vowel once cylindrocellular phosphuranylites ventriculography (16,3)  
shortest each vowel once eulogia eutocia eutopia isourea sequoia (7,5)  
shortest each extended vowel once oxyuridae (9,1)  
shortest vowels in order caesious (8,1)  
shortest extended vowels in order facetiously (11,1)  
longest vowels in order abstentious (11,1)  
longest extended vowels in order abstemiously (12,1)  
shortest vowels in reverse order muroidea (8,1)  
shortest extended vowels in reverse order ? (80,0) ?
longest vowels in reverse order subcontinental (14,1)  
longest extended vowels in reverse order ? (0,0) ?
longest one vowel strengths (9,1)  
longest two vowels schwartzbrots (13,1)  
longest containing a univocalic tathagatagarbhas (16,1)  
longest containing e univocalic strengthlessnesses (18,1)  
longest containing i univocalic instinctivistic (15,1)  
longest containing o univocalic loxolophodonts (14,1)  
longest containing u univocalic struldbrugs (11,1)  
longest containing y univocalic glycyls gypsyfy khlysts khlysty phytyls pyrryls qyrghyz rhythms styryls thymyls ... (7,11)  
longest alternating extended vowel-consonant hypovitaminosises (17,1)  
longest alternating vowel-consonant aluminosilicates diketopiperazine epicoracohumeral (16,3)  

Consonants
longest consonant string bergschrund bergschrunds catchphrase eschscholtzia eschscholtzias festschrift festschriften festschrifts goldschmidtine goldschmidtines ... (6,24)  
longest one consonant assessees coccaceae (9,2)  
longest two consonant nauseousnesses sensuousnesses (14,2)  

Isograms
longest isogram dermatoglyphics (15,1)  
longest pair isogram scintillescent (14,1)  
longest trio isogram deeded (6,1)  
longest tetrad isogram kukukuku (8,1)  
longest polygram unprosperousnesses (18,0) ?
longest pyramid chachalaca deadheaded disseisees evennesses keennesses kinnikinic rememberer sassanians sereneness sleeveless ... (10,11)  
most repeated letters dihydroxycholecalciferol hydroxydesoxycorticosterone hysterosalpingographies methyldihydromorphinone microspectrophotometrically octamethylpyrophosphoramide phosphatidylethanolamine pseudohermaphroditism tetrabromophenolphthalein tetraiodophenolphthalein ... (9,11)  
highest containing a repeated palaeacanthocephala tathagatagarbha tathagatagarbhas (6,3)  
highest containing b repeated bubbybush flibbertigibbet flibbertigibbets flibbertigibbety (4,4)  
highest containing c repeated chroococcaceae chroococcaceous circumcrescence circumcrescences echinococcic micrococcaceae (5,6)  
highest containing d repeated condiddled dadded deadheaded dendrodendritic diddered diddled diddledees didodecahedron disbudded dodded ... (4,32)  
highest containing e repeated ethylenediaminetetraacetate (7,1)  
highest containing f repeated chiffchaff chiffchaffs giffgaff giffgaffed giffgaffing giffgaffs riffraff (4,7)  
highest containing g repeated aggregating aggreging chugalugging gagging gaggling ganggang ganggangs gigging giggling gigglingly ... (4,18)  
highest containing h repeated ichthyophthiriasis ichthyophthirius ichthyophthiriuses rhamphorhynchid rhamphorhynchids rhamphorhynchoid rhamphorhynchus (4,7)  
highest containing i repeated dirigibilities discriminabilities distinguishabilities divisibilities ignitibilities indiscernibilities indiscerptibilities indistinguishability indivisibility infinitesimalities ... (6,12)  
highest containing j repeated ajonjoli ajonjolis avijja avijjas djokjakarta gastrojejunal gastrojejunostomy hajj hajjes hajji ... (2,53)  
highest containing k repeated kakkak kakkaks knickknack knickknackatories knickknackatory knickknackeries knickknackery knickknacky kukukuku kukukukus (4,10)  
highest containing l repeated allochlorophyll allochlorophylls alloplastically intellectualistically lillypillies lillypilly polysyllabically (5,7)  
highest containing m repeated dynamometamorphism hamamelidanthemum immunocompromised mammatocumulus mammectomies mammectomy mammiform mammilliform mammogram mammonism ... (4,23)  
highest containing n repeated inconvenientness inconvenientnesses nannoplankton nannoplanktonic nondenominational nondenominationalism nonentanglement nonintervention noninterventionist syngenesiotransplantation ... (5,12)  
highest containing o repeated monogonoporous pseudomonocotyledonous (6,2)  
highest containing p repeated aplopappus haplopappus hyperleptoprosopic hyperleptoprosopy snippersnapper whippersnapper (4,6)  
highest containing q repeated qaraqalpaq qaraqalpaqs (3,2)  
highest containing r repeated ferriprotoporphyrin ferroprotoporphyrin (5,2)  
highest containing s repeated possessionlessnesses (9,1)  
highest containing t repeated ethylenediaminetetraacetate tetrasubstituted throttlebottom totipotentiality yttrotantalite (5,5)  
highest containing u repeated humuhumunukunukuapuaa humuhumunukunukuapuaas (9,2)  
highest containing v repeated overconservative ovoviviparity ovoviviparous ovoviviparously ovoviviparousness vulvovaginitis (3,6)  
highest containing w repeated bowwow bowwows powwow powwowed powwowing powwows swallowwort whillywhaw whillywhaws whitlowwort ... (3,17)  
highest containing x repeated dextropropoxyphene executrix executrixes exlex exlexes exonarthex exotoxic exotoxin hexachlorocyclohexane hexahydroxy ... (2,37)  
highest containing y repeated acetylphenylhydrazine acetylphenylhydrazines anhydrohydroxyprogesterone anhydrohydroxyprogesterones brachydactyly chylophylly cryptozygy cystopyelography cytophysiologically cytophysiology ... (3,91)  
highest containing z repeated pizzazz pizzazzes razzmatazz razzmatazzes (4,4)  
most different letters blepharoconjunctivitis pseudolamellibranchiata pseudolamellibranchiate psychogalvanometric (16,4)  
highest ratio length/letters kukukuku (400,1)  
highest ratio length/letters (no tautonyms) senselessnesses (375,1)  
lowest length 16 ratio length/letters ventriculography (106,1)  
lowest length 17 ratio length/letters entwicklungsroman hydrobasaluminite pterygomandibular (113,3)  
lowest length 18 ratio length/letters carboxyhemoglobins entwicklungsromane hyperglobulinemias psychogalvanometer ventriculographies (120,5)  
lowest length 19 ratio length/letters psychogalvanometric (118,1)  
lowest length 20 ratio length/letters brachycephalizations dimethyltubocurarine encephalomyocarditis magnetofluiddynamics moschellandsbergites (133,5)  
lowest length 21 ratio length/letters diphenylthiocarbazone pseudolamellibranchia sphygmomanometrically (140,3)  
lowest length 22 ratio length/letters blepharoconjunctivitis (137,1)  
lowest length 23 ratio length/letters pseudolamellibranchiata pseudolamellibranchiate (143,2)  
lowest length 24 ratio length/letters diphenylaminechlorarsine laryngotracheobronchitis meningoencephalomyelitis (171,3)  
lowest length 25 ratio length/letters spectroheliokinematograph (166,1)  

Letter Appearance
longest short letters erroneousnesses verrucosenesses (15,2)  
longest tall letters lighttight lillypilly (10,2)  
longest vertical-symmetry letters homotaxia thymomata (9,2)  
longest horizontal-symmetry letters checkbook checkhook chookchie (9,3)  
longest full-symmetry letters ohio (4,1)  
highest ratio of dotted letters jinjili (71,1)  

Typewriter
longest top row proprietory proterotype rupturewort (11,3)  
longest middle row shakalshas (10,1)  
longest bottom row MNC (3,1) !
longest in order wettish (7,1)  
longest in reverse order bourree chapote chappie chappow gouttee (7,5)  
longest left hand tesseradecades (14,0) ?
longest right hand hypolimnion kinnikinnik (11,2)  
longest alternating hands leucocytozoans (14,1)  
longest one finger deeded humhum hummum muhuhu muumuu (6,5)  
longest adjacent keys assessees redresser redresses seeresses sweeswees (9,5)  

Puzzle
longest palindrome in Morse code footstool (9,1)  
longest formed with chemical symbols nonrepresentationalism (22,1)  
longest formed with US postal codes convallarias (12,1)  
longest formed with amino acid abbreviations hisser proser serval valval (6,4)  
longest formed with piano notes cabbaged fabaceae fagaceae (8,3)  

Letter Order

Alphabetical
longest letters in order aegilops (8,1)  
longest letters in order with repeats aegilops (8,1)  
longest letters in reverse order sponged wronged (7,2)  
longest letters in reverse order with repeats trollied (8,1)  
longest roller-coaster decriminalizations provincializations (18,2)  
longest no letters in place trinitrophenylmethylnitramine (29,1)  
most letters in place abudefduf agammaglobulinemias archencephalon archetypical archetypically syngenesiotransplantation (5,6)  
most letters in place shifted cooperatively daughterlinesses definitivenesses gymnoplast gymnoplasts inoperative inoperativeness inopportunely intraoperatively neighborlinesses ... (6,16)  
most consecutive letters in order consecutively bierstube bierstuben bierstubes gymnopaedia gymnopaedias gymnopaedic gymnopedia gymnopedias gymnophiona gymnoplast ... (4,27)  
most consecutive letters in order aborticide aborticides abscinded absconded abscondence abscondences alimentotherapy aluminographies aluminography aluminotype ... (5,38)  
most consecutive letters appropinquates appropinquations appropinquities equiponderates equiponderations perquisition perquisitions preconquest propinquities quadruplications ... (8,12)  
highest ratio of consecutive letters to length klompen (85,1)  

==> language/english/spoonerisms.p <==
List some exceptional spoonerisms.

==> language/english/spoonerisms.s <==
Original by Spooner himself:

I am afraid you have tasted the whole worm, and must
therefore take the next town drain.

Some years ago in the Parliament, a certain member known for his quick and
rapier wit, cut across a certain other member who was trying to make some
bad joke.  He called him a "Shining Wit" then apologized for making a
Spoonerism.

Another famous broadcast fluff was on the Canadian Broadcasting
Corporation, which an announcer identified as the "Canadian
Broadcorping Castration."

Oh yes, another radio announcer one that has sort of crept into
common English usage is "one swell foop".

A friend of mine had just eaten dinner in the school
cafeteria, and he didn't look very happy. Another of
my friends said, "John, what's wrong?" Knowing exactly
what he was saying, he said, "It's the bound grief I
had for dinner!"

A radio announcer, talking about a royal visit (or some such) said the
visitor would be greeted with a "twenty one sun galoot".

There are several fractured fables based on spoonerisms, such as:

A king on a desert island was so beloved by his people, they decided to
give him a very special gift for the anniversary of his coronation.  So
after much thought, they decided to make him a throne out of seashells,
which were plentiful on the island.  And when it was finished, they
presented it to the king, who loved it.  But he soon discovered it was
very uncomfortable to sit on.  So he told his subjects it was too
special to use everyday (so as not to hurt their feelings) and put it in
the attic of his palace (which was, of course, a hut like all the other
dwellings on the island), planning to use it just for special occasions.
But that night, it fell through the ceiling of his bedroom and landed
on top of him, killing him instantly.  And the moral of the story is: 
Those who live in grass houses shouldn't stow thrones!

==> language/english/synonyms/ambiguous.p <==
What word in the English language is the most ambiguous?
What is the greatest number of parts of speech that a single word
can be used for?

==> language/english/synonyms/ambiguous.s <==
In Webster's Ninth, "set" occupies 1.2 columns, has 25 vb entries, 11 vi
entries, 23 noun entries, 7 adjective entries; "take" occupies 1.3 columns,
has 19 vb entries, 8 vi entries, 4 noun entries.

The word "like" occupies eight parts of speech:
	verb			"Fruit flies like a banana."
	noun			"We may never see its like again."
	adjective		"People of like tastes agree."
	adverb			"The rate is more like 12 percent."
	preposition		"Time flies like an arrow."
	conjunction		"They acted like they were scared."
	interjection		"Like, man, that was far out."
	verbal auxiliary	"So loud I like to fell out of bed."

==> language/english/synonyms/antonym.p <==
What words, when a single letter is added, reverse their meanings?

Exclude words that are obtained by adding an "a-" to the beginning.

==> language/english/synonyms/antonym.s <==
e: fast -> feast, fiancee -> fiance
h: treat -> threat
r: fiend -> friend
s: he -> she
t: here -> there

==> language/english/synonyms/contradictory.proverbs.p <==
What are some proverbs that contradict one another?

==> language/english/synonyms/contradictory.proverbs.s <==
Beware of Greeks bearing gifts.
Never look a gift horse in the mouth.

Look before you leap.
He who hesitates is lost.

Nothing venture, nothing gain.
Fools rush in where angels fear to tread.

Seek and ye shall find.
Curiosity killed the cat.

Save for a rainy day.
Tomorrow will take care of itself.

Life is what we make it.
What is to be will be.

Too many cooks spoil the broth.
Many hands make light work.

One man's meat is another man's poison.
Sauce for the goose is sauce for the gander.

With age comes wisdom.
Out of the mouths of babes and sucklings come all wise sayings.

Bear ye one another's burdens. (Gal. 6:2)
For every man shall bear his own burden. (Gal. 6:5)

Great minds run in the same channel.
Fools think alike.

A rolling stone gathers no moss.
A setting hen never lays.

A hollow pot makes the most noise.
The squeaky wheel gets the grease.

Faint heart never won fair lady.
The meek shall inherit the Earth.

To thine own self be true.
The nail that stands out gets hammered down.

==> language/english/synonyms/contranym.p <==
What words are their own antonym?

==> language/english/synonyms/contranym.s <==
In his 1989 book _Crazy English_, Richard Lederer calls such words
contranyms and lists more than 35, although some are phrases instead of
words.  These can be divided into homographs (same spelling) and
homophones (same pronunciation).

A partial list of homographs:
aught = all, nothing
bill = invoice, money
cleave = to separate, to join
clip = cut apart, fasten together
comprise = contain, compose
custom = usual, special
dust = to remove, add fine particles
fast = rapid, unmoving
literally = actually, figuratively
model = archetype, copy
moot = debatable, academic
note = promise to pay, money
oversight = care, error
peep = look quietly, beep
peer = noble, person of equal rank
put = lay, throw
puzzle = pose problem, solve problem
quantum = very small, very large (quantum leap)
ravel = entangle, disentangle
resign = to quit, to sign up again
sanction = to approve of, to punish
sanguine = murderous, optimistic
scan = to examine closely, to glance at quickly
set = fix, flow
skin = to cover with, remove outer covering
speak = express verbally, express nonverbally
stipulate = request explicitly, agree to
strike = miss (baseball), hit
table = propose [British], set aside
temper = calmness, passion
trim = cut things off, put things on

A very short list of homophones:
aural, oral = heard, spoken
fiance, fiancee = female betrothed, male betrothed
raise, raze = erect, tear down

A pair of French words which can be very confusing:
La symetrie (symmetry) and L'asymetrie (asymmetry).

Latin:
immo = yes, no

Possibilities:
draw (curtains, open or close) (money, withdraw, accumulate interest)
eke

==> language/english/synonyms/double.synonyms.p <==
What words have two different synonymous meanings?

==> language/english/synonyms/double.synonyms.s <==
list, roll: set of names (noun), tilt (verb)

==> language/finnish/finnish.plural.p <==
What Finnish word is the anagram of its plural?

==> language/finnish/finnish.plural.s <==
matto/matot (Finnish for "carpet"/"carpets").

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