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rec.puzzles Archive (language), part 17 of 35

( Part1 - Part2 - Part3 - Part4 - Part5 )
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Archive-name: puzzles/archive/language/part1
Last-modified: 17 Aug 1993
Version: 4

See reader questions & answers on this topic! - Help others by sharing your knowledge
==> language/close.antonyms.p <==
What words are similar to their antonyms in other langauges?

==> language/close.antonyms.s <==
Swedish: tryck (push), Norwegian: trekk (pull)
German: kalte (cold), Italian: caldo (hot)



==> language/dutch/dutch.record.p <==
What are some Dutch words with unusual properties?

==> language/dutch/dutch.record.s <==

Spelling

Letter Patterns

Entire Word
longest word levensverzekeringsmaatschappijen projectontwikkelingsmaatschappij (32,2)  
longest palindrome meetsysteem (11,1)  
longest beginning with a palindrome aha ara (3,2)  
longest beginning with b palindrome bob (3,1)  
longest beginning with c palindrome ?
longest beginning with d palindrome daad deed dood (4,3)  
longest beginning with e palindrome etste (5,1)  
longest beginning with f palindrome ?
longest beginning with g palindrome gezeg (5,1)  
longest beginning with h palindrome ?
longest beginning with i palindrome ?
longest beginning with j palindrome jij (3,1)  
longest beginning with k palindrome kajak kazak (5,2)  
longest beginning with l palindrome lepel (5,1)  
longest beginning with m palindrome meetsysteem (11,1)  
longest beginning with n palindrome nebben neggen nekken nellen neppen nessen netten (6,7)  
longest beginning with o palindrome oho (3,1)  
longest beginning with p palindrome paap (4,1)  
longest beginning with q palindrome ?
longest beginning with r palindrome redder rekker remmer renner (6,4)  
longest beginning with s palindrome serres staats stoots (6,3)  
longest beginning with t palindrome temet (5,1)  
longest beginning with u palindrome ?
longest beginning with v palindrome ?
longest beginning with w palindrome ?
longest beginning with x palindrome ?
longest beginning with y palindrome ?
longest beginning with z palindrome ?
longest with middle a palindrome staats (6,1)  
longest with middle b palindrome nebben (6,1)  
longest with middle c palindrome ?
longest with middle d palindrome redder (6,1)  
longest with middle e palindrome reeer (5,1)  
longest with middle f palindrome ?
longest with middle g palindrome neggen (6,1)  
longest with middle h palindrome aha oho (3,2)  
longest with middle i palindrome gig jij kik lil pip sis (3,6)  
longest with middle j palindrome kajak (5,1)  
longest with middle k palindrome nekken rekker (6,2)  
longest with middle l palindrome nellen (6,1)  
longest with middle m palindrome remmer (6,1)  
longest with middle n palindrome meeneem (7,1)  
longest with middle o palindrome stoots (6,1)  
longest with middle p palindrome neppen (6,1)  
longest with middle q palindrome ?
longest with middle r palindrome serres (6,1)  
longest with middle s palindrome nessen (6,1)  
longest with middle t palindrome netten (6,1)  
longest with middle u palindrome lul mum sus (3,3)  
longest with middle v palindrome neven (5,1)  
longest with middle w palindrome ?
longest with middle x palindrome ?
longest with middle y palindrome meetsysteem (11,1)  
longest with middle z palindrome gezeg kazak (5,2)  
longest tautonym blauwblauw (10,1)  
longest beginning with a tautonym ?
longest beginning with b tautonym blauwblauw (10,1)  
longest beginning with c tautonym ?
longest beginning with d tautonym dumdum (6,1)  
longest beginning with e tautonym enen (4,1)  
longest beginning with f tautonym ?
longest beginning with g tautonym genegene (8,1)  
longest beginning with h tautonym haha (4,1)  
longest beginning with i tautonym inging (6,1)  
longest beginning with j tautonym jaja jojo (4,2)  
longest beginning with k tautonym kerker (6,1)  
longest beginning with l tautonym lala (4,1)  
longest beginning with m tautonym mama (4,1)  
longest beginning with n tautonym ?
longest beginning with o tautonym ?
longest beginning with p tautonym papa (4,1)  
longest beginning with q tautonym ?
longest beginning with r tautonym ?
longest beginning with s tautonym ?
longest beginning with t tautonym taaitaai (8,1)  
longest beginning with u tautonym ?
longest beginning with v tautonym verver (6,1)  
longest beginning with w tautonym ?
longest beginning with x tautonym ?
longest beginning with y tautonym ?
longest beginning with z tautonym zozo (4,1)  
longest head 'n' tail kentekent kindskind (9,2)  
longest with middle a head 'n' tail kak lal mam pap sas (3,5)  
longest with middle b head 'n' tail uitbuit (7,1)  
longest with middle c head 'n' tail ?
longest with middle d head 'n' tail enden (5,1)  
longest with middle e head 'n' tail kentekent (9,1)  
longest with middle f head 'n' tail ?
longest with middle g head 'n' tail aangaan (7,1)  
longest with middle h head 'n' tail echec oehoe (5,2)  
longest with middle i head 'n' tail gig jij kik lil pip sis (3,6)  
longest with middle j head 'n' tail ?
longest with middle k head 'n' tail enken erker omkom sekse (5,4)  
longest with middle l head 'n' tail inklink (7,1)  
longest with middle m head 'n' tail aanmaan (7,1)  
longest with middle n head 'n' tail ene (3,1)  
longest with middle o head 'n' tail verover (7,1)  
longest with middle p head 'n' tail ?
longest with middle q head 'n' tail ?
longest with middle r head 'n' tail derde (5,1)  
longest with middle s head 'n' tail kindskind (9,1)  
longest with middle t head 'n' tail enten (5,1)  
longest with middle u head 'n' tail teute (5,1)  
longest with middle v head 'n' tail ?
longest with middle w head 'n' tail inwin (5,1)  
longest with middle x head 'n' tail ?
longest with middle y head 'n' tail ?
longest with middle z head 'n' tail ?

Subset of Word
longest internal palindrome apothekersrekening apothekersrekeningen kilometervreter kilometervreters marktkramer marktkramers meetsysteem trekkebekken voortstroomde (9,9)  
longest internal tautonym noordnoordoost noordnoordwest onvergelijkelijker onvergelijkelijkst tingelingeling (10,5)  
longest repeated prefix noordnoordoost noordnoordwest (10,2)  
most consecutive doubled letters bevoorraadde bevoorraadden (4,2)  
most doubled letters arrondissementscommissarissen (5,1)  
longest two cadence beredeneren degenereren eretekenen gedegenereerd gedegenereerde gedegenereerden geregenereerd geregenereerde geregenereerden regenereren ... (5,11)  
longest three cadence adembeklemmende adembeklemmender behoeftenbevrediging desbetreffende ettergezwellen inconvenienten keukengedeelte overeengestemde overeengestemden zielverheffende ... (5,11)  
longest four cadence afgetelefoneerde afgetelefoneerden beeldendienaren beschermbeelden beschermgeesten beslissingswedstrijd beslissingswedstrijden diepzeeonderzoek eindexamenfeest expresgoederen ... (4,49)  
longest five cadence academievergaderingen boedelvereffeningen boekenverzamelingen feestvergaderingen geheugeninterferentie gevangenispersoneel gouvernementsgebouwen identiteitsbewijzen inschikkelijkheid jeugdherinneringen ... (4,18)  

Letter Counts

Lipograms
longest letters from first half geleidelijkheid gemakkelijkheid (15,2)  
longest letters from second half voortsproot (11,1)  
longest without ab schilderijententoonstellingen (29,1)  
longest without abcd tentoonstellingsterreinen (25,1)  
longest without a to h rijksinstituut stroomlijnvorm (14,2)  
longest without a to k vooroploopt voortsproot voortstormt (11,3)  
longest without a to n voortsproot (11,1)  
longest without a to q rustuur (7,1)  
longest without a to s uw (2,1)  
longest without e brandwaarborgmaatschappij (25,1)  
longest without et landbouwhuishoudschool (22,1)  
longest without eta bijscholingscursus (18,1)  
longest without etai schooljuffrouw (14,1)  
longest without etain schooljuffrouw (14,1)  
longest without etains chloorzuur chloroform droogkoord omhoogklom polychroom (10,5)  

Letter Choices

Vowels
longest all vowels aai eau oei ooi (3,4)  
longest each vowel once verbrandingsprodukt (19,1)  
longest each extended vowel once loyauteit (9,1)  
shortest each vowel once douarie (7,1)  
shortest each extended vowel once loyauteit (9,1)  
shortest vowels in order lateihout (9,1)  
shortest extended vowels in order ?
longest vowels in order arbeidsonrust (13,1)  
longest extended vowels in order ?
shortest vowels in reverse order ?
shortest extended vowels in reverse order ?
longest vowels in reverse order ?
longest extended vowels in reverse order ?
longest one vowel schurftst (9,1)  
longest two vowels strijdschrift vlijmscherpst (13,2)  
longest containing a univocalic afschraapschaar maarschalksstaf paltsgraafschap straatlantaarns (15,4)  
longest containing e univocalic wegenverkeersreglement (22,1)  
longest containing i univocalic inschrijvingslijst (18,1)  
longest containing o univocalic noordnoordoost (14,1)  
longest containing u univocalic turfschuur (10,1)  
longest containing y univocalic lyncht (6,1)  
longest alternating extended vowel-consonant veramerikaniseren (17,1)  
longest alternating vowel-consonant veramerikaniseren (17,1)  

Consonants
longest consonant string aandachtsstreep aandachtsstrepen ambachtsscholen ambachtsschool dichtschroef dichtschroefde dichtschroefden dichtschroeft dichtschroeven gezichtsscherm ... (7,18)  
longest one consonant aaneennaaien (12,1)  
longest two consonant aaneennaaiden (13,1)  

Isograms
longest isogram dampkringslucht (15,1)  
longest pair isogram steunstukken (12,1)  
longest trio isogram ?
longest tetrad isogram ?
longest polygram salarisregelingen (17,1)  
longest pyramid aaneengehangene (15,1)  
most repeated letters projectontwikkelingsmaatschappij (11,1)  
highest containing a repeated aanvaardbaar aanvaardbaarder aanvaardbaarheid aanvaardbaarst aanvaarpaal afbraakmateriaal bastaardnachtegaal brandwaarborgmaatschappij brandwaarborgmaatschappijen onaanvaardbaar ... (6,11)  
highest containing b repeated hobbeldebobbel (5,1)  
highest containing c repeated accijnsrechten architectonisch architectonische bacchantisch bacchantische bacchantischer bacchantischt beschrijftechnisch beschrijftechnische calciumcarbid ... (3,73)  
highest containing d repeated driehonderdduizend driehonderdduizendste (5,2)  
highest containing e repeated weledelzeergeleerde (9,1)  
highest containing f repeated buffetjuffrouw buffetjuffrouwen diffusiecoefficient diffusiecoefficienten (4,4)  
highest containing g repeated beslaglegging beslagleggingen buigingsuitgang buigingsuitgangen drooglegging geaggregeerd geaggregeerde geaggregeerden gegaggeld gegaggelde ... (4,34)  
highest containing h repeated huishoudhandschoenen (4,1)  
highest containing i repeated liquiditeitssituatie (6,1)  
highest containing j repeated jojootje jojootjes jokkernijtje jokkernijtjes kijverijtje kijverijtjes pijjekkertje pijjekkertjes vrijerijtje vrijerijtjes ... (3,13)  
highest containing k repeated koekoeksklokken (6,1)  
highest containing l repeated beleidsdoelstelling bloembollencultuur bloembollenveld bloembollenvelden knolleschillen krokodillevellen krullebollen leerlingstelsel leliebollen luchtdoelartillerie ... (4,37)  
highest containing m repeated maximumthermometer maximumthermometers minimumprogramma minimumthermometer minimumthermometers (5,5)  
highest containing n repeated koninginnenkronen (7,1)  
highest containing o repeated noordnoordoost oostnoordoost (6,2)  
highest containing p repeated aardappelmeelpap appelflappen begrippenapparaat klapperdoppen moppentapper moppentappers oppepper opperheerschappij opproppen papiersnipper ... (4,18)  
highest containing q repeated quinquagesima quiproquo (2,2)  
highest containing r repeated karrenverhuurder karrenverhuurders meerderjarigheidsverklaring meerderjarigheidsverklaringen meerderjarigverklaring meerderjarigverklaringen prikkeldraadversperring prikkeldraadversperringen programmeertaalvertaler programmeertaalvertalers (5,10)  
highest containing s repeated arrondissementscommissarissen (7,1)  
highest containing t repeated activiteitstraktement activiteitstraktementen (6,2)  
highest containing u repeated cultuurprodukt cultuurprodukten landbouwhuishoudkunde musculatuur rubbercultuur structuurformule structuurformules suikercultuur (4,8)  
highest containing v repeated overlevingsvermogen vastenavondvreugde veevervoer verveelvoudig verveelvoudigd verveelvoudigde verveelvoudigden verveelvoudigen verveelvoudigt verversingshaven ... (3,35)  
highest containing w repeated gewiewauwd nieuwbouwwijk warmwaterverwarming weduwvrouw weduwvrouwen wiewauw wiewauwde wiewauwden wiewauwen wiewauwt ... (3,13)  
highest containing x repeated explosievenexpert (2,1)  
highest containing y repeated cyclostyle cyclostyleer cyclostyleerde cyclostyleerden cyclostyleert cyclostyleren cyclostyles gecyclostyleerd gecyclostyleerde gecyclostyleerden ... (2,25)  
highest containing z repeated jazzmuziek zigzagsgewijze (3,2)  
most different letters brandverzekeringsmaatschappij brandverzekeringsmaatschappijen (18,2)  
highest ratio length/letters aaneengehangenen (320,1)  
highest ratio length/letters (no tautonyms) aaneengehangenen (320,1)  
lowest length 16 ratio length/letters computerafdeling elektrodynamisch honkbalwedstrijd (106,3)  
lowest length 17 ratio length/letters achtergrondmuziek ambachtsonderwijs bevruchtingsproef bloedverwantschap elektrodynamische huwelijkscontract veraanschouwelijk zelfoverschatting (113,8)  
lowest length 18 ratio length/letters veraanschouwelijkt (112,1)  
lowest length 19 ratio length/letters achtergrondmuziekje produktomschrijving veraanschouwelijkte (118,3)  
lowest length 20 ratio length/letters bewustzijnsverhogend rijkslandbouwscholen veraanschouwelijking veraanschouwelijkten (125,4)  
lowest length 21 ratio length/letters scheepsmontagebedrijf (123,1)  
lowest length 22 ratio length/letters bondgenootschappelijke vliegtuigmoederschepen (137,2)  
lowest length 23 ratio length/letters onderwijzersgenootschap veiligheidsfunctionaris (143,2)  
lowest length 24 ratio length/letters handschriftenverzameling taalverwerkingsproblemen verzekeringsmaatschappij waterleidingmaatschappij (150,4)  
lowest length 25 ratio length/letters rijkslandbouwproefstation (147,1)  

Letter Appearance
longest short letters zwemmerseczeem (14,1)  
longest tall letters bijblijft (9,1)  
longest vertical-symmetry letters automaat haamhout taaitaai uithouwt uitwaait vaamhout vaathout (8,7)  
longest horizontal-symmetry letters behoedde dooddeed kiekeboe kookboek (8,4)  
longest full-symmetry letters hooi (4,1)  
highest ratio of dotted letters lijzij (66,1)  

Typewriter
longest top row pirouetteert portretteert (12,2)  
longest middle row halfslag kaakslag kalklaag (8,3)  
longest bottom row ?
longest in order eerroof tuipaal weeraal weeroog weertij (7,5)  
longest in reverse order blaatte blootte kapotte naaapte (7,4)  
longest left hand verbeteraarsters (16,1)  
longest right hand minimumloon (11,1)  
longest alternating hands roemruchtigheid wispelturigheid (15,2)  
longest one finger deed (4,1)  
longest adjacent keys redresseerde (12,1)  

Puzzle
longest palindrome in Morse code weerkreeg (9,1)  
longest formed with chemical symbols binnenhuisarchitecten (21,1)  
longest formed with US postal codes innemend landpaal landwind moordend paasmaal waarmede (8,6)  
longest formed with amino acid abbreviations metser valser (6,2)  
longest formed with piano notes bedaagde begaafde gedaagde (8,3)  

Letter Order

Alphabetical
longest letters in order afklopt afkorst beklopt beknopt beknort bekorst bemorst (7,7)  
longest letters in order with repeats afknoopt bijkoopt bijloopt (8,3)  
longest letters in reverse order wolkige (7,1)  
longest letters in reverse order with repeats vuurrood wrokkige (8,2)  
longest roller-coaster veramerikanisering (18,1)  
longest no letters in place levensverzekeringsmaatschappijen (32,1)  
most letters in place aandoenlijk aandoenlijke aandoenlijker aandoenlijkheid aandoenlijkst aaneenspijker aaneenspijkerde aaneenspijkerden aaneenspijkeren aaneenspijkert ... (5,46)  
most letters in place shifted beweeglijk beweeglijke beweeglijker beweeglijkheid beweeglijkst boodschappenlopers franciscanenkloosters kijkvensters koperstuk nobelprijswinnaars ... (6,20)  
most consecutive letters in order consecutively achterstuk achterstukken altaarstuk altaarstukken bijklank bijklanken dijklasten dijkleger doorsturen doorstuur ... (4,106)  
most consecutive letters in order alarmknop ambachtsgilde ambachtsgilden ambachtsonderwijs bedrijfsklimaat bondgenootschappelijk bondgenootschappelijke deftigheid droefgeestigheid eerstehulpverlening ... (5,56)  
most consecutive letters financieringsmogelijkheden (13,1)  
highest ratio of consecutive letters to length koolmijn (87,1)  

==> language/english/equations.p <==
1 = E. on a C.
1 = G. L. for M.
1 = K. K. on the E. S. B.
1 = S. C. in D. P.
1 = S. S.
1 = S. S. for a M.
1 = T. that O. K.
1 = W. on a U.
1 = if by L.
1 = the L. N.
2 = B. G.
2 = C. B. as B. as O.
2 = C. in the T. by C. D.
2 = E. of E.
2 = H. in a W.
2 = H. of C.
2 = L. in the H. B.
2 = N. in a D.
2 = O. in a D. P.
2 = P. J. P.
2 = P. in a B.
2 = P. in a P.
2 = Q. in a H.-D.
2 = S. of a L.'s T.
2 = T. in the W. T. C.
2 = T. the P. A. R.
2 = W. S. in "C."
2 = W. that D.'t M. a R.
2 = if by S.
3 = B. M. (S. H. T. R.!)
3 = B. in "G."
3 = B. in "L. of the R."
3 = B. in the H. E.
3 = B. of the U. S. G.
3 = D. for J. in the B. of the W.
3 = D. of the C.
3 = F. in a Y.
3 = L. P.
3 = L. on a T.
3 = M. and a B.
3 = O. K. C.'s F.
3 = P. in a B. S.
3 = P. in a H. G.
3 = P. of an I.
3 = R. in a C.
3 = S. and Y.'re O.
3 = S. on C.' F. V.
3 = S. in a T.
3 = S. to the W.
3 = W. M. at B.
3 = W. in "M."
3 = W. on a T.
3 = on a M.
4 = B. in a W.
4 = C. in the H. H.
4 = G. M. in C.
4 = H. of the A.
4 = I's in M.
4 = L. in a D. W.
4 = M. in a S.
4 = M. of the B.
4 = Q. in a F. G.
4 = Q. in a G.
4 = S's in M.
4 = S. in a D. of C.
4 = S. in a R.
4 = S. in a S.
4 = S. in a Y.
4 = T. FDR E. P.
4 = W. on a C.
4 = Y. in an O.
5 = B. in the T.
5 = D. in a Z. C.
5 = F. on a H.
5 = G. L.
5 = M. B. in "J. and the B."
5 = M. in a C. R.
5 = P. in a N.
5 = S. in a P.
5 = S. in the S. C.
5 = T. on a F.
5 = V. O. in the H. B.
6 = D. of the C.
6 = "B. C."
6 = A. of the A.
6 = D. of C.
6 = H. D. of O. for R. C.
6 = P. in a P.
6 = P. in a P. T.
6 = S. in a H.
6 = T. Z. in the U. S.
6 = W. of H. VIII
6 = of O. and a H. D. of the O.
7 = "P. of W."
7 = A. of M.
7 = C. in a R.
7 = D. in "S. W."
7 = H. of R.
7 = K. of F. in H. P.
7 = P. of E.
7 = S. of S. the S.
7 = W. of the A. W.
8 = C. in a M.
8 = D. in H.
8 = K. H. of E.
8 = L. on a S.
8 = L. on an O.
8 = S. in a O.
8 = S. on a S. S.
8 = S.'s R.
8 = G. T. in a L. B. C.
9 = C. of H. in the "D. C."
9 = D. in a Z. C., with the S. C.
9 = G. M.
9 = I. in a B. G.
9 = J. on the U. S. S. C.
9 = L. of a C.
9 = M. in a H. B.'s G. P.
9 = P. in the S. S.
9 = S. by B.
10 = A. in the B. of R.
10 = C. G. to M.
10 = F. in B.
10 = L. I. B.
10 = P. in C.
10 = Y. in a D.
11 = F. in a C.
11 = P. on a C. T.
11 = P. on a F. T.
11 = S. in the C.
12 = A. at the L. S.
12 = C. of A. R.
12 = D. of C.
12 = D. of J.
12 = L. of H.
12 = S. of the Z.
12 = T. of I.
13 = a B.'s D.
13 = O. C.
13 = S. on the A. F.
14 = D. in a F.
14 = L. in a S.
14 = P. in W. W.'s P.
15 = M. of F. per P., A. to A. W.
15 = M. on a D. M.'s C.
16 = O. in a P.
16 = O. of M.
17 = S. in a H.
17 = P. that D. N. and S. V.
18 = H. on a G. C.
18 = I. in a C.
19 = G. S. for the V. P.
20 = C. in a P.
20 = Y. S. by R. V. W.
21 = G. S. for the P.
22 = C.
23 = P. on a G. J.
24 = B. B. in a P.
24 = B. B. to a C.
24 = D. P. to the I. for M. I.
24 = H. in a D.
24 = S. Z. of I. T.
25 = Y. of M. for a S. A.
25 = P. in a Q.
26 = L. of the A.
27 = D. W. W. by G. G.
27 = A. to the U. S. C.
28 = D. in F.
29 = D. in F. in a L. Y.
30 = D. H. S.
30 = D. in J.
30 = P. of S. G. to J.
31 = D. in O.
32 = D. F. at which W. F.
36 = I. on a Y. S.
36 = R. M.
39 = L. in M.' L.
40 = D. and N. of the G. F.
40 = D. in L.
40 = Y. in the D. for I.
43 = B. in E. C. of N.
45 = D. in a O.
46 = C. in a H. C.
47 = P. P. in E.'s E.
48 = C. in a P. D.
49 = R. A. in a R.
50 = S. in the U.
50 = W. to L. Y. L.
52 = W. in a Y.
52 = C. in a D.
54 = C. in a D. (with the J.)
57 = H. V.
61 = H. R. H. by R. M. in O. S.
64 = S. on a C.
64 = Y. O. W. I H. Y. W. S. N. M.
66 = B. in the K. J. B.
70 = D. of C.
75 = Y. of M. for the D. A.
76 = T. L. the B. P.
78 = C. in a T. D.
80 = C. in a M.
80 = D. to G. A. the W.
87 = F. S. and S. Y.
88 = C. in the S.
88 = P. K.
90 = D. in a R. A.
95 = M. L.'s T.
96 = T., by ?
99 = B. of B. on a W.
100 = C. in a D.
100 = Y. in a F. F.
101 = D.
101 = a S. M. L.
102 = F. in the E. S. B.
116 = Y. in the H. Y.'s W.
144 = U. in a G.
150 = P. in the B.
180 = D. to R. D.
200 = D. for P. G. in M.
200 = M. in a C.
206 = B. in the H. B.
235 = I. of U. in the A. B.
300 = B. in the T. of C.
365 = D. in a Y.
366 = D. in a L. Y.
432 = P. in a H.
435 = S. in the H. of R.
451 = D. F. at which B. B.
500 = F. C.
500 = M. in the I. F. H.
500 = S. in a R.
666 = N. of the B. in the B. of R.
707 = Y. of C.
755 = H. runs H. by H. A.
800 = W. in V.
880 = N. of M. S. of O. F.
1000 = I. in N. Y.
1000 = P. of L.
1000 = S. L. by the F. of H. of T.
1000 = W. that a P. is W.
1001 = A. N. 
1440 = M. in a D.
1760 = Y. in a M.
5280 = F. in a M.
20000 = L. U. the S.

==> language/english/equations.s <==
This puzzle originally consisted of 24 "equations" by Will Shortz, printed
in the May-June 1981 issue of Games magazine, with an acknowledgement to
Morgan Worthy.  Games ran several followups in subsequent issues, and
reported that people kept resubmitting the puzzle to them, sometimes as
original work!  Many people have now added to the list of equations.
The 24 original ones are starred (*) below.

1 = E. on a C. (Eye on a Cyclops)
1 = G. L. for M. (Giant Leap for Mankind)
1 = K. K. on the E. S. B. (King Kong on the Empire State Building)
1 = S. C. in D. P. (Single Calorie in Diet Pepsi)
1 = S. S. (Singular Sensation)
1 = S. S. for a M. (Small Step for a Man)
1 = T. that O. K. (Time that Opportunity Knocks)
1 = W. on a U. (Wheel on a Unicycle *)
1 = if by L. (if by Land)
1 = the L. N. (the Loneliest Number)
2 = B. G. (Brothers Grimm)
2 = C. B. as B. as O. (Can Be as Bad as One)
2 = C. in the T. by C. D. (Cities in the Tale by Charles Dickens)
2 = E. of E. (Elizabeths of England)
2 = H. in a W. (Halves in a Whole)
2 = H. of C. (Houses of Congress)
2 = L. in the H. B. (Lungs in the Human Body)
2 = N. in a D. (Nickels in a Dime)
2 = O. in a D. P. (Outs in a Double Play)
2 = P. J. P. (Pope John Pauls)
2 = P. in a B. (Pieces in a Bikini)
2 = P. in a P. (Peas in a Pod)
2 = Q. in a H.-D. (Quarters in a Half-Dollar)
2 = S. of a L.'s T. (Shakes of a Lamb's Tail)
2 = T. in the W. T. C. (Towers in the World Trade Center)
2 = T. the P. A. R. (Times the Postman Always Rings)
2 = W. S. in "C." (Wicked Stepsisters in "Cinderella")
2 = W. that D.'t M. a R. (Wrongs that Don't Make a Right)
2 = if by S. (if by Sea)
3 = B. M. (S. H. T. R.!) (Blind Mice, See How They Run! *)
3 = B. in "G." (Bears in "Goldilocks")
3 = B. in "L. of the R." (Books in "Lord of the Rings")
3 = B. in the H. E. (Bones in the Human Ear)
3 = B. of the U. S. G. (Branches of the United States Government)
3 = D. for J. in the B. of the W. (Days for Jonah in the Belly of the Whale)
3 = D. of the C. (Days of the Condor -- movie)
3 = F. in a Y. (Feet in a Yard)
3 = L. P. (Little Pigs)
3 = L. on a T. (Legs on a Tripod)
3 = M. and a B. (Men and a Baby)
3 = O. K. C.'s F. (Old King Cole's Fiddlers)
3 = P. in a B. S. (Pieces in a Business Suit)
3 = P. in a H. G. (Periods in a Hockey Game)
3 = P. of an I. (Parts of an Insect)
3 = R. in a C. (Rings in a Circus)
3 = S. and Y.'re O. (Strikes and You're Out)
3 = S. on C.' F. V. (Ships on Columbus' First Voyage)
3 = S. in a T. (Sides in a Triangle)
3 = S. to the W. (Sheets to the Wind)
3 = W. M. at B. (Wise Men at Bethlehem)
3 = W. in "M." (Witches in "Macbeth")
3 = W. on a T. (Wheels on a Tricycle)
3 = on a M. (on a March)
4 = B. in a W. (Balls in a Walk)
4 = C. in the H. H. (Chambers in the Human Heart)
4 = G. M. in C. (Gang Members in China)
4 = H. of the A. (Horsemen of the Apocalypse)
4 = I's in M. (I's in Mississippi)
4 = L. in a D. W. (Letters in a Dirty Word)
4 = M. in a S. (Movements in a Symphony)
4 = M. of the B. (Members of the Beatles)
4 = Q. in a F. G. (Quarters in a Football Game)
4 = Q. in a G. (Quarts in a Gallon *)
4 = S's in M. (S's in Mississippi)
4 = S. in a D. of C. (Suits in a Deck of Cards)
4 = S. in a R. (Sides in a Rectangle)
4 = S. in a S. (Sides in a Square)
4 = S. in a Y. (Seasons in a Year)
4 = T. FDR E. P. (Terms FDR Elected President)
4 = W. on a C. (Wheels on a Car)
4 = Y. in an O. (Years in an Olympiad)
5 = B. in the T. (Books in the Torah)
5 = D. in a Z. C. (Digits in a Zip Code *)
5 = F. on a H. (Fingers on a Hand)
5 = G. L. (Great Lakes)
5 = M. B. in "J. and the B." (Magic Beans in "Jack and the Beanstalk")
5 = M. in a C. R. (Miles in a Camptown Racetrack)
5 = P. in a N. (Pennies in a Nickel)
5 = S. in a P. (Sides in a Pentagon)
5 = S. in the S. C. (Stars in the Southern Cross)
5 = T. on a F. (Toes on a Foot)
5 = V. O. in the H. B. (Vital Organs in the Human Body)
6 = D. of the C. (Days of the Condor -- book)
6 = "B. C." ("Brandenburg Concertos")
6 = A. of the A. (Avenue of the Americas)
6 = D. of C. (Days of Creation)
6 = H. D. of O. for R. C. (Holy Days of Obligation for Roman Catholics)
6 = P. in a P. (Pigs in a Poke)
6 = P. in a P. T. (Pockets in a Pool Table)
6 = S. in a H. (Sides in a Hexagon)
6 = T. Z. in the U. S. (Time Zones in the United States)
6 = W. of H. VIII (Wives of Henry VIII)
6 = of O. and a H. D. of the O. (of One and a Half Dozen of the Other)
7 = "P. of W." ("Pillars of Wisdom")
7 = A. of M. (Ages of Man)
7 = C. in a R. (Colors in a Rainbow : ROYGBIV)
7 = D. in "S. W." (Dwarfs in "Snow White")
7 = H. of R. (Hills of Rome)
7 = K. of F. in H. P. (Kinds of Fruit in Hawaiian Punch)
7 = P. of E. (Plagues of Egypt)
7 = S. of S. the S. (Seas of Sinbad the Sailor)
7 = W. of the A. W. (Wonders of the Ancient World *)
8 = C. in a M. (Candles in a Menorah)
8 = D. in H. (Days in Hanukkah)
8 = K. H. of E. (King Henrys of England)
8 = L. on a S. (Legs on a Spider)
8 = L. on an O. (Legs on an Octopus)
8 = S. in a O. (Sides in a Octagon)
8 = S. on a S. S. (Sides on a Stop Sign *)
8 = S.'s R. (Santa's Reindeer)
8 = G. T. in a L. B. C. (Great Tomatoes in a Little Bitty Can)
9 = C. of H. in the "D. C." (Circle of Hell in the "Divine Comedy")
9 = D. in a Z. C., with the S. C. (Digits in a Zip Code, with the Street Code)
9 = G. M. (Greek Muses)
9 = I. in a B. G. (Innings in a Baseball Game)
9 = J. on the U. S. S. C. (Justices on the United States Supreme Court)
9 = L. of a C. (Lives of a Cat)
9 = M. in a H. B.'s G. P. (Months in a Human Baby's Gestation Period)
9 = P. in the S. S. (Planets in the Solar System *)
9 = S. by B. (Symphonies by Beethoven)
10 = A. in the B. of R. (Amendments in the Bill of Rights)
10 = C. G. to M. (Commandments Given to Moses)
10 = F. in B. (Frames in Bowling)
10 = L. I. B. (Little Indian Boys)
10 = P. in C. (Provinces in Canada)
10 = Y. in a D. (Years in a Decade)
11 = F. in a C. (Fathoms in a Chain)
11 = P. on a C. T. (Players on a Cricket Team)
11 = P. on a F. T. (Players on a Football Team *)
11 = S. in the C. (States in the Confederacy)
12 = A. at the L. S. (Apostles at the Last Supper)
12 = C. of A. R. (Caesars of Ancient Rome)
12 = D. of C. (Days of Christmas)
12 = D. of J. (Disciples of Jesus)
12 = L. of H. (Labors of Hercules)
12 = S. of the Z. (Signs of the Zodiac *)
12 = T. of I. (Tribes of Israel)
13 = a B.'s D. (a Baker's Dozen)
13 = O. C. (Original Colonies)
13 = S. on the A. F. (Stripes on the American flag *)
14 = D. in a F. (Days in a Fortnight)
14 = L. in a S. (Lines in a Sonnet)
14 = P. in W. W.'s P. (Points in Woodrow Wilson's Plan)
15 = M. of F. per P., A. to A. W. (Minutes of Fame per Person, According to Andy Warhol)
15 = M. on a D. M.'s C. (Men on a Dead Man's Chest)
16 = O. in a P. (Ounces in a Pound)
16 = O. of M. (Orders of Mammals)
17 = S. in a H. (Syllables in a Haiku)
17 = P. that D. N. and S. V. (Parallel that Divided North and South Vietnam)
18 = H. on a G. C. (Holes on a Golf Course *)
18 = I. in a C. (Inches in a Cubit)
19 = G. S. for the V. P. (Gun Salute for the Vice President)
20 = C. in a P. (Cigarettes in a Pack)
20 = Y. S. by R. V. W. (Years Slept by Rip Van Winkle)
21 = G. S. for the P. (Gun Salute for the President)
22 = C. (Catch)
23 = P. on a G. J. (People on a Grand Jury)
24 = B. B. in a P. (Black Birds Baked in a Pie)
24 = B. B. to a C. (Beer Bottles to a Case)
24 = D. P. to the I. for M. I. (Dollars Paid to the Indians for Manhattan Island)
24 = H. in a D. (Hours in a Day *)
24 = S. Z. of I. T. (Standard Zones of International Time)
25 = Y. of M. for a S. A. (Years of Marriage for a Silver Anniversary)
25 = P. in a Q. (Pennies in a Quarter)
26 = L. of the A. (Letters of the Alphabet *)
27 = D. W. W. by G. G. (Different Wigs Worn by Gregory Giggs)
27 = A. to the U. S. C. (Amendments to the United States Constitution)
28 = D. in F. (Days in February)
29 = D. in F. in a L. Y. (Days in February in a Leap Year *)
30 = D. H. S. (Days Hath September)
30 = D. in J. (Days in June)
30 = P. of S. G. to J. (Pieces of Silver Given to Judas)
31 = D. in O. (Days in October)
32 = D. F. at which W. F. (Degrees Fahrenheit at which Water Freezes *)
36 = I. on a Y. S. (Inches on a Yard Stick)
36 = R. M. (Righteous Men)
39 = L. in M.' L. (Lashes in Moses' Law)
40 = D. and N. of the G. F. (Days and Nights of the Great Flood *)
40 = D. in L. (Days in Lent)
40 = Y. in the D. for I. (Years in the Desert for Israelites)
43 = B. in E. C. of N. (Beans in Each Cup of Nescafe)
45 = D. in a O. (Degrees in an Octant)
46 = C. in a H. C. (Chromosomes in a Human Cell)
47 = P. P. in E.'s E. (Pythagorean Proposition in Euclid's Elements)
48 = C. in a P. D. (Cards in a Pinochle Deck)
49 = R. A. in a R. (Reasons All in a Row)
50 = S. in the U. (States in the Union)
50 = W. to L. Y. L. (Ways to Leave Your Lover)
52 = W. in a Y. (Weeks in a Year)
52 = C. in a D. (Cards in a Deck)
54 = C. in a D. (with the J.) (Cards in a Deck with the Jokers *)
57 = H. V. (Heinz Varieties *)
61 = H. R. H. by R. M. in O. S. (Home Runs Hit by Roger Maris in One Season)
64 = S. on a C. (Squares on a Chessboard *)
64 = Y. O. W. I H. Y. W. S. N. M. (Years Old When I Hope You Will Still Need Me)
66 = B. in the K. J. B. (Books in the King James Bible)
70 = D. of C. (Disciples of Christ)
75 = Y. of M. for the D. A. (Years of Marriage for the Diamond Anniversary)
76 = T. L. the B. P. (Trombones Led the Big Parade)
78 = C. in a T. D. (Cards in a Tarot Deck)
80 = C. in a M. (Chains in a Mile)
80 = D. to G. A. the W. (Days to Go Around the World)
87 = F. S. and S. Y. (Four Score and Seven Years)
88 = C. in the S. (Constellations in the Sky)
88 = P. K. (Piano Keys *)
90 = D. in a R. A. (Degrees in a Right Angle *)
95 = M. L.'s T. (Martin Luther's Theses)
96 = T., by ? (Tears, by ?)
99 = B. of B. on a W. (Bottles of Beer on a Wall)
100 = C. in a D. (Cents in a Dollar)
100 = Y. in a F. F. (Yards in a Football Field)
101 = D. (Dalmatians)
101 = a S. M. L. (a Silly Millimeter Longer)
102 = F. in the E. S. B. (Floors in the Empire State Building)
116 = Y. in the H. Y.'s W. (Years in the Hundred Year's War)
144 = U. in a G. (Units in a Gross)
150 = P. in the B. (Psalms in the Bible)
180 = D. to R. D. (Degrees to Reverse Direction)
200 = D. for P. G. in M. (Dollars for Passing Go in Monopoly *)
200 = M. in a C. (Milligrams in a Carat)
206 = B. in the H. B. (Bones in the Human Body)
235 = I. of U. in the A. B. (Isotope of Uranium in the Atomic Bomb)
300 = B. in the T. of C. (Bees in the Tomb of Childeric)
365 = D. in a Y. (Days in a Year)
366 = D. in a L. Y. (Days in a Leap Year)
432 = P. in a H. (Pints in a Hogshead)
435 = S. in the H. of R. (Seats in the House of Representatives)
451 = D. F. at which B. B. (Degrees Fahrenheit at which Books Burn)
500 = F. C. (Fortune Companies)
500 = M. in the I. F. H. (Miles in the Indianapolis Five Hundred)
500 = S. in a R. (Sheets in a Ream)
666 = N. of the B. in the B. of R. (Number of the Beast in the Book of Revelation)
707 = Y. of C. (Year of Confusion)
755 = H. runs H. by H. A. (Home runs Hit by Hank Aaron)
800 = W. in V. (Warriors in Valhalla)
880 = N. of M. S. of O. F. (Number of Magic Squares of Order Four)
1000 = I. in N. Y. (Islands in New York)
1000 = P. of L. (Points of Light)
1000 = S. L. by the F. of H. of T. (Ships Launched by the Face of Helen of Troy)
1000 = W. that a P. is W. (Words that a Picture is Worth *)
1001 = A. N.  (Arabian Nights *)
1440 = M. in a D. (Minutes in a Day)
1760 = Y. in a M. (Yards in a Mile)
5280 = F. in a M. (Feet in a Mile)
20000 = L. U. the S. (Leagues Under the Sea)

==> language/english/etymology/acronym.p <==
What acronyms have become common words or are otherwise interesting?

==> language/english/etymology/acronym.s <==
The following is the list of acronyms which have become common nouns.
An acronym is "a word formed from the initial letter or letters of each
of the successive parts or major parts of a compound term" (Webster's Tenth).
A common noun will occur uncapitalized in Webster's Tenth.

Entries in the following table include the year in which they first
entered the language (according to the Tenth), and the Merriam-Webster
dictionary that first contains them.  The following symbols are used:

NI1	New International (1909)
NI1+	New Words section of the New International (1931)
NI2	New International Second Edition (1934)
NI2+	Addendum section of the Second (1959, same as 1954)
NI3	Third New International (1961)
9C	Ninth New Collegiate (1983)
10C	Collegiate - Tenth Edition (1993)
12W	12,000 Words (separately published addendum to the Third, 1986)

asdic	Anti-Submarine Detection Investigation Committee (1940, NI2+)
dopa	DihydrOxyPhenylAlanine (1917, NI3)
fido	Freaks + Irregulars + Defects + Oddities (1966, 9C)
jato	Jet-Assisted TakeOff (1947, NI2+)
laser	Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (1957, NI3)
lidar	LIght Detection And Ranging (1963, 9C)
maser	Microwave Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (1955, NI3)
nitinol	NIckel + TIn + Naval Ordinance Laboratory (1968, 9C)
rad	Radiation Absorbed Dose (1918, NI3)
radar	RAdio Detection And Ranging (ca. 1941, NI2+)
rem	Roentgen Equivalent Man (1947, NI3)
rep	Roentgen Equivalent Physical (1947, NI3)
scuba	Self-Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus (1952, NI3)
snafu	Situation Normal -- All Fucked (Fouled) Up (ca. 1940, NI2+)
sofar	SOund Fixing And Ranging (1946, NI2+)
sonar	SOund NAvigation Ranging (1945, NI2+)
tepa	Tri-Ethylene Phosphor-Amide (1953, 9C)
zip	Zone Improvement Plan (1963, 9C)

Below are blends that technically are also acronyms:

alnico	ALuminum + NIckel + CObalt (1935, NI2+)
avgas	AViation GASoline (1943, NI3)
biopic	BIOgraphical PICture (12W)
boff	Box OFFice (1946, NI3)
canola	CANada Oil + Low Acid (1979, 10C)
ceramal	CERAMic ALloy (ca. 1948, NI2+)
cermet	CERamic METal (1948, NI2+)
comsymp	COMmunist SYMPathizer (ca. 1961, 9C)
cyborg	CYBernetic ORGanism (ca. 1962, 9C)
dorper	DORset horn + blackhead PERsian (1949, NI3)
elhi	ELementary school + HIgh school (1948, 9C)
gox	Gaseous OXygen (1959, 9C)
hela	HEnrietta LAcks (1953, 9C)
kip	KIlo- + Pound (1914, NI2)
linac	LINear ACcelerator (1950, 9C)
loran	LOng-RAnge Navigation (ca. 1932, NI2+)
lox	Liquid OXygen (1923, 9C)
mascon	MASs CONcentration (1968, 9C)
maximin	MAXImum + MINimum (1951, 9C)
minimax	MINImum + MAXimum (1918, 9C)
modem	MOdulator + DEModulator (ca. 1952, 9C)
motocross MOTOr + CROSS-country (1951, 9C)
napalm	NAphthenic and PALMitic acids (1942, NI2+)
parsec	PARallax SECond (ca. 1913, NI1+)
redox	REDuction + OXidation (1828, NI2)
selsyn	SELf-SYNchronizing (1936, NI2+)
shoran	SHOrt-RAnge Navigation (ca. 1932, NI2+)
silvex	SILVa + EXterminator (1961, 9C)
sitcom	SITuation COMedy (1965, 9C)
teleran	TELEvision-RAdar Navigation (1946, NI2+)
telex	TELeprinter EXchange (ca. 1943, 9C)
vidicon VIDeo + ICONoscope (1950, NI3)
wilco	WILl COmply (ca. 1938, NI3)

Acronyms from other languages:

agitprop AGITatsiya + PROPaganda (Russian, ca. 1926, NI2+)
flak	FLiegerAbwehrKanonen (German, 1938, NI2+)
gestapo	GEheime STAatsPOlizei (German, 1934, NI2+)
gulag	Glavnoe Upravlenie ispravitel'notrudovykh LAGerei (Russian, 1974, 9C)
kolkhoz KOLlektivnoe KHOZyaistvo (Russian, 1921, NI2)
moped	MOtor + PEDal (Swedish, ca. 1955, 9C)
sambo	SAMozashchita Bez Oruzhiya (Russian, 1972, 9C)
tokamak	TOroidal'naya KAMera s AKsial'nym magnitnym polem (Russian, 1965, 9C)

Selected near misses:

athodyd	Aero-THermODYnamic Duct (1945, NI2+) -- blend
awol	Absent WithOut Leave (1919, NI2+) -- usually capitalized
benday	BENjamin DAY (1903, NI1+) -- blend
deet	Di-Ethyl Tolumide (1962, 9C) -- pronunciation of D. E. T.
dew	Distant Early Warning (1953, 9C) -- only in phrase "dew line"
echovirus Enteric Cytopathogenic Human Orphan VIRUS (1955, 9C) -- blend
hi-fi	HIgh FIdelity (1948, NI2+) -- hyphenated
ibuprofen Iso-BUtyl PROpionic PHENyl (1969, 12W) -- PH pronounced f
jaygee  Junior Grade (1943, NI3) -- pronunciation of J. G.
jayvee  Junior Varsity (1937, NI3) -- pronunciation of J. V.
jeep	General Purpose (1940, NI2+) -- pronunciation of G. P.
nazi	NAtionalsoZIalist (German, 1930, NI2) -- shorten & alter
nystatin New York STATe + -IN (1952, NI3) -- extraneous suffix
op-ed	OPposite EDitorial (1970, 9C) -- hyphenated
pixel	PIX + ELement (1969, 10C) -- blend
pj's	PaJamas (1951, NI3) -- punctuated
reovirus Respiratory Enteric Orphan VIRUS (1959, 9C) -- blend
sci-fi	SCIence FIction (1955, 9C) -- hyphenated
siloxane SILicon + OXygen + methANE (1922, NI3) -- blend
tradevman TRAining DEVices MAN  (ca. 1947, NI3) -- blend
updo	UPswept hairDO (1946, NI2+) -- blend
veep	Vice President (1940, NI2+) -- pronunciation of V. P.
warfarin Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation + coumARIN (ca. 1950, NI3) - blend
yuppie	Young Urban Professional + -PIE (1983, 9C) -- extraneous suffix

Acronyms that should be in Webster's Tenth:

fifo	First In, First Out (NI2+)
lifo	Last In, First Out (NI2+)
nomic	NO Metal In Composition (NI3) (John Bulten)
quango	QUAsi-Non Governmental Organization (12W)
shazam	Solomon Hercules Atlas Zeus Achilles Mercury (12W)
tacan	TACtical Air Navigation (12W)

Self-referential acronyms:

gnu	Gnu's Not Unix
nbi	Nothing But Initials
swan	System Without A Name

Supposed (but not real) acronyms:

fuck	For Unlawful Carnal Knowledge
posh	Port Out, Starboard Home
spiff	Sales Productivity Incentive Fund
tip	To Insure (should be Ensure) Politeness (or Promptness)
wog	Worthy (Wealthy) Oriental Gentleman

==> language/english/etymology/fossil.p <==
What are some examples of idioms that include obsolete words?

==> language/english/etymology/fossil.s <==
These are called fossil expresions -- words that have dropped out of
common use but hang around in idioms.  Not all of them are separate
words, some are part of other words or have prefixes or suffixes
attached.  There are also words which have current meaning, but the
meaning in the idiom is unrelated to it.

idiom           	fossil          meaning of fossil
--------------------------------------------------
swashbuckler		buckler		small shield
newfangled		fangled		siezed
rank and file		file		column
to and fro		fro		from
gormless		gorm		attention
hem and haw		haw		make the sound "haw"
hem and haw		hem		make the sound "hem"
hue and cry		hue		outcry
kit and kaboodle	kaboodle	collection
out of kilter		kilter		order
kith and kin		kith		friends
let or hindrance	let		hindrance
footpad			pad		highwayman
pratfall		prat		buttocks
rank and file		rank		row
raring to go		raring		enthusiastic
ruthless		ruth		compassion
short shrift		shrift		confession
spick-and-span		span		chunk of wood
spick-and-span		spick		nail (spike)
swashbuckler		swash		bluster or stagger
bank teller		tell		to count

==> language/english/etymology/portmanteau.p <==
What are some words formed by combining together parts of other words?

==> language/english/etymology/portmanteau.s <==
Such words are called "Portmanteau" words.  Here is a very incomplete list:
beefalo		beef, buffalo
brunch		breakfast, lunch
chortle		chuckle, snort
fantabulous	fantastic, fabulous
flare		flame, glare
flounder	flounce, founder
glimmer		gleam, shimmer
glitz		glamour, ritz
liger		lion, tiger
motel		motor, hotel
smash		smack, mash
smog		smoke, fog
squiggle	squirm, wiggle
tangelo		tangerine, pomelo
tigon		tiger, lion
****
Unless noted otherwise, all words occur in Webster's Third New International
Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, Springfield, MA, 1961.

==> language/english/frequency.p <==
In the English language, what are the most frequently appearing:
	1) letters overall?
	2) letters BEGINNING words?
	3) final letters?
	4) digrams (ordered pairs of letters)?

==> language/english/frequency.s <==
web2 = word list from Webster's Second Unabridged
web2a = hyphenated words and phrases from Webster's Second Unabridged
both = web2 + web2a
net = several gigabytes of Usenet traffic

1) Most frequently appearing letters overall:
web2:	eiaorn tslcup mdhygb fvkwzx qj
both:	eairon tslcud pmhgyb fwvkzx qj
net:	etaoin srhldc umpfgy wbvkxj qz

2) Most frequently appearing letters BEGINNING words:
web:	spcaut mbdrhi eofgnl wvkjqz yx
both:	spcatb umdrhf eigowl nvkqjz yx
net:	taisow cmbphd frnelu gyjvkx qz

3) Most frequent final letters:
web:	eysndr ltacmg hkopif xwubzv jq
both:	eydsnr tlagcm hkpoiw fxbuzv jq
net:	estndr yolafg mhipuk cwxbvz jq

4) Most frequent digrams (ordered pairs of letters)
web:	er in ti on te al an at ic en is re ra le ri ro st ne ar ...
both:	er in te ti on an re al at le en ra ic ar st ri ro ed ne ...
net:	th he in er re an on at te es or en ar ha is ou it to st nd ...

Program to compute this from word list in standard input:
#include <stdio.h>
#include <ctype.h>
typedef struct {
	int count;
	char name[3];
} FREQ;

FREQ all[256],initial[256],terminal[256],digram[65536];

int compare(p,q)
FREQ *p,*q;
{	return q->count - p->count;
}

void sort_and_print(freq,count,description)
FREQ *freq;
int count;
char *description;
{   register FREQ *p;

    (void)qsort(freq,count,sizeof(*freq),compare);
    puts(description);
    for (p=freq;p<freq+count;p++)
	if (p->count) printf("%s %d\n",p->name,p->count);
}

main()
{   char s[BUFSIZ];
    register char *p;
    register int i;

    while (gets(s)!=NULL) {
	if (islower(*s)) {
	    initial[*s].count++;
	    sprintf(initial[*s].name,"%c",*s);
	    for (p=s;*p;p++) {
		if (isalpha(*p)) {
		    all[*p].count++;
		    sprintf(all[*p].name,"%c",*p);
		    if (isalpha(p[1])) {
			i = p[0]*256 + p[1];
			digram[i].count++;
			sprintf(digram[i].name,"%c%c",p[0],p[1]);
		    }
		}
	    }
	    terminal[*--p].count++;
	    sprintf(terminal[*p].name,"%c",*p);
	}
    }
    sort_and_print(all,256,"overall character distribution: ");
    sort_and_print(initial,256,"initial character distribution: ");
    sort_and_print(terminal,256,"terminal character distribution: ");
    sort_and_print(digram,65536,"digram distribution: ");
}

==> language/english/idioms.p <==
List some idioms that say the opposite of what they mean.

==> language/english/idioms.s <==
I fell head over heels.

I could care less.

I turned my life around 360 degrees.

==> language/english/less.ness.p <==
Find a word that forms two other words, unrelated in meaning, when "less"
and "ness" are added.

==> language/english/less.ness.s <==
base -> baseless, baseness
light -> lightless, lightness
sound -> soundless, soundness
wit -> witless, witness

==> language/english/letter.rebus.p <==
Define the letters of the alphabet using self-referential common phrases (e.g.,
"first of all" defines "a").

==> language/english/letter.rebus.s <==
A	first of all, midday
B	fifth of bourbon, starting block
C	fifth of scotch
D	end of the world, back of my hand
E	end of the line, beginning of the end
F	starting friction, front
G	middle of the night, starting gate
H	end of the earth, top of the heap, middle of nowhere
I	next of kin
J	center of project
K	bottom of the deck, two of a kind
L	bottom of the barrel, starting line
M	top of my head
N	center of attention, final countdown, end run
O	second in command
P	bottom of the heap, the first of painters, starting point
Q	at the front of the queue, top quality
R	middle of the road, center of inertia
S	_Last of the Mohicans_, start of something big
T	top o' the morning, one's wit's end, bottom of my heart, last, central
U	second guess
V	center of gravity
W	end of the rainbow, top of the world
X	wax finish, climax
Y	top of your head, center of the cyclone, early years, final extremity
Z	led zeppelin

==> language/english/malaprop.p <==
List some phrases with the same meaning that differ by one sound.

==> language/english/malaprop.s <==
The car caree(n/r)s down the road.
Can you (e/i)nsure that all is well?
We must inst(a/i)ll some discipline.
It's coming down the pi(p/k)e.
The sun pe(a/c)ked out from behind clouds.
    -Patricia D. Cornwell, _All That Remains_, Avon, New York, 1993, p. 36
I've been ra(c)king my brain the whole time.
    -Patricia D. Cornwell, _All That Remains_, Avon, New York, 1993, p. 231
Listen to the blabbing/babbling brook.
    -Norm Crosby

==> language/english/piglatin.p <==
What words in pig latin also are words?

==> language/english/piglatin.s <==
cess	->	essay
coke	->	okay
lawn	->	onlay
lout	->	outlay
plover	->	overplay
plunder	->	underplay
sass	->	assay
stout 	->	outstay
trash	->	ashtray
wear	->	airway
wonder	->	underway


==> language/english/pleonasm.p <==
What are some redundant terms that occur frequently (like "ABM missile")?

==> language/english/pleonasm.s <==
11.5% APR (although "APR" means that interest is charged on the balance only)
ABM missile
ABS system
AC current
ACT test
AMOCO Oil Co.
APL programming language
ATM machine
BASIC Code
BBS System
CAD design
CNN news network
DC current
DMZ zone
DOS operating system
GMT time
Geirangerfjorden (Fjord Fjord Fjord)
HIV virus
ISBN number
ISDN network
LCD display
LED diode
MIDI Interface
Mount Fujiyama (Mount Mountain)
NATO organization
NFS File System
PIN number
RAM (or ROM) memory
Rio Grande River (Big River River)
Ruidoso River (Noisy River River)
SALT talks or SALT treaty
SAT test
SCSI Interface
SEATO organization
START talks or START treaty
The La Brea Tar Pits (The The Tar Tar Pits)
The Los Altos Hills (The The Hills Hills)
VIN number
floccinoccinihlipilification (from 4 latin words meaning "nothing")
the hoi polloi (the the many)
hot water heater

==> language/english/plurals/collision.p <==
Two words, spelled and pronounced differently, have plurals spelled
the same but pronounced differently.

==> language/english/plurals/collision.s <==
axe and axis -> axes
base and basis -> bases
ellipse and ellipsis -> ellipses

==> language/english/plurals/doubtful.number.p <==
A little word of doubtful number,
a foe to rest and peaceful slumber.
If you add an "s" to this,
great is the metamorphosis.
Plural is plural now no more,
and sweet what bitter was before.
What am I?

==> language/english/plurals/doubtful.number.s <==
cares -> caress

==> language/english/plurals/drop.terminal.p <==
What words have their plurals formed by dropping the final letter?

==> language/english/plurals/drop.terminal.s <==
There are a number of words (e.g., "jinni") where there is a variant
spelling sans the terminal letter (e.g., "jinn") and where the plural
is the same as the singular.  I don't think this is in keeping with the
spirit of the question.

There are a number of Italian words where the final "o" is dropped to
form a plural:

arpeggio
capriccio
carroccio
fascio
impresario
intarsio
latticinio
pasticcio
preludio
scenario
seraglio
solfeggio

Other words are:

hemiepes n pl hemiepe 
:a dactylic tripody having a spondaic third foot or lacking the two
short syllables of the third foot

koruna n pl korun or koruny also korunas
:the basic monetary unit of Czechoslovakia

microstomia also microstomus n pl microstomias also microstomi 
:an abnormally small mouth 

necropolis n pl necropolises or necropoles also necropoleis or necropoli
:a large elaborate cemetery of an ancient city 

samanid n pl samanids or samani 
:a member of a 9th and 10th century Persian dynasty ruling from Bokhara
and encouraging literature and art

volksdeutscher n pl volksdeutsche 
:a person of German ethnic origin long settled in a central or east
European country, repatriated for political reasons by the Nazi regime,
and expelled into West Germany after World II

****
Unless noted otherwise, all words occur in Webster's Third New International
Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, Springfield, MA, 1961.

==> language/english/plurals/endings.p <==
List a plural ending with each letter of the alphabet.

==> language/english/plurals/endings.s <==
Legend
0 = plural formed (basically) by adding letter
1 = plural spelled differently from singular
2 = ditto, plural contains punctuation
3 = plural spelled the same as singular

All entries are from Merriam-Webster's Ninth Collegiate Dictionary,
except those marked "(NI3)", which are from the Third International.
Entries in brackets are probable dictionary artifacts.

A 0 VAS VASA
B 1 SLUBBI SLEYB (NI3)
C 0 CALPULLI CALPULLEC (NI3)
D 2 GRANT-IN-AID GRANTS-IN-AID
E 0 ALA ALAE
F 1 SHARIF ASHRAF (NI3)
G 0 AIRE AIRIG (NI3)
H 0 LIRA LIROTH
I 0 BAN BANI
J 1 KHARIJITE KHAWARIJ (NI3)
K 0 PULI PULIK
L 1 ARMFUL ARMSFUL
M 0 GOY GOYIM
N 0 KRONE KRONEN
O 2 DERRING-DO DERRINGS-DO (NI3) [1 MEO MIAO/MIXTECA MIXTECO/PAPIOPIO PAPIO/SUMU SUMO (NI3)]
P 2 AIDE-DE-CAMP AIDES-DE-CAMP
Q 3 QARAQALPAQ QARAQALPAQ (NI3)
R 0 KRONE KRONER
S 0 A AS
T 0 MATZO MATZOT
U 0 HALER HALERU
V 3 TIV TIV (NI3)
W 2 SON-IN-LAW SONS-IN-LAW [1 KWAPA QUAPAW (NI3)]
X 0 EAU EAUX
Y 0 GROSZ GROSZY
Z 3 HERTZ HERTZ

==> language/english/plurals/man.p <==
Words ending with "man" make their plurals by adding "s".

==> language/english/plurals/man.s <==
caiman
doberman
German
human
leman
ottoman
pitman
Pullman
Roman
shaman
talisman

==> language/english/plurals/switch.first.p <==
What plural is formed by switching the first two letters?

==> language/english/plurals/switch.first.s <==
falaj -> aflaj (Chambers English Dictionary)

==> language/english/potable.color.p <==
Find words that are both beverages and colors.

==> language/english/potable.color.s <==
burgundy
champagne
chartreuse
chocolate
claret
cocoa 
coffee
cream
midori (Japanese for green. Does Japanese count?)
rose
wine

==> language/english/pronunciation/autonym.p <==
What is the longest word whose phonetic and normal spellings are the same?

==> language/english/pronunciation/autonym.s <==
spendthrift (11 letters)
****
Unless noted otherwise, all words occur in Webster's Third New International
Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, Springfield, MA, 1961.


==> language/english/pronunciation/homograph/different.pronunciation.p <==
What sequence of letters has the most different pronunciations?

==> language/english/pronunciation/homograph/different.pronunciation.s <==
OUGH (28)
  common words:
   <sw>     BOROUGH, THOROUGH
   <sw>f    TOUGH
   <sw>p    HICCOUGH
   <a">     NOUGHT
   <au>     BOUGH
   <a">f    COUGH
   <o_>     THOUGH
   <o.>     OUGHT
   <o.>f    COUGH
   <u">     THROUGH
  uncommon words:
   <sw>k    TURLOUGH (dialectical, obsolete)
   <sw><k_> BROUGH (dialectical)
   <sw>w    BOROUGH, THOROUGH
   <a">ft   TROUGH (dialectical)
   <a">k    LOUGH (dialectical)
   <a"><k_> DOUGHT, LOUGH (dialectical)
   <a">th   TROUGH (dialectical)
   <o_>g    SKEOUGH (dialectical, obsolete)
   <o_>k    WOUGH (dialectical, obsolete)
   <o_><k_> BOUGHT, HOUGH (dialectical)
   <o.>ft   TROUGH (dialectical)
   <o.>th   TROUGH (dialectical)
   <u">f    SOUGH (dialectical, obsolete)
   <u">g    SLOUGHI
   <u">k    OUGH (obsolete)
   <u"><k_> OUGH
   <u.>f    SOUGH (dialectical, obsolete)
   <u.><k_> OUGH

Pronunciation Key:
<sw>  the, humdrum
<a">  bother, cot
<a.>  father
<au>  now, loud
<o_>  bone, snow
<o.>  saw, all
<u">  rule, fool
<u.>  pull, wood
<k_>  German ch in ich-laut

Unless noted otherwise, all words occur in Webster's Third New International
Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, Springfield, MA, 1961.

==> language/english/pronunciation/homograph/homographs.p <==
List some homographs (words spelled the same but pronounced differently)

==> language/english/pronunciation/homograph/homographs.s <==
This list organized by Mark Brader <msb@sq.com>

Classes:

A - All of the following "defects" absent
B - Basic meanings are related
C - Capitalization differs ("capitonyms")
D - Different spellings also exist (US vs UK, hyphenation, etc.)
E - Equal pronunciations also exist (US vs UK, regional, etc.)
F - Foreign word, or may be distinguished with accent marks
G - Gcontrived :-), coined, jargon, or other uncommon word

3 - 3-way homograph
4 - 4-way homograph

B	abstract {corresponding noun and verb; henceforth abbreviated NV}
B	abuse {NV}
B	addict {NV}
B	advocate {NV}
BG	affect {alter; emotion}
B	affiliate {NV}
B	affix {NV}
G	agape {wide open; form of love}
B	aggregate {NV}
G	ai {sloth; ouch!}
BE	ally {NV}
B	alternate {NV}
BD	analyses {plural noun; singular verb (UK)}
B	animate {verb; adjective}
A	appropriate {take posession of; suitable}
B	approximate {verb; adjective}
E	are {form of to be; unit of area}
B	arithmetic {noun; adjective}
B	articulate {verb; adjective}
4DFG	as {like; Roman coin; Persian card game; pl. of a}
B	aspirate {NV}
B	associate {NV}
A	ate {past of eat; recklessness}
B	attribute {NV}
C	august
A	axes {plural of ax; plural of axis}
A	bases {plural of base; plural of basis}
A	bass {~ fiddle; fishing for ~}
BE	blessed {prosperous; he ~ her}
A	bow(ed) {~ and arrow; ~ to the king}
E	buffet {jostle; ~ lunch}
B	bustier {undergarment; more busty}
B	close {~ call; ~ the door}
B	closer {door ~; more close}
B	coagulate {NV}
G	coax {urge; coaxial cable}
3FG	colon {":"; colonial farmer; Costa Rican monetary unit}
B	combat {NV}
B	combine {NV}
A	commune {take Communion; administrative district}
A	compact {closely arranged; treaty}
B	compound {NV}
B	compress {NV}
B	conduct {NV}
B	confect {NV}
B	confines {NV}
B	conflict {NV}
B	conglomerate {NV}
B	conjugate {NV}
BE	conserve {preserve; jam}
A	console {soothe; keyboard desk}
B	consort {NV}
B	construct {NV}
B	consummate {verb; adjective}
BE	contact {NV}
E	content {what is contained; satisfied}
B	contest {NV}
B	contract {NV}
B	contrast {NV}
BG	convent {nunnery; convene}
A	converse {logic term; to talk}
B	convert {NV}
B	convict {NV}
BE	coordinate {NV}
FG	dame {woman; term in the game of Go}
DE	decameter {poetic line with 10 feet; 10 meters (US)}
B	defect {flaw; turn traitor}
E	defense {sports term; fortification}
BE	delegate {NV}
B	deliberate {adjective; verb}
A	desert {leave alone; Sahara ~}
B	desolate {adjective; verb}
D	dingy {dull; small boat}
BE	discharge {NV}
B	discriminate {distinguish; opposite of indiscriminate}
E	divers {plural diver; various}
F	do {perform; tonic note of scale}
A	does {~ the buck see the ~?}
A	dove {dived; pigeon}
F	dozen {12; stun (Scottish)}
B	drawer {one who draws; chest of ~s}
B	duplicate {NV}
B	elaborate {verb; adjective}
A	entrance {door; delight}
BDE	envelop(e) {NV}
G	ergotism {logical reasoning; ergot poisoning}
B	escort {NV}
B	essay {piece of writing; try}
B	estimate {NV}
CFG	ewe {female sheep; African language}
B	excuse {NV}
B	exploit {NV}
BF	expose {NV}
B	ferment {NV}
E	fiasco {failure; bottle}
BDE	fillet {cut of meat/fish; band of ribbon/wood}
A	flower {one who flows; bloom}
G	formal {ceremonious; methylal}
DEG	genet {civetlike animal; horselike animal}
A	gill {volume unit; organ in fish}
A	glower {sullen look; one that glows}
B	graduate {NV}
F	he {pronoun; Hebrew letter}
CE	herb {name; plant}
A	hinder {hamper; posterior}
B	house {NV}
B	import {NV}
A	incense {infuriate; perfume for burning}
B	increase {NV}
B	initiate {NV}
B	insert {NV}
B	insult {NV}
B	intern {NV}
A	intimate {~ relations; to suggest}
A	invalid {cripple; erroneous}
B	invite {NV}
G	is {form of to be; plural of i}
B	jagged {slashed or cut; having a zigzag edge}
C	Job
BCF	jubilate {rejoice; joyous song}
CF	junker/Junker
3A	lather {suds; lath worker; lathe worker}
A	lead {~ pipe; ~ astray}
BE	legged {past tense verb; adjective}
CF	Lima
B	live {~ in peace; ~ audience}
B	lives {~ in peace; for all of our ~}
D	lower {to let down; frown}
F	manes {plural of mane; Roman gods}
F	mate {friend; type of tea}
D	micrometer {measuring device; .000001 meter (US)}
A	minute {60 seconds; tiny}
B	misconduct {NV}
BE	mobile {movable; wind-blown sculpture}
B	moderate {NV}
EG	molar {back tooth; chemical term}
A	moped {brooded; fun vehicle}
BE	mouse {rodent; to hunt them}
B	mouth {NV}
A	mow {pile of hay; to cut down}
B	multiply {verb; adverb}
A	number {decimal ~; more numb}
B	object {thing; complain}
E	offense {sports term; attack}
3DG	os {bone; esker; pl. of o}
A	overage {too old; surplus}
BD	paralyses {plural noun; singular verb (UK)}
A	pasty {pastelike; British meat pie}
3FG	pate {head; food paste; porcelain paste for ceramics}
A	peaked {sharply pointed; unhealthy looking}
A	peer {equal; one who pees}
B	perfect {verb; adjective}
G	periodic {regularly occurring; ~ acids, HIO4 and related substances}
B	permit {NV}
C	Placer
C	polish
A	poll {head; group of students}
B	predicate {NV}
BE	premise {NV}
B	present {NV}
E	primer {intro book/material (US); device for priming}
B	proceeds {goes; income}
B	produce {give rise to; fruits and vegetables}
B	progress {to move forward; work in ~}
A	project {planned undertaking; to throw forward}
BE	prospect {NV}
B	protest {NV}
A	pussy {cat; infected}
B	putter/putting {golf club; one that puts}
DG	rabat {clerical garment; pottery piece used for polishing}
DG	rabbi {clerical garment; Jewish religious official}
B	ragged {teased; tattered}
F	re {pertaining to; 2nd note of scale}
B	read {present tense; past tense}
C	Reading
F	real {actual; former Spanish coin}
B	rebel {NV}
B	recess {NV}
B	recoil {NV}
B	record {NV}
D	recreate {relax; create again}
3BD	redress {compensate; compensation; dress again}
B	refill {NV}
B	refund {NV}
B	refuse {NV}
B	regress {NV}
B	reject {NV}
E	repent {regret; creeping}
B	replay {NV}
D	represent {stand for; present again}
B	rerun {NV}
D	research {investigate; search again}
A	resent {be indignant; sent again}
D	reserve {hold back; serve again}
D	resign {quit; sign again}
D	resolve {settle dispute; solve again}
D	resort {vacation spot; sort again}
F	resume {work summary; restart}
A	river {watercourse; one who rives}
F	rose {flower; wine}
DE	routing {making a route for (US spelling); woodworking term}
A	row {a fight; ~,~,~ your boat}
DF	sake {purpose; Japanese drink}
3AF	salve {ointment; salvage; hail!}
3BE	second {2nd; 1/60 minute; transfer to temporary job}
B	segment {NV}
B	separate {NV}
A	severer {cutter; more severe}
A	sewer {storm ~; one who sews}
A	shower {one who shows; ~ stall}
A	singer {one who singes; one who sings}
A	skied {past tense of ski; past tense of sky}
A	slaver {slave taker; drool}
A	slough {swamp; cast-off}
A	sow {~ seeds; female pig}
A	stingy {meager; able to sting}
EG	stipulate {request explicitly; having stipules}
EG	stupe {hot compress as counterirritant; stupid person}
B	subject {NV}
A	supply {in a supple way; ~ and demand}
B	survey {NV}
B	suspect {NV}
G	swinger {whopper; one that swings}
G	swingle {flax beating tool; single person who "swings"}
B	syndicate {NV}
CF	tang {flavor; Chinese dynasty}
A	tarry {covered in tar; dawdle}
A	tear {~ down; shed a ~}
A	thou {you; slang for thousand}
A	thymic {of thyme; of thymus}
A	tier {one who ties; row or rank}
B	torment {NV}
A	tower {one who tows; leaning ~}
B	transfer {NV}
B	transplant {NV}
B	transport {NV}
DG	unionized {~ labor; ~ hydrogen}
B	upset {NV}
G	us {we; plural of u}
B	use {NV}
A	violist {viol player; viola player}
A	wind {~ the clock; north ~}
CF	worms
A	wound {injury; wrapped around}
E	yak {ox; laugh}


==> language/english/pronunciation/homophone/homophones.alphabet.p <==
Homophones can be confusing when used to exemplify a letter.  For example,
"g as in gnu" or "k as in knot."  Give one for each letter.

==> language/english/pronunciation/homophone/homophones.alphabet.s <==
A as in isle (aisle)
B as in dell (bdell-)             (combining form)
C as in teen (ctene)
D as in gin (djin)
E as in air (ere)
F as in phrase (frays)            ('f' sound present)
G as in new (gnu)
H as in air (heir)
I as in use (ius)
J as in yuca (juca)
K as in need (knead)
L as in have (halve)              (not first letter)
M as in nemic (mnemic)            (contains m)
N as in dam (damn)                (not first letter)
O as in wed (oued)
P as in salmon (psammon)
Q as in key (quay)
R as in foxhole (forecastle)	  (not first letter; pronunciation off)
S as in eyelet (islet)            (not first letter)
T as in sign (tsine)
U as in wang (uang)
V as in fro (vrow)
W as in rest (wrest)
X as in jurel (xurel)
Y as in the (ye)
Z as in sabra (zabra)
***
Unless noted otherwise, all words occur in Webster's Third New International
Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, Springfield, MA, 1961.

==> language/english/pronunciation/homophone/homophones.letter.p <==
For each letter, list homophones that differ by that letter.

==> language/english/pronunciation/homophone/homophones.letter.s <==
o(a)r
lam(b)
s(c)ent
le(d)ger
do(e)
waf(f)
rei(g)n
(h)our
wa(i)ve
haj(j)i
(k)not
ha(l)ve
prim(m)er
dam(n)
j(o)ust
(p)salter
?
car(r)ies
(s)cent
taro(t)
b(u)y
civ(v)ies
t(w)o
beau(x)
re(y)
biz(z)
****
Unless noted otherwise, all words occur in Webster's Third New International
Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, Springfield, MA, 1961.

==> language/english/pronunciation/homophone/homophones.most.p <==
What words have four or more spellings that sound alike?

==> language/english/pronunciation/homophone/homophones.most.s <==
a: ba, baa, bah (3)
<a_>: nae, nay, nee, neigh (4)
<a.>:
<a">: pa, pah, pas (3)
a<u.>: dhow, dow, tao (3)
b: cob, cobb, kob (3)
ch:
d: road, rode, rowed (3)
e:
<e_>: cee, sea, see, si (4)
f: leaf, leif (2)
g:
h:
hw:
i: boy, buoy (2)
<i_>: ai, ay, aye, eye, I (5)
j: gage, gauge (2)
k: peak, peek, peke, pique (4)
<k_>: dreich, dreigh, driech, driegh (4)
l: weal, weel, we'll, wheal, wheel (5)
m: combe, coom, coomb, cwm (4)
n: coign, coin, quoin (3)
<o.>: tau, taw (2)
<o_>: eau, eaux, O, oh, owe (5)
p: nap, knap, nappe (3)
r: air, are, ayr, ayre, e'er, ere, err, eyre, heir (9)
s: cense, cents, scents, sense (4)
sh:
t: right, rite, wright, write (4)
th:
<th>:
u:
<u">: tew, to, too, two (4)
v:
w:
y:
z: raise, rase, rays, raze, res (5)
zh: greige, griege (2)

***
Unless noted otherwise, all words occur in Webster's Third New International
Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, Springfield, MA, 1961.

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