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sci.physics Frequently Asked Questions (Part 1 of 4)
Section - Low Temperature Physics, Superconductivity (high and low Tc), etc.

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Top Document: sci.physics Frequently Asked Questions (Part 1 of 4)
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1] The Theory of Quantum Liquids, by D. Pines and P. Nozieres

2] Superconductivity of Metals and Alloys, P. G. DeGennes
A classic introduction.

3] Theory of Superconductivity, J. R. Schrieffer

4] Superconductivity, M. Tinkham

5] Experimental techniques in low-temperature physics / by Guy K. White.
This is considered by many as a "bible" for those working in
experimental low temperature physics.

Thanks to the contributors who made this compilation possible, including,
but not limited to olivers@physics.utoronto.ca, cpf@alchemy.ithaca.NY.US,
glowboy@robot.nuceng.ufl.edu, jgh1@iucf.indiana.edu, p675cen@mpifr-bonn.
mpg.de, ted@physics.Berkeley.EDU, Jeremy_Caplan@postoffice.brown.edu, 
baez@ucrmath.UCR.EDU, greason@ptdcs2.intel.com, dbd@utkux.utcc.utk.edu,
roberts@alpha.brooks.af.mil, rev@NBSENH.BITNET, cotera@aspen.uml.edu, 
panetta@cithe503.cithep.caltech.edu, johncobb@emx.cc.utexas.edu, exunikh
@exu.ericsson.se, bergervo@prl.philips.nl, aephraim@physics5.berkeley.edu,
zowie@daedalus.stanford.edu, jean@sitka.triumf.ca, price@price.demon.co.uk, 
palmer@sfu.ca, Benjamin.J.Tilly@dartmouth.edu, jac@ds8.scri.fsu.edu,
BLYTHE@BrandonU.CA, alec@phys.oxy.edu, gelfand@lamar.ColoState.EDU,
lee@aries.yorku.ca

********************************************************************************
Item 5.

The Nobel Prize for Physics (1901-1993)         updated 12-OCT-1994 by SIC
---------------------------------------         original by Scott I. Chase

The following is a complete listing of Nobel Prize awards, from the first
award in 1901.  Prizes were not awarded in every year.  The description 
following the names is an abbreviation of the official citation.  

1901    Wilhelm Konrad Roentgen          X-rays
1902    Hendrik Antoon Lorentz          Magnetism in radiation phenomena
        Pieter Zeeman
1903    Antoine Henri Bequerel          Spontaneous radioactivity
        Pierre Curie
        Marie Sklodowska-Curie 
1904    Lord Rayleigh                   Density of gases and 
        (a.k.a. John William Strutt)     discovery of argon
1905    Pilipp Eduard Anton von Lenard  Cathode rays
1906    Joseph John Thomson             Conduction of electricity by gases
1907    Albert Abraham Michelson        Precision meteorological investigations
1908    Gabriel Lippman                 Reproducing colors photographically
                                         based on the phenomenon of interference
1909    Guglielmo Marconi               Wireless telegraphy
        Carl Ferdinand Braun
1910    Johannes Diderik van der Waals  Equation of state of fluids
1911    Wilhelm Wien                    Laws of radiation of heat
1912    Nils Gustaf Dalen               Automatic gas flow regulators 
1913    Heike Kamerlingh Onnes          Matter at low temperature
1914    Max von Laue                    Crystal diffraction of X-rays
1915    William Henry Bragg             X-ray analysis of crystal structure
        William Lawrence Bragg
1917    Charles Glover Barkla           Characteristic X-ray spectra of elements
1918    Max Planck                      Energy quanta
1919    Johannes Stark                  Splitting of spectral lines in E fields
1920    Charles-Edouard Guillaume       Anomalies in nickel steel alloys
1921    Albert Einstein                 Photoelectric Effect
1922    Niels Bohr                      Structure of atoms
1923    Robert Andrew Millikan          Elementary charge of electricity
1924    Karl Manne Georg Siegbahn       X-ray spectroscopy
1925    James Franck                    Impact of an electron upon an atom
        Gustav Hertz
1926    Jean Baptiste Perrin            Sedimentation equilibrium
1927    Arthur Holly Compton            Compton effect
        Charles Thomson Rees Wilson     Invention of the Cloud chamber
1928    Owen Willans Richardson         Thermionic phenomena, Richardson's Law
1929    Prince Louis-Victor de Broglie  Wave nature of electrons
1930    Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman Scattering of light, Raman effect
1932    Werner Heisenberg               Quantum Mechanics 
1933    Erwin Schrodinger               Atomic theory
        Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac
1935    James Chadwick                  The neutron
1936    Victor Franz Hess               Cosmic rays
        Carl D. Anderson                The positron
1937    Clinton Joseph Davisson         Crystal diffraction of electrons
        George Paget Thomson
1938    Enrico Fermi                    New radioactive elements 
1939    Ernest Orlando Lawrence         Invention of the Cyclotron
1943    Otto Stern                      Proton magnetic moment
1944    Isador Isaac Rabi               Magnetic resonance in atomic nuclei
1945    Wolfgang Pauli                  The Exclusion principle
1946    Percy Williams Bridgman         Production of extremely high pressures
1947    Sir Edward Victor Appleton      Physics of the upper atmosphere
1948    Patrick Maynard Stuart Blackett Cosmic ray showers in cloud chambers
1949    Hideki Yukawa                   Prediction of Mesons 
1950    Cecil Frank Powell              Photographic emulsion for meson studies
1951    Sir John Douglas Cockroft       Artificial acceleration of atomic 
        Ernest Thomas Sinton Walton      particles and transmutation of nuclei
1952    Felix Bloch                     Nuclear magnetic precision methods 
        Edward Mills Purcell
1953    Frits Zernike                   Phase-contrast microscope
1954    Max Born                        Fundamental research in QM
        Walther Bothe                   Coincidence counters
1955    Willis Eugene Lamb              Hydrogen fine structure
        Polykarp Kusch                  Electron magnetic moment
1956    William Shockley                Transistors
        John Bardeen
        Walter Houser Brattain
1957    Chen Ning Yang                  Parity violation 
        Tsung Dao Lee
1958    Pavel Aleksejevic Cerenkov      Interpretation of the Cerenkov effect
        Il'ja Mickajlovic Frank
        Igor' Evgen'evic Tamm
1959    Emilio Gino Segre               The Antiproton
        Owen Chamberlain    
1960    Donald Arthur Glaser            The Bubble Chamber
1961    Robert Hofstadter               Electron scattering on nucleons
        Rudolf Ludwig Mossbauer         Resonant absorption of photons
1962    Lev Davidovic Landau            Theory of liquid helium
1963    Eugene P. Wigner                Fundamental symmetry principles
        Maria Goeppert Mayer            Nuclear shell structure
        J. Hans D. Jensen 
1964    Charles H. Townes               Maser-Laser principle
        Nikolai G. Basov
        Alexander M. Prochorov
1965    Sin-Itiro Tomonaga              Quantum electrodynamics
        Julian Schwinger
        Richard P. Feynman
1966    Alfred Kastler                  Study of Hertzian resonance in atoms
1967    Hans Albrecht Bethe             Energy production in stars 
1968    Luis W. Alvarez                 Discovery of many particle resonances
1969    Murray Gell-Mann                Quark model for particle classification
1970    Hannes Alfven                   Magneto-hydrodynamics in plasma physics
        Louis Neel                      Antiferromagnetism and ferromagnetism
1971    Dennis Gabor                    Principles of holography
1972    John Bardeen                    Theory of superconductivity
        Leon N. Cooper
        J. Robert Schrieffer
1973    Leo Esaki                       Tunneling in superconductors
        Ivar Giaever 
        Brian D. Josephson              Super-current through tunnel barriers
1974    Antony Hewish                   Discovery of pulsars
        Sir Martin Ryle                 Pioneering radioastronomy work
1975    Aage Bohr                       Structure of the atomic nucleus
        Ben Mottelson
        James Rainwater
1976    Burton Richter                  Discovery of the J/Psi particle
        Samual Chao Chung Ting
1977    Philip Warren Anderson          Electronic structure of magnetic and 
        Nevill Francis Mott             disordered solids
        John Hasbrouck Van Vleck
1978    Pyotr Kapitsa                   Liquefaction of helium
        Arno A. Penzias                 Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation
        Robert W. Wilson
1979    Sheldon Glashow                 Electroweak Theory, especially
        Steven Weinberg                  weak neutral currents
        Abdus Salam                     
1980    James Cronin                    Discovery of CP violation in the 
        Val Fitch                        asymmetric decay of neutral K-mesons
1981    Kai M. Seigbahn                 High resolution electron spectroscopy
        Nicolaas Bloembergen            Laser spectroscopy
        Arthur L. Schawlow
1982    Kenneth G. Wilson               Critical phenomena in phase transitions 
1983    Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar      Evolution of stars
        William A. Fowler
1984    Carlo Rubbia                    Discovery of W,Z
        Simon van der Meer              Stochastic cooling for colliders
1985    Klaus von Klitzing              Discovery of quantum Hall effect
1986    Gerd Binning                    Scanning Tunneling Microscopy
        Heinrich Rohrer
        Ernst August Friedrich Ruska    Electron microscopy
1987    Georg Bednorz                   High-temperature superconductivity
        Alex K. Muller 
1988    Leon Max Lederman               Discovery of the muon neutrino leading
        Melvin Schwartz                  to classification of particles in 
        Jack Steinberger                 families
1989    Hans Georg Dehmelt              Penning Trap for charged particles
        Wolfgang Paul                   Paul Trap for charged particles
        Norman F. Ramsey                Control of atomic transitions by the
                                         separated oscillatory fields method
1990    Jerome Isaac Friedman           Deep inelastic scattering experiments
        Henry Way Kendall                leading to the discovery of quarks
        Richard Edward Taylor
1991    Pierre-Gilles de Gennes         Order-disorder transitions in liquid 
                                         crystals and polymers
1992    Georges Charpak                 Multiwire Proportional Chamber
1993    Russell A. Hulse                Discovery of the first binary pulsar
        Joseph H. Taylor                 and subsequent tests of GR
1994    Bertram N. Brockhouse           Neutron scattering experiments 
        Clifford G. Shull                
********************************************************************************
END OF PART 1/4

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