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sci.physics Frequently Asked Questions (Part 1 of 4)

( Part1 - Part2 - Part3 - Part4 - Single Page )
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See reader questions & answers on this topic! - Help others by sharing your knowledge

        This Frequently Asked Questions List is posted monthly to the
USENET newsgroups sci.physics, sci.physics.cond-matter,
sci.physics.research, sci.physics.particle, and in an attempt to provide good answers to
frequently asked questions and other reference material which is worth
preserving. If you have corrections or answers to other frequently
asked questions that you would like included in this posting, send
E-mail to (Michael Weiss).  The originator and
original maintainer of this FAQ was Scott I. Chase.

        This document, as a collection, is Copyright (c) 1994 by Scott
I. Chase.  The individual articles are Copyright (c) 1994/5 by the
individual authors listed.  All rights are reserved.  Permission to
use, copy and distribute this unmodified document by any means and for
any purpose EXCEPT PROFIT PURPOSES is hereby granted, provided that
both the above Copyright notice and this permission notice appear in
all copies of the FAQ itself.  Reproducing this FAQ by any means,
included, but not limited to, printing, copying existing prints,
publishing by electronic or other means, implies full agreement to the
above non-profit-use clause, unless upon explicit prior written
permission of the authors.

        This FAQ is provided by the authors "as is," with all its faults.
Any express or implied warranties, including, but not limited to, any 
implied warranties of merchantability, accuracy, or fitness for any 
particular purpose, are disclaimed.  If you use the information in this
document, in any way, you do so at your own risk.

        This document is probably out of date if you are reading it
more than 30 days after the date which appears in the header.  You can
get it by FTP from or one of its mirror sites:

   North America:                     /usenet/news.answers
   Europe:           /pub/FAQ
   Asia:                /USENET/FAQ

Look for the files


        If you are a new reader of the Physics newsgroups, please read 
item #1, below.   If you do not wish to read the FAQ at all, add 
"Frequently Asked Questions" to your .KILL file.  

        A listing of new items can be found above the subject index,
so that you can quickly identify new subjects of interest.  To locate
old items which have been updated since the last posting, look for the
stars (*) in the subject index, which indicate new material (other
than minor corrections).

        Items which have been submitted by a single individual are 
attributed to the original author.  All other contributors have been thanked

New Item: #25. Can You See the Lorentz Contraction?

Index of Subjects

FAQ 1/4 - Administriva and Reference

 1. An Introduction to the Physics Newsgroups on USENET
 2. The Care and Feeding of Kill Files
 3. Accessing and Using Online Physics Resources
 4. A Physics Booklist - Recommendations from the Net
 5. The Nobel Prize for Physics

FAQ 2/4 - Cosmology and Astrophysics

 6. Gravitational Radiation
 7. Is Energy Conserved in General Relativity?
 8. Olbers' Paradox
 9. What is Dark Matter?
10. Some Frequently Asked Questions About Black Holes
11. The Solar Neutrino Problem
12. The Expanding Universe

FAQ 3/4 - General Physics

13. Apparent Superluminal Velocity of Galaxies
14. Hot Water Freezes Faster than Cold!
15. Why are Golf Balls Dimpled?
16. How to Change Nuclear Decay Rates
17. What is a Dippy Bird, and how is it used?
18. Below Absolute Zero - What Does Negative Temperature Mean?
19. Which Way Will my Bathtub Drain?
20. Why do Mirrors Reverse Left and Right?
21. Why Do Stars Twinkle While Planets Do Not? 
22. Time Travel - Fact or Fiction?
23. Open Questions

FAQ 4/4 - Particles, Special Relativity and Quantum Mechanics

24. Special Relativistic Paradoxes and Puzzles
    (a) The Barn and the Pole
    (b) The Twin Paradox
    (c) The Superluminal Scissors
*25. Can You See the Lorentz-Fitzgerald Contraction?
26. Tachyons
27. The Particle Zoo
28. Does Antimatter Fall Up or Down?
29. What is the Mass of a Photon?
30. Baryogenesis - Why Are There More Protons Than Antiprotons?
31. The EPR Paradox and Bell's Inequality Principle
32. Some Frequently Asked Questions About Virtual Particles 

Item 1.                                         updated 10-APR-1994 by SIC
                                                original by Scott I. Chase

An Introduction to the Physics Newsgroups on USENET

        The USENET hierarchy contains a number of newsgroups dedicated
to the discussion of physics and physics-related topics.  These
include sci.physics, sci.physics.research, sci.physics.cond-matter,
sci.physics.particle and, to all of which
this general physics FAQ is cross-posted.  Some of the more narrowly
focussed physics newsgroups have their own FAQs, which can, of course,
be found in the appropriate newsgroups.

        Sci.Physics is an unmoderated newsgroup dedicated to the
discussion of physics, news from the physics community, and
physics-related social issues.  Sci.Physics.Research is a moderated
newgroup designed to offer an environment with less traffic and more
opportunity for discussion of serious topics in physics among experts
and beginners alike.  The current moderators of sci.physics.research
are John Baez (, William Johnson
(, Cameron Randale (Dale) Bass
(, and Lee Sawyer
(  Sci.physics.cond-matter is an unmoderated
newsgroup dedicated to the discussion of the physics of condensed
matter.  Sci.physics.particle is an unmoderated newsgroup dedicated to
the discussion of all aspects of particle physics by people with all
levels of expertise. is an open forum
for discussion of any topics related to conventional or unconventional
physics.  In this context, "unconventional physics" includes any ideas
on physical science, whether or not they are widely accepted by the
mainstream physics community.

        People from a wide variety of non-physics backgrounds, as well
as students and experts in all areas of physics participate in the ongoing
discussions on these newsgroups.  Professors, industrial scientists, 
graduate students, etc., are all on hand to bring physics expertise to 
bear on almost any question.   But the only requirement for participation 
is interest in physics, so feel free to post -- but before you do, please 
do the following: 

(1) Read this posting, a.k.a., the FAQ.  It contains good answers,
contributed by the readership,  to some of the most frequently asked

(2) Understand "netiquette."  If you are not sure what this means,
subscribe to news.announce.newusers and read the excellent discussion of
proper net behavior that is posted there periodically.  

(3) Be aware that there is another newsgroup dedicated to the discussion of
"alternative" physics.  It is, and is the
appropriate forum for discussion of physics ideas which are not widely
accepted by the physics community.  Sci.Physics is not the group for such
discussions.  A quick look at articles posted to both groups will make the
distinction apparent. 

(4) Read the responses already posted in the thread to which you want to
contribute.  If a good answer is already posted, or the point you wanted
to make has already been made, let it be.  Old questions have probably been
thoroughly discussed by the time you get there -- save bandwidth by posting
only new information.  Post to as narrow a geographic region as is 
appropriate.  If your comments are directed at only one person, try E-mail.

(5) Get the facts right!  Opinions may differ, but facts should not.  It is
very tempting for new participants to jump in with quick answers to physics
questions posed to the group.  But it is very easy to end up feeling silly
when people barrage you with corrections.  So before you give us all a
physics lesson you'll regret -- look it up. 

(6) Don't post textbook problems in the hope that someone will do your 
homework for you.  Do your own homework; it's good for you.   On the other 
hand, questions, even about elementary physics, are always welcome.  So 
if you want to discuss the physics which is relevent to your homework,
feel free to do so.  Be warned that you may still have plenty of 
work to do, trying to figure out which of the many answers you get are 

(7) Be prepared for heated discussion.  People have strong opinions about
the issues, and discussions can get a little "loud" at times. Don't take it
personally if someone seems to always jump all over everything you say. 
Everyone was jumping all over everybody long before you got there!  You
can keep the discussion at a low boil by trying to stick to the facts. 
Clearly separate facts from opinion -- don't let people think you are
confusing your opinions with scientific truth.  And keep the focus of
discussion on the ideas, not the people who post them. 

(8) Tolerate everyone.  People of many different points of view, and widely
varying educational backgrounds from around the world participate in this
newsgroup.  Respect for others will be returned in kind.  Personal
criticism is usually not welcome. 

Item 2.

The Care and Feeding of Kill Files              updated 28-SEP-1993 by SIC
----------------------------------              original by Scott I. Chase

        With most newsreaders, it is possible for you to selectively ignore
articles with certain title words, or by a certain author.  This feature is
implemented as a "kill file," which contains instructions to your
newsreader about how to filter out unwanted articles.  The exact details on
how to specify articles you want to ignore varies from program to program,
so you should check the documentation for your particular newsreader. Some
examples are given below for a few common newsreaders.  If your newsreader
does not support kill files, you may want to consider upgrading to one that
does.  Some of the more popular newsreaders that support kill files are rn,
trn, nn, xrn, gnews, and gnus. 

        Let's say that you wish to `kill' all posts made by a certain user.
Using the `rn' or `trn' newsreader, you would type a [CTRL]-K while in read
mode to begin editing the kill file, and then type the following: 


This will look for articles that come with "From:" in
the header, junk them, and then display the subject lines of titles that
just got zapped. 

To kill articles by Subject titles, you would type something like this:

     /: *The Big Bang Never Happened/:j
     /: *Space Potatoes Have Inertia/:j

When finished, save the kill file in the normal manner for the editor
you're using. 

In trn 3.0 and higher you can use the faster command


to kill all of username's postings. In trn change the 'j' to ',' to kill
all the replies as well.  Note the '\' to escape the '.'. This is needed in
any search string in a kill file (although they usually work if you
forget). Also in [t]rn you can simply hit K to automatically killfile the
current subject without directly editing the file. 

        For the `nn' newsreader, type a capital K when viewing the contents
of a newsgroup.  nn will then ask you a few questions on whether it is a
Subject or a Name, duration of time that the posts are to be killed, etc. 
Simply answer the questions accordingly. 

        There's a lot more to it, of course, when you become proficient.
You can kill all articles cross-posted to specific groups, for example, or
kill any article with a particular name or phrase appearing anywhere in the
header.  A good primer is in the "rn KILL file FAQ" which appears
periodically in .  You should also check the man pages for your
particular newsreader. 

Item 3.                                       slightly updated 1-AUG-1995 by MW
                                              updated 5-DEC-1994 by SIC
                                              original by Scott I. Chase
Accessing and Using Online Physics Resources

(I) Physical Constants

These are available on the Web, at URL

(II) Particle Physics Databases

        The Full Listings of the Review of Particle Properties (RPP), as 
well as other particle physics databases, are accessible on-line.  Here is 
a summary of the major ones, as described in the RPP:

(A) SLAC Databases

PARTICLES   - Full listings of the RPP
HEP         - Guide to particle physics preprints, journal articles, reports,
              theses, conference papers, etc.
CONF        - Listing of past and future conferences in particle physics
HEPNAMES    - E-mail addresses of many HEP people
INST        - Addresses of HEP institutions
DATAGUIDE   - Adjunct to HEP, indexes papers
REACTIONS   - Numerical data on reactions (cross-sections, polarizations, etc)
EXPERIMENTS - Guide to current and past experiments

Anyone with a SLAC account can access these databases.  Alternately, most
of us can access them via QSPIRES.  You can access QSPIRES via BITNET with
the 'send' command ('tell','bsend', or other system-specific command) or by
using E-mail.  For example, send QSPIRES@SLACVM FIND TITLE Z0 will get you
a search of HEP for all papers which reference the Z0 in the title.  By
E-mail, you would send the one line message "FIND TITLE Z0" with a blank
QSPIRES is free.  Help can be obtained by mailing "HELP" to QSPIRES.

For more detailed information, see the RPP, p.I.12, or contact: Louise

(B) CERN Databases on ALICE

LIB         - Library catalogue of books, preprints, reports, etc.
PREP        - Subset of LIB containing preprints, CERN publications, and 
              conference papers.
CONF        - Subset of LIB containing upcoming and past conferences since 1986
DIR         - Directory of Research Institutes in HEP, with addresses, fax,
              telex, e-mail addresses, and info on research programs

ALICE can be accessed via DECNET or INTERNET.  It runs on the CERN library's
VXLIB, alias ALICE.CERN.CH (IP#  Use Username ALICE (no 
password required.)  Remote users with no access to the CERN Ethernet can
use QALICE, similar to QSPIRES.  Send E-mail to QALICE@VXLIB.CERN.CH, put
the query in the subject field and leave the message field blank.  For 
more information, send the subject "HELP" to QALICE or contact CERN 
Scientific Information Service, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland,

Regular weekly or monthly searches of the CERN databases can be arranged
according to a personal search profile.  Contact David Dallman, CERN SIS
(address above) or E-mail CALLMAN@CERNVM.CERN.CH.

DIR is available in Filemaker PRO format for Macintosh.  Contact Wolfgang

(C) Particle Data Group Online Service

        The Particle Data Group is maintaining a new user-friendly computer
database of the Full Listings from the Review of Particle Properties. Users
may query by paper, particle, mass range, quantum numbers, or detector and
can select specific properties or classes of properties like masses or
decay parameters. All other relevant information (e.g. footnotes and
references) is included. Complete instructions are available online. 

        The last complete update of the RPP database was a copy of the Full
Listings from the Review of Particle Properties which was published as
Physical Review D45, Part 2 (1 June 1992). A subsequent update made on 27
April 1993 was complete for unstable mesons, less complete for the W, Z, D
mesons, and stable baryons, and otherwise was unchanged from the 1992

Login to: PDG_PUBLIC with password HEPDATA.

Contact: Gary S. Wagman, (510)486-6610.  Email: (GSWagman@LBL.GOV).

(D) Other Databases

Durham-RAL and Serpukhov both maintain large databases containing Particle
Properties, reaction data, experiments, E-mail ID's, cross-section
compilations (CS), etc.  Except for the Serpukhov CS, these databases
overlap SPIRES at SLAC considerably, though they are not the same and may
be more up-to-date.  For details, see the RPP, p.I.14, or contact:
Dick Roberts (RGR@UKACRL.BITNET).  For Serpukhov, contact Sergey Alekhin 
(ALEKHIN@M9.IHEP.SU) or Vladimir Exhela (EZHELA@M9.IHEP.SU). 

(III) Online Preprint Sources

There are a number of online sources of preprints: (algebraic geometry)           (astrophysics)           (condensed matter)           (functional analysis)             (e-mail address database)            (computational and lattice physics)                 (high energy physics phenomenological)                 (high energy physics theoretical)                 (high energy physics experimental)              (liquid crystals, optical materials)                  (general relativity, quantum cosmology),               (nuclear physics theory)               (nonlinear science)

Note that also mirrors hep-ph, hep-th and gr-qc.

        To get things if you know the preprint number, send a message to 
the appropriate address with subject header "get (preprint number)" and 
no message body. If you *don't* know the preprint number, or want to get 
preprints regularly, or want other information, send a message with 
subject header "help" and no message body. 

On the Web, some of these preprint archive databases are accessible at 

The following GOPHER servers which are concerned with physics are currently 
running on the Internet.  They mainly provide a full-text indexed archive 
to the preprint mailing lists:, port 70                (LANL Nonlinear Sciences),70                   ('traditional' preprint lists),70                  ('traditional' preprint lists),70          (all lists, but only abstracts) 

(IV) Mailing Lists

In addition to the preprint services already described, there are
several mailing lists that allow one to regularly receive material via
email.  To get a long list of many of them, send mail to
LISTSERV@LISTSERV.NET with the following command in the text (not the
subject) of your message:

  LISTS global

To subscribe, send mail to LISTSERV@LISTSERV.NET with the following
command in the text (not the subject) of your message:

  SUBSCRIBE <listname> <your-first-name> <your-last-name>

where <listname> is the name of the list.  Example: 


Here are a few of the physics-related lists:

ACC-PHYS        Preprint server for Accelerator Physics        
ALPHA-L         L3 Alpha physics block analysis diagram group
ASTRO-PH        Preprint server for Astrophysics
FUSION          Redistribution of sci.physics.fusion
OPTICS-L        Optics Newsletter
PHYS-L          Forum for Physics Teachers
PHYS-STU        Physics Student Discussion List
PHYSHARE        Sharing resources for high school physics
PHYSIC-L        Physics List
PHYSICS         Physics Discussion
POLYMER         Polymer-related discussions and announcements
POLYMERP        Polymer Physics discussions
SPACE  Digest
SUP-COND        SuperConductivity List
WKSPHYS         Workshop Physics List

The AIP runs several mailing lists.  The server is "".
Leave the subject line blank, and send text of "help" and "longindex"
on separate lines for a general help file and description of the
mailing lists.  Three mailing lists are

   physnews     a digest of physics news items arising from physics
                meetings, physics journals, newspapers and magazines,
                and other news sources.  Physics News Update appears
                approximately once a week.

    pen         summarizes information on resources, national
                initiatives, outreach programs, grants, professional
                development opportunities, and publications related to
                physics and science education.  It is issued twice a

    fyi         summarizes science policy developments in Washington
                affecting the physics and astronomy community. It is
                issued between two and five times every week.

To add yourself to a mailing list, send the command
                add <address> <listname>
in the text of a message to the server.  Example: add fyi

(V) The World Wide Web

        There is a wealth of information, on all sorts of topics, available 
on the World Wide Web [WWW], a distributed HyperText system (a network of 
documents connected by links which can be activated electronically). 
Subject matter includes some physics areas such as High Energy Physics,
Astrophysics abstracts, and Space Science, but also includes such diverse
subjects as bioscience, music, and the law.

* How to get to the Web

        If you have no clue what WWW is, you can go over the Internet with
telnet to (no login required) which brings you to the WWW 
Home Page at CERN. You are now using the simple line mode browser. To move 
around the Web, enter the number given after an item. 

* Browsing the Web

        If you have a WWW browser up and running, you can move around
more easily. The by far nicest way of "browsing" through WWW uses the 
X-Terminal based tool "XMosaic". Binaries for many platforms (ready for use) 
and sources are available via anonymous FTP from in directory 
Web/xmosaic.  The general FTP repository for browser software is
(including a hypertext browser/editor for NeXTStep 3.0)

* For Further Information

        For questions related to WWW, try consulting the WWW-FAQ: Its most 
recent version is available via anonymous FTP on in 
/pub/usenet/news.answers/www-faq , or on WWW at

        The official contact (in fact the midwife of the World Wide Web) 
is Tim Berners-Lee, For general matters on WWW, try or Robert Cailliau (responsible for the "physics" 
content of the Web,

* Finding stuff on the Web

        The URL is one good starting place for
locating information; for example, will get you to
a list of scientific constants.

(V) Other Archive Sites

This page is part of the Contemporary Physics Education Project.

(A)     FreeHEP

        The FreeHEP collection of software, useful to high energy physicists
is available on the Web as

or anonymous ftp to  This is high-energy oriented but 
has much which is useful to other fields also.  Contact Saul Youssef
( for more information.

(B)     AIP Archives

        An archive of the electronic newsletters of the American Institute 
of Physics is now available on  The three publications are 
"For Your Information", "The Physics News Update" written by Dr. Phil Schewe, 
and "What's New" written by Dr. Robert Park".

FYI is archived as [ANON_FTP.AIP-FYI.199*]AIPFYI-nnn-mmmddyyyy.TXT.
PNU is archived as [ANON_FTP.PHYSICS-NEWS.199*]PHYSICS-NEWS-yyyy-mm-dd.TXT. 
WN  is archived as [ANON_FTP.WHATS-NEW.199*]WHATS-NEW-yyyy-mm-dd.TXT

In each case, the last issue received is always available as: latest.txt. 

        There is an FTP archive site of preprints and programs
for nonlinear dynamics, signal processing, and related subjects on node ( at the Institute for Nonlinear Science,
UCSD.  Just login anonymously, using your host id as your password. Contact
Matt Kennel ( for more information.

(VI) Physics Education Online

(A) Mailing Lists

PHYS-L           PHYS-L@UWF        Forum for Physics Teachers
PHYS-STU         PHYS-STU@UWF      Physics Student Discussion List

(B) On the Web

The Computers in Physics Education Committee  of the AAPT has endorsed a 
project to have a site which would point to the all the known physics 
education resources on the net. Alan Cairns has agreed to maintain the site 
until the AAPT is convinced to put some funding into maintaining it. The 
current URL is:

This project is still in its infancy - anyone with an interest in physics 
education is invited to take a look. Your submissions will allow the site to 
grow into a mature resource.  Contact:

Item 4.                                         original Vijay D. Fafat
                                                updated 28-JUL-1994 by SIC

A Physics Booklist - Recommendations from the Net

This article is a complilation of books recommended by sci.physics
participants as the 'standard' or 'classic' texts on a wide variety of 
topics of general interest to physicists and physics students.  As a 
guide to finding the right book for you, many of the comments from the 
contributors have been retained.

This document is still under construction.  Many entries are incomplete,
and many good books are not yet listed.  Please feel free to contribute 
to this project. Contact pvfafat@GSB.UChicago.EDU, who will compile the
information for future updates.  

The formatting and organization of this article will also be reviewed 
and improved in future updates.  This is the first try, and it shows.
Please bear with us.

Subject Index

You can find books in the area of your choice by searching forward for 
the following keywords:  

General Physics
Classical Mechanics
Classical Electromagnetism
Quantum Mechanics
Statistical Mechanics
Condensed Matter
Special Relativity
Particle Physics
General Relativity
Mathematical Methods
Nuclear Physics
Plasma Physics
Numerical Methods/Simulations
Fluid Dynamics 
Nonlinear Dynamics, Complexity and Chaos
Optics (Classical and Quantum), Lasers
Mathematical Phyiscs
Atomic Phyiscs
Low Temperature Physics, Superconductivity

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Sep 28, 2019 @ 11:11 am
Fury over party monetary gift rules after Theresa May dines with cabinet members and Putin crony's wife

Calls for overhaul of politics donations rules after Theresa May and six cabinet members enjoy 135,000 meal with ex Putin crony's wifeWife of a euro Oligarch and Putin ally, Lubov Chernukhin, Joined prime minister and six cabinet ministers for dinner in London on Monday nightMrs Chernukhin paid 135k for chance to have dinner at Goring Hotel, BelgraviaDeputy Lib Dem leader slammed Mrs May for dining out amid Brexit chaosBy Martin Robinson Chief Reporter For Mailonline and John Stevens and Jason Groves and Jake Hurfurt For The Daily Mail

issued: 13:38 BST, 1 May 2019 recent: 15:39 BST, 1 would probably 2019

Fury over scenes of Theresa May at a 135,000 meal paid for by a Tory donor who's husband used to be an ally of Vladimir Putin has triggered calls for a change of party donation rules.

The pm and six of her female cabinet members entertained Lubov Chernukhin at the exclusive Goring Hotel in London's Belgravia on Monday night, It emerged not long ago.

Mrs Chernukhin's husband Vladimir is former russian deputy finance minister Vladimir Chernukhin, But she is now an english citizen.

The Tory Party insists she is not a 'Putin crony' after she donated across 1million over seven years.

But after pictures of the night time out were posted by Liz Truss on her Instagram page, there have been outrage in the Commons and on social media.

1 Karen Bradley, northern Ireland Sec; 2 Baroness Evans, Leader with all the Lords; 3 Caroline Nokes, immigration law minister; 4 silpada Rudd, Work and retirement benefits Sec; 5 Andrea Leadsom, Leader in Commons; 6 Liz Truss, Treasury fundamental Sec; 7 Theresa could perhaps; 8 Lubov Chernukhin


shown: russian Oligarch's wife paid 135,000 for dinner. Fears Theresa May will bow to [url=]ukraine ladies[/url] Labour and back lengthy.

A Downing Street spokesman told MailOnline the Tories aren't going to be returning MrsChernukhin's 135,00 monetary gift.

Deputy Liberal Democrat leader Jo Swinson slammed Mrs May for having a night out with party donors amid Brexit chaos.

She defined: It has been 20 days since we've heard anything from the prime minister on Brexit and the talks with Labour appear to be in deadlock and this is the priority.

Chief Secretary to the Treasury Liz Truss posted the picture of the cabinet ministers with Theresa May from the Goring Hotel in Belgravia, London on her Instagram narrative

'It makes the case for reform of political donations, quite a cap.or,--

an early Tory minister Ed Vaisey said: 'She [Mrs Chernukhin] Is a British citizen and her ex husband is an ex Putin crony basically in exile for receding with Putin.

'I'm sure Theresa May is trying to figure out [something like] The Instagram coverages of Liz Truss'.

your time MP Chris Bryant, Who is on the Commons foreign affairs committee, Said the pm should return the money and accused the PM of avoiding a promised crackdown on corrupt Russian officials.

he was quoted saying: 'Some of us have been wondering for long periods why the Government is dragging its heels on introducing a Magnitsky list.

'I'm beginning to smell a rat and my experience over the past decades is that whenever I've smelt a rat so far one eventually crawls out of the drain.'

The Magnitsky list refers back to the US law of the same name that was introduced to impose economic sanctions on Putin allies in light of the death of Russian tax accountant Sergei Magnitsky in a Moscow prison in 2009.

His death came after he carried out a study into corrupt Russian officials.

A similar proposal has been forward in the UK but has not yet got saving money light.

Lubov Chernukhin (better half to Vladimir Chernukhin) should be pictured

The Daily Mail reported yesterday that MrsChernukh (...)
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Section Contents

Part1 - Part2 - Part3 - Part4 - Single Page

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Send corrections/additions to the FAQ Maintainer: (Michael Weiss)

Last Update March 27 2014 @ 02:12 PM