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Nordic FAQ - 4 of 7 - FINLAND

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S O C . C U L T U R E . N O R D I C
*** PART 4: FINLAND ***

Fact Sheet
General information
Geography, climate, vegetation
Who is a Finn?
The Finnish language
School system
A chronology of important dates
A list of Grand Dukes and presidents of Finland
@ Viking times and before that
@ Finland in the Swedish realm
@ Finland as a Russian Grand Duchy
@ The independence of Finland
! Wars with the Soviet Union
! Finland after the wars
The Finnish parliament, government and political
The political parties
The 1995 general elections
The present cabinet
Main tourist attractions
Other places of interest
The Finnish sauna
Finnish literature
Books for learning Finnish
Grammars, Primers, Phrase Books.
Materials for Teaching Finnish
Course Details

Subject: 4.1 Fact Sheet

See reader questions & answers on this topic! - Help others by sharing your knowledge
Name:  Suomen Tasavalta / Republiken Finland [ Fi / Sw ]

Telephone country code:   358

Area:  338,127 km² / 130,125 sq mi

Terrain:  mostly low, flat to rolling plains interspersed with lakes and
          low hills; fjells and some mountains in the extreme northwest

Highest mountain:  Haltiatunturi (1,328 m).

Natural resources:  timber, copper, zinc, iron ore, silver

Land boundaries:  Russia, Sweden, Norway

Population:  5,147,000 [year-end 1997]

Population density:  15.1 persons per km²

Distribution:  65% in urban, 35% in rural municipalities. [1996]

Life expectancy:  women 80, men 72. [1992]

Infant mortality:  6 per 1,000 live births. [1992]

Capital:  Helsinki/Helsingfors (pop. 532,053), metropolitan area ca 1 mill.

Other major towns:  Tampere/Tammerfors (186,026),
                    Turku/Åbo (166,929)
                    Espoo/Esbo (196,260)[a suburb to Helsinki]
                    Vantaa/Vanda (168,778) [a suburb to Helsinki]
                    Oulu/Uleåborg (111,556)  [year-end, 1996]
                    (note: many places in Finland have
                    two names, Finnish and Swedish)

Flag:  a blue Nordic cross on white background.

Type:  Republic

Head of state:  President Martti Ahtisaari

Languages:  Finnish (92.7 %),
            Swedish (5.7 %) (both official),
            small Sámi and Romani minorities.

Currency:  markka (Finnish mark, FIM).
           for the current exchange rate,
           see the URL <>

Climate:  cold temperate. Gulf stream warms up parts of the country,
          Lapland is sub-arctic. Average temp. in Helsinki:
           -9°C - -4°C in Feb., 12°C - 22°C in July.

Religion:  Evangelic-Lutheran (84%),
           Greek Orthodox (1%) (both churches are official state-churches)

Exports:  paper, metal, machinery, ships, timber, textiles, chemicals, electron
ics, furniture


Subject: 4.2 General information 4.2.1 Geography, climate, vegetation Finland (Finnish: Suomi) is the fifth largest country in Europe, excluding the Russian federation. Roughly 1/3 of the country lies north of the Arctic Circle. Finland shares a common border in the north with Norway, in the east a long border (1,269 km) with Russia, on the south it is bordered by the Gulf of Finland, and on the west by the Gulf of Bothnia and Sweden. Most of Finland is lowland, but in the far northwest (the "arm" of Finland) some mountains rise to over 1000m. Most of Finland is made of ancient granite bedrock, which has been shaped and fractured by numerous ice ages, the marks of which can be seen e.g in the complex lake system, the equally complex archipelagos and the huge boulders scattered all over the country. Finland has three main physical regions: the coastal lowlands, the inland lake system, and the northern uplands. The coastal lowlands extend along coasts of the Gulfs of Finland and Bothnia, off which lie thousands of rocky islands; the principal archipelagos are the Åland (in Finnish: Ahvenanmaa) Islands and the archipelago of Turku. The lake district is an interior plateau of southern central, heavily forested and studded with lakes, swamps and bogs. The northern upland, much of which lies north of the Arctic Circle, has rather poor soils and is the most sparsely populated region of Finland. In the far north, arctic forests and swamps eventually change to tundra. Finland's climate shows both maritime and continental influences. Surrounding seas cool the climate on the coast in spring but on the other hand warm it up in the autumn.The climate becomes more continental, i.e more extreme, the further east and north one goes. The furtherst north, however, has a rather marine climate because of the influence of the Arctic Ocean. The summer lasts two to four months, the growing season four to six. The tourist cliche of Finland as "the country of thousands of lakes" has some basis; in one count, a number of 187,880 islands was reached (but it all depends on what counts as a lake). They are often connected by rivers and canals to form large lake-systems. Finland's largest lake, Saimaa, is in fact a system of more than a hundred interconnected smaller lakes. Finland's rivers are short and shallow, the longest being located in the north. Finland has about 30,000 coastal islands, of which the especially the southwestern archipelago is known for its beauty. The country is situated entirely within the northern zone of coniferous forests. Forests cover about 65% of the total area (45% pines, 37% spruces, 15%). Oaks, lindens, elms, and ashes appear mostly in the southwest corner. Among the large wild animals are e.g ear, elk, deer, lynx, wolverine and wolf. 4.2.2 Economy Forests are Finland's most important natural resource, and paper, timber, etc. are a major source of national income. The granite bedrock contains a diversity of minor mineral deposits, including copper, nickel, iron, zinc, chromium, lead, and iron pyrites. In recent years, diamonds have been found in eastern Finland, but they aren't mined yet. In addition, limestone, granite and sand are quarried for building materials. Wood processing has traditionally been the most important economy. The metal and engineering industries have developed rapidly and today are the largest source of industrial employment. Since the 1950s large-scale swamp drainage, fertilizing, and reforestation have improved woord production. The state owns 20% of the forests; the rest are privately controlled. The chemical, graphics, and food industries are also significant to the economy, followed by textile and electrochemical enterprises. Mining activity has decreased in importance, although Finland still produces one-half of the copper and nickel needed for the domestic market. In 1960, 30% of Finland's work force was engaged in farming; by 1990 the figure was less than 10%, and only 7% of the total land area was cultivated. Nevertheless, the agricultural sector produces a surplus of dairy products, meat, and eggs. Wheat and rye are the most important bread grains; other major crops include hay, potatoes, oats, and barley. Finland's climate and small farms favor dairy and livestock production, which account for most of the farm income. The problems created by overproduction have led to soil banking (a policy of purposely leaving farmland uncultivated) and reforestation. [ the sections above are available at the www-page ] 4.2.3 Population Finland is a bilingual country (with a Swedish-speaking minority living mostly in the coastal areas). The autonomous island-province of Åland is an exception: the province is monolingually Swedish-speaking. Åland Islands, with approximately 25,000 inhabitants, is a demilitarized area with its own flag (a red Nordic cross outlined in yellow, on blue background) and a separate local legislation. Its autonomy is based on international treaties. The Swedish-speaking minority of Finland descends chiefly from the settlers that arrived with the Christian missionaries and crusaders in the early middle ages. They speak a variety called "finlandssvenska" that differs slightly from Swedish spoken in Sweden ("rikssvenska"), most notably for its Finnish intonation and some archaic vocabulary. Today 5.7 % of Finland's population is registered as Finland-Swedish. The proportion has been steadily diminishing since the 18th century when 20% of the population had Swedish as mother tongue. The Romani, or Gypsies, who arrived to Finland in late 16th century have long had to experience the prejudices of the majority population, but in recent years their situation has been improving, and Romani language is now taught at schools. They number approximately 5.500. Different from the situation in Scandinavia the Gypsies of Finland have usually not preserved their own language, but have Finnish as their mother tongue. On the other hand, they have preserved their dress customs a lot more. In Lapland (the northernmost province of Finland), a small Sámi (Lapp) minority still survives. Their number is only around 5,000, with even fewer reporting Sami as their native language, but nowadays there are schools for Sámi-speakers and the language is considered official in municipalities with at least 7% of the population speaking Sámi. For more information about the Sámi, see section 2.3. 4.2.4 Who is a Finn? Believe it or not, but this question does raise heated discussions in the news group now and then. The disputes have their base in the inability, general among Nordeners, to distinguish between ethnicity, nationality and citizenship. In the news group you can find citizens of Finland who declare that he or she "is certainly no Finn even if I am born in Finland (and my ancestors some 600 years back at least). If some bullshit Fascists think they can call everyone living in this country a Finn they are mistaken." On the other hand ethnic Finns can be studied, who get insulted by any word referring to Finland's multi-ethnicity, arguing along the slogan In Finland we speak Finnish. They might claim that the distinction between Swedish-speaking and Finnish-speaking inhabitants of Finland is based on racism and the minority's need to feel superior. Be warned! This is a sensitive topic. The origin of Finns is still subject to a lot of discussion; the traditional theory is that Finns emigrated from the Urals to Finland some 2,000 years ago, but the current view seems to be that the Finnish people have evolved into what they are in Finland as a result of numerous successive waves of immigration coming from east, south and west. As Roman writers described the Fenni it is unclear whether they referred to nomadic Lapps exclusively, or if also the Finnish speaking farmers and sea-farers were included. In any case: Written medieval sources exhibit great confusion on this point. When the king of Norway (who for long was the king of Denmark), or the Norse Sagas, refer to "Finns" they mostly mean Sámis or Lapps. The Swedish administration wasn't much better in making the distinctions we today put such a great importance to. Still today "a Finn" is a Sámi or Lapp for many speakers of Norwegian. Until the national awakening of the 19th century Swedish speakers meant people from Finland, or with ancestry from Finland, when talking about "Finns" (finne, plural: finnar). Then the Finnish nationalistic movement led to the majority language (Finnish) being given equal status to the old administrative language (Swedish). It became fashionable for the educated class to learn Finnish, to start using Finnish as much as possible, and to make Finnish the mother tongue of their children. Then the remaining parts of the Swedish speaking minority in Finland started to stress their "Swedishness" - in reaction to the Finnish nationalistic movement from the mid-1800's on with its expectation that all inhabitants of Finland should switch from Swedish to Finnish. The Swedish speakers began to label themselves as "Finland-Swedes" defending their language's position in Finland as much as they could. The battle was long and hard between proponents for Finnish as the national language of Finland and the proponents for Swedish as the language linking Finland to Germanic nations of Western Europe. And "a Finn" became a term which for the Swedish speaking minority referred to members of the Finnish speaking majority. By the time of Finland's liberation from Russia the language-battle was almost won by the proponents for Finnish, but the Swedish speakers were still well represented in the government and among State officials. The independent Finland became officially bilingual, and during the Second World War (if not before) a consensus was established that both "Finns" and "Swedes" of Finland belonged to the same nation, a nation which thus in conflict with the 19th century Nationalism's dogma comprised two very different languages: Finnish and Swedish. But still, for the Finland-Swedes the term en finne ("a Finn") denotes an ethnic Finn, and the term finländare (literally: Finlandener) is used to denote nationality or citizenship. The Finnish language has a term (suomenruotsalainen) for the Finland-Swedes, of course, but uses the same term (suomalainen) for ethnic Finns and citizens of Finland. In Sweden people try to show the Finland-Swedes basal courtesy by remembering to distinguish between en finne and en finländare. In Norway people try to avoid the word finne perceived as derogatively as the word "Lapp" when denoting the Sámis, and the word finlender (the equivalent term to "Finlandener") is the recommended form, especially by people interested in politicial correctness. The problem usually arises when Swedes or Norwegians remember the political correctness but forget the sensitive nature of this matter. The word "a Finn" can be avoided in English, by exchanging it to citizen of Finland, inhabitant of Finland, ethnic Finn, or Finland-Swede. Thereby, however, nothing is implicated for the question of Åland's status as being a part of the country Finland or not, its population belonging to the nation of ethnic Finns and Finland-Swedes or not, or other disputable issues... :->>> 4.2.5 The Finnish language Whatever the roots of Finns are, a fact is that they speak a language that isn't Indo-European like the other Nordic languages, but Finno-Ugric; its closest major relative is Estonian (but even those two languages aren't really mutually intelligible), and it is distantly related to Hungarian, Sámi, and several minor languages spoken in European Russia and Siberia. Eugene Holman writes: Even though Finnish is not related to the Scandinavian languages, like Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish, it has its sister languages which it is more or less mutually intelligible spoken by people of essentially the same ethnic stock as the Finns. Many people know that the difference between Finnish and Estonian is approximately the same as the difference between Swedish and Danish. Fewer know that the same holds for Finnish and the indigenous speech forms behind the Russian border: Karelian (karjala), Olonetsian (aunus), Lydian (lyydi) and Vepsian (Vepsä). These three speech forms are essentially part of the eastern Finnish dialect continuum with an increasingly strong Russian superstratum the further east one goes. Twice in this century, specifically during the Finnish Civil War 1918-1920 and then again during the so-called Continuation War (1941-1944), certain nationalist circles in Finland have aspired to join these areas of Karelia to Finland. Finnish military rule in White Sea Karelia during the Continuation War meant the erection of concentration camps, and the internment and eventual death of many Russians, communists, and other "undesirables", a large number of them children. It also meant the establishment of a school system teaching in local speech forms and a serious effort to make the inhabitants literate in their local "dialects" as a first step towards making them Finnish. The story, although not without its positive aspects, is not one that official Finland is particularly proud of. 4.2.6 Culture Finnish culture could be characterized as a mixture of Swedish and Finnish elements, with a touch of Russian influence especially in the eastern provinces. Mikael Agricola (1510-57) established Finnish as a written language. The national epic Kalevala, collected from Karelian oral poetry by the scholar Elias Lönnrot, has had enormous effect on the forming of the Finnish culture in the last century, as did the poetry of Johan Ludvig Runeberg (1804-72) and the drama of the author Aleksis Kivi (1834-72). The scholar H. G. Porthan (1739-1804) awakened the public interest in Finnish mythology and folk poetry, and laid a firm basis to humanist sciences. Tove Jansson (1914--) has won popularity with her books about the Moomins. Music has had a special place in Finnish culture, the best known and loved composer being of course Jean Sibelius (1865-1957); others include Fredrik Pacius (1809-91), Oskar Merikanto (1868-1924), and Aarre Merikanto (1893-1958), Leevi Madetoja (1887-1947), and Uuno Klami (1900-61). Aulis Sallinen, Joonas Kokkonen and Magnus Lindberg are major contemporary composers. Hundreds of music festivals draw large crowds in the summer; among the best known are Kaustinen Folk Festival, Savonlinna Opera Festival which is held in a medieval castle, and Ruisrock in Turku. Finnish architecture has won international fame; it is represented by people such as Eliel Saarinen (and his son Eero Saarinen, who worked chiefly in North America) Wivi Lönn (1872-1966), and Lars Sonck (1870-1956) who were pioneers of the national romantic style. Neoclassicism was introduced by J. S. Siren (1889-1961), and functionalism by Alvar Aalto (1898-1976). Aalto is also well known as an urban planner, interior designer, and industrial and furniture designer. Reima and Raili Pietilä are contemporary architects well known for their unconventional, expressionistic style. Among painters, Albert Edelfelt (1854-1905) and Akseli Gallen-Kallela (1865-1931) are the best known representatives of the golden era of Finnish painting; their styles were naturalism, realism, and symbolism, the themes often being taken from Finnish history or mythology. Helene Schjerbeck (1862-1946) was a leader in the break with realism, Hugo Simberg (1873-1917) was one of the foremost symbolists, and Tyko Sallinen (1879-1955) was one of the first expressionists. [ the sections above are available at the www-page ] 4.2.7 Government The Finnish constitution was adopted in 1919. Finland is a republic, headed by a president elected for a 6-year term. The president is chosen by the general electorate (all citizens over 18). Supreme executive power is vested in the president, who heads the country's foreign policy. Legislative power is shared by the president and the one-chamber parliament of 200 members. The government which is headed by a prime minister, is responsible for the country's general administration. Judicial power is vested in independent courts of justice. Finland has had an ombudsman (oikeusasiamies), an impartial public officer whose duty is to handle public complaints against actions of the government, since 1919. The constitution of Finland guarantees a freedom of religion, but the Evangelical Lutheran church is an official state church to which 84 % of the population belongs to. The Orthodox church is also a state church, 1.1 % of Finns are members (mainly in the east); those with no religious affiliation constitute 12 % of the population. See section 4.4 for more information about the current parliament, cabinet and political parties. The virtual Embassy by the Finnish Ministry for Foreign Affairs publishes on the web among a lot of interesting documents also weekly newsletter on arts and sports. 4.2.8 The School system Parents choose between placing their children in the Finnish-language or the Swedish-language school. Education on either of the languages is provided on all levels. The compulsory education (Fi: peruskoulu, Sw: grundskolan) starts when the child is 6 or 7 years old. The 9-year schooling is normally completed when the pupil is 15 or 16. High schools (Fi: lukio, Sw: gymnasium) are either academically or vocationally oriented, with roughly half of the students attending university-preparatory study programs, culminating with high school diploma (Fi: ylioppilastutkinto, Sw: studentexamen) after rigorous examination where grades are given on basis of the student's achievement in relation to the nationwide graduating class. The more vocationally oriented high schools (Fi: ammattikoulu, Sw: yrkesskola) train their students in things such as auto mechanics, hairdressing, etcetera. Virtually all students attend public schools. Some private and semi-private schools exist, in many cases offering education based on a specific education philosophy or religious affiliation. Åland The teaching language in all schools in Åland is Swedish. The nine-year comprehensive school, for which the local districts are responsible, provides a general basic education. The English language is a compulsory subject at comprehensive school, while the Finnish language is optional. Pupils completing their schooling there may sit for either the Finnish State Matriculation Examination, or else the special Åland Leaving Examination in which Finnish is not a compulsory subject. [ the sections above are available at the www-page ]
Subject: 4.3 History 4.3.1 A chronology of important dates (A brief chronicle is to find in the section 4.3.3.) (for the period 1155-1809, see also the Swedish history section) 1155 The First Crusade to Finland, launched by Swedes and led by the English bishop Henry and the Swedish king Erik (later canonized and made Sweden's patron saint, St.Erik, and Finland's patron saint, St.Henry, respectively ). 1156 According to the legend, bishop Henry is murdered by the peasant Lalli on the frozen surface of lake Köyliö. 1229 The bishop's seat is moved from Nousiainen to Koroinen in the vicinity of modern Turku; the year is considered to be the founding year of Turku, which becomes the capital of the eastern half of the kingdom. 1249 After a pagan uprising, the Second Crusade to Tavastia (a province of western/central Finland) is launched by Birger Jarl and the pagans are defeated. 1293 The Third Crusade by Sweden's marsk Torgils Knutsson to Karelia, a province of eastern Finland, establishes the borderline between Catholic West and Orthodox East for the centuries to come. The castle and town of Viipuri/Viborg are founded to defend the border. 1323 The peace of Nöteburg (Pähkinäsaari) between Sweden and Russia. Finland's eastern border is defined for the first time. 1350 The first Swedish national law replaced the local provincial laws. 1362 Finns receive the right to participate in the election of the king. 1387/97-1523 The era of the Kalmar Union, with Finland, Sweden, Denmark Norway and Iceland united as a single kingdom. 1495-97 War against Russia. During a siege of Viipuri, just as the Russians are about to get over the city walls, St. Andrew's cross appears in the sky and the frightened Russians flee from battle. In reality, what happened was probably the exploding of a gunpowder tower. 1527 Reformation. Finland becomes Lutheran with the rest of Sweden. 1550 Helsinki founded by Gustav Vasa, but remains little more than a fishing village for more than two centuries. 1551 Mikael Agricola, a bishop of Turku, publishes his translation of the New Testament in Finnish. 1595 The peace of Täyssinä (Teusina); Finland's borders are moved further east and north. 1596-97 The Cudgel War. 1617 Karelia joined into Finland in the peace treaty of Stolbova ending a hundred years of almost continuous wars with Russia. 1630-48 Finns fight in the Thirty Years' War in the continent. The Finnish cavalry, known as hakkapeliittas, spreads fear among the Catholic troops who're used to more orderly warfare. 1637-40 and 1648-54 Count Per Brahe as the general governor of Finland. Many and important reforms are made, towns are founded, etc. His period is generally considered very beneficial to the development of Finland. 1640 Finland's first university founded in Turku. 1642 The whole Bible is finally published on Finnish. 1714-21 Russia occupies Finland during the Great Northern War. The period of the so called "Great Wrath". 1721 The peace of Uusikaupunki gives Karelia to Russia. 1741-43 The "War of the Hats". Adventurous politics by the "Hat" party leads to a new disastrous war with Russia and a new occupation of Finland, known as "The Lesser Wrath", which ends in the peace treaty of Turku in 1743. 1757 Storskifte, first reform of Swedish farming decided. 1766 The liberty of Press and "Offentlighetsprincipen" was declared as constitution. 1808-09 "The War of Finland". Russia attacks Finland in Feb. 1808 without a declaration of war; Finnish troops retreat all the way to Oulu, which forces Russians to leave a large part of their army as occupation forces, giving the Swedish general Klingspor superiority in force. A reconquest starts in June and Klingspor receives several victories; however, the baffling surrender of the mighty Sveaborg / Suomenlinna fortress on May 3rd and the fresh Russian troops received in autumn of 1808 force the Swedish-Finnish troops to retreat all the way to Härnösand in Sweden. Once again Russia occupies Finland. 1809 In the diet of Porvoo, while the war still goes on, the Finnish estates swear an oath of loyalty to Emperor Alexander I, who grants Finland a status of an autonomous Grand Duchy, retaining its old constitution and religion. A few months later the peace treaty of Hamina (Fredrikshamn) is signed and Finland becomes under Russian rule. 1812 Helsinki, being closer to Russia than the Swedish-oriented Turku, is made the new capital. Karelia is joined to the Grand Duchy as an act of goodwill. 1809-99 Finland prospers under the extensive autonomy and more liberal conditions than in the rest of Russian Empire. National identity and nationalism awakens. 1827 The great fire of Turku destroys most of the former capital. The university is moved to Helsinki. 1835 The first publication of the Kalevala, the Finnish national epic. It was collected by Elias Lönnrot from traditional Karelian oral poetry, and became the most important source of inspiration to Finnish nationalists when it appeared in its final form in 1849. 1862 The first railway, between Helsinki and Hämeenlinna. 1866 Finnish becomes, alongside with Swedish and Russian, an official language. 1899 Russia starts a Russification policy of Finland with the so called "February manifesto". After the initial shock and disbelief, a well-organized passive resistance follows. 1904 The dictatorical general governor and active adherent of Russification of Finland, Nikolai Bobrikov, is assassinated by the young clerk Eugen Schauman. 1906 Finnish women receive the right to vote and to run for parliament. Finland was the first country in Europe (and second in the world, after New Zealand) to grant women an equal right to vote in elections. The Finnish diet, which up until now had been a system of four estates (nobility, clergy, merchantry, peasantry), becomes a unicameral parliament and a universal suffrage is declared. 1917 As Russia plunges into the chaos of the October Revolution, Finland seizes the opportunity and declares independence on the 6th of December. 1918 A civil war erupts between "whites" and "reds", and ends in "white" victory under the commander . Even though the war is relatively brief, the casualties rise high because of "red" and "white" terror, poor conditions at prison camps and random executions of prisoners. The war leaves bitter marks on the nation, which are eventually healed in the Winter War of 1939-40, when both sides have to unite forces against a common enemy. The civil war increases scepticism towards the effeciency of democratic institutions, and monarchists in the parliament succeed (chiefly because the Social Democrats had not been allowed to partake in the parliament) in turning Finland into a monarchy, and the German prince Friedrich Karl of Hesse is invited to become King of Finland. However, as Germany soon lost the World War I, Friedrich who had delayed answering to the invitiation refused the crown so Finland never officially had a king; as a result monarchism in general suffered an inflation. In 1919 Finland gets a republican constitution, with a strong position for the president as a concession to the monarchists. 1920s-30s Finland prospers after the war and adopts a neutral Nordic profile in its foreign policy, although with strong German sympathies. In early 1930's fascism in the Italian fashion emerges and the so called Lapua-movement attempts a coup d'etat in 1932, but fails and is banned (ironically, using the laws the movement was itself most eager to push into force). The IKL ("Patriotic Movement"), an extreme right party, is formed to continue the legacy of Lapua-movement, but it never gains significant support and Finnish fascism remains a fringe phenomenon. 1939-40 Soviet Union attacks Finland. Fierce Finnish resistance surprises the overwhelming but poorly prepared Soviet troops and the Winter War lasts for roughly three and a half months, causing heavy casualties on the Soviet side. Eventually Finland has to give in and cede Karelia to the USSR, causing some 400,000 people to lose their homes. 1941-44 The Continuation War; Finland attacks the Soviet Union with Germany, hoping to regain the lost areas, but eventually has to accept the borders of 1940 and, and also cede Pechenga, lease Porkkala peninsula as a military base for 50 years (SU returns it already in 1956) and pay war reparations. 1944-45 The War of Lapland. As a part of the peace treaty, Finland has to force all German troops to leave Finland. Germans put up a fight and burn much of Finnish Lapland as they retreat. 1947 Paris peace treaty. Finland assumes a policy of careful neutrality (e.g declining to receive Marshall aid) and realpolitik, taking into account Finland's geographical location next to the USSR. This policy becomes known as the Paasikivi-Kekkonen line. 1944-48 So called "Years of Danger" ("vaaran vuodet") when a communist takeover was hanging in the air. Some leading Finnish communists proclaimed that the "Czechoslovakian model" was to be Finland's future as well. This ends in the signing of the Treaty of Friendship, Co-operation and Mutual Assistance ("YYA" is the Finnish acronym) with the Soviet Union in 1948. In it, Finland among other things commits itself to defend its territory against Germany or any other country allied with Germany that might use Finland as a way to attack Soviet Union. The treaty guarantees Finland's sovereignty in the years to follow, but places Finland in between the two blocs of the Cold War, trying hard to please both sides. 1950's-80's "Finlandization" era. Finland remains an independent western European democracy, but falls into exaggerations in keeping the eastern neighbour pleased. On the other hand, the bilateral trade arrangements with the Soviet Union are very beneficial to Finnish economy, which make possible the emergence of Finland as a rich welfare state. 1952 The Olympic Games held in Helsinki. 1955 Finland joins the United Nations and the Nordic Council. 1960's-70's A time of intensive urbanization, Finland turns from a predominantly agrarian state into an urban one almost "overnight". This results in severe unemployment, and large numbers of Finns emigrate to Sweden in search of jobs. 1973 Finland signs a free trade treaty with the EEC (a precedent of the European Union), but remains outside the community. 1975 The first CSCE conference in held in Helsinki. The "spirit of Helsinki" becomes to epitomize the process of detente between East and West after the Cold War era. 1987 Finland becomes a full member of EFTA (European Free Trade Association). A special FINEFTA customs treaty had been in effect already since 1961. 1989 Finland becomes a member of the European Council. 1994 On 16th of October Finns voted YES (57% vs. 43% NO) to membership in the European Union; the parliament ratified the result after a long filibustering campaign by the NO-side. 1995 As of January 1st, Finland became a full member in the EU. 4.3.2 Grand Dukes and presidents of Finland For a list of kings and queens of Sweden-Finland, see Part 7 of the FAQ, section 7.3.1. Grand Dukes of the Grand Duchy of Finland ========================================= Alexander I (1809-25) Nicholas I (1825-55) Alexander II (1855-81) Alexander III (1881-94) Nicholas II (1894-1917) Regents of the period of Civil War ================================== Pehr Evind Svinhufvud (1918) Carl Gustav Emil Mannerheim (1918-19) Presidents of the republic of Finland ===================================== Kaarlo Juho Ståhlberg (1919-25) Lauri Kristian Relander (1925-31) Pehr Evind Svinhufvud (1931-37) Kyösti Kallio (1937-40) Risto Heikki Ryti (1940-44) Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim (1944-46) Juho Kusti Paasikivi (1946-56) Urho Kaleva Kekkonen (1956-81) Mauno Henrik Koivisto (1982-94) Martti Oiva Kalevi Ahtisaari (1994- ) [ the sections above are available at the www-page ] 4.3.3 Viking times and before that Finland as an entity did hardly exist before the 14th century. The ancestors of nowaday Finns consisted different tribes like Karelians, Tavastians and Finns. At that time, only the most South-Western part of the country was known as "Finland" and its inhabitants as Finns. These names came to be used of the entire country and the population at the beginning of the modern era. In the middle ages, the whole Finland was commonly called Österlandet. (The South-Western part is now called as Finland proper, Varsinais-Suomi, and its inhabitants as Proper Finns.) , Speakers of an early form of Finnish (of Finno-Ugric languages in any case) are believed to have lived in Finland for 6.000 years. Earlier settlers are of unknown descent. This was also the time when Finnish and Hungarian lost contact with each other. Archaeological finds of wood objects (as runners - jalas /medar) made of pine from east of the Ural mountains indicate how these people must have belonged to a hunting culture moving over very wide areas. Historical linguists believe that a major portion of Germanic loan words were injected into the Finnish vocabulary approximately 500 B.C. Before this, the Sámis and the Finns had split to constitute separate cultures. The Sámis and Finns probably split into distinct cultures already 6,000 years ago, when the Baltic Indo-European immigrants settled the coast and merged into the native Comb-Ceramic culture. Thus the coast became a separate ("Finnish") cultural zone with elements of both cultures, whereas the hunter-gatherers of the inland continued the traditional lifestyle and seem to have developed to the Sámi culture. 4,500 years ago animal husbandry was introduced by Baltic immigrants. (The first agriculture in Finland may also have been introduced by them, although no definite proof exists as of yet.) 2,000 years ago the southern and western coasts were inhabited by people in close cultural contact with Scandinavia. The inland kept the contacts to the east. The similarity of the coastal bronze culture with that of Scandinavia is easily explained with cultural diffusion; there are no evidence of a conquest, and though much is similar, there are notable differences too. The continuity of culture from the neolithic (Kiukainen culture) is best shown in ceramics and stone tools, as well as some aspects of burial. During the "Roman Iron Age" (A.D. 1-400) evidences are convincing for a Baltic sea-farer culture connecting estuaries at Elbe (west for Jutland) and Vistula (at Gdansk) with Finland, Estonia and Sweden. People began to bury deceased in rich graveyards. The culture spread inland to Tavastia and Ostrobothnia. Fur trading peaked, wealth increased and maybe a new surge of immigrants arrived. In any case: Åland was colonized by Germanics from Sweden and has remained (culturally) Swedish ever since. The Åland population stood in close contact with the people along the Finnish coast from Ostrobothnia in north to Hanko in east. Later during the first millennium the West-Finnish culture spread to Karelia, around Lake Ladoga, where an independent culture arose. At Viking age three distinct Finnish cultures can be identified: In Karelia, in Tavastia and in Varsinais-Suomi ("Finland proper" i.e. later Turku fief). In these three provinces there is believed to have existed regents or governors comparable to those among Germanic tribes; leading cult, big game hunting, defense and military expeditions. Finns are not believed to have launched Viking raids outside the Baltic. But nothing certain is known. Southern Ostrobothnia was inhabited by people in close contact with the Scandinavians. The culture of Southern Ostrobothnia certainly had strong Scandinavian flavor, but there are no graves of Swedish types such as one finds on Åland, nor has Swedish ceramics been found. It's rather obvious that the "Scandinavization" of Southern Ostrobothnia in the migration period is due to trade contacts - the inhabitants were Finns (possibly the Kvæns mentioned in the sagas). The area becomes depopulated by 800 A.D., probably because of changes in trade routes (the eastern trade being now conducted through the Gulf of Finland). The northern shores of the Gulf of Finland were for unknown reasons uninhabited - at least no archaeological traces have been found. The Vikings did not like to lose the sight of land while sailing, and used to camp each night, why one must assume that the Gulf's shores were (at least) free from enemies of the Vikings. The Vikings are known for their assimilation in the cultures along their trading routes. It's probable that Vikings settled also at Finnish shores and estuaries, married Finns, learned the language, and got Finnish children who after a few generations had no affiliation what-so-ever with their outlandish heritage. Particularly in Karelia it is known (or sooner: believed) to have existed Viking trading posts, which became assimilated or alienated to the original Viking culture in Novgorod, Uppland, Gotland or wherever they had come from. The town of Staraja Ladoga was a Viking stronghold, for instance. A Viking type (but Tavastian) trade station has in recent years been excavated in the heart of Tavastia, in Varikkoniemi. Finland's trade with the Vikings have left evidences as rich findings of Arabic silver coins, indicating Finland to have prospered as much as Scandinavia from the eastern trade. Linguistic similarities suggest that Gotland is the Germanic province which have been the greatest contributor to Swedish settlements in Finland, and Gotland is also the province were two thirds of Sweden's Viking time coins have been found; but no written sources support this theory. (Except for the Visby-bishops' great interest in supporting the Finnish colleagues against pagans and Russians in the 12th and 13th century.) In early medieval time the eastern Christian Church extended its influence to Novgorod, Karelia and Tavastia. The energetic bishop Thomas (1220-45) extended the Finnish Catholic diocese to Tavastia, probably with armed assistance in the 1230s from the German Brethren of the Sword. His death was followed by a pagan rebellion in Tavastia. With Earl Birger (Birger Jarl), Sweden's virtual leader 1248-66, the Tavastian rebellion was defeated, the Finnish bishopric was put under Sweden, and the German presence in Finland limited to Hanseatic merchants. A strong castle was built in Tavastia; And Uusimaa /Nyland along the Gulf of Finland was colonized by Swedish "crusaders". At the end of the 13th century the Catholic Church's control in the Baltic sea region had increased, as Danes and Germans occupied the Baltic countries and Swedish magnates extended the Swedish realm along the Gulf of Finland to Viipuri /Viborg. The Finns are sometimes pictured as weak victims of foreign coercion. This is not entirely true. The Finns were expanding tribes who extended their areas continuously by clearing of woods, and sometimes by colonization of rich soil far away, as in Karelia and along the Kemi and Tornio rivers. These areas weren't uninhabited, but in fact belonged to the Sámi, whom the Finns (pirkkalaiset /birkarlar) taxed most brutally. Finns were successful in colonizing the inland (inland rivers, inland sea shores and inland woods), but maybe less interested in long journeys in big boats. Is it a coincidence that Finns still today are less of flock followers than our neighbor Germanics? 4.3.4 Finland in the Swedish realm [ see also the sections 7.3.3 - 7.3.5 in the Swedish part of the faq. ] During early medieval time fief after fief in Finland came to be governed by Swedish magnates. First around Turku /Åbo, then farther and farther into the country. The peasantry seems to have had a judicial organization with "Things" similar to that in the rest of Norden. It is unclear if the Thing also had pre-Christian religious functions. Sweden's colonization of Finland is often connected to "the First Crusade" (1155) led by the English bishop Henry and the Swedish king Erik. By this time Finland was, however, already mostly Christian so the real motivations of the "crusade" are obscure. SW Finland appears to have been allied with central Sweden already in the Viking age, so it has been hypothesized that the campaign was a punitive expedition against an ally that had become unreliable, perhaps because of the influence of Greek Orthodox missionaries. It's also disputed if the First Crusade really was a historical event. In due time, Finland becomes an integral part of the kingdom of Sweden. Year 1323 Finland's border is for the first time fixed in the peace in Pähkinäsaari at lake Ladoga. The Swedish government supported the Church, and tithes were enforced. On February 15th, 1362, the provinces in Finland can be said to have been officially acknowledged as equal parts of the realm under Swedish crown as the national law now was enforced in all parts of the realm, and Finland was represented at the election of king. (King Håkon of Norway was elected king also of Sweden.) During the following Kalmar Union, Finland plays a rather independent role. Viipuri fief became increasingly important as the Muscovite realm expanded. The clergy, including the bishops, has Finnish names and the magnates with estates in southern Finland come to play a strong part in the power-play between the Danish Union-king and the Swedish State Council. The most important positions - such as those of governors - were often held by men from the highest nobility, with its roots and base in Svealand (or Götaland). After Novgorod had been conquered by Moscow 1471 the situation became worse with skirmishes, sieges and small wars. At Gustav Vasa's rebellion in Svealand it was unclear whether the provinces in Finland would remain in the Union or not. The Union-king's connection with Moscow was probably the crucial reason to why the nobility in Finland took Gustav Vasa's side. All of the 16th century was marked by continuous conflicts with Moscow. But Finland thereby also became a prioritized part of the realm. The Vasa princes were taught Finnish, prince Johan was given an enlarged Turku fief as duchy, and the Finnish nobility made careers in the civil service - and in the wars with Russia. Viipuri was established as Finland's second bishopric beside Turku. In the national conflicts and civil wars the Finnish nobility supported the legal kings (Erik XIV & Sigismund), and not the opponents duke Johan & duke Karl, with the consequence that many lost their lands and/or their heads when duke Karl had become king Karl IX. The civil war between duke Karl and king Sigismund led to a peasant rebellion in central Finland, the so called Cudgel War. Manipulated by the usurper duke Karl, Finnish peasantry uprises, prompted by the worsened living conditions. After short-lived success, the poorly armed peasants are brutally defeated by the troops of Klaus Fleming, a Finnish aristocrat, regent of Finland and the commander-in-chief (riksmarsk) for Sweden, who opted for an extended union with Poland and Livonia. During the 17th century the nobility in Finland accepts the succeeding Swedish king Gustav II Adolf. Karelia (Kexholm's län) is now incorporated as another Finnish province. The followers of Russian Orthodox faith in the occupied Karelia and Ingria are persecuted, and many flee to the Russian side of the border. After that (during internal turbulence in Russia), peace is to prevail at Finland's borders until year 1700. The 17th century is therefore remembered as a good time for Finland. 1637-54 count Per Brahe worked as governor for the Finnish provinces taking initiative to many important improvements and reliefs for the war-pestered land, and Finnish troops became feared in the 30 Years' War. Lots of new baronies were granted in reward (to be retracted anew in 1680). But the 17th century was also the era when Sweden directed its interest to the south. Gotland and the Scanian provinces were conquered, as were also large areas on the European continent. 1696-98 the crops failed and the population was reduced by a third. Then followed Karl XII's failed war with Russian occupation, much suffering and loss of southern Karelia with Viipuri and the Karelian isthmus. At the Gulf of Finland, in the conquered Ingria, a new town was founded and made capital for all of Russia - St. Petersburg. The 18th century meant both repeated wars with Russia and a marked increase of population. Politicians from Finland often played a leading role during the Parliamentarian times: + Count Arvid Horn is chancellor 1721-38; + In the end of the century, Gustav Mauritz Armfelt from Halikko became the leading councillor at Gustav III - and then later the Russian emperor's chief-councillor for Finnish affairs; + The campaign for freedom of press (and "offentlighetsprincipen") in the Swedish realm was for instance led by the Finnish priest Anders Chydenius. [ Anders Chydenius is also dedicated a www-server at <> honoring his publication National Profit & Loss from the year 1765. This book is a perfect example of how "new" ideas often get discovered independently by several persons at the same time. Adam Smith did not read Swedish, and could not know of Chydenius' work as he eleven years later wrote The Wealth of Nations with by and large the same content. ] The Finnish language, which had been neglected during the 17th century, now begins to gain ground (very slowly!) in the "official" sphere. The parliament grants tax reliefs to the Finnish provinces pestered by the wars with Russia. The opinion among the educated classes in Finland shifts slowly toward a pro-Russian stand, which ultimately results in distrust for the kings Gustav III and Gustav IV Adolf. The upper class is mentally well prepared for an annexion to Russia at the Russian attack in February 1809. However, the peasantry is not, and the distrust between the commoners and the masters aggravates. [ the sections above are available at the www-page ] 4.3.5 Finland as a Russian Grand Duchy The time as a Grand-Duchy under the Russian Emperor is generally regarded as very good times for Finland. Finland enjoys an economic autonomy, the taxes from Finland are spent in Finland. Finland gets a National Bank of its own, a currency of its own, and a customs service of its own. Finland also gets a Civil Service of its own, and in all aspects a more independent position then she had had as one of many parts in the Swedish realm. (The position of Finland in the Swedish realm is sometimes compared to the present-day position of Norrland.) The Russian interest to draw Finland apart from Sweden, and to thereby make a re-conquest less likely, led to reforms which gradually promoted the use of Finnish language - explicit expressions of nationalism were repressed, however. Between 1863 and 1902, the status of the Finnish language in the Civil Service was gradually equalized with that of the Swedish language. The 19th century was also the time when scholars and scientists in Finland began to be identified as Finns (and not Swedes) by the surrounding world. For the self-esteem of the Finns it was of particular importance that prominent scientists (such as for instance family of geologists Nordenskiöld and the family of zoologists von Wright of which Magnus von Wright, became famous for his outstanding zoological paintings) were working at the University of Helsinki. From year 1869, the Parliament was to be regularly summoned every fifth year, although briefly 1899-1905 the Parliament was given a subordinate role in the legislative process as a step in the Russian policy of tying Finland closer to Russia. Until Russia's defeat by Japan in 1905 the situation in Finland remains very tense. Then the decree from 1899 is revoked, and common suffrage, equal for all men and women, is enacted in 1906. The Social Democrats get a strong, bordering to very strong, position in the Parliament, but the Left loses its confidence in democracy as discussions and compromises with Liberals and/or Conservatives turn out to give very poor results. Furthermore: the Russian representative uses his power to close the Parliament to hinder radical reforms. At the end of the first World War, the educated classes in Finland were (like those in Sweden) heavily oriented towards Germany. During the war, a number of Finnish men (mainly young and mainly of the educated classes, with pro-German and right-wing views) have secretly fled to Germany to receive military education, training and experience. 4.3.6 The independence of Finland As the political situation in Russia gets increasingly chaotic after the revolutions in 1917, Finland prepares for liberation. ...or sooner: the Conservative farmers and the educated class prepare for Independence. The agrarian and urban proletarians, inspired by the October Revolution in Russia, instead prepare for a World Revolution. Strikes, riots and shootouts occur in several cities and towns; as well as some widely-publicized murders. The former organized so-called Security Corps - the latter Red Militia. As Finland's parliament declares Finland a sovereign state on December 6th 1917, the "Security Corps" claim status as the national army, and the polarity between the Corps and the Red Militia aggravates further. (The Åland Islands try to become independent too - from Finland! - but fail to achieve this.) According to a revoked law from 1878, a compulsory military service is introduced, and the remaining Russian troops are required to leave. As they don't, they are disarmed by the National Army. This triggers the mobilization of the Red Militias of southern Finland against the "White" government at the end of January 1918. The Civil War lasts only three months, but is both bitter and bloody. Initially, southern Finland (with a majority of the country's population and its major urban centers) is controlled by the Red Militias, while the White government controls the predominantly agrarian northern and central provinces. Eventually, the White side defeats the Red, aided by volunteering officers from Sweden (8,000 man) and Norway (700 man), Finnish officers from the Czar's army, the Finnish officers educated in Germany and additionally also military support from Germany. Some 30,000 people (out of 3 mill. population) die as a result of the war; when the Red fronts collapse at end of April, the Militia leaders go underground or flee to Russia; tens of thousands of rank-and-file surrendered militia troops, male and female, are placed in prison camps. Several thousands are executed. At end of May 1918, General Mannerheim receives the White victory parade in Helsinki. The Civil War is followed by enhanced orientation toward Germany, and a German prince is proposed to become king of Finland. As Germany loses the World War, this alternative becomes politically unrealistic. 4.3.7 Wars with the Soviet Union This section is not yet written But, hei! Angela writes: > I need to know for school why that a high percentage > of Jewish people survived in Finland. Hiski Haapoja replies: Because the Finnish government didn't give in to German demands to deport them. The only known case is 8 Central European refugees, one of whom survived. 4.3.8 Finland after the wars This section is not yet written [ the sections above are available at the www-page ]
Subject: 4.4 The Finnish parliament, government and political parties &ltby Jorma Kyppö, Hiski Haapoja et al> + Official governmental information is available in English at <> (foreign ministry press pages). + Finland's Constitution and other Laws with constitutional status are available in English at <>. 4.4.1 The political parties The Centre (Keskusta, abbr. Kesk) was called Agrarian League until 1965 and still derives its main support from rural areas covering most of Finland. Not nearly all the voters have anything to do with farming, but loyalty to the Centre is almost a family value in the provinces, particularly the two northern ones (Oulu and Lapland). The higher voting percentage of the rural areas is an additional asset. The party has a strong anti-EU wing, which has close ties with Vapaan Suomen Liitto (Union of Free Finland), whose sole issue is to terminate the EU membership. Esko Aho has been chairman of the Centre since 1990 and Prime Minister since 1991. Other main politicians include the controversial Paavo Väyrynen, Seppo Kääriäinen, Olli Rehn, Tytti Isohookana-Asunmaa, Anneli Jäätteenmäki. The chairman of VSL is the noted troublemaker Ilkka Hakalehto. The Social Democrats (SDP) are strongest in Southern industrial towns, also sharing much of the middle-class and public employee vote. Party chairman Paavo Lipponen is the new Prime Minister. Other notable names: Arja Alho, Erkki Tuomioja, Pertti Paasio, Ulf Sundqvist, Antti Kalliomäki, Lasse Lehtinen, Kalevi Sorsa. President Martti Ahtisaari, EU commissioner Erkki Liikanen and many trade union figures come from SDP. The National Coalition (Kokoomus, abbr. Kok), or Conservatives, presents itself as the party of entrepreneurs and patriots, winning 90 per cent shares of vote in army bases. Helsinki and the other main cities are National Coalition strongholds. While most of rural Finland is dominated by the green of the Centre, Eastern Häme is blue for some reason. Chairman Sauli Niinistö and his minions (Pertti Salolainen, Pekka Kivelä, Ilkka Suominen, Harri Holkeri) are currently worried about a new rival, Nuorsuomalaiset (Young Finns - the name harks back to the days of the Tsar), which appears as a more modern, "cool" urban alternative. Risto E. J. Penttilä is the champion of the Young Finns, while the image of the National Coalition is burdened by the ruthless know-it-all Minister of Finance, Iiro Viinanen. Riitta Uosukainen is the first-ever Chairwoman of the Parliament. The Left-wing Alliance (Vasemmistoliitto, abbr. Vas) is a 1990 attempt to gather together the quarreling Communist movement. Some splits are still visible both inside and outside of the party. Much stronger in the North than in the South, the party gets most of its votes from industrial workers. The eternal struggle with SDP over trade unions goes on and on. The chairman is Claes Andersson, psychiatrist and novelist. The correct translation of Svenska Folkpartiet is not obvious. In this article "Swedish People's Party" is used, however this is far from a perfect translation: "Folkpartiet" means "People's party" and denotes in Finland like in Scandinavia parties of Liberal, non-Socialist, character. "Svenska" means that the party intends to represent the fraction of Finland's citizens with Swedish mother-tongue. This they do quite well as the Swedish speakers are less than 6% of Finland's population. The Swedish People's Party (SFP in Swedish, RKP in Finnish) unites the Swedish-speaking minority of the Southern and Ostrobothnian coasts, from leftist intellectuals through farmers and fishermen to nobility. The language issue gives SFP the stablest electorate of any Finnish party. It manages to worm its way to most Finnish governments, thus having influence far greater than its size. One of the 12 mandates is the representative of Åland Islands, Gunnar Jansson, who technically is not a member of the party as the islands have a political system of their own. The Greens first entered the Parliament in 1983. Their main concern is the environment (attitudes ranging from moderate to fanatical) but many counter-culture youths and citizens' rights activists feel home here as well. Paradoxically, the nature party thrives mainly in the big cities (the "Neon Greens") as well as in the Universities. The Christian League (founded in 1958) owes most of its seats to skillful electoral alliances which give the party benefit from votes originally given to other parties. Many of its faces represent Revivalist movements rather than mainstream Lutheranism. The chairman is Toimi Kankaanniemi. SMP, The Finnish Rural Party, (although changing the meaning of the letters is continually proposed) originated in 1959 as a rebellious (anti-Kekkonen) fraction of the Agrarian League. The party's electoral success has been very variable and despite government participation during the 1980s it never achieved, or much sought for, respectability, preferring to fish the populist vote with anti-refugee statements. The current state of SMP is chaotic, but it has happened before and SMP has risen like a phoenix from the ashes. The Liberal Party lost its only MP, the party's chairwoman Tuulikki Ukkola, in the elections. LKP has a history of power despite its small size, but is facing extinction and is hysterical about the threat of the Young Finns. The ultra green Ecological Party got one MP, one of the surprises of the elections. There are a dozen registered parties outside the Parliament. The law states that a party which twice consecutively fails to enter the Parliament must be dissolved, but usually they re-arrange themselves with the collection of another 5,000 signatures. Among them are three pensioners' parties (the least of them called Party of Shared Responsibility of Pension Receivers and Greens), the Women's Party and the Natural Law Party which aims to heal the Finnish economy by the means of yoga flying. The status of bad old IKL (the main Fascist party, banned in 1944) is somewhat unclear at the moment. 4.4.2 The 1995 general elections The Finnish parliament is unicameral, elected by citizens over 18 every fourth March (to commemorate the opening of the Estates' Diet by Tsar Alexander I in March 1809). The President, with the consent of the Prime Minister, can dissolve the Parliament and call for new elections. This last occurred in 1975. In the election of March 1995 the 200 seats went as follows: Party % of votes Seats (change from -91) Social Democrats 28.3 63 (+15) Centre Party 19.9 44 (-11) National Coalition (cons.) 17.9 39 (-1) Left-wing Alliance (comm.) 11.2 22 (+3) Greens 6.5 9 (-1) Swedish People's Party 5.1 11 (0) Christian League 3.0 7 (-1) Young Finns 2.8 2 (+2) Rural Party 1.3 1 (-6) Ecological Party 0.3 1 (+1) Åland representative 1 Voting percentage: 71.8 Of the new MP's 143 are men and 67 women. The parliament elected in 1991 had 77 women out of the total 200 MP's (a world record in its time), and as many women's organizations had set the goal as 101 women MP's to be elected, the result was clearly a disappointment and one of the most surprising elements of the elections. The Social Democrats got a great victory as a result of their being in the opposition in the last government. Centre party, the leading party of the previous government, was the greatest loser of the elections, probably because the party's split-up in the question of EU-membership. The National Coalition, the other major party in the government, was among the losers but was much less affected by government responsibility than the Centre. The gallups lied to the Greens once again and for the first time since its formation the party stopped growing. Young Finns got their first seats, not as many as they expected but it's a start. The Rural Party was one of the biggest losers of the elections; a once significant populist party, it has waned away almost completely and may soon disappear entirely from the Finnish political chart as it is currently in deep economical problems. The little known Ecological Party got its sole seat because of its candidate Pertti "Veltto" ("Slack") Virtanen, a well-known eccentric rock musician and psychologist, who was also a candidate in the presidential elections (and did surprisingly well). As Mrs. Speaker of the Parliament Riitta Uosukainen (Cons.) continued. 4.4.3 The rainbow cabinet The new cabinet appointed by president Ahtisaari is nicknamed "Rainbow cabinet" as it includes 7 Social Democrats, 5 Conservatives, 2 (ex-)Communists, 2 ethnic Swedes, one Green and one independent minister. The only major party left out is the Centre, which dominates rural Finland. Cuts in agricultural subsidies are expected. The notion of Conservatives and Communists in the same cabinet is unheard before, as is the presence of the Green (party chairman Pekka Haavisto, who lost his seat in the Parliament), as Minister of Environment. 11 men and 7 women. Prime Minister: Paavo Lipponen (born 1941). The slow-speaking, 197cm tall chairman of the Social Democratic Party was the first Finnish politician to suggest EC membership, at a time when it was highly unrealistic and potentially career-damaging (anti-Soviet). Foreign Minister: Tarja Halonen (SocDem). A surprise choice. Red hair and onetime Minister of Justice is all I can remember. Unless I'm mistaken, our first female Foreign Minister. Minister of the Treasury: Iiro Viinanen (Cons.) The most hated member of the former cabinet continues to persecute women, children and the trade unions. He has also gained much respect among some people, which shows e.g in that he got one of the biggest shares of votes in the parliamentary elections of all candidates. Second Minister of Treasury: Arja Alho, a Social Democrat from Helsinki with an independent mind. Minister of Trade and Commerce: Antti Kalliomäki, vice-chairman of the Social Democratic Party. A gray bore and former athlete. Minister of Interior Affairs (such as the Police): Jouni Backman (SocDem). A totalitarian character. 2nd minister Jan-Erik Enestam (Swedish People's Party), a municipal leader from Västanfjärd. Minister of Labour: Liisa Jaakonsaari (SocDem, from Oulu). Faces a huge task of reducing the record-high unemployment. Good luck! Minister of Justice: Sauli Niinistö, Chairman of the Conservatives. Lost his wife in a car accident earlier this year. Minister of Defence: Anneli Taina (Cons.) Apparently they decided to make this a permanent women's job. Minister of Traffic: Tuula Linnainmaa (Cons.) A nobody. Minister of Education: the 30-year old Conservative Olli-Pekka Heinonen continues. Minister of Social and Health Issues: Sinikka Mönkäre (SocDem) and Terttu Huttu (Comm.), a newcomer from Suomussalmi. Minister of European Affairs: Ole Norrback, the Ostrobothnian chairman of the Swedish People's Party and just about our most provincial politician. Minister of Culture: Claes Andersson, Comm. Chairman, poet, jazz pianist, ex-football player, psychiatrist and father of six or more. It's not often that we see a Minister of Culture who actually understands something about culture. [ the sections above are available at the www-page ]
Subject: 4.5 Main tourist attractions 4.5.1 Helsinki Helsinki (Swedish: Helsingfors) is the capital and largest city of Finland. It is in the southern coast of the country on the Gulf of Finland and occupies the tip of a small peninsula. The "towns" of Vantaa and Espoo are effectively suburbs of Helsinki, and together with Kaunianen, form the metropolitan where ca. 1 million people or nearly 20% if Finland's population live. The city is protected from the sea by a fringe of islands, so that its harbor is almost landlocked. It is underlain by hard rock, which shows in rounded masses, smothered and polished by ice sheets. Hollows in this surface are occupied by lakes or the sea, although some have been filled with urban waste to create new land. Summers in Helsinki are rather mild, with an average temperature of 18C in July; winters are pretty long and cold, January temperatures averaging -6°C. A belt of sea ice forms close to the coast during the winter months,but a passage is usually kept open by icebreakers. Helsinki was founded in 1550 by King Gustav Vasa to compete with the Hansaetic city of Tallinn in Estonia, some 50km south across the Gulf of Finland, and merchants from several smaller towns were ordered by force to move to Helsinki. It didn't start out well, however; many of the merchants moved back to their own towns, the place of the town had to be moved a couple of times to more suitable locations, fires and war destroyed the town several times, and plague killed most of the ihabitants. For over two hundred years, Helsinki was little more than a fishing village, but things started to improve when the construction of the huge fortress of Sveaborg started in 1748 on the islands just outside Helsinki and brought tens of thousands of soldiers, builders, officers, etc. to Helsinki. In 1809 Sveaborg (the modern Finnish name is Suomenlinna) surrendered almost without a shot to a Russian army that was much smaller than the Swedish-Finnish garrison, and Finland became an autonomous Grand Duchy of Russia. Helsinki was made capital in 1812, the university (founded 1640) was moved there from Turku in 1827, and the modern growth of the city started. The war had destroyed much of the old Helsinki, and the central city was rebuilt according to the plans of the German-born architect C.L.Engel in grand imperial scale to show the power of the Russian Empire. The city was bombed during the World War II, but not as badly as it might have because of the ingenious air raid defense (for example, a fake Helsinki was built next to the real one and set on fire to fool the Russian bombers). The Helsinki accords was the "declaration of policy intent" signed in Helsinki in 1975, by the United States, Canada, the USSR, and 32 European countries at the end of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (1973-75). The accords declared inviolable the frontiers of all the signatory nations, provided for scientific, technological, and cultural exchanges, and pledged the signatories to respect human rights, including "freedom of thought, conscience, religion, or belief." The most important sights in Helsinki include the following: + The Senate Square, in the very centre of Helsinki, is one of the most beautiful neo-classical squares in Europe. On one side of the square is situated the Senate palace, and on the other, the maiun building of Helsinki University; above them rises the Helsinki Cathedral (all are designed by C.L.Engel), and in the centre of the square is a statue of Emperor Alexander II. The university library is next to the main building of the university is considered to be perhaps Engel's finest work, especially the intererior is beautiful. Slightly "hidden" behind the square is the old House of the Estates, a fine piece of exuberant neo-renaissance architecture with golden decorations. Ateneum Art Museum located in the Rautatientori square nearby has the best collection of fine arts in Finland; mostly Finnish painters and some foreign masters of turn of the century (the rest of the somewhat modest collection of foreign art is housed in the Sinebrychoff museum on Bulevardi street); on the same square is the railway station, designed by Eliel Saarinen, which is a large and innovative Art Nouveau building (the main entrance looks a bit like an old radio set). + The Market Square, in the South Harbour, is a lively year-round market in beautiful surroundings. Beside the square is the fountain of Havis Amanda, the symbol of Helsinki. The Esplanade, a park avenue lined with shops and cafes starts from the fountain; at it's other end is the Swedish Theatre and the Stockmann department store, reputedly the largest in Scandinavia, and certainly the best one in Helsinki. A part of the Stockmann, although located in a separate building next to it, is the Academic Bookstore which is a must for every bookhoarder. They have a large selection of books in English, as well as several other major languages. For slightly cheaper shopping, you could take the subway to the Itäkeskus -station (East Centre). The station is right next to a huge suburban mall. + On the other end of the Market Square rises the golden, onion-shaped cupola of the Uspensky Cathedral, representing the other major religion in Finland, Greek Orthodoxy. Ferries leave from the square to the 18th century island fortress of Suomenlinna (Sveaborg), once called "the Gibraltar of the North" (but unlike Gibraltar, never had much military significance), located just outside the harbour; it's a beautiful place for picnics and just strolling around. There's also a centre for Scandinavian art in one of the old barracks, and a museum dedicated to the man behind Sveaborg's building, Augustin Ehrensvärd. The fortress is included in the UNESCO list of world heritage. Tickets to the ferries cost only about 10 FIM. There are also ferries to Korkeasaari Zoo, also located in a nearby island. Another good place for picnics is the Kaivopuisto park, where free pop-concerts are held in summer. + Going down the Mannerheimintie (Mannerheim street), which starts from the other end of the Esplanade, you'll pass the following places of interest: the parliament, which is a massive granite building that dates from the 1930's (and, frankly, looks like something that Albert Speer might have designed..). The Finlandia-house, by Finland's most famous architect Alvar Aalto, built of white marble, where the Helsinki accords were signed (it's also the home of e.g the Finnish Radio Symphony Orchestra). The Italian Carrara-marble plates haven't quite stood the test of Finnish weather, so it might be a good idea to wear a helmet in case of falling marble. :) The National Museum built in Art Nouveau style displays objects from different periods of Finnish history. The collection is relatively interesting, but displayed in a somewhat conservative way. Also, the museum is far too small for it's purpose. The National Opera is the next building on the line, it's a piece of modern architecture finished in 1993, more beautiful from the inside than the outside; and finally, the Olympic Stadium, where the 1952 Olympics were held. + You might also want to check the Temppeliaukio church in the district of Töölö, which is carved into a low hill of granite rock and covered by a copper dome (architect Reima Pietilä). Take a look from above, some of the staircases of the houses next to it for example; it looks like a landed UFO. Seurasaari island has an open-air museum of traditional Finnish wooden houses, not quite as good as Skansen in Stockholm or Bygdøy in Oslo, but if you're interested in folk culture it's certainly worth checking out. Linnanmäki amusement park is the largest in Finland; it differs in no way from your average large amusement park, but might still be a nice place to spend a day, especially if you're travelling with children. Heureka Science Center in the suburb of Vantaa is another good place to spend time with children; it popularizes science, lets you do all sorts of experiments of your own, and has a globular movie theatre. You can get there by local train or a special bus line leaving from Rautatientori. Ainola, home of the composer Jean Sibelius, is located in Järvenpää not far from Helsinki. + Internet addicts visiting the city can cure their withdrawal symptoms at the CompuCafe at Annankatu 22 in the center of the city. Free net access is also provided by an increasing number of public libraries, for instance the Kirjakaapeli library in the Kaapelitehdas (Cable Factory) culture center in western Helsinki. The place is well worth a visit on its own right. It's a huge old factory building where cables used to be made (hence the name), which after the closing of the factory was spontaneously taken over by various artists, workshops, clubs, etc., and after a brief wrestle with the city authorities and the company owning the building, it was turned in its entirety into a culture complex. It now houses, in addition to the library, cafes, galleries, several museums, repetition rooms for rock bands, classical orchestras, martial arts clubs, theatre groups, etc, and its a site for all sorts of cultural happenings. Getting there is easiest by taking the subway to the Ruoholahti station. For more information on Helsinki, you may wish to check these URLs: A clicable map of Helsinki WWW-resources: <> Official Helsinki city information: <> 4.5.2 Turku, the old capital Turku (Swedish: Åbo) is a port city in southwestern Finland at the mouth of the river Aura, about 160 km west of Helsinki. It has several important libraries, museums, and theaters. The Swedish University of Åbo (Åbo Akademi, 1917) and the University of Turku (1920) serve, respectively, the Swedish and Finnish populations of this bilingual city. Turku/Åbo is Finland's oldest city, founded sometime in the early 13th century, but not very many old buildings remain because of tens of disastrous fires, the worst one being that of 1827 which destroyed the city almost completely. Most of the buildings are, therefore, fairly new, with a couple of old monuments remaining. Before the Russian takeover in 1809, Turku was Finland's largest city and served as its capital. It was rather heavily damaged during also during the WWII. The city is divided by the river Aura, on the bank of which rises the Turku Cathedral, the most important medieval cathedral in Finland and a national sanctuary. It was started in 1230, and it's present shape (except for the cupola and the roof, which were built after the 1827 fire) dates from late middle ages. In the cathedral are buried e.g the wife of Erik XIV, Queen Karin Månsdotter (Kaarina Maununtytär) and some of the most famous of Gustav II Adolf's military leaders from the Thirty Years' War (the Finnish marshalls Evert Horn and Åke Tott, the general of the Hakkapeliitta cavalry Torsten Stålhandske and the Scottish colonel Samuel Cockburn). There's also a museum in one of the galleries. The other major medieval monument in Turku is the castle, started in the 1310's. The castle acted as the main castle of Finland in the middle ages and renaissance and experienced it's best days in the 16th century when the duke of Finland, Johan, held his court there together with the Polish-born princess Katarina Jagellonica whom he married in 1562. Later, in 1568, Johan imprisoned his brother, the mad renaissance king Erik XIV, and he was held prisoner in Turku castle. It's an impressive construction, but perhaps not exceptionally romantic. In the river Aura, there are two 19th century sailingships that act as museums, the Suomen Joutsen and Sigyn. The Cloister Hill (Luostarinmäki) has an attractive collection of simple wooden merchants houses that were spared from the fire of 1827. For more information on Turku: <> 4.5.3 Tampere, the third largest city of Finland <from: Kari Yli-Kuha > Tampere (in Swedish Tammerfors) lies about 160 km northwest of Helsinki. A major manufacturing hub and the textile center of Finland, Tampere also produces metals, heavy machinery, pulp, and paper, etc. The heavy concentration of industry has prompted some to call it Finland's Manchester (the center, with several rather attractive old factory buildings, looks pretty industrial, too). Just currently some old factories, such as Finlayson and Tampella, and their wide factory areas in the centre of the city are being renovated and partly rebuilt, but still in an attempt to maintain the architectural general appearance. Tampere was founded in 1779 and is the largest inland city in Scandinavia. The location between two lakes, Näsijärvi and Pyhäjärvi, and the rapids (Tammerkoski) joining the lakes gave birth to the industry in the city. The cathedral by Lars Sonck is a masterpiece of Finnish national-romantic Art Nouveau; it's frescoes by the symbolist painter Hugo Simberg are especially fascinating. Lake tours, "Hopealinja" (Silver Line) in Pyhäjärvi and "Runoilijan tie" (Poet's Way) in Näsijärvi, are popular in the summer. A gravel ridge, Pispalan harju, and the settlement there is also a major tourist attraction. Tampere has two theatres (TT and TTT) and a summer theatre with a revolving auditorium. The Särkänniemi amusement park is very popular in the summer. The new Tampere Hall is currently the second most popular place in Finland (after Finlandia House in Helsinki) for international congresses, large special events and exhibitions. One of the gastronomic delicacies typical for Tampere is black sausage ("mustamakkara") which is made of blood, though not nearly all regard it as a delicacy. Other tips: + Main shopping street Hämeenkatu + "Koskikeskus" shopping center by the rapids + Pyynikki natural park only two kilometres west from downtown + A 20 min ferry trip to Viikinsaari island For more information on Tampere: A clicable map of Tampere WWW-resources: <> Official Tampere city information: <> Maps of Tampere: <> 4.5.4 Jyväskylä <from: Jarmo Ryyti> Jyväskylä was where Alvar Aalto began his career as an architect; from 1920's up until our days, dozens of buildings designed by him have been built in and around Jyvaskyla, thus making the city famous for its architecture. Jyväskylä in the area of Finnish language culture it has a remarkable succession of "firsts": the first Finnish-language lyceum, the first school for the girls, the first teachers' training college (the seminary) the first national song and instrument festivals, the first society for the advancement of public education, the first "summer university", and the first arts festival. 4.5.5 Porvoo Porvoo (Swedish: Borgå) on the coast of the Gulf of Finland received its town rights in 1346. The town lies 48 km northeast of Helsinki, along the Porvoonjoki River. It's a rather small town with only 30,000 or so inhabitants, but it's rather attractive and the (mostly wooden) Old Town still has a rather medieval character. Building of the the cathedral in the center of the Old Town was finished 1414-18, and the Diet of Porvoo where Finland was granted its autonomous status as a Grand Duchy was held there in 1809 by emperor Alexander I. The house of Porvoo Gymnasium, built 1760, is on the cathedral square. The town hall was built in 1764 and now houses a historical museum; the art collection of the museum is in the Holm house (1762), included are works by two great artists of the golden age of Finnish art who were born in Porvoo, the painter Albert Edelfelt (1854-1940) and the sculptor Ville Valgren (1855-1940). Edelfelt's studio is one of the most popular museums of Porvoo area, it's located close to the Haikko manor (now a hotel) a few kilometers from Porvoo. The poet Johan Ludvig Runeberg spent the 25 last years of his life in Porvoo; his home at the corner of Aleksanterinkatu and Runeberginkatu has been a museum since 1880. He is buried in the Näsimäki cemetary of Porvoo. Next to the Old Town, on a hill across the Porvoo river, is Linnanmäki or Borgbacken (Castle Hill, which has given Porvoo its name; Borgå = Castle River). There are no stone fortifications left, the only remains are moats that have belonged to hillfort built by the Danes in the late 12th or early 13th century. 4.5.6 Other places of interest in Finland Åland islands (Ahvenanmaa in Finnish) are a beautiful archipelago, perfect for cycling, with medieval churches scattered around and the castle ruins of Kastelholm. Naantali/Nådendal, close to Turku, is a charming small, medieval town by the sea, where a Brigittine cloister was located (the church still remains). A popular place to visit in summers. Likewise, Rauma, located 100km north of Turku, has a very charming old town which is included in the UNESCO world heritage list, and a church that was part of a Franciscan monastery. The inland lake-system, with such lakes as Saimaa and Päijänne is perfect for a canoeing holiday; trips on one of the many lake steam boats are also recommended. The mightiest of Finnish medieval castles, Olavinlinna, is located in an island in the Saimaa, and a famous opera-festival is arranged in the castle every summer. The province of Lapland is among the last wild natural areas in Europe; no real mountains (except in some areas close to Norwegian border), but low fells that rise to some 500 metres. Good for trekking, but be prepared for mosquitoes. For general information through WWW see the clicable map of Finnish resources at <> [ the sections above are available at the www-page ]
Subject: 4.6 The Finnish Sauna <by Mauri Haikola> While the word "sauna" (in the Finnish pronounciation, the "au" sound is like "ou" in "loud") means different things in different countries, for a Finn it means an elementary part of everyday life. Ever since childhood, Finnish people learn to bathe in sauna, usually at least once a week. Yes, they do it naked, and yes, they go in there together with other people, while naked. This and other aspects of the Finnish sauna are discussed in the following questions and answers. Q1 Why is sauna something special in Finland? A1: Mostly because of ancient traditions. Wherever there have lived Finns, there have also been a sauna nearby their residences. In the early days of Finnish history, it was a small wooden hut near a lake, and people used it not only for cleaning themselves, but for childbirths, some medical operations and other duties that required a clean, bacteria-free environment. Today, practically all houses in Finland have a sauna. In urban areas, you usually have one per building, but even in a relatively small apartment it is not a rare piece of luxury these days. This being the case, Finns discover at an early age what a refreshing way it is to clean oneself both physically and mentally. The tradition is not a dying one either. Q2 What is a Finnish sauna like? A2: The basic parts are the stove ("kiuas"), filled with fist-sized stones, and the benches or platforms ("lauteet"), made of wood (anecdotes of metal benches in the saunas of some Finnish-built Russian warships are told :). There are usually two benches, one of which is higher (the seat) and the other one lower (place to rest your feet on, or another seat if you feel it's too hot). These are what all saunas have. The modern saunas have the usual shower and dressing rooms too, but the traditional ones near a lake or sea (usually in the vicinity of a summer cabin, or built in one) do not require anything but a stove for heating and a bench to sit down on -- you can do the cleaning in the lake. The stove is traditionally fuelled by wood, but electrically heated saunas are common due to their safe, easy and clean use. The average sauna has room for 3-6 people at a time. Q3 How are you supposed to bathe? A3: There are no rules, only guidelines. Finns like their traditions, but do not enforce them on themselves or foreigners. Usually you bathe together with your family. If you are with friends or others that aren't family members, men and women take turns to bathe separately. Most public saunas are separate for men and women, but not all. You take your clothes off (this is not a rule, mind you; if someone wants to use a towel or bathing suite, it's not a breach of any important etiquette), go and sit down on the benches and relax. The air is not particularly humid at first (there is no visible steam), and when you feel like it, you throw some water on the stones to increase humidity. This causes the water to vaporize very quickly, and it makes the bathers feel a momentary breath of hot air in their backs. It may be uncomfortable, if the stove is too hot or if you use too much water, and in those cases it helps to step down on the lower bench, or to go out entirely. This is also perfectly acceptable, and first-time sauna bathers shouldn't feel obligated to stay in if they don't feel like it. The basic goal is to enjoy and relax, and sweat. After you've done enough of that, you go to the showers, and/or swim in the lake, depending on the facilities. After swimming or showering, you can go back to the sauna, and repeat this cycle as many times as you want. Q4 How hot is it in there? A4: This varies according to the bathers' wishes. Usually the temperature is between 60°C and 110°C, the widely-agreed-upon ideal temperature being somewhere around 85°degrees. Sometimes (after a few drinks) Finnish men engage in an unhealthy competition over who can stay in a hot sauna the longest time. This is not the way sauna is meant to be enjoyed, not to mention that it can be dangerous. Also, you shouldn't be drunk in sauna. A cold beer after sauna, however, tastes usually great, even a mediocre brand. Q5 What is a smoke sauna? How does it differ from the usual one? A5: A smoke sauna (savusauna) is perhaps the most traditional kind of sauna. There is no smoke pipe: all the smoke from the stove goes inside the sauna while heating. Of course, it has to be removed before bathing, and this is done by opening a small hatch on the wall. The fire on the stove must not be burning while bathing, but this doesn't matter, since the massive stove radiates plenty of heat for many hours. A smoke sauna is often considered the ultimate sauna experience, complete with the wonderful smoke odour. Smoke saunas are somewhat rare compared to the normal ones these days, but sauna enthusiasts praise them so that there still exist plenty of them. Q6 Do Finns really jump out naked into the snow in the middle of sauna bathing and roll around in winter time? Or go swimming in a frozen lake? A6: Some do, most don't. This is a habit that requires a healthy heart and a bit of courage, but it is practised, and there are some enthusiasts who think sauna in the winter is nothing without a quick swim in the snow or freezing water. Of course, others think this is sheer madness. Q7 What about sauna and sex? A7: Even though people are naked in sauna, Finns do not see anything sex-related in their sauna tradition. Of course you can have sex in there if you feel like it, but that is neither a part of any tradition nor very comfortable. Women used to give birth in saunas a long time ago, but the conceiving was done mostly elsewhere. Massage parlours and other (sometimes sexual) services that often come with a public sauna in the red-light districts of big cities are unknown phenomena in Finland. Going to sauna naked with all your family is not at all perverted, as the reader might think. Instead, the sauna tradition makes it natural and comfortable for children to learn about human body, and for parents to tell them about it. [ the sections above are available at the www-page ]
Subject: 4.7 Finnish literature Most of the text below is reproduced on the Project Runeberg pages on Nordic Authors <>. Links to the Project Runeberg pages are provided when they hold also other information. Fire has destroyed most of the early literature the Finnish church and monasteries must have produced. The first known Finnish author was Jöns Budde, a Franciscan monk who lived in the Brigittene monastery at Naantali in the latter part of 15th century, chiefly translating from Latin to Swedish, but he also wrote a few things of his own. Codex Aboensis written probably in Turku in the 1440's is an important collection of law texts; Missale Aboense printed in 1488 for the Finnish church is a beautiful book and a source of medieval Finnish religious life. Mikael Agricola (circa 1510-57), a bishop of Turku and great advocate of Lutheranism, is considered the father of Finnish literature. His ABC-book published 1538 is the first known book in Finnish, but the translation of New Testament (1548) is his greatest achievement. Paavali Juusten (?1512-72) was another important 16th century author; his Chronicon episcoporum Finlandensium (Chronicle of the Finnish Bishops [published in Latin]) is an important source of early Finnish history. Erik Sorolainen (1545-1625) did most of the translation of the Old Testament when the whole Bible was eventually published in Finnish in 1642, delayed by the Thirty Years' War. The first grammar of Finnish, Linguae Finnicae brevis institutio [Latin], was written by Eskil Petraeus in 1649. Daniel Juslenius (1676-1752) was an enthusiastic advocate of things Finnish. He wrote a baroque study on Finland (Aboa vetus et Nova [Latin], 1700) which among other things traced the origins of Roman civilization to Finland; a defense of Finnishness (Vindicae Fennorum [Latin], 1702); and most importantly, the first major Finnish dictionary (Suomalaisen Sana-Lugun Coetus, 1745), containing 16,000 entries. He and his ideological followers became known as Fennophiles (proto-nationalists, but not separatists). Jakob Frese (1691-1729) and Gustaf Filip Creutz (1731-1785) contributed importantly to the Swedish-language poetry of the era. The first major Finnish poet, however, was Frans Mikael Franzén (1772-1847), whose fresh, romantic poetry was enormously popular in Sweden (including Finland!) in his time. His teacher was the great scholar Henrik Gabriel Porthan (1739-1804), a student of Juslenius and a Fennophile, who brought Finnish history-writing, study of mythology and folk poetry, and other humanistic sciences to an international level. His De Poësi Fennica (published in Latin in five parts 1776-78), a study on Finnish folk poetry, had great importance in awakening public interest in the Kalevala-poetry and Finnish mythology, and the study was also the basis of all later study of the poetry. He was among the founders of the Aurora Society that advocated Finnish literary pursuits and was the editor of the first Finnish newspaper, Tidningar utgifne af et sällskap i Åbo, founded in 1771. Antti Lizelius (1708-1795) published the first newspaper in Finnish, Suomenkieliset Tieto-Sanomat, 1776. Porthan inspired the following generation of Finnish authors, poets and researchers, many of whom were among the founders of the Finnish Literature Society in 1831. A movement literary trend known as Helsinki Romanticism was born in the 1830's when the university was moved to the new capital. Four young university students came to have towering importance to the forming of the Finnish literature, and ultimately, the Finnish national identity. These were the poet Johan Ludvig Runeberg (1804-77), the scholar Elias Lönnrot (1802-84), the author Zacharias Topelius (1818-1898) and the Hegelian philosopher and statesman Johan Vilhelm Snellman (1806-81). Especially important was Elias Lönnrot, who did a huge task of collecting folk poetry from the remote wildernesses of Karelia, and compiling these to what was to become Finland's national epic, the Kalevala. (1849). It is composed of 50 poems (sometimes called runes), altogether 22,795 verses. The book starts with a creation-myth, then goes on to recount the deeds and adventures of the three protagonists, Väinämöinen the magician and bard, Ilmarinen the smith, and Lemminkäinen the wanton loverboy and warrior, and ends with the introduction of Christianity to Finland. Lönnrot was under the influence of Homeric ideals and tried to forge the poems into a single epic, adding bits and pieces of his own and altering some parts to make them appear a whole, which they however never have been. Nevertheless, its role to the development of Finnish literature, arts and identity can hardly be over-estimated, and having been translated to all major world languages and lots of minor ones, it is no doubt the most important contribution of Finland to world literature. Lönnrot also published a counterpart to Kalevala, the Kanteletar, a collection of ancient lyrical poetry often sung by women. These two books, however, cover but a small part of the recorded Finnish folk poetry. For instance, between 1908-48 was published a massive, 33-volume book series called Suomen Kansan Vanhoja Runoja, containing altogether 85,000 poems, with well over a million verses. Kalevala & Kanteletar can be found (in Finnish) at <> & <>. Runeberg's main works were the realist/idealist poem Älgskyttarna (Elk Hunters, 1832), which can be called the first major literary portrayal of ordinary people in Scandinavia, the Ossianic epic Kung Fjalar (King Fjalar, 1844) and the emotional and humane heroic poem Fänrik Ståls Sägner (The Tales of Ensign Stål, I 1848, II 1860) on the war of 1808-09, which enjoyed huge popularity in both Finland and Sweden and became something of a national romantic symbol. Topelius was a full-blooded romantic, more superficial as a literary artist than Runeberg, and less of an innovator. His Fältskärns Berättelser (1851-67, The Barber-Surgeons Stories) is a historical novel set in the Thirty Years' War, in the tradition of Sir Walter Scott; he is also well known in Finland for his fairy tales. Snellman's chief achievement was in his role as a national awakener, the editor of two newspapers, strongly encouraging literature as part of the process leading to independence. Early writers in Finnish The first great prose writer in Finnish - considered by some to be the most genial - was Aleksis Kivi (1834-72), a novelist and playwright who during his lifetime was largely ignored. Major works include Seitsemän Veljestä (The Seven Brothers, 1870), his most celebrated play, and the comedy Nummisuutarit (The Heath Shoemakers, 1864). He was more modern and many-sided in his expression than Runeberg, but his image of the Finnish people was too "raw" and realistic for most people of his era, and he died in extreme poverty, suffering from a mental illness. Minna Canth (1844-97), an energetic fighter for women's rights and social justice, was a contemporary of Juhani Aho (1861-1921), a novelist and short-story writer known for his humorous sketches and lyrical, dreamy descriptions of nature. Eino Leino (1878-1926) was a poet of exceptional talent, drawing heavily on the Kalevala tradition. His main themes are love and nature, and poem collections such as Helkavirsiä (Helka-hymns, 1903), Halla (Frost, 1908) which includes the wonderful love/nature poem Nocturne, and Hymyilevä Apollo (The Smiling Apollo) are still much-loved. V. A. Koskenniemi often turned to classical themes. Uuno Kailas wrote harsh, self-analytic verse, whereas Kaarlo Sarkia sought solace in aestheticism and fantasy. The personal, abrupt, and humorous poetry of Aaro Hellaakoski and the equally humorous, learned, yet folklike verse of P. Mustapää were only appreciated after 1945. The generation of the 1950s, including Paavo Haavikko and Eeva-Liisa Manner, introduced new poetic forms to which their successors often added absurd humor, formalist experimentation, and social criticism. Modern writers in Swedish Finland-Swedish modernism was introduced by Edith Södergran (1892-1923). She didn't receive much recognition in her lifetime, but is now regarded one of Finland's foremost poets. She was first influenced by French symbolism, then German expressionism and Russian futurism, and creatively applied these to her own poetry. Her free rhythm, strong, challenging images fired by a Nietzschean self-conscience and conviction of the importance of her message were new and baffling to the Finnish audience, and she was almost without exception misunderstood and even ridiculed. Her first collection of poems was Dikter (Poems, 1916), which was followed by Rosenaltaret (The Rose Altar, 1919) and Landet som icke är (The land that is not, 1925) among others. Always physically weak and somewhat sickly, she died young just as she was starting to get followers. Among these the most important were Elmer Diktonius (1896-1961), Gunnar Björling (1887-1960) and Rabbe Enckell (1903-74). In recent years writers such as Märta & Henrik Tikkanen, Kjell Westö (b. 1961) and others have proved that the size of a linguistic minority has very little to do with the quality of its literature. The author Tove Jansson (b. 1914) has won much international fame for her creation of the Moomins, philosophical-minded, friendly trolls who live in Moominvalley. There are many books on their adventures, e. g. Muminpappan och Havet (Moominpappa and the Sea). Her fantasy world charms with its richness, inventiveness and wisdom of life spiced with witty humor. The events and imagery flow freely and uninhibited, yet reflecting the phenomena of the real world. Modern writers in Finnish Joel Lehtonen, Volter Kilpi, and especially Frans Eemil Sillanpää (1888-1964) dominated naturalistic prose in the first half of the 20th century. Sillanpää was awarded the 1939 Nobel Prize for literature for the book Silja, nuorena nukkunut (Silja, Fallen Asleep While Young, 1931). Also important are Toivo Pekkanen, who wrote about the plight of industrial workers, and Pentti Haanpää, who portrayed with a bitter but defiant humor the struggle of humans against harsh nature in northern Finland. After World War II, Väinö Linna had great success with the novel Tuntematon Sotilas (The Unknown Soldier, 1954) which played a part in the healing of the wounds of the war and is read by almost every Finnish schoolkid. The extensive use of dialects make the book quite impossible to translate; translations into English and many other languages do exist, but cannot be recommended very highly (although I hear the Swedish one is pretty good). His other major work is the trilogy Täällä pohjantähden alla (Here Under the North Star, 1959-62), a story of the struggles of poor farmers that culminated in the Civil War of 1918. More recently, Veijo Meri has described the violence and absurdity of human life, especially during times of war. Mika Waltari (1908-79) is among the Finnish prose writers best known to an international audience. He wrote his most successful novels in the 1940s and 50's, many of them on historical subjects; among these is Sinuhe egyptiläinen (The Egyptian, 1945), a novel set in ancient Egypt, about the collapse of traditional ways of life and the inflation of inherited values. It's also been filmed into a dreary Hollywood spectacle. From the 1960s, social issues became central to the young novelists and poets. Hannu Salama went through a famous trial for blasphemy (after which the blasphemy laws were repealed) for his novel Juhannustanssit (Juhannus Dances, 1964). Pentti Saarikoski was the leading poet of the 60's. Often better remembered for his for his unhealthy lifestyle, Saarikoski was nevertheless one of the most genial poets in Finnish and a brilliant translator of e. g. Homer and Joyce. Such younger writers as as Alpo Ruuth and Antti Tuuri have also dealt with social issues. Another author who has long been very popular in Finland and has started to win international fame recently is the humorist Arto Paasilinna; Jäniksen Vuosi (The Year of the Hare, 1974), is the story of an advertising man who gets sick of urban life and escapes to the wilderness with his pet hare. For electronic versions of some of the works of Nordic literature, see the collection of Project Runeberg: + Icelandic Literature + Literature from the Viking Age + Medieval Nordic Literature + Danish Literature + Norwegian Literature + Literature of Finland + Literature from the Age of Liberty [ in Sweden and Finland (1719-1772) ] [ the sections above are available at the www-page ]
Subject: 4.8 Dictionaries and other study-material <Compiled by Nils O. Monaghan> BOOKS USEFUL FOR LEARNING FINNISH (Version 2.3) Many thanks to all those who have contributed and commented on this list. As usual any additions, corrections, and other comments should be mailed to <>. This list contains works which may be found useful for learning Finnish - either whether by self-study or other means. Some works are directed towards teachers rather than students. Older works are retained as these are often the ones that will be stumbled across in libraries. INDEX Grammars, Primers, Phrase Books. Dictionaries Readers Materials for Teaching Finnish Miscellaneous Course Details Acknowledgements 4.8.1 Grammars, primers, phrase books Maija-Hellikki Aaltio: Finnish for Foreigners (1963) A good book to work through, it teaches grammar and vocabulary in small chunks with plenty of grammatical exercises and reading exercises. The emphasis on obtaining a practical command of the language (even if mainly a reading knowledge) makes it very useful. I think there may well be an updated version available these days. A new edition is now available. [NOM] Maija-Hellikki Aaltio: Finnish for Foreigners (1987): Finnish for Foreigners 1 Textbook Finnish for Foreigners 1 Exercises Finnish for Foreigners 2 Textbook Finnish for Foreigners 2 Exercises Finnish for Foreigners 3 Textbook [ There are also 2 cassettes per book giving aural versions of the chapter readers and listening exercises for the exercise books. ] I find these books OK for learning progressively, and the reference tables in the back are more useful as a quick grammar reference than Fred Karlsson's book, however there are two distinct drawbacks: 1. It is very difficult to find anything in the books, e.g. if you decide you want to check up a particular grammatical feature or item of vocabulary. 2. The texts are getting a bit out of date (they're quite sixties/seventies in their topics and attitudes in places). [Matthew Faupel] A complete revision of the original 1963 book which bore the same title, this has long been the standard work for teaching Finnish to English-speaking foreigners. The book is slightly dated with respect to language teaching methodology, but it takes the student from the basics to a solid command of the language. The 1987 edition devotes considerable attention to the peculiarities of spoken Finnish. [Eugene Holman] J. Atkinson: Finnish Grammar (Helsinki, 1956) A course in Finnish grammar for the learner. It concentrates on explaining the grammar and thus contains only a few short reading passages and a very limited vocabulary. Michael Branch et al: A Student's Glossary of Finnish: The Literary Language Arranged by Frequency and Alphabet (Werner Soderstrom Osakeyhtio, Porvoo, 1980) 1200 items, graded and accompanied by morphological information. Glossed in several languages, including English. [Lance Eccles] Berlitz Finnish for Travellers Various editions in various languages. A typical inexpensive Berlitz pocket language guide. Like all the these guides, it of great help unless you actually know a little bit already, but then it is very helpful for vocabulary in various situations - especially menus. [NOM] Björn Collinder: A Handbook of the Uralic Languages. Part 2. Survey of the Uralic Languages (Stockholm, 1957) [This may have been issued separately entitled "A Finnish Primer".] Although a book aimed at compartative linguists, the Finnish section contains a graded grammatical introduction together with reading passages and a vocabulary. I have seen this Finnish section as a separate pamphlet but without any publication details. [NOM] Artem Davdijants Inge Davidjants, Eugene Holman, Riitta Koivisto-Arhinmäki: Terve, Suomi! Conversational Finnish in video ( Helsinki/Tallinn 1992) This is the first attempt to produce an audiovisual course in Finnish. The course consists of a 45-minute video (VHS-PAL) dramatization of a trip to Finland, a 60-minutte audio cassette, and a 140-page textbook. The English version is a translation and expansion of the Estonian original. The course was produced under difficult circumstances during the last days of Soviet Estonia, and it has some unfortunate shortcomings. Nevertheless, it represents a totally new approach to presenting and teaching Finnish as a foreign langauge. Contact <> for further information. [Eugene Holman] Eugene Holman: Handbook of Finnish Verbs. 231 Finnish verbs conjugated in all tenses (Finnish Literature Society, 1984) Modelled on the famous Barrons 201 Verbs series, this book contains a detailed discussion of all the regularities and peculiarities of Finnish verb morphology, in addition to which it has information on the cases used in conjunction with more than 1200 Finnish verbs. Eugene Holman: Finnmorf (1986) An MS-DOS computer program which generates all the forms of a Finnish verb, noun, adjective, numeral or pronoun if given the dictionary form. It is thus a computer emulation of a handbook of Finnish inflectional morphology. Particularly useful for teachers of Finnish because it quickly produces neatly formatted full paradigms which can be saved as text files for further editing. Available as freeware upon request from <>. [Eugene Holman]. Leena Horton: First Finnish (Helsinki, 1982) Teaches a very basic knowledge of Finnish with a limited vocabulary through pictures. There are no grammatical explanations beyond the translations in the vocabularies for each chapter. This book was designed for use with children in a classroom situation. [NOM] Mirja Joro et al.: Askelia Suomeen (Ammattikasvatushallitus, Helsinki, 1985-86) Four slim vols, all in Finnish, and intended for newcomers to Finland. [Lance Eccles] Fred Karlsson: Finnish Grammar (tr Andrew Chesterman, WSOY, Porvoo-Helsinki-Juva, 1983). Finnish edition: Suomen peruskielioppi (1982) Swedish edition: Finsk grammatik (1978). Karrlsson systematically covers the grammar of Finnish. This is an excellent book - the grammar rules are easy to read and understand and numerous examples are given. The book uses a very clear and understandable style of layout. However, it is a grammar and will need to be used in conjunction with other material. [NOM] I've got this book, and while I find it useful, I'd hesitate to call it "excellent". It's difficult to find things in it sometimes, it doesn't cover everything (e.g. I would dearly love to have information on such things as the use of "fossilised" cases (e.g. maanatai/sin, posti/tse) and I find the rule blocks written entirely in capitals difficult to read. There is definite room for improvement. [Matthew Faupel] Aira Haapakoski, Seija Koski & Mirja Valkesalmi: HUOMENTA SUOMI (Valtion painatuskeskus, Helsinki, 1990, ISBN 951-861-175-0) I've used it for adults and children. It illustrates basic grammar fairly clearly and may make teaching grammar more fun, it does not, however, give verbal rules, mainly the info is given in "boxes". Huomenta Suomi costs around 100 FIM (= $25 CAD). [Marja Coady] Marjatta Karanko & Ulla Talvitie: TOTTAKAI! (Oy Finn Lectura Ab, Loimaan kirjapaino, Loimaa 1993, ISBN 951-8905-71-1) I have not used it much yet but it would seem to be suitable especially for teenagers since its texts are geared towards them. Grammar is explained somewhat and the book contains exercises as well. Everything is done in Finnish. [Marja Coady] Meri Lehtinen: Basic Course in Finnish (Ural and Altaic Series #27, Indiana UP, Bloomington, 1963) A huge book, full of drills. Unfortunately now out of print. [Lance Eccles] Terttu Leney: Teach Yourself Finnish (New Version, Hodder and Stoughton, ISBN 0-340-56174-2) [An audio casette is also available] Whitney's notorious _Teach Yourself Finnish_ has been superseded by a new Finnish textbook compiled according to the Council of Europe's Threshold guidelines on language learning. It is an excellent introduction to spoken and written Finnish. [Eugene Holman] Teach Yourself has just recently brought out a new version. A colleague recckons its pretty good. [Matthew Faupel] The new version seems to be a *much* better book [Antti Lahelma] Anneli Lieko: Suomen kielen fonetiikkaa ja fonologiaa ulkomaalaisille (1992) [Finnish phonetics and phonology for foreigners]. A clearly written presentation of the Finnish sound system intended for foreigners with a good reading knowledge of the language. The book concentrates on the learning difficulties foreigners speaking a wide range of languages face when trying to master Finnish pronunciation. [Eugene Holman] I would like to say that the book is certainly useful but far from being a complete presentation of Finnish phonetics and phonology for foreigners. It does not, for example, specify exactly when a two-vowel pair is pronounced as a diphthong (instead of two vowels belonging to distinct syllables), nor does it describe the rules for secondary stress in Finnish. Admittedly, these are areas which have not been studied extensively enough, and they seldom have any phonematic effect. But the phenomena certainly affect the naturalness of one's speech in Finnish. [Jukka "Yucca" Korpela] Olli Nuutinen: Suomea Suomeksi 1. (Suomalaisen Sirjallisuuden Seura, Helsinki, repr. 1992) Vocabuary available in Danish, Icelandic, French, Spanish, Swedish, Norwegian, English, German, and Italian. Teaches everything in Finnish only. Probably less suitable for self studies. No audio cassettes available. As a student I know only this one and can't compare, but my impression is quite good. Seems to be up to date. The German vocabulary contains many errors. [Uwe Geuder] At first the book looks extremely childish but all of the grammar is there. I have found it quite effective when used in tandem with Karlsson's grammar. I first used this book in 1982 and I would guess it was first published in the late 70's. This book makes Finnish feel EASY and with a little imagination is fun to learn from (and teach with!). [Cecelia A Musselman]. John B. Olli: Fundamentals of Finnish Grammar (Northland Press, New York, 1958) This book concentrates mainly on long lists of declensions and conjugations. The approach taken is not a very helpful for the learner. [NOM] Anges Renfors: Finnish Self-Taught (Thimm's System) with Phonetic Pronunciation (Marlborough's Self Taught Series, London, 1910) Quite a old one! It is really a structured vocabulary with a brief grammar and a mini-phrase book. Very similar in many ways to the modern Berlitz books. [NOM] Thomas A. Sekeboed (?): Spoken Finnish It seems to be good for having lots of conversational stuff in it, though probably you need the tapes (and a grammar) to make a good go of it [Robert Cumming] Leena Silfverberg: Suomen kielen jatko-oppikirja (Finn Lectura, Helsinki?, 1990) An intermediate course. All in Finnish. Has vocab lists, but no translations. [Lance Eccles] Arthur H. Whitney: Finnish (Teach Yourself Books, Hodder and Stoughton, 1956) Being available in the cheap Teach Yourself Series, this book is easily and widely available. Which makes it such a shame that it is so bad. It consists of 20 chapters each of which has a grammatical section, a vocabulary, and exercises including short reading passages. The grammar is dreadfully complicated with the reader learning rare variations almost immediately. It is also very poorly laid out with no attempt at making it even vaguely easy on the eye and brain. The vocabularies seem somewhat pointless - they are normally 4 or 5 pages long which is an incredible amount of learning expected for a single chapter - it would have been better to include them alphabetically at the end of the work and then tell the reader "learn the words beigining with 'a' today". The exercises and reading passages are short and no great aid to someone working alone - as "Teach yourself" implies. A replacement by Terttu Leney is now available in this series. [NOM] Yes, that book presents the reader with the most massive vocabulary lessons I have seen in any text book. But, I liked one thing about it; the reading passages form a real continuing story. This is something most language books lack completely. Personally, I also liked the fact that even the first passage is far from trivial, not on the order of "Hello, Mrs. Paivinen. That is a house." But as usually happens with me and language books, I didn't assimilate the whole of the book. A lot has stuck, though. [ <> ] 4.8.2 Dictionaries Suomi-Englanti-Suomi taskusanakirja, WSOY, Porvoo-Helsinki-Juva 1989. A small pocket dictionary with a stylised picture of the Union Jack as its cover. Just about passable as a pocket dictionary, but it often doesn't give an indication of whether the word is a noun, adjective or verb (not always obvious) and only gives the basic form of each word (not helpful if it has an irregular partitive or whatever). It also lacks most Finnish colloquialisms (the dictionary seems to be designed for Finns coming to Britain rather than vice-versa). [Matthew Faupel] WSOY Suomi/Englanti and Englanti/Suomi. Two volumes, about the same size as the Concise Oxford (i.e. about 25cmx20cmx8cm). Hence lots of words and examples. [Matthew Faupel] Suomi/Englanti/Suomi Sanakirja, Gummerus Kirjapaino OY, 1989 A single volume mid-size dictionary with a reasonable amount of colloquial information in, but still no information on things other than the basic forms of words (other than indirectly via examples). [Matthew Faupel] Nykysuomen sanakirja Something like 6 volumes. Irreplaceable for knowing which words inflect in which ways, and for less common words. Clearly not for beginners, because of the total lack of English, but it's currently a bargain at around 300FIM (40 pounds sterling) in softback. [Steve Kelly] 4.8.3 Readers Robert Austerlitz: Finnish Reader and Glossary (Research and Studies in Uralic and Altaic Languages No 14, Indiana UP, 1963) Aili Rytkönen Bell & Augustus Koski: Finnish Graded Reader (1968) (Foreign Service Institute. Department of State. 1968) [Audio cassettes are also available] A behemoth (744 pgs.) of a book, this book takes the student from the advanmced elementary level (approx. 500 words and basic grammar) up to unedited journalistic, literary, and historical texts. Jam packed with interesting exercises and information otherwise unavailable about Finnish vocabulary, idioms and phraseology. In my opinion this is the BEST BOOK AVAILABLE for mastering Finnish in all of its stylistic variety after you have learned the basics. The book is a public document and costs $17.50 according to the latest information I have available. [Eugene Holman] 4.8.4 Material for teaching Finnish (Language Centre for Finnish Universities) Eija Aalto (ed.): Kohdekielenä suomi. Oppimateriaalien kommentoitu bibliografia. (Information from the Language Centre for Finnish Universities, 1991) (in Finnish) Jönsson-Korhola & White: Rakastan sinua. Pidätkö sinä minusta? Suomen verbien rektioita. (Language Centre Materials No. 66, 1989) H. Koivisto: Suomi-tytön kieli. Suggestopedinen alkeiskurssi (Finnish- English). (Language Centre Materials No. 75, 1990) K. Siitonen: Auringonvalo. Elämää suomalaisessa kylässä. (Reading materials for conversation classes). (Language Centre Materials No. 79, 1990) E. Aalto: Kuule hei! Suomen kielen kuunteluharjoituksia vieraskielisille, (listening comprehension material, booklet + tapes). (Language Centre Materials No. 80, 1990) Ahonen & White: Monta sataa suomen sanaa. (reader for vocabulary building and revision, English glossaries). (Language Centre Materials No. 101, 1993) All the above can be ordered from: Language Centre for Finnish Universities, University of Jyväskylä, P.O. Box 35, 40351 Jyväskylä, Finland. If you want further information, feel free to contact Helena Valtanen <>. [Helena Valtanen] 4.8.5 Miscellaneous Peter Hajdu: Finno-Ugrian languages and peoples (tr and adapted by G.F. Cushing fr Hungarian "Finnugor nepek es nyelvek", Deutsch, London, 1975). Gives a background to the peoples and cultures of the Finno-Ugrian family of languages. [NOM] 4.8.6 Course details Suomea/Finska/Finnish Soumen kielen ja kultuurin opinnot kesällä 1994 / Att studera finska och Finlands kultur sommaren 1994 / Courses in Finnish language and culture summer 1994 (Council for Instruction of Finnish for Foreigners, Ministery of Education) This brochure is available from UKAN/Opitusministeri| PL 293, FIN-00171 Helsinki, Finland [Uwe Geuder] 4.8.7 Acknowledgements With lots of additions & help gratefully received from: Uwe Geuder <>; Matthew Faupel <> Antti Lahelma <> Eugene Holman <> Robert Cumming <> Cecelia A Musselman <cam17@edu.columbia> Helena Valtanen <> Arndt Jonasson <> Brian Wilkins <> Hans-Christian Holm <> Lance Eccles <> Steven Kelly <> Jukka "Yucca" Korpela <> Marja Coady <COADY@ERE.UMONTREAL.CA> plus others. [ the sections above are available at the www-page ] -=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=- END OF PART 4 -=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=- © Copyright 1994-98 by Antti Lahelma and Johan Olofsson. You are free to quote this page as long as you mention the URL for the original archive (as: <>), where the most recent version of this document can be found. -- e-mail: s-mail: Majeldsvägen 8a, 587 31 LINKÖPING, Sweden www:

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