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Archive-name: new-zealand-faq
Posting-frequency: monthly, a pointer is posted to s.c.n-z on Mondays.
Last-modified: 12 November 1996

See reader questions & answers on this topic! - Help others by sharing your knowledge
This is the list of Frequently Asked Questions, and
some hopefully useful answers.

It should be possible to find the latest edition of this FAQ at:

  ***        PLEASE DON'T E-MAIL CONTRIBUTIONS TO ME         ***
  ***      E-mailed contributions will NOT be included       ***
  ***    E-mailed requests/questions will NOT be answered    ***
  ***   Replies to this message go back into the newsgroup   ***

I am NOT here to supply information on request or research obscure topics.
I merely compile the information from the newsgroup and add whatever I
think may be useful or relevant.  If you really can't look something up for
yourself, *ask in the newsgroup*!

Like many people in New Zealand (and some other parts of the world) I pay
for my e-mail by volume, both incoming and outgoing.  E-mailing a request
to someone you don't know without an invitation is often NOT appreciated.
I very seldom respond to such mail.  It particularly annoys me to receive
requests for information which is in the faq...

Contributions and comments are welcomed, but PLEASE POST THEM to s.c.n-z so
that others can comment on their accuracy/relevance.  If you quote bits of
the faq for context, please keep it to a minimum.


I correct and amend the FAQ as information and time come to hand and post
it on the tenth of each month.  The subject line on the FAQ and the weekly
reminder will be constant for the convenience of those who wish to killfile

Hopefully this FAQ will reduce the number of requests from people who want
to know all about NZ but can't be bothered finding a NZ embassy or travel
agent or want all replies by mail 'because they don't read this group very

My thanks to the contributors (listed at the end of section 2) without whom
I couldn't (and wouldn't) have compiled this.  Please remember that most of
this stuff is quoted so I may not be to blame for factual errors! :-)







    A1.1  On The Net
    A1.2  Elsewhere
        A1.2.1  Overseas Offices of the NZ Tourism Board
        A1.2.2  Traditional sources (libraries, newspapers, etc.)
    A2.1  NZ Consulates/Embassies Overseas
    A2.2  How Do I Get News From Home?
    A2.3  Expatriate Organisations?



    B1.1  Where Is NZ?
        B1.1.1  General
        B1.1.2  Statistics
        B1.1.3  Dependencies
        B1.1.4  Time Zones
    B1.2  The Landscape
        B1.2.1  General
        B1.2.2  Miscellaneous Figures
        B1.2.3  Flora and Fauna
        B1.2.4  Climate
    B2.1  A Short History
    B2.2  Maoritanga
        B2.2.1  The Moriori Question
        B2.2.2  Guide to Maori pronunciation
    B2.3  Demography
        B2.3.1  General
        B2.3.2  Major Cities
        B2.3.3  Age Distribution
        B2.3.4  Ethnicity
        B2.3.5  Official Languages
        B2.3.6  Religions
    B3.1  The Political Scene
        B3.1.1  Why 'New Zealand'
        B3.1.2  Constitution
        B3.1.3  Form of Government
        B3.1.4  The Justice System
        B3.1.5  Organisation Membership
    B3.2  Economy
        B3.2.1  Defence Against Silly Questions
        B3.2.2  Current Status
        B3.2.3  Currency
        B3.2.4  Stockmarket
        B3.2.5  Interest Rates
        B3.2.6  Taxes
        B3.2.7  Miscellaneous Prices
    B3.3  Life In General
        B3.3.1  Business Hours
        B3.3.2  Tipping
        B3.3.3  Cost of Living
            B3.3.3.1  Rent
            B3.3.3.2  Wages
            B3.3.3.3  Transport
            B3.3.3.4  Food
            B3.3.3.5  Consumer goods
        B3.3.4  Crime
        B3.3.5  Finding a job
        B3.3.6  Schools and Education
        B3.3.7  Universities
            B3.3.7.1  Teaching focus
            B3.3.7.2  Addresses
            B3.3.7.3  The University Hierarchy
            B3.3.7.4  Postgrad Study
        B3.3.8  Health
            B3.3.8.1  Water Supply
        B3.3.9  Communications
        B3.3.10  Misc
    B3.4  Holidays
        B3.4.1  National
        B3.4.2  Regional
    B3.5  Technical Stuff
        B3.5.1  Electricity
        B3.5.2  TV info
        B3.5.3  Video Conversion
        B3.5.4  Bringing Computers In
        B3.5.5  Telephone
        B3.5.6  Radio
    B4.1  Travel To NZ
        B4.1.1  Travel Details
        B4.1.2  Agricultural Restrictions
            B4.1.2.1  Animal Quarantine
        B4.1.3  Overseas Embassies in NZ
    B4.2  Immigration Stuff, Points System
        B4.2.1  Assessment for the General Category
        B4.2.2  Employability
        B4.2.3  Work Experience
        B4.2.4  Age
        B4.2.5  Settlement Factors
        B4.2.6  Business Investment Category
        B4.2.7  Importing a Car
    B5.1  Info Sources
        B5.1.1  Tourism Board
        B5.1.2  Maps
    B5.2  Accommodation
        B5.2.1  Youth Hostel Association
        B5.2.2  Backpackers
    B5.3  Transport
        B5.3.1  Cycling/Sea kayaking
        B5.3.2  Hitchhiking
        B5.3.3  Renting a car/campervan
        B5.3.4  Train Services
        B5.3.5  Cook Strait Ferry
        B5.3.6  Coach Travel
        B5.3.7  Driving
        B5.3.8  Commercial Tours
        B5.3.9  Flying
    B5.4  Misc Info
        B5.4.1  Film Developing



    C3.1  Places
        C3.1.1  Parks and Tracks
        C3.1.2  Beaches, etc.
        C3.1.3  Distinctive Features
        C3.1.4  Archaeology/Historical/Heritage Sites
        C3.1.5  Places To Go To
        C3.1.6  Places To Avoid
        C3.1.7  Temporary Attractions
    C3.2  Activities
        C3.2.1  Tramping
        C3.2.2  Skiing
        C3.2.3  Climbing/mountaineering
        C3.2.4  Watersports
        C3.2.5  Whale/Dolphin Watching
        C3.2.6  Pubs To Go To/Nightlife
        C3.2.7  Anything Else????
    C4.1  Sport
        C4.1.1  Why do New Zealander Sportspeople Wear Black?
    C4.2  Food
        C4.2.1  What is Vegemite/Marmite?
        C4.2.2  Pavlova recipe
        C4.2.3  The Edmonds Cook Book
        C4.2.4  Laying A Hangi
    C4.3  National Anthems
    C4.4  The Gumboot Song
    C4.5  Some Works by NZ Authors
    C4.6  Other Bits
    C5.1  Cinema
        C5.1.1  Films
        C5.1.2  People
    C5.2  Music
        C5.2.1  Pop/rock bands
        C5.2.2  Blues
        C5.2.3  Country
        C5.2.4  Classical
    C5.3  Literature
    C5.4  Fine Art
    C5.5  Humour
    C5.6  Other...



The only record I have of the history of is this
copy of the CFD, kindly passed on through various people.  It appears the
archives of the original material may have been lost, and as this is a
repost (of sorts) I'm not sure how any of the details relate to the


Newsgroups: news.announce.newgroups,soc.culture.australian,
From: (Graeme Williams)
Subject: CFD:
Date: 25 Feb 91 04:41:44 GMT
[ I have the rest of the header if it'd be useful ]

Z*******Z******* CFD:   A New Zealand culture group   *******Z*******Z

This is a call for a discussion regarding the creation of a new
newsgroup devoted to "New Zealand culture". Here is what I propose:

NAME:  This will need to be decided on, several suggestions are:


MODERATION STATUS:  The group would be unmoderated.


 The group will provide a forum for discussion of topics
 related to New Zealand. In particular such things as:

  News, politics, Maori and Pacific Island culture, music, sport,
  events, films, telly, jobs, farming, the enviroment, economics,
  tourism, places to see, trade, education, bungy jumping, pavlovas,
  the Goodnight Kiwi and Wal and the dog in Footrot Flats.

 In short anything and everything Kiwi, or related to NZ.

 Contributions and queries from people other than New Zealanders
 will also be most welcome.


 I have had rather a lot of positive feedback via email regarding
 the creation of this group, some very enthusiastic. What I would
 like to see now is some discussion on the net amongst the various
 people interested. In particular we will need to decide on a name
 for the group.

 I have set the Followup-to: field to news.groups so all discussion
 regarding this proposal should take place there.

 So, if you're interested and don't subscribe to news.groups, SUBSCRIBE
 to it NOW! I want to hear publicly from all you Kiwis (and others
 interested) scattered few and far between all over the globe. Shake
 off the traditional Kiwi apathy cos "she'll be right" won't work
 here on the net. Get those fingers typing and tell us what you think.


Graeme Williams - a Kiwi in Canada


That's it.  Any comments or contributions to this introduction would be
appreciated.  Please post as usual...



Subject: A1.1 On The Net Anyone searching for people in NZ might like to try searching the online telephone directory first. Try pointing your Web browser at: ----- Follow this newsgroup! You might also want to investigate the nz.* groups (if they are available to you) particularly nz.general. Corrections for any of these addresses would be appreciated. The faq is available from numerous sites, including: ftp site: dir: /pub/ibmpc/misc including the internet access faq and immigration eligibility software. For those who want to know who is able to be contacted in New Zealand, Mark Davies of Victoria University has put the list of New Zealand Internet connected sites on the web at: Other info about NZ is available via WWW from: Michael Witbrock's NZ pages at eg. and and Sam Sampson says: "We now have Stewart Island Pages on the akika tour of nz. Site is: Island/ and Philip Greenspun's file (illustrated with 25 JPEG photos): then click on "email from New Zealand" and all the old stuff is there. and Jennifer George's pages: Obscurities/infrequently asked questions; and home page and Pat Cain's ftp site/web page: including the Internet Access in NZ FAQ, Tony Sutorius' NZ Internet Typical User Profiles FAQ and BBS Listings for Auckland, Waikato, Manawatu, Wellington and Christchurch. and David Lobb's site: and Jon Clarke's site: Library sites throughout NZ. National Library of New Zealand: Email: New Zealand Library Catalogues: New Zealand Library and Information Association: which gives details of the organisation, and links to related sites. Canterbury Public Library: University of Auckland: University of Waikato: Victoria University of Wellington: University of Canterbury: Lincoln University: and their alphabetical list of NZ WWW Home Pages at: University of Otago: Library servers on the web: Other sites: A list of newspaper sites is at the end of section 1.2.2. The Wizard of New Zealand (also known as the Wizard of Christchurch) is pleased to announce that he will shortly reveal his master plans on a WWW homepage. Comments welcome to: For the ftp and WWW challenged; to get the FAQ (or any of the other WWW files mentioned), in ASCII form, send email to: with the body of the message reading www A message to the same address containing only the 'word' WWW will give you some useful help and other options, such as retrieving batches of files and/or pictures, etc. Also, a recent copy may be obtained by mailing a request to Mark Moir ( and asking very nicely. Also, try Gopher: gopher:// (The Wellington City Council) A quick check of gopherspace used to tell you all you never needed to know about someone but it appears that Lincoln and Waikato both intend to phase out their gopher servers. Some universities have a database of email addresses available. Try: www.<university> or or which will send you to home pages (and all sorts of info including snail mail) of universities in NZ.
Subject: A1.2 Elsewhere A1.2.1 Overseas Offices Of The New Zealand Tourism Board AUSTRALIA SYDNEY: Prudential Finance House, 84 Pitt Street, NSW 2000 Ph (02) 231 1322, 221 7333 GP Box 614,2100 Sydney BRISBANE: Ground Floor, 288 Edwards St GPO 2634, Brisbane, Queensland 4001 Ph (00617) 221 3176 Fax (00617) 221 7289 MELBOURNE: Level 19 Comco Office Tower 644 Chapel Street, South Yarra Melbourne Victoria Ph (00613) 823 6283 BRITAIN LONDON: New Zealand House, Haymarket, SW1Y4TQ Ph (071) 973 0363 EUROPE FRANKFURT: 6000 Frankfurt am Main 1, Kaiserhofstrasse, Ph (069) 288 189 Fax (069) 281 482 JAPAN TOKYO: Toho Twin tower Building, 2nd Floor, 1-5-2 Yurakucho C Hiyoda-ku 100 Ph (03) 508-9981 PAN-ASIA SINGAPORE: 13 Nassam Rd, Singapore 1025 Ph 2359966 HONG KONG: 3414 Jardine House, 1 Connaught Place, Central Ph (05) 255 044 UNITED STATES LOS ANGELES: 501 Santa Monica Blvd 300, Santa Monica CA 90401 Ph 1 800 3885494 Fax (310) 395 5453 NEW YORK: Suite 1206, 432 Park Avenue South, New York, NY 10016 Ph (001212) 447 0550 Fax (001212) 447 0558 CANADA VANCOUVER: 1200 - 888 Dunsmuir Street, Vancouver, B.C., V6C 3K4 ph (604) 684-2117 fax (604) 684-1265 Air New Zealand also has offices at 1250 - 888 Dunsmuir Street ph (604) 640-4600 -------------------- A1.2.2 Traditional Sources (libraries, newspapers, etc.) Check libraries, travel agents, embassies, consulates. Year books, almanacs, census data(?) etc. are all usually available. The Lonely Planet guide has been described as 'very helpful'. The following book has been suggested as a useful source of information: New Zealand - a travel survival kit by Tony Wheeler published by Lonely Planet Publications The following CD is available: New Zealand Encyclopedia (TVNZ): An encyclopedia of NZ that covers lots of different areas. Over 1200 illustrations, 20 maps, over 20 minutes of videos (1994 version). Available from: The Electric Book Co. PO Box 34-422 Auckland 10 New Zealand Ph/fax 64-9-4159343 If all else fails, try the: Auckland Information Bureau/Auckland Information Centre Aotea Sq 299 Queen St PO Box 7048 Auckland 1 Phone 366 6888 Fax 366 6893? 358 4648? (Hey Lin! Which of these is right???) Wellington Info Centre Phone 801 4000 Fax 801 3030 Wellington is included because if you know how to send a fax via e-mail, use Wellington's fax number. They probably can't email you back. Christchurch Info Centre Phone 379 9629 Fax 377 2424 Lincoln University library keeps (or kept?) a list of all the NZ magazines/newspapers at: ----- Newspaper Contact Information New Zealand Major Daily Newspapers: (>25,000 Circulation) Newspaper Postal Box City Circulation Phone Mngmnt Fax Editorial Fax New Zealand Herald (M) PO Box 32 Auckland 238,000 09/379-5050 09/303-0265 09/366-1568 Otago Daily Times (M) PO Box 181 Dunedin 48,000 03/477-4760 03/477-5120 03/477-1313 The Daily News PO Box 444 New Plymouth 29,000 06/758-0559 06/758-4653 06/758-6849 The Dominion (M) PO Box 3740 Wellington 67,000 04/474-0222 09/474-0584 04/474-0350 The Evening Post (M) PO Box 3740 Wellington 69,000 04/474-0222 04/474-0584 04/474-0237 The Press (M) Private Bag Christchurch 100,000 03/379-0940 03/364-8496 04/364-8492 The Southland Times PO Box 805 Invercargill 33,000 03/218-1909 03/218-4349 03/214-9905 Waikato Times Private Bag 3086 Hamilton 41,000 07/849-6180 07/849-9554 07/849-9603 New Zealand Other Daily Newspapers: (<25,000 Circulation) Newspaper Postal Box City Circulation Phone Mngmnt Fax Editorial Fax Ashburton Guardian PO Box 77 Ashburton 6,300 03/308-3089 03/308-9855 Bay of Plenty Times Private Bag Tauranga 21,000 07/578-3059 07/578-0047 Daily Post PO Box 1442 Rotorua 13,000 07/348-6199 07/349-0959 07/346-0153 Evening News PO Box 92 Dannevirke 2,700 06/374-7081 06/374-9353 Evening Standard PO Box 3 Palmerston North 24,000 06/356-9009 06/350-9525 06/357-6316 Evening Star PO Box 3 Greymouth 5,600 03/768-7121 03/768-6205 Hawkes Bay Herald Tribune PO Box 180 Hastings 20,000 06/878-5155 06/876-0655 06/878-5668 Northland Times PO Box 96 Dargaville 2,900 09/439-8209 09/439-6505 Te Awamutu Courier PO Box 1 Te Awamutu ? 07/871-5151 07/871-3675 The Daily Telegraph PO Box 343 Napier 16,000 06/835-4488 06/835-6786 06/835-1129 The Ensign PO Box 182 Gore ? 03/208-9280 03/208-9594 The Gisborne Herald PO Box 1143 Gisborne 9,700 06/868-6655 06/867-8048 The Levin Chronicle PO Box 547 Levin 6,400 06/368-5109 06/368-2366 The Nelson Mail PO Box 244 Nelson 19,000 03/548-7079 03/546-2849 03/546-2802 The Northern Advocate PO Box 210 Whangarei 15,000 09/438-2399 09/430-5669 09/430-5665 The Oamaru Mail PO Box 343 Oamaru ? 03/434-9970 03/434-9723 The Timaru Herald PO Box 46 Timaru 15,000 03/684-4129 03/688-1042 Wairarapa Times-Age PO Box 445 Masterton 9,100 06/378-9999 06/378-2839 06/378-2371 Wairoa Star PO Box 41 Wairoa ? 06/838-7194 06/838-6973 Wanganui Chronicle PO Box 433 Wanganui 15,000 06/345-3919 06/345-3232 Westport News PO Box 249 Westport 2,200 03/789-7319 03/789-7203 New Zealand Non-daily Newspapers: Newspaper Postal Box City Circulation Phone Mngmnt Fax Editorial Fax Clutha Leader (N) PO Box 45 Balclutha 2,500 03/418-1115 03/418-1173 Marlborough Express (N) PO Box 242 Blenheim 10,000 03/578-6059 03/577-6006 03/578-0497 National Business Review* (W) PO Box 1734 Auckland 13,000 09/307-1629 09/373-3997 Northern News (W) PO Box 1 Kaikohe ? 09/401-0123 09/401-2129 Sunday News* (W) PO Box 1409 Auckland 119,000 09/302-1300 09/366-4670 09/358-3003 Sunday Star-Times* (W) PO Box 1409 Auckland 195,000 09/302-1300 09/366-4670 09/309-0258 The Independent* (W) 17 Victoria St West Auckland 10,000 09/303-3534 09/303-2999 The New Truth* (W) PO Box 1409 Auckland 35,000 09/302-1300 09/366-4670 09/309-2279 Whakatane Beacon (N) PO Box 243 Whakatane 8,600 07/308-8129 07/307-0719 Type Note: Provincial Daily unless: (M) Metropolitian Daily (N) Non-Daily (ie. 2-5 times/week) (W) Weekly Distrubution Note: * = Nationwide Circulation The above information was kindly supplied by the NZPA & INL via Tony Randle For further information, please contact the NZPA. Phone: 04/472-7910 Facsimile: 04/478-1625 Postal Address PO Box 1599, Wellington ----- Email addresses (some may be EMail to fax gateways). The owner of most of the above newspapers, INL has the site Waikato Times The Dominion (the weekly computer section) The Evening Post (empty page still?) The Press Otago Daily Times (a domain name registered but inoperative as yet) also Above and beyond all this, apparently you can read newspapers all over the world at:
Subject: A2.1 NZ Consulates/Embassies Overseas Chase up a phone book. There are embassies and consulates all over the place. In countries where there are no New Zealand representatives, the UK representatives usually look after the interests of NZ nationals by agreement. For callers in the U.S. the New Zealand Tourism Board has a 24 hour number; 1-800-388-5494. Leave your name, address and particular interests and lots of free information on New Zealand will be mailed to you. During regular California business hours it might even be possible to get a real person on the line. New Zealand Embassy in Haymarket (UK): phone: 0171-930 8422 0891-200 288 0171-973 0366 0171-973 0368 New Zealand Embassy in Washington D. C.: 37 Observatory Circle, N. W. Washington, D. C. 20008 Phone: (202) 328-4800 (Is this place open?) NZ Embassy Suite 1206, 432 Park Avenue South, New York, NY 10016 Phone: (212) 447 0550 Fax: (212) 447 0558 TRADENZ NZ Consulate General NZ Tourist Board 780 Third Avenue, Suite 1904 New York, NY 10017-2024 Phone: (212) 832-8482 Fax: (212) 832-7602 They opened a couple of months ago. The NZ Tourism Board office at the same address has been open for business (to travel agents only) for several years. The office hopes to have full consular capacity "shortly". Currently it gives advice, dispenses forms and "aids distressed travelling Kiwis". The East Coast Manager is Anna Synolt and Peter MacDonald ( heads the office. There's a new e-mail address for the New York NZ Consulate/TRADENZ et al.: It should be noted that the NY NZ Consulate only answers questions and distributes forms. All processing - issuing visas, renewing passports etc. - is performed at the Washington DC High Commission. The NY NZ Tourist Board deals only with travel agents etc. and will not answer questions from individuals. The West Coast Consulate: New Zealand Consulate-General Suite 1150 12400 Wilshire Boulevard Los Angeles CA 90025 Phone: (310) 207-1605 Fax: (310) 207-3605 Mr. Terence Charles Baker is listed as Consul General. There is also a New Zealand Tourism Board located in Santa Monica, phone 1-310-395-748. Try also (is this valid???): NZ Embassy 501 Santa Monica Blvd 300, Santa Monica CA 90401 Phone: 1 800 388 5494 Fax: (310) 395 5453 And in Canada, there is the: New Zealand High Commission Ottawa Phone: (613) 238-5991 Fax: (613) 238-5707 There are consul offices listed for the District of Columbia, Tennessee, Guam, and Washington State.
Subject: A2.2 How Do I Get News From Home? Check the notes on ftp sites; some current news may be archived there. Read, and nz.general if you can get it. A weekly summary of NZ News is compiled and posted to by the generous Brian Harmer (usually on Sundays). These postings are all archived on the WWW at To get a personal e-mail copy of the postings, send mail to: with the line: subscribe nznews <email-addr> in the *BODY* of the message. "The New Zealander " is a new full colour weekly tabloid available in Australia for A$2.95. Like other publications we know of, the Dominion, and the Evening Post are among the sources of its articles, although it can presumably print articles verbatim. (I'll be interested to hear what Australian WYSIWYG readers think - BH) TVNZ has established a web page for those who want to see recent news items. Comment has been mixed, and like most graphic-laden pages is slow to load. Try particularly There is a thing called a NewZgram. It's like an aerogram but is printed with excerpts of news about NZ, including sections about sport, health, business, etc. It's 4 sides of a page long, sent fortnightly). Subscription Prices: 24 issues (12 months) NZ address surface NZ$36 Australia/Sth Pacific - air NZ$55 Rest of world - air NZ$67 The address is: Peak Communications Ltd PO Box 54046 Mana Wellington New Zealand Phone/Fax 64/4/2399123 and/or??? Newzgram PO Box 3882 Christchurch, NZ Phone - 3-3559222 Fax 3-3559337 Then there is: New Zealand News UK is an Independent Weekly newspaper, covering NZ news/current events, United Kingdom jobs, NZ jobs, travel, migrating to NZ, shipping and accommodation/entertainment in London. There is apparently also a version called 'Overseas' with lots of info about visa requirements, etc. for Brits wishing to travel. Try calling NZ News on 0171 930 6451. NZ news is available free in London and by subscription elsewhere. It does contain a fair bit of London specific news, but has some quite good features on Emigrating and NZ lifestyles for people thinking of making a move to NZ. Prices in Pounds Sterling. 3 Months 6 Months 1 Year UK £ 8.90 £ 16.40 £ 28.00 Europe £ 12.00 £ 23.00 £ 38.50 World £ 20.80 £ 40.50 £ 57.75 Make your cheque payable to New Zealand News UK and send it to: Circulation Manager, New Zealand News UK, PO Box 10, Berwick upon Tweed, Northumberland TD15 1BW Phone/Fax: (44) 0289 306677 Or, have a look at the new net version: which apparently has no pictures, but a good selection of sports news.
Subject: A2.3 Expatriate Organisations? There's an organisation in HK called the New Zealand Society. Point of contact is either the NZ Consulate in Central HK (Jardine House) or Grant Baird at a restaurant called Landaus. They meet regularly and it's fairly social. There's a Kiwi Club of New York for those interested in such things. Kiwi Club of New York c/o TRADENZ 780 Third Avenue, Suite 1904 New York, NY 10017-2024 Phone (212) 832-4038 x222 (Brenda Henderson) The club's secretary is Beatrice Cheer at who can occasionally be found in s.c.n-z.
Subject: A3 INTERNET ACCESS WITHIN NZ Public internet access is available from a growing number of sources throughout New Zealand, particularly around the main centres. Access for university staff and students (sometimes only post-grads) is usually available. For more detailed information, read Simon Lyall's monthly faq on the subject; newsgroups: (news.answers,, nz.general, s.c.n-z) archive-name: internet-access/new-zealand and also; although: is slightly better and has a few other FAQs. =========================================================================== PART B
Subject: B1.1 Where Is New Zealand? B1.1.1 General New Zealand is in the south-west \_ Pacific and has two large islands, \} one smaller island, and numerous \9 much smaller islands. It is usual North )`-'7 to refer to the main islands as 'the Island ( c` North Island' and 'the South Island'. ) / F,% n_/ For a larger map of the main islands South J / see section B6. For a map showing Island / 6 the dependencies, see an atlas... / / {_, /` Ascii maps are copyright, Stewart Island @ ~ please do not repost. New Zealand = Aotearoa, Niu Tireni (uncommon, adulteration of 'New Zealand'), Land of the Long White Cloud, 'Godzone' North Island = Aotearoa (original name(?) referring to the NI only?), Te Ika-a-Maui[-Tikitiki-A-Taranga] (The Fish of Maui), Nga Ahi o Maui (verification and definition anyone?) South Island = Te Waka-a-Maui (The Canoe of Maui), Te Wa[h]ipounamu (Greenstone waters or Place of Greenstone) Stewart Island = Rakiura (The Land of Glowing Skies) or Te punga o te waka a Maui (The anchor of Maui's canoe) "Kiwiland" is slang for "New Zealand" and not very common. "Down Under" tends to mean Australia but may also include NZ. -------------------- B1.1.2 Statistics For the main three: Latitude: 34 S to 47 S Longitude: 167 E to 178 E AREAS sq kms sq mi North Island 114,453 44,191 South Island 150,718 58,193 Stewart Island 1,746 674 The Rest ? TOTAL 268,700 103,745 COASTLINE: 15,134 km LAND BOUNDARIES: 0 km MARITIME CLAIMS: Continental shelf; edge of continental margin or 200 nm Exclusive economic zone; 200 nm Territorial sea; 12 nm Take a look at: and And Steve Israel ( invites people to look at his remote sensing page: -------------------- B1.1.3 Dependencies Antarctica (Ross Dependency): between 160 degrees east and 150 degrees west longitude together with the islands lying between those degrees and south of latitude 60 segrees south. The land is estimated to be between 400,000 and 450,000 sq km, with a further 330,000 sq km of permanent ice shelf. The main NZ station is Scott Base at approx 78 degrees south. The next two are part of NZ territory, and apart from the Chatham Islands, they are uninhabited except by research personnel. Antipodes Islands: a small group of outlying islands off the east coast of the South Island, latitude 49 degrees 41' South and longitude 178 degrees 43' east. Total area about 62 sq km. Auckland Islands, Bounty Islands, Campbell Island, Kermadec Islands, Snares Islands. The sub-Antarctic islands are integral parts of NZ. Actually, with the exception of the Kermadecs (to the NE of NZ) all those island groups are in the sub-antarctic, as are the Antipodes Islands. The Anres and Bounty Islands are marginal for being classed as sub-Antarctic. The Chatham Islands are well east of New Zealand (850kms) and have their own 'Time Zone' in as much as their clocks are always 45 mins ahead of the rest of NZ and I guess they keep in step with changes to and from NZDT. Lyndon Watson wrote: "The Cook Islands were originally under sole British administration and later under sole New Zealand administration. There was no condominium. The Cook Islands have been independent since the 1970s. "The Cook Islands are an independent state. At *their* request (not surprising in view of their small population and resources) they are represented in most overseas countries by New Zealand diplomats and New Zealand undertakes their military defence. They can change that at any time simply by notifying New Zealand, one government to another. "Not only could Cook Islanders vote in New Zealand elections before they became independent, but the can still do so even now under special dual nationality arrangements which *they* requested on independence. New Zealanders, of course, cannot vote in Cook Islands elections. "New Zealand has never colonised Niue or Tokelau. Rather the Niueans and Tokelauans have colonised New Zealand. In the case of Tokelau, especially, the population of Tokelauan descendants in New Zealand is now far larger than the atolls could possibly support. "Niue is internally self-governing but not fully independent. Their problem, like that of other tiny Pacific nations, is a lack of population and resources. They are so totally dependent on New Zealand subsidies that no one has been able to devise a viable scheme for full independence. Tokelau has the same problem in even greater form. Like Kiribati, they even stand to lose their home islands (atolls) altogether if the sea level keeps on rising they way that it has been lately. Most of the people who identify as Tokelauans are resident in New Zealand. Tokelau is talking about some form of autonomy or independence right now. "New Zealand has no strategic interest in these islands and has never settled them; they are a financial burden to us which we undertake because they are our friends and neighbours and have important links with our own population. In our own narrow self-interest, we should either give them full independence and cast them adrift, or simply incorporate them seamlessly into New Zealand, but the decision is theirs, not ours." -------------------- B1.1.4 Time Zones New Zealand is 12 hours ahead of Greenwich mean time making it one of the first places in the world to see the new day. Summer time (or Daylight Saving Time we call it here) is an advance of one hour at 2am in the morning on the first Sunday in October and back to NZST at 3am in the morning on the third Sunday morning of March. NZST (GMT+12) or NZDT (GMT+13) October - March
Subject: B1.2 The Landscape B1.2.1 General NZ is a long narrow country lying roughly North/South with mountain ranges running much of its length. It is predominately mountainous with some large coastal plains and is a little larger than Britain, slightly smaller than Italy, and almost exactly the size of Colorado. The only 'geographical feature' New Zealand doesn't have is live coral reef. We have all the rest: rainforest, desert, fiords, flooded valleys, gorges, plains, mountains, glaciers, volcanoes, geothermics, swamps, lakes, braided rivers, peneplains, badlands, and our very own continental plate junction... As a result of the latter, earthquakes are common, though usually not severe (patience... :-) For more information, go to sci.geo.geology, and download the earthquake maps for this week. The little black line snaking through New Zealand is the plate boundary. A good URL for this is: Also try and which lists the strong earthquakes worldwide during the last few days. You can get almost instant info about larger quakes from the US Geological Survey at: Or try gopher:// for a simple record of any quake. [not at all sure how this works. help?] -------------------- B1.2.2 Miscellaneous Figures Mt Cook: highest point in NZ. A landslide in December 1991 lowered the 3764m summit by about 10 metres. NZ has 28 peaks over 3000 metres. The lowest (Mount Aspiring) is the only one outside Mount Cook National Park. Also within the park is the Tasman Glacier, which is about 20 kms long. The North Island's main mountains are all volcanoes: Ruapehu (2797m/9175'), Ngauruhoe (2291m), and Tongariro (1968m) in the centre, and Taranaki (2518m) to the west. Lake Taupo; 40.2 km long, 27.4 km wide, 606 sq km, depth 159m Lake Waikaremoana; 19.3 long, 9.7 km wide, 54 sq km, depth 256m The artificial lakes in the North Island deeper than both are Lake Ohakuri (287m) and Lake Whakamarino (274m). Lake Wakitipu 77.2 by 4.8 km, 293 sq km is 310m deep. It's noo but a puddle compared to Lake Hauroko (443m deep). Both are glacial in origin. -------------------- B1.2.3 Flora And Fauna It is still hotly debated whether or not New Zealand was *completely* submerged between 60 - 30 mya. There are now two competing views as to NZ's biogeographic history: (1) the traditional view, that our biology - especially the vegetation - is a living example of a 'Gondwanan' fragment that has a lineage directly traceable back to when NZ split off from Gondwana (maybe as early as 90 mya or as late as 75 mya, depending on who you believe). (2) a more recent view, that actually almost none of our current plants and animals can be traced in a continuous lineage back to Gondwana, and instead have all arrived via long-distance dispersal from Australia and SE Asia, maybe even as recently as 20 - 10 mya. There is some compelling fossil evidence for this view. For those interested in this, an excellent though clearly biased account of this second view is given by Mike Pole in a recent review (The Journal of Biogeography, Vol. 21 pp 625, 1994). In any case during its time of isolation, birds have continued to arrive and develop in NZ without large predators, making them vulnerable to recent arrivals. The predators that have really been widely destructive were the mustelids, cats and European rat species. The most important impact of pre-Europeans was the widespread burning used in moa-hunting especially in the drier areas of the South Island. We have the worlds largest flightless parrot (kakapo), the only truly alpine parrot (kea), the oldest reptile (tuatara), the biggest earthworms, the heaviest insect (also the largest weta), the smallest bats, some of the oldest trees, and many of the rarest birds, insects, and plants in the world.... NZ is home to the world famous Tuatara, a lizard-like reptile which dates back to the dinosaurs and perhaps before (260 mill years?). The only member of its order (Rhynchocephalia) it is now restricted to protected offshore islands which you have to have special permission to visit. Specimens are kept at some zoos. The only native land mammals are two rare species of bat. NZ's many endemic birds include the flightless kiwi, takahe, kakapo and weka. Far too many species of bird have become extinct since humans arrived on NZ included the various species of Dinornis (moa) the largest of which stood up to 2.5 metres high. While the rare takahe (Notornis australis) can be seen in semi-wild conditions at Te Anau, the Kakapo is too endangered to be on display anywhere (see quote below). For those who are interested, the following NZ CD is available: New Zealand birds: Information on more than 300 bird species, plus over 500 photos, video clips of NZ attractions and birds, and 20 windows bmps. Available from: Protech International PO Box 324 Nelson New Zealand Ph/fax 64-3-5451799 There is also some unique insect life such as the Giant Weta and glow worms. Other than two spiders, there is a lack of any deadly poisonous things (snakes, spiders, etc.) which is why NZ Agricultural Regulations are so strict. The great kauri trees in the few remaining kauri forests in Northland are very old with some believed to be up to 2000 years old. Much of the South Island is still forested, particularly the West Coast. ----- (cakes) has provided the following article (advice on legality requested!): Reprinted without permission. RACE AGAINST TIME TO SAVE ANCIENT PARROTS Reuters, 19.01.96 WELLINGTON, New Zealand. After a peaceful existence spanning millions of years, the survival odds seem stacked against New Zealand's native parrot, a fat, flightless bird called the kakapo. With only 50 kakapo left in New Zealand, Britain's World Conservation Monitoring Center (WCMC) recently placed the bird on its list of the world's 20 most-endangered species predicted to become extinct during 1996. "That bird has so much stacked against it," said Kevin Smith, president of the Royal Forest and Bird Protection Society of New Zealand. Only one kakapo chick has survived into adulthood since 1990, although three more are almost there. "At the moment the clock is just ticking. Unless there are some chicks fledged in the next five years the kakapo's prospects are very bleak," Smith said. Fully grown kakapo weigh up to eight pounds, heavier than most other parrots, and are bright green in color. Scientists say the bird existed without significant threat for millions of years. Their decline began 1,000 years ago when humans arrived in New Zealand, bringing predatory mammals such as cats, dogs, rats and stoats. Flightless native birds, including the kiwi, moa and kakapo, had not developed defenses against predation. "Some were literally eaten alive. The kakapo's only defense was to sit very still, and predators basically had meals on wheels," said Janet Owen, Department of Conservation (DOC) Director of Protected Species. She said kakapo populations were plundered as a food source by Maori and European settlers alike, and their natural habitat was largely destroyed by the clearance of rich forests. Hope seemed lost in the late 1960s when it was found all kakapo known to exist were male. Then the discovery of a single feather on Stewart Island, at the foot of the South Island, led to a hitherto unknown population of about 200 birds, including females. But cats discovered this kakapo haven at the same time. "By the time we could do anything about the cats, the population had plummeted to around 50 or 60 birds," said Paul Jansen, head of DOC's Kakapo Recovery Program. The kakapo were moved in the 1980s to the relative safety of Codfish, Little Barrier and Maud islands, dotted around New Zealand's coastline. The nests need video monitoring as they come under constant attack from rats, and Maud Island is occasionally invaded by stoats swimming over from the mainland. The male kakapo abandons the female after mating, forcing her to leave the nest dangerously unattended while she feeds. What is more, kakapo are reluctant breeders mating only once every four or five years. They also have a history of laying infertile eggs. Despite the hurdles facing the kakapo, the WCMC's prediction of imminent extinction is overly dire, DOC says. While the kakapo is critically endangered, it is a national treasure which can be dragged back from the brink of oblivion. "Results will take a while because they're long-lived birds. We think they live around 60-80 years, so they won't be wiped out this year," DOC Director-General Murray Hosking said. Over the next 10 years the recovery program aims to establish a younger breeding population, although numbers will probably remain similar as older birds die. "Conceivably we will be giving help to the kakapo for at least the next five decades, if not longer," Jansen said. Smith is sharply critical of the amount of funding the government provides for endangered species research. DOC has a $660,000 budget for kakapo research in 1996. "We've become too insulated in New Zealand we don't realize just how special our native plants and animals are. There's a niggardly, pathetically small amount of money going into conservation, and we reap what we sow," he said. Smith said predation was causing the decline of New Zealand's bird populations in general, and forest habitats were gradually being destroyed by possums, deer and goats. "New Zealand's wealth has been generated out of the 75 percent of the country we've cleared. Unfortunately we're not using any of that wealth to save those species that are trying to survive in the little remnants we left them," Smith said. "The dawn chorus in our forests, which used to be a real feature of New Zealand, is in many places becoming more of a solo." Reuters I found this article on a bird-related web site - I can't recall which one as I've scanned many over the last few weeks. Recently I saw a television program on the Discovery channel, which highlighted the plight of the kakapo in much the same manner as this story. -------------------- B1.2.4 Climate The NZ climate is temperate with no real extremes; the north tends to be warm temperate. Being an island nation, the yearly range of temperatures is quite small, around 10 degrees Celsius variation between winter and summer. NZ enjoys long hours of sunshine throughout the year making it an ideal year round destination. In winter the South Island mountain and central North Island do have heavy snowfalls providing great skiing. Summer: December - February Winter: June - August sunshine Temperature (C) rainfall rain hours mean max min daily av. (mm) days sum win Kaitaia 2113 15.6 29 0 1429 138 Auckland 1904 15.7 28 3 23 14 1289 140 Tauranga 2217 14.3 29 -2 1363 118 Hamilton 1981 13.5 29 -5 1236 131 Rotorua 1872 12.7 30 -4 23 12 1509 123 Gisborne 2173 14.1 33 -2 1079 113 New Plymouth 2157 13.4 26 -1 1514 142 Napier 2187 14.3 32 -2 830 92 Palmerston North 1764 13.2 28 -3 991 127 Wellington 2008 12.7 27 1 20 11 1305 124 Nelson 2372 12.2 28 -4 22 12 1005 96 Blenheim 2449 12.9 32 -4 671 84 Hokitika 1889 11.6 25 -2 2809 168 Christchurch 1992 11.9 34 -5 22 10 668 85 Timaru 1828 11.4 32 -4 586 81 Milford Sound 1828 10.5 25 -3 6213 183 Queenstown 1865 10.4 30 -5 21 8 832 93 Dunedin 1645 11.1 29 -2 19 10 802 119 Gore 1665 9.7 31 -5 894 137 Invercargill 1595 9.7 28 -5 1040 157 (some of the table above was pirated and I seriously doubt it's accuracy... Anyone care to confirm it?) Ross Levis kindly offered: All the weather links you should ever need are located on my ISP page at: which links to VUW and shows some other Antarctic pictures. Frank van der Hulst and Tony Wilkes provided (combined and mildly amended): NZ Metservice forecasts, including TV-style maps showing forecasts: Satellite weather pictures from VUW: [ see also ...meteorology/maps.html and ] These are in mono. For similar maps in colour: Weather of the whole region, including NZ. Up to 3-day forecasts, including satellite pictures and maps showing isobars & sea surface winds over the Tasman & NZ: gopher://gilgamesh.ho.BoM.GOV.AU/1/1/Australian%20Weather%20Information gopher://gilgamesh.ho.BoM.GOV:70/11/Australian%20Weather%Information/Weatrts [ not sure if the second one is correct ] Latest (3-hourly) weather satellite images: The NZ sites seem to be somewhat intermittent, and often their latest images are 3 or 4 days old. The Aussie site is probably the most useful. Airways Corp also has a Web site which contains articles from their latest magazine. Also at http:/www.sel/ are sunspot details and solar activity, which is of interest to radio hams (among others). Hugh Grierson adds: Point your browser at gopher:// and follow the links "Australian weather information ..." -> "Weather Charts". There is also: but that requires a Java capable reader.
Subject: B2 THE PEOPLE
Subject: B2.1 A Short History 900 AD (+/-) Maori arrived from Pacific. 1740's Europeans started to bumble around the area. 1800's Exploiters arrived (whalers, sealers, traders). 1830's Settlers started arriving. 1840's The 'Maori' Land Wars There were actually four separate wars (though some tribes fought in more than one): NgaPuhi, Northland (1840s) Taranaki,(1860s) Kingites, Waikato (1860s) Te Kooti etc (1860s) John Hopkins offers the following 'gratuitous comments ;-)' (sic): "The term "Maori Wars" has not been used for some considerable time, as it suggests that Maori were responsible for the wars - another example of "the winner" rewriting history to suit their own purposes. Recognised descriptions now are "the New Zealand Wars", or the "Land Wars" - the latter is preferable in some ways because it reveals what the wars were about. In particular, the invasion of the Waikato by English led troops as a pretext to force Maori to defend themselves and then confiscate their land for being "in rebellion" against the English Crown. A good reference is the Waitangi Tribunal report on the Tainui claim." 1893? Universal Suffrage. The 1945-50 Baby Boom There was a baby boom in 1945-50 after the survivors returned from the Second World War. The reasons should be obvious. (I think that it has been mentioned here that New Zealand lost a larger fraction of its population in the Second World War than any other Allied country except the USSR, nearly all of them young men). There was a lesser peak 20 to 30 years later as the products of the first boom had their own children. 1985 Internet gets going... :-) May 1994 The faq gets posted!
Subject: B2.2 Maoritanga Maoritanga is Maori culture; a way of life and view of the world. It is a growing and changing part of life in NZ. The ancestors and all living things are descended from the gods, who are often embodied in specific mountains, rivers and lakes, which is why kinship and links with the land are so important. Maui was one of the earliest descendants and was responsible for slowing the sun to make the days longer, taming fire, and fishing the North Island (Te Ika a Maui) from the sea from his brothers' canoe (the South Island - Te Waka a Maui). Most Maori can trace descent from the chiefs of Hawaiki who sailed to Aotearoa in voyaging canoes from about 1200 years ago. The marae (particular area of land and buildings, containing the Whare or meeting house) is the focus of traditional Maori community life. The Treaty of Waitangi was signed in 1840, after Maori had petitioned Queen Victoria about the damage being done to their land and culture by uncontrolled land speculators and resource exploiters. Another influence was the wish of the British to prevent the French or Americans from gaining a hold on the new colony (Hone Heke flew the Stars and Stripes on his war canoe). The first article ceded to the Queen of England the right to make laws in exchange for the retention of full control of their lands, forests, fishing and prized posessions. The second article promised the Maori full rights to their lands, forests and treasured possessions (and fisheries in the English version). The third article gave the Maori all the rights and privileges of British subjects. Despite the egalitarian language, in practice the principles of the Treaty were often ignored. Dissatisfaction over the control of land in the North Island led to war in the 1860's with the result that much Maori land was confiscated. It was 100 years before the Maori protest movement had enough strength to come into the public eye, although certain key personalities have been supporting a Maori renaissance since the early years of this century. All environmental and planning legislation passed since 1986 contains provisions for the support of the principles of the Treaty of Waitangi. Recent claims to the Waitangi Tribunal have resulted in some land being returned to Maori control. In other cases the resource implications are so complex and potentially vast that decisions on reparation have been delayed for some years. This is the case, for example, with the claim of Ngai Tahu, the largest and most powerful South Island tribe. The claim has been accepted in principle, but settlement appears to be some way away. Maori is now an official language of NZ, although outside the Maori community it is rare to hear it spoken except on ceremonial occasions. Maori have established various programmes for the revival of their language, particularly in pre-school and primary schools. Most Maori are now town and city dwellers, and many have lost touch with their original marae base. However there is a groundswell of regeneration of interest in the marae, and some people are returning to their tribal homes. In the cities, urban marae, sometimes catering for people of many tribes, have been established. Maori culture was transmitted orally, through the telling of stories, song (waiata) and the reciting of whakapapa (genealogies). It was also represented in stylised form in carvings and woven panels that adorned whare (meeting houses). There is a revitalisation of these traditional arts, especially as the marae movement gains more strength, and also because new marae, for example on school and university campuses, are being built. Maori traditional music was very effectively suppressed by the nineteenth century missionaries. Traditional instruments are now rarely seen but the Maori love of music survives in waiata, which today are a blend of remembered traditional waiata plus adaptations from western music. One of the most difficult things for any dominant culture to handle is the acceptance of real partnership with another group, especially one that for many years was regarded as inferior. The pretty or quaint sides of Maori culture, long exploited by the tourist industry, are not the whole thing. The real thing involves power and resource sharing, and this process of reallocation will cause debate and some strife within New Zealand for years to come. ----- Brian Harmer: "To give an indication of how complex the Maori situation is, here are the names of some of the tribes. This section is evolving... Maori Tribes (this is not exhaustive), listed in approximate North to South geographic distribution (paraphrased from The Revised Dictionary of Modern Maori by P.M. Ryan, 1989 Heinemann Education) Te Aupouri Ngati Kahu Te Rarawa Ngapuhi Ngati Whatua Ngati Tai Ngati Paoa Ngati Tamatera Ngati Whanaunga Ngati Maru Ngai te Rangi Ngati Haua Ngati Mahuta Waikato Te Arawa Ngati Ranginui Whanau-a-Apanui Whakatohea Ngati Awa Ngati Maniapoto Ngati Porou Ngati Tuwharetoa Tuhoe Rongo Whakataa Ngati Tama Taranaki Te Aitanga-a-Makahi Ngati Raukawa Ngati Ruanui Ngarauru Ngati Apa Ngati Hau Rangitane Ngati Kahungunu Ngati Toa then to the South Island Rangitane Ngai Tahu Poutini Ngati Mamoe I believe most tribes had sub-tribes, and there was much ebbing and flowing as various groups conquered, or were in turn conquered and enslaved." ----- Lyndon Watson wrote: "There are more in the Marlborough Sounds-Nelson region, e.g. Ngati Koata who broke off from Ngati Toa in the last century and sided with local tribes and who have just been in the news for getting Stephens Island back and promptly giving it to the Crown as a nature reserve. The question of tribal affiliation in the lower three-quarters of the South Island is a vexed one because some descendants of the tribes who lived there before the Ngati Mamoe and Ngai Tahu invasions from the North Island (e.g. Te Waitaha of South Canterbury-North Otago who claim to be the original 'Moa Hunters') claim to be members still of those tribes while Ngai Tahu consider that they (and, indeed, the Ngati Mamoe) are now at the most subtribes of Ngai Tahu. Tempers can get very heated round here over this matter. And it should also be mentioned that some do not like 'iwi' being translated as 'tribe', and 'hapu' as 'subtribe'." ----- For more info on Maori culture and history, try: which gives a brief overview of Maori history, and: which deals with the art of Moko. and For info on Maori history and lists several Maori writers: Also: <> <> And the Auckland City Art Gallery collection of Maori portraits by Charles Fredrick Goldie: Adam Gifford (for whom I have no net address) invites people to visit: Once Were Warriors homepage: -------------------- B2.2.1 The Moriori Question Simon O'Rorke provides the following quotes and opinions: In her book "The Prehistory of New Zealand" (Longman Paul, Auckland, 1987) Janet Davidson wrote: "...[during the 1890s]... many spurious traditions about [Maori] origins began to gain wide acceptance. Some of these still hinder the study of New Zealand prehistory today. One theory was the so-called 'Maruiwi myth', which suggested that the first inhabitants of new Zealand had been a different and probably inferior race to the later Maori. The resumption of intensive archeological work in the South Island during the 1920s and 1930s was partly in response to this theory. "[this] archeological work....demonstrated the Polynesian nature of moa-hunter assemblages and disproved the idea that the moa-hunters were an earlier and different race from the Maori. Yet the idea of the inferior and defeated Maruiwi or Moriori still lives on in the minds of modern New Zealanders, confused with the Moriori of the Chatham Islands who were in fact an isolated group of Polynesians, although very closely related to the New Zealand Maori." The Maruiwi was a Maori tribe (iwi) whose name is known from oral tradition but which did not survive to the time of the settlement of New Zealand by Europeans. Contrary to the assertions of the 19th century European mythologizers of Maori origins, they were not a pre-Maori people. They were probably wiped out in inter-tribal warfare during the 14th century or later, i.e. hundreds of years after Polynesians settled what is now New Zealand in the 9th century. The European mythologizers of Maori origins, in particular S. Percy Smith, who in 1892 founded the Polynesian society, noticed the similarity between the word "Maruiwi" and the word "Moriori", the name of the indigenous people of the Chatham Islands, which are located in the Pacific Ocean about 400 km East of New Zealand. They jumped to the conclusion that the Moriori were the descendants of (supposedly pre-Maori) Maruiwi survivors who had fled to the Chathams to New Zealand when Polynesians (Maori) first settled New Zealand. Until recently, New Zealand school children were taught this story as historical fact. Davidson has this to say about the Moriori: "Despite widespread popular belief that the Moriori were a vanquished group who fled to the Chathams from New Zealand, Moriori and Maori were unaware of each others' existence before the rediscovery of the Chathams by Europeans in the late 18th century. Sutton has recently strongly argued that the Chathams were settled from New Zealand between A.D. 1000 and 1200 and became completely isolated after about A.D. 1400. No archeological sites of this early period have yet been excavated in the Chathams, however, and the possibility of settlement from elsewhere in East Polynesia cannot be entirely excluded." Why did the European myth of a people in New Zealand before the Maori arise? And why has it persisted despite clear contrary evidence? In his book on the struggles of the Maori since the European settlement of New Zealand, "Ka Whatwhai Tonu Matou: Struggle Without End", (Penguin, Auckland, 1990) Ranginui Walker put it very well: "The myth of the Moriori is essentially ideological in the sense of being a false consciousness as a solution in the mind to conflict generated by the colonisers' expropriation of Maori land. According to the myth, the Maori, as a superior and more warlike people, expropriated the land from the Moriori. Therefore Pakeha [Maori term for European settlers and their descendants] expropriation of the same land on the basis of their superior civilisation was in accordance with the principle of the survival of the fittest. For this reason the false myth of the Moriori has been one of New Zealand's most enduring myths. Pakeha need the myth for the endorsement of colonisation and Pakeha dominance." I can back up Walker's argument from personal experience. I have frequently heard (usually right-wing) European New Zealanders using the Maoris' alleged extermination of the Moriori in New Zealand as justification of European mistreatment of Maori. I would note however, that these days the justification tends to be in terms of a rather guilty "The Maori were just as bad as the Europeans" rather than the more self-confident social-Darwinist survival-of-the-fittest justification that was prevalent at the beginning of this century. -------------------- B2.2.2 Guide to Maori pronunciation The five vowels; a, e, i, o and u, are pronounced in two ways: short long a as u in but a as a in father e as e in pen e as ai in pair i as i in bit i as ee in feet o as o in fort o as o in store u as u in put u as oo in boot Where two vowels are together: both are sounded but they are run together smoothly. The ten consonants in Maori: h, k, m, n, p, r, t, w, ng, wh. The first eight are pronounced as in English. The last two are digraphs, 'ng' being pronounced as the ng in 'singer', and 'wh' as wh in 'whale', or as a 'f'. From The Revised Dictionary of Modern Maori: The consonants: 'r' is not rolled. 'p' is soft. 'wh' is usually pronounced 'f', sometimes as 'h', 'w', of 'wh'. 'ng' has a softish 'g' and is pronounced/spelled 'ng' or 'k' depending on the area; usually 'k' in the South Island. In the book "He Whakamarama - A new course in Maori" the following describes 'ng' and 'wh': "When we say 'na', the tip of the tongue touches the roof of the mouth somewhere behind the top of the upper teeth. When we say 'nga', the tongue stays down with the tip touching the back of the lower teeth. "'Wh' differs from 'f' in this way. When we say 'f', the upper teeth firmly touch the bottom lip, but with 'wh' there is little or no pressure of the upper teeth on the bottom lip. The following: may help with the preceding. ----- Lachy Paterson wrote: "Te Reo Maaori will exist only if it is taught (and learnt) as a spoken language. This means that students should have a tutor of some sort who can actually talk to them (analog not digital!). While this would be difficult in another country, it should not be difficult in NZ. However, if people wanted to teach themselves the rudiments of Maaori/Maori grammar, then I would recommend He Whakamarama A new Course in Maori by John Foster (Heinemann) or Te Kakano (Stage 1 University text) Te Pihinga (Stage 2) by John C. Moorfield (Longman Paul). Kia manawanui." Lyndon Watson adds: "Yes, and to complicate matters there are some dialectical variations. Some East Coast speakers tend to replace 'ng' with the simple 'n'. And some South Island speakers replace it with 'k', but then it is spelled accordingly so there is no problem for the outsider. The 'wh' sound also seems to vary from place to place. I have heard elderly speakers in Northland say something very like the (proper) English 'wh' sound - 'h' followed by 'w' - and again some Eastern speakers use a plain 'w'. Pakehas tend to give up and fall back on a plain 'f'. Judy Shorten adds: "Say it in Maori" by Alan Armstrong is a really good little book with a limited English-Maori and Maori-English dictionary as well as a wide variety of phrases that cover many situations. There is also a page on pronounciation. I would recommend this little book for anyone wanting to have a very basic knowledge of the Maori language, but on the other hand most tourists travelling around NZ on tours don't have the time or the inclination to read even a little book about correct pronounciation and therefore make some rather hilarious attempts at trying to pronounce even the simplest names. References: The Concise Maori Dictionary, A.H. & A.W. Reed The Revised Dictionary of Modern Maori, P. M. Ryan's, reprint 1989, Heinemann, ISBN 0 86863 564 2 Say it in Maori, Alan Armstrong
Subject: B2.3 Demography B2.3.1 General Total population is about 3.5 million. Over 70% of the population are in the North Island, largest centre is Auckland (over 1 million), capital is Wellington. 1975 3,071,000 1988 3,343,000 1990 3,402,000 1992 (July) 3,347,369 1994 3,541,000 2000 3,714,000 Population Growth 0.88 % Population Density 32/sq mi Population Doubling Time 79 years Net migration rate: -2 migrants/1,000 population (1992) -------------------- B2.3.2 Major Cities Latitude, Long Dist Population Longitude Code Wellington 360,000 41.17S,174.47E 4 Auckland 890,000 36.52S,174.46E 9 Christchurch 335,000 43.33S,172.40E 3 Hamilton 100,000 37.46S,175.18E 7 Dunedin 110,000 45.52S,170.30E 3 -------------------- B2.3.3 Age Distribution Age range Male % Female % 0-9 8.0 7.6 10-19 9.4 9.0 20-29 8.6 8.4 30-39 7.4 7.5 40-49 5.4 5.3 50-59 4.5 4.4 60-69 3.6 4.1 70+ 2.7 4.1 Total 49.6 50.4 Literacy Rate 99 % Urbanization 83.5 % -------------------- B2.3.4 Ethnicity Data from the "1991 Census of Population and Dwellings" publications. Ethnic Group, for Population Resident in New Zealand Single Ethnic Group Total Percent European (1) 2,658,738 79.5 NZ Maori 323,493 9.7 Samoan 68,565 2.0 Cook Island Maori 26,925 0.8 Tongan 18,264 0.5 Niuean 9,429 0.3 Tokelauan 2,802 0.1 Fijian 2,760 0.1 Other Pacific 1,413 -- Total, Single Pacific Group 130,158 3.9 Chinese 37,689 1.1 Indian 26,979 0.8 Other Single Ethnic Groups (2) 25,926 0.8 Total, Single Ethnic Groups 3,202,980 95.7 (1) May include combinations of European groups e.g. NZ European and/or British and/or Dutch etc. (2) All Groups not included above. May include combinations of Other Groups, eg. Japanese and/or Korean and/or Middle Eastern Groups. There is a very good (not *too* technical) book on Maori Demography for further reference of those interested: Pool, Ian. 1991. _Te Iwi Maori: A New Zealand Population Past, Present and Projected_ Auckland University Press (dist. by Oxford Univ. Press outside of New Zealand) -------------------- B2.3.5 Official Languages English, Maori. Pacific Island and Asian languages may be heard in cities. -------------------- B2.3.6 Religions A Massey research project reveals that 28 percent of Kiwis pray, at frequencies varying between several times a day, to weekly. About 21 percent of the population are regular churchgoers. The radio report on the topic said that over 60 percent of NZers believe in a God. And/or... 1991 census: (%) Anglican 22.1 Presbyterian 16.3 Catholic 15.0 Methodist 4.2 Agnostic 0.1 Atheist <0.05 No religion 20.1 Object to state 7.6 In 1981 (and I presume earlier censuses) there was simply a blank where you wrote your religion. In 1986 and 1991, there were half a dozen or so boxes you could tick, including "No Religion" and "Other" (with a blank space to fill in if you ticked "Other"). In 1981, Agnostic and Atheist accounted for 0.8 and 0.7%, so clearly many people who would write "Atheist" when confronted with a blank space would tick "No Religion" when such a box was an option. (I did this myself in 1986.) In 1986, "No Religion" got 16.7%, so this is growing fast, and is the second largest group. (It was less than 1% in the 1950s.)
Subject: B3.1 The Political Scene Would anyone care to write a brief summary of the main political parties and post them to the net for comment? B3.1.1 Why 'New Zealand' It is simply "New Zealand" - not the "People's Republic of" or "Commonwealth of" or "Kingdom of" or anything like that. It used to be "The Dominion of New Zealand" pursuant to a long-forgotten dream of a kind of federal British empire that one of our early prime ministers (Bill Massey) was keen on, but the "Dominion of" bit was dropped several years ago. I have a long debate about the origins of the names for NZ which I'm still editing into shape. It may go in here. -------------------- B3.1.2 Constitution New Zealand shares with Britain and Israel the distinction of being one of the three developed countries that does not have a codified Constitution on the U.S. model. When the country was annexed by Britain in 1840, the British parliament enacted that all applicable law of England as at 1840 became the law of New Zealand. In 1856, the New Zealand parliament was given the power to enact its own law and nothing changed when full independence was achieved (26-9-1907) except that the British parliament lost its overriding authority. We have, thus, never had the problem that Australia and Canada have had of "repatriating" a constitution that was really an Act of the British parliament. Our constitution, like the British, consists of parliament's own conventions and rules of conduct, some legislation such as the New Zealand Constitution Act (1986, not enacted), and fundamental rules applied by the Courts which go back into English history. It evolves rather than is amended. The flag of NZ is blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant with four red five-pointed stars edged in white centered in the outer half of the flag; the stars represent the Southern Cross constellation. -------------------- B3.1.3 Form Of Government Paul Gillingwater wrote: "Constitutional monarchy, with a single-chamber parliament. The monarch is said to "reign but not rule": except for a residual power to actually govern in the event of some complete breakdown of the parliamentary system, the monarch has merely ceremonial duties and advisory powers. When the monarch is absent from the country, which is most of the time, those duties and powers are delegated to the Governor-General who is appointed by the monarch for a limited term after approval by the government. Parliament is the consitutional "sovereign" - there is no theoretical limit on what it can validly do, and the validity of the laws which it enacts cannot be challenged in the courts (although the courts do have and use wide-ranging powers to control administrative acts of the government). A new parliament is elected every three years (universal suffrage at age 18). The leader of the party which commands majority support in parliament is appointed prime minister and he or she nominates the other Ministers of the Crown. The ministers (and sometimes the whole majority party in parliament) are collectively called "the government". Our system almost entirely lacks formal checks and balances - the majority party can virtually legislate as it likes subject only to its desire to be re-elected every three years. Until now, members of parliament have been elected on a single-member constituency, winner takes all, system similar to those of Britain and the U.S.A. As a result of referenda conducted in 1993, future parliaments will be elected on a mixed-member proportional system modelled on that of Germany. The administration is highly centralised. The country is divided into "districts" (the urban ones called "cities") each with a District (or City) Council and Mayor, but their powers are limited to providing public facilities (not housing) and enforcement of by-laws (local regulations) such as parking regulations. The Police are a single force controlled by the central government. The draft of the new electorate Boundaries under MMP is available from There are 3 files: nth_isle.gif --> north island electorates sth_isle.gif --> South island electorates auckland.gif --> Auckland electorates" Ross Stewart (WWG IT recruiters, Akld, NZ) writes: For interest, we've put up (as best we can) details as to how seats will be allocated under MMP. Have a look at: Colin Jackson adds: Announcing the NZ Elections Home Page on the government web server: Material on the server includes: - A Guide to the MMP voting system - How to Enrol, with an Internet form - Maps of all the new electorates - A text search tool to establish which electorate(s) a given place is in - Results of the last election It will carry the results of the 1996 election as these become available. The address of the elections home page is: -------------------- B3.1.4 The Justice System There is a four-level hearings and appeals system: Top level Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (London) | Court of Appeal (Wellington) | High Court (in all cities) | Bottom level District Courts (most towns) There is also the Small Claims Court which handles smaller personal disputes. Civil and criminal cases start in the District or High Court, depending on their seriousness and appeals go up the chain. Certain rare cases can start in the Court of Appeal. District and High Court judges sit alone or with juries. The Court of Appeal (and on certain rare occasions the High Court) consists of three or five judges sitting "en banc". The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council consists mainly of British Law Lords with New Zealand judges also sitting in New Zealand cases; in theory its decisions merely "opinions" for the benefit of the monarch as the fount of all justice, but in practice its rulings have the force of ultimate appeal. All judges are appointed by the government - High Court judges are nominated by the Law Society, but District Court judges apply for the job like any other. Various special-purpose courts (Industrial Court, Maori Land Court, Family Court, etc.) exist and have the same status as either a District Court or the High Court. For the NZ Statutes: and there's a pointer to it from -------------------- B3.1.5 Organisation Membership New Zealand is a member of the following organsations: ANZUS (US suspended security obligations to NZ on 11 August 1986), APEC, AsDB, Australia Group, C, CCC, CP, COCOM, (cooperating country), EBRD, ESCAP, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LORCS, MTCR, OECD, PCA, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIIMOG, UNTSO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Subject: B3.2 Economy Since 1984 the government has been reorienting an agrarian economy dependent on a guaranteed British market to an open free market economy that can compete on the global scene. The government had hoped that dynamic growth would boost real incomes, reduce inflationary pressures, and permit the expansion of welfare benefits. The results have been mixed: inflation is down from double-digit levels, but growth has been sluggish and unemployment, always a highly sensitive issue, has exceeded 10% since May 1991. In 1988, GDP fell by 1%, in 1989 grew by a moderate 2.4%, and was flat in 1990-91. Current (1994) growth is around 2-4% and rising. The economy is based on agriculture (particularly dairy products, meat, and wool (68 m sheep, 2 m dairy cows)), food processing, wood and paper products, textiles, machinery, transportation equipment, banking and insurance, tourism, mining. Fish catch reached a record 0.5 m tonnes in 1988. Highly dependent on external trade, NZ is currently trying to move from being a primary to a secondary producer. -------------------- B3.2.1 Defence Against Silly Questions Lyndon Watson wrote: "Look in on sci.economics and sci.econ.research. In response to yet another request from abroad about NZ's supposedly interesting economic past and present structure, Lyndon Watson composed the following. What is it with these idiots from Canada? This garbage seems to come round three or four times a year - is some fool teaching it to students there? Some notes for these twits (and their teachers) - 1. New Zealand was not subsidized from England, or anywhere else. 2. The nation did not at any time go bankrupt (or default on its debts, or become subject to IMF or World Bank or any other outside economic direction). 3. Our terms of trade worsened catastrophically in the early 1970s (not the 1980s) as a result of (a) the oil shock that also affected our trading partners and (b) the erection of tariff and quota barriers against our trade by the U.K. 4. The Labour government of 1972-75 and the National government that followed it tried to deal with adverse terms of trade by borrowing in foreign markets, with the result that by the early 1980s we had (and we still have) a debt ratio that looked bad even by Third World standards. 5. The Labour government of 1984-90 and the current National government have restructured the economy by abruptly stopping all state subsidies, removing nearly all tariff and quota barriers against imports, greatly reducing income tax and substituting the Goods and Services Tax on the sale of goods and services, greatly reducing the the state's involvement in trading activities and social services, and the reform of labour laws to promote individual workplace agreements. 6. The removal of subsidies and import barriers saw many incompetent and uneconomic businesses, many of which were reliant on subsidies, fail and the official unemployment rate exceed 10% of the workforce. 7. After a decade of restructuring, our net terms of trade are in our favour and the official unemployment rate is the fourth lowest in the OECD (currently just over 7% for the country as a whole, 5.9% in most of the South Island). A major current problem is the shortage of skilled workers in many industries." ----- Kindly submitted by Paul Walker. These were published in the Christchruch Press on September 13th and 14th, 1995. Anyone prepared to archive these and the following references for ftp and such? BRINGING HOME THE CUP Michael Carter Senior Lecturer in Economics University of Canterbury When Australia wrested the America's Cup from the New York yacht club in 1983, Tom Schnackenberg was a member of the shore team (a sail designer). When New Zealand won the cup in San Diego, Tom was head of the design team and navigator on NZL 32. His progression from shore to ship was far less imposing than that in his native country. In 1983, a New Zealand challenge for the America's Cup would have been inconceivable. The domestic boat building industry was struggling. It had been decimated by the imposition of an ill-conceived sales tax in 1979, which cut turnover from $57 million to $8 million in two years. Like Schnackenberg, many of New Zealand's best talents lived and worked overseas, driven away by high tax rates and the lack of opportunity. Innovation was discouraged by regulations, import controls and selective taxes. The idea of a New Zealand team taking on the might of corporate America was laughable. At the end of 1984, I left Australia to return to New Zealand. Some of my Australian colleagues laughed. They saw New Zealand as a basket case, a joke, small isolated islands drowning in a sea of debt. My Australian friends wondered when, not if, Australia would have to come reluctantly to the rescue. Ten years later, how things have changed. Our triumph in San Diego is due in no small measure to the changes which have be wrought in the New Zealand economy over the last 10 years. Moreover, bringing home the Cup was only the most visible sign of the new vigour, confidence and strength in New Zealand and its people. New Zealanders are justifiably proud of the performance of Team NZ in San Diego. They could be even more proud of the performance of home team, of the radical transformation of their economy over the last ten years. Domestic critics talk of the "New Zealand experiment" as though New Zealand has pursued a lone path in recent years. Nothing could be further from the truth. Massive economic change has occurred throughout the world over the last fifteen years. Deregulation and privatization are universal trends. No country remains untouched, from Britain and the US to the former constituents of the Soviet block to Latin America, Africa and Asia. Around the world, there is a feeling that New Zealand has done it better than most. The Australians are now looking cautiously over their shoulder, as their economy is consistently eclipsed by their Tasman rival. The Economist regularly cites New Zealand as exemplifying the benefits of economic reform. Monetary economists pay significant attention to the Reserve Bank Act. Experts on telecommunications watch with interest New Zealand's system of light regulation. New Zealanders are employed as consultants advising on economic reform all round the world. >From the laggard of the OECD, New Zealand has emerged to one of the strongest economies in the world. It is an achievement to be proud of, an accomplishment which surpasses even the yacht races in San Diego. That is not to say that we have got everything perfect. Mistakes have been made, implementation of some policies was less than perfect, and there is still much to be done. But, from an international perspective, New Zealand's transformation in a single decade has been remarkable. At a time when some politicians are promoting a return to the past, it is sobering to recall the changes which have been made and to reflect on the way we were ten years ago. It is also interesting to remark how the opponents of change have often become its most vocal advocates, as exemplified by Federated Farmers and recently the Manufacturers Federation. Much of the current political debate on economic policy is futile and distracting, driven by poor memories and wishful thinking. If only New Zealanders could achieve some consensus that we have been moving in the right direction, debate could turn to the more constructive issues of how to secure continued growth and equitable distribution. Prospective voters could do their part by signalling more clearly to aspiring politicians that they want to build on the present rather than return to the past. Tomorrow, we look back to the way we were in 1984 and review some of the changes which have been made in our economic lives. LOOKING BACK TO 1984 Michael Carter Senior Lecturer in Economics University of Canterbury Eleven years ago, the Fourth Labour Government came to power in a snap election. They inherited control of country whose economy had been devastated by years of mismanagement. Aided by a willing and able bureaucracy, they set about implementing an ambitious programme of economic reform. As New Zealand approaches its first MMP election, it is instructive to look back over these reforms, and to recall the way we were in 1984. One of the first changes was the freeing of the financial system from obstructive regulation and the floating of the New Zealand dollar. This has promoted a healthy, competitive and innovative financial system. People may rue market interest rates, but at least it possible to borrow when required. Remember the old days when obtaining a mortgage required appropriate obsequiousness before the bank manager, who exercised a patronizing and crucial power over investment decisions. Since it was floated, the Kiwi dollar has shown a remarkable stability in a world of stormy change. So stable has it been, that international bankers use it has a short term safe haven, and temporary resting place for funds. Why should we be alarmed at that vote of confidence? A strong currency is a manifestation of a strong economy. No country has every got rich by debasing its currency. One consequence of a floating currency is that New Zealander's are enabled to convert their currency at will. Remember the days when foreign exchange had to be squirreled away, carefully collected to finance meagre purchases. Funds for overseas travel were limited. Obtaining funds for small purchases such as magazine subscriptions required hoarding post office money orders. Similarly, ten years ago, there were an enormous range of import controls and prohibitive tariffs. Overseas trips where often shopping trips. Travelers would return laden with booty which was too expensive to purchase in New Zealand. The main beneficiaries were foreign distributors and retailers. It was a very inefficient way of restricting consumption of luxury goods to the rich. Exchange and import controls spawned a variety of ingenious rackets. Under one scheme, those with access to foreign currency could go to the top of the queue for a new car, while ordinary people had to spend three or four years on a waiting list. Consequently, the favoured few were enabled to buy a new car every year, and then sell it to the less fortunate for more than they paid for it. Such rorts are almost inevitable under a system of controls. The most spectacular result of the abolition of import controls was the flood of second-hand Japanese cars. The quality of the New Zealand vehicle fleet improved dramatically, and the cost of transportation declined. Of course, there has been a down side. Traffic congestion has also increased dramatically. But at least congestion is egalitarian. Vehicle ownership is widespread and not restricted to the rich and powerful. The relaxation of import controls and tariffs has also had a dramatic impact on clothing, footwear and consumer goods. The range of clothing readily available in New Zealand has increased dramatically, and prices have fallen. Since families spend a higher proportion of their budgets on clothing and transport, freer trade has been especially valuable to the less well off. This makes the Alliance's wish to reverse this change all the more imponderable. In 1984, New Zealand's production was guided by a system of subsidies, through which New Zealand taxpayers funded the lifestyles of those with political clout. Most pernicious were the agricultural subsidies such as SMPs. Naturally, farmers produced were the subsidies were highest, which tended to be were demand was lowest. The subsidies became capitalized in land values, another windfall gain for those of means. When the government abolished subsidies in 1984, land prices halved. For many individual farmers, this was devastating. But farmers as a whole soon recognised that the subsidy system was untenable. They soon became the most vocal advocates of deregulation, and New Zealand could mount a credible campaign against protection in world agricultural markets. Much political flak was attracted by the privatization of public owned businesses. Yet, this was part of world-wide trend. A recent book on privatization which I reviewed for the Press cited 120 countries. Privatization in New Zealand seems to have been handled more sensibly than in some other countries. This is because serious thought was given to post-sale market structure, which it is more important than ownership. For example, Ansett was permitted to fly in New Zealand before Air New Zealand was floated. Similarly, competition was permitted in telecommunications before Telecom was sold. The benefits in these cases are clear. New Zealand enjoys one of the best and cheapest telephone systems in the world. Competition in transport has certainly improved the quality of service. It is plausible to argue that current impasse between Telecom and Clear stems primarily from the Kiwi share obligation imposed on Telecom, which was explicitly designed to impede the consequences of competition in the residential market. The Kiwi share may have been one of the less fortunate ideas. A keystone of economic reform has been the Reserve Bank Act, which has succeeded in controlling inflation in New Zealand. Inflation adds to the uncertainty of investment decisions, and leads to arbitrary redistributions of wealth. Admittedly, the rapid reduction in inflation was achieved at considerable cost. However, nothing would be gained now by loosening the controls on inflation embodied in the Reserve Bank Act. Reform of the tax system was also important. In 1984, the top marginal tax rate was 66%, which left little incentive for additional effort. It provided ample incentive for avoidance and evasion which were widespread. The imposition of GST had two major advantages: avoidance was almost impossible and the tax fell on consumption and not saving. By cutting the rates but broadening the base, tax receipts have actually increased, which is why New Zealand is now repaying debt rather than accumulating it. The reformed system is also much fairer, since the opportunities for avoidance under the former system were very unevenly distributed. Reform reached beyond market institutions. "Tomorrow's Schools" revolutionized the ways our schools are run. There have been some hiccups, but by and large this seems to have been a successful and welcome reform. A recent review in the Press could find no one who wanted to return to the former system of centralized Ministry control. Similar decentralization in the health system has provoked more debate. However, it is notable that a recent careful survey by Consumer magazine detected widespread satisfaction with the health system. Much of the criticism comes from those working in the system, with a vested interest in protecting their working conditions. As in similar countries, the process of immigration was changed, from a system of regional quotas to a points system. Points are awarded to prospective immigrants for various criteria, and those with the highest points are admitted. The advantage of this system is its openness and transparency. On the whole, it is much fairer to immigrants. Other changes which come to mind include deregulation of shopping hours, the huge change in planning process embodied in the Environmental Protection Act, the auctioning of property rights in spectrum and fisheries and of course the Employment Contracts Acts. The changes which have been wrought have been massive. They have been guided by the desire to introduce openness, accountability and rationality into public decision making. It would be silly to pretend that all the changes and their implementation have been beyond criticism. We live in an uncertain world characterized by imperfect information and human frailty. Mistakes have been made and improvements are available. Inevitably, there have been winners and losers from change. Nevertheless, we need to look at the larger picture. Those with nostalgia for a lost past need to colour their memories with a degree of realism. Do we really want to return to the days of import and exchange controls, inefficient state monopolies, old broken-down cars, a gray, dull uniformity of relative poverty and quaint backwardness. That is the direction in which some politicians wish to lead. ----- Following are a collection of references on the changes from Paul Walker who added: "The one problem they all have is that they were out of date by the time they were published. For a quick overview of the last 10 years or so check out": Australian Economic Review; 0(104), Oct.-Dec. 1993 Len Bayliss Prosperity Mislaid: Economic Failure in New Zealand and What Should be Done About it. GP Publications, Wellington NZ, 1994 A. Bollard New Zealand Economic Reforms: 1984-91, Country Study No. 10. International Center for Economic Growth, 1992 Alan Bollard The Political Economy of Liberalisation in New Zealand. New Zealand Institute of Economic Research Working Paper WP93/2 Alan Bollard and Robert Buckle (eds) Economic Liberalisation in New Zealand. Allen and Unwin, 1987 Alan Bollard and David Mayes Corporatization and Privatization in New Zealand in The Political Economy of Privatization. Thomas Clarke and Christos Pitelis (eds) Routledge, London, 1993 Jonathan Boston Reshaping Social Policy in New Zealand. Fiscal Studies; 14(3), August 1993, pages 44-85. Jonathan Boston and Paul Dalziel (eds) The Decent Society?: Essays in Response to National's Economic and Social Policies. Oxford University Press, Auckland, N.Z., 1992 Jonathan Boston and Martin Holland (eds) The Fourth Labour Government: Radical Politics in New Zealand. Oxford University Press, Auckland, N.Z., 1987 Jonathan Boston and Martin Holland (eds) The Fourth Labour Government: Politics and Policy in New Zealand 2nd Ed. Oxford University Press, Auckland, N.Z., 1990 Pat Colgate and Joselyn Stroombergen A Promise to Pay: New Zealand's Overseas Debt and Country Risk. New Zealand Institute of Economic Research Research Monograph 58 Ajit Dasgupta Is New Zealand Slipping up? Some Borda Condorcet Measures of Relative Performance. Economics discussion Papers No.9311 Uinversity of Otago. Ian Duncan and Alan Bollard Corporatization and Privatization. Oxford University Press, 1992 Stephen Gale The New Zealand Experience of Liberalisation and Deregulation. New Zealand Institute of Economic Research Working Paper WP 90/13 G. Hawke (ed) A Modest Safety Net? The Future of the Welfare State. Institute of Policy Studies, 1991 Warren E. Johnston and Gerald A. G. Frengley The Deregulation of New Zealand Agriculture: Market Intervention (1964-84) and Free Market Readjustment (1984-90). Western Journal of Agricultural Economics; 16(1), July 1991, pages 132-43. Susan K. Jones The Road to Privatization; The issues involved and some lessons from New . Zealand's Experience. Finance and Development, March 1991. Tim Maloney Has New Zealand's Employment Contracts Act Increased Employment and Reduced Wages? Working Papers in Economics No.135 July 1994, Department of Economics, University of Auckland. Peter Nicholl New Zealand's Monetary Policy Experiment. University of Western Ontario Papers in Political Economy: 31 October 1993 Susan St John Tax and Welfare Reforms in New Zealand. The Australian Economic Review, 4th Quarter 1993 Robert Stephens Radical Tax Reform in New Zealand. Fiscal Studies; 14(3), August 1993, pages 45-63. The Old New Zealand and the New New Zealand Business Roundtable, Wellington N.Z., 1994 Simon Walker (ed) Rodgernomics: Reshaping New Zealand's Economy. GP Books, Wellington, N.Z., 1989 Graeme Wells Economic Reform and Macroeconomic Policy in New Zealand. Australian Economic Review; 0(92), Oct.-Dec. 1990, pages 45-60 P. C. Dalziel A decade of radical economic reforms in New Zealand British Review of New Zealand Studies 7, forthcoming (it may be out by now). Patrick Massey New Zealand: Market Liberalization in a Developed Economy Macmillan Press, 1995 You could also check out the last 10 years or so of "New Zealand Economic Papers" and the "Reserve Bank of New Zealand Bulletin". Paul -------------------- B3.2.2 Current Status Govt: going into surplus Business confidence: on the up and up Building: both business and residental are doing very well. Unemployed, welfare, students, solo parents feeling hard done by. Business (particular exporters), overseas investors very pleased. GNP 1988 (millions) $25,856 GNP per Capita $7,734 GDP: purchasing power equivalent - $46.2 billion, per capita $14,000; real growth rate - 0.4% (1991 est.) Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.1-1.4% (1993) Unemployment rate: 11% (mid 1994) Budget: revenues $17.6 billion; expenditures $18.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY91 est.) Economic aid: donor - ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $526 million Exports: $9.4 billion (f.o.b., FY91) commodities: wool, lamb, mutton, beef, fruit, fish, cheese, manufactured goods, chemicals, forestry products, beer, wine Imports: $8.4 billion (f.o.b., FY91) commodities: petroleum, consumer goods, motor vehicles, industrial equipment Natural resources: natural gas, oil, iron sand, coal, timber, hydropower, gold, grass Land use: arable land 2%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 53%; forest and woodland 38%; other 7%; includes irrigated 1% --------- For an up-to-date outline on the current state of NZ's economy, look out for one of Brian Harmer's excellent weekly WYSIWYG news reports in s.c.n-z. -------------------- B3.2.3 Currency Decimal system based on New Zealand dollar, with cent denominations. Coins are 5, 10, 20, and 50 cents, 1 and 2 dollars Notes are 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 dollars Major credit cards are accepted widely. -------------------- B3.2.4 Stockmarket Same structure as overseas. Ours tends to fluctuate depending on the state of the world markets. -------------------- B3.2.5 Exchange/Interest Rates Information on exchange rates is available from many daily papers, or you can get the information through www on: It's updated weekly, so it's usually a little out of date, but it's a good guide mostly. Current figures for main currencies (10/6/95): NZ$ Aust$ 93.63c Pounds 42.56p US$ 67.65c Yen 57.78 Interest rates are fluctuating between 6 and 10% depending on overseas markets. Fixed interest (1/4/95): % call rates 9.00 % 90-day bank bills 9.04 % July 1998 Govt Stock 8.21 -------------------- B3.2.6 Taxes New Zealand operates a Goods and Services Tax of 12.5% on ALL goods and services sold and this is usually included in the display price. The exceptions are purchases at duty free shops. Visitors cannot claim refunds on this tax however when a supplier agrees to export a major item to a visitors home address then GST will not be charged on the goods or the freight. Income tax (as at May 96): $1 - $9,500 - 15% (allowing for the low income rebate) $9,501 - $30,875 - 28% $30,876 + - 33% changing to: $1 - $9,500 - 15% (allowing for the low income rebate) $9,501 - $34,200 - 24% (up to $38,000 and down to 21% on July 1st 1997) $30,876 + - 33% on the July 1st 1996. Apparently family support will also increase with a guaranteed minimum family income, and a new independent family tax credit. For wage and salary earners virtually nothing is tax-deductible except the first $1500 of donations to churches, schools, and other charities, and then only at a 33% rate (ie max $500). There are various rebates for things like low incomes, children, donations, Housekeeper, Home/Farm/Vessel Ownership, and others. Government Revenue Source(1990) How it was expected to be spent(1990) Income Tax $16,950 Education $3,912.5 Goods and Service Tax $5,500 Health $3,791.1 Other Direct Taxes $360 Transport $711.6 Excise Duties $1,670 Administration $2,769.0 Highway tax $670 Development of Industry $1,231.3 Other Indirect Tax $790 Government Borrowing $575.1 Foreign Relations $1,733.7 Social Services $10,292.1 Total $25,940 Total $25,016.4 On a regional scale, all local authorities fund their activities (with some limited back-up from central government) from 'rates'. These are taxes on land owners, assessed annually as a fraction of the 'unimproved' (i.e. land only) value of the land. Each local authority sets its own rates and they can be challenged as unreasonable in court - some Wellington City rates for the current year have just been thrown out by the High Court. Note that we do not have overlapping local authorities as in the U.S. Any given place is controlled by one, and one only, local authority - either a "city" or a "district" - and so the only taxes that people pay are local authority rates and central government taxes. There are still some anomalous levies and taxes on certain goods - a high excise duty on wine, for example - that should not really exist in the GST environment. -------------------- B3.2.7 Miscellaneous Prices litre of petrol; $0.90 - 0.96 loaf of bread (700gm/1.5 pound loaf); $1.60 - 1.90 butter (500gms); $1.60 (on special) milk (2 litre bottle); $2.70 eggs (dozen) $3.20 apples (1kg/2lb); $0.60 - 1.20 depending on season fresh fruit/veges - much cheaper than US city and much nicer/fresher frozen chicken (2 kg/4 pounds); $6 (good special price) sausages (3 kg/6 pounds); $10 steak; $10/kg often much more. coffee (kg, beans) $22 ice cream (2 litres); $3 cheapest hamburger at McDonalds; $0.95 (a LOT more for a big mac) 12 cans of beer; $13. restaurant prices; much less than the US clothes/shoes; much more expensive than the US 60 watt light bulbs; $1 each university textbooks; $80+/- queen size mattress (without base, reasonable quality); $500 Sony G14 34cmv TV 14 inch; $439 top-loading automatic washing machine (5 kg loads); $919 cars: used Holden Commodore VL automatic 1987 (i.e. 8 years old); $12,700 new Honda Civic (fairly typical for NZ size cars); $33,170 auto insurance for that car; $250/annum (depending on policy, age of owner) electrician charges; $30 per hour doctor - standard consultation; adult $35, child $10-20 treatment in public hospital (eg maternity unit, 3 days); free. The trick is to have something so urgent that they let you in. That's not so easy unless you're pregnant. Waiting lists can be months long. For housing rental - see under 'cost of living'. ----- House prices. The following table is taken from the New Zealand Herald, Wed 20 Dec, 1995. Median price ($) by district of real estate for November 1995. Dwelling total District House Unit Section 1995 1994 1993 Northland 110,000 89,000 35,000 108,000 97,500 96,250 Auckland 212,000 182,500 75,000 200,000 178,000 150,000 Waikato/ 128,000 120,000 45,000 127,000 120,000 110,000 Bay of Plenty/ Gisborne Hawkes Bay 118,000 115,000 35,000 118,000 118,000 118,000 Manawatu/ 102,500 86,250 45,000 101,000 102,750 96,750 Wanganui Taranaki 94,000 93,500 52,555 93,750 95,000 90,000 Wellington 145,000 115,000 54,250 140,000 140,000 132,500 Nelson/ 130,000 117,750 60,000 130,000 135,000 120,000 Marlborough Canterbury/ 129,000 120,900 52,750 128,000 125,000 115,000 Westland/ SouthCant'y Otago 91,500 113,000 38,750 91,500 101,000 90,750 Southland 79,500 140,000 76,000 84,000 84,000 74,250 Average for 143,000 157,000 55,000 146,000 118,000 107,600 New Zealand ----- For more info, try: Follow the "New Zealand" link on the home page. Ewan McKissock wrote: It's interesting what items they list (and what they don't). This is either very revealing about life in NZ, or about life in Statistics New Zealand, I'm not sure which. Odd that they quote annual Tennis club subscription, but no mention of other sports. Russell Turner wrote: You could try looking at New Zealand newspapers. The dominion or evening post would be a could source of adverts for household gizmos and houses, rent, cars etc. Try phoning (04) 474 0100 to speak to the newspaper publisher. to which Charles Eggen added: The Weekly Wellington - City Voice is on-line at (watch those Caps in the above address). It will give you some current info and you can subscribe to the fully paper at a reasonable cost.
Subject: B3.3 Life In General B3.3.1 Business Hours Banks 9:00am to 4:30pm - can vary slightly. Otherwise, Monday to Friday 9:00am to 5:30pm. Late night for shopping is either Thursday or Friday. Changes to the Shop Trading Hours Act means that most shops are open for longer hours than this. Almost all are open Saturday morning, many are open on Sunday with some shops and markets remaining open later during the week. Automatic teller machines are widely available including a system in many supermarkets and petrol stations called EFTPOS where you can buy goods with your card and a PIN number and/or obtain cash. Many Atm's will accept Cirrus cards. All international credit cards are accepted in NZ. Travellers cheques can be changed in banks, hotels, stores, etc. Mike Gill said; "I used MC and carried some Travellers cheques for emergencies. This worked out great". There is no restriction on the amount of foreign currency which may be brought into or taken from New Zealand. Funds may be in the form of bank notes, coins, travellers cheques or any other instrument of payment. Visitors may convert surplus NZ currency at any outlet authorised to deal in foreign exchange. -------------------- B3.3.2 Tipping Tipping is not expected in New Zealand, but is not unheard of. Employed people don't depend on tips for their income and service charges are not [usually] added to hotel and restaurant bills. Tip for service if you think it's really deserved, but don't be surprised by the response. Some consider tipping to be an undesirable practise. -------------------- B3.3.3 Cost Of Living B3.3.3.1 Rent A moderately decent house/week (VERY approx!): Dunedin $130 - $180 Christchurch $140 - $200 Wellington $160 - $300 Auckland $200 - $350 The average house price is hovering around $140K, mortgage rates are fluctuating around 11% currently. Mortgage rates include inflation adjustment. ---------- B3.3.3.2 Wages The govt would have us believe an 'average' income is around $26K, people with an income over $30K are considered well off. ---------- B3.3.3.3 Transport Petrol is $0.93 per litre (+/- $0.05), insurance on a small car (eg. 85 toyota starlet 1.3l) is a mere $240 per year, registration is another $200 per year. There are lots of cheap Japanese used imports over here, so you can get a good car for as little as $5K, and a cheap car for less than $2k. Repairs are the worst cost - especially parts for late model cars, so getting something reliable is a good idea. ---------- B3.3.3.4 Food Pretty cheap depending on how much you eat of what. It'd be easy to eat your way through a lot of money, but it is possible to live on less than $40/wk and probably quite a lot less depending on how keen you were... ---------- B3.3.3.5 Consumer Goods Most import duties have been abolished, and instead we have a flat 12.5% goods and services tax (GST). Beware of advertised prices which exclude this. This means that imported goods (electrical appliances, clothing etc.) are pretty reasonably priced. -------------------- B3.3.4 Crime Yes, we have crime. While it may be 'safe' compared to most other countries, serious crime does exist here and visitors should take sensible precautions. Always lock your vehicle, and don't leave it in isolated locations for extended periods. Avoid leaving valuables visible in the car. Avoid areas/situations which appear unwholesome. The emergency phone number (police, ambulance, fire) is 111, and ask the operator for the service required (this can be used from payphones without paying). ----- John Davis wrote: "The crime rate isn't overly high, there was some information in the paper today (1/95) showing the average number of reported crimes per 10,000 people for Chch is 1877. The NZ average is 1457, Chch came second (Auckland had 2130). The safest place is rural Canterbury at 568. This may sound rather high, but this _all_ reported crimes, from shoplifting up. If you break it down into crime types, the NZ average for violent crimes per 10,000 is 124, sexual crimes is 14, drugs and 'anti-social' crimes (presumably things like being drunk and disorderly) is 150, property damage is 98 and property abuse is 74. As you can see from this, the serious crime rate here is therefore very low, things like murder and rape are fairly rare (rare enough to make the national TV news), armed offences are virtually un-heard of (again, and armed hold-up will make the national news). You're most at risk from petty crime (opportunist car theft, break-ins etc. - as opposed to 'professional' thieves who are fairly rare). Your chances of being assaulted, held up, or murdered are virtually nil. Probably the most dangerous part of day to day life here is the way people drive :-) On the other hand, do silly things like leave a nice expensive camera sitting in your car whilst it's parked in a dark street in the middle of town at night, and you'll probably find someone's nicked it (lots of tourists find this out the hard way - wish people would stop telling them NZ is totally safe)." ----- Murder Statistics for 1991 Brian Dooley wrote: "Notes (1) All data taken from NZ Year Books and adjusted to include only males aged 15+ years. (2) Numbers marked "*" are taken from Year Books where murders and manslaughter (not incl. deaths by careless driving) were aggregated. (3) Numbers 1967-82 are taken directly from tables which give deaths/million. (4) Numbers 1974-94 refer specifically to murder only. (5) These numbers are approximations but good enough to allow reasonable conclusions. You will observe that my value of 3.3/100,000 for 1991 accords pretty well with the value of 3.4/100,000 quoted before from the Economist. MURDERS/100,000 of Total Population: 1967 1.4* 1970 1.2* 1980 1.3 1990 1.6 1968 0.7* 1971 0.9* 1981 1.3 1991 1.5 1969 1.1* 1972 1.0* 1982 1.3 1992 2.1 1973 0.8* 1983 --- 1993 1.1 1974 1.4 1984 1.2 1975 1.0 1985 --- 1976 1.1 1986 1.8 1977 1.8 1987 1.7 1978 1.9 1988 --- 1979 1.6 1989 2.0 MURDERS/100,000 MEN for NZ (men=age 15+): 1967 3.2* 1970 2.7* 1980 3.0 1990 3.8 1968 1.6* 1971 2.0* 1981 3.0 1991 3.3 1969 2.5* 1972 2.3* 1982 3.0 1992 4.9 1973 1.8* 1983 --- 1993 2.6 1974 3.2 1984 2.7 1975 2.3 1985 --- 1976 2.5 1986 4.2 1977 4.1 1987 4.1 1978 4.3 1988 --- 1979 3.6 1989 4.8 The thing which strikes me about the table is that it does have a consistency, which implies that if the Economist's conclusions are true then not only is NZ comparatively violent now - it has been for a long time. However I am not persuaded that a simple ratio is applicable to all situations, particularly where small numbers are involved. The table has a volatility which I don't think it would have if a population of 50 million were involved." ----- I had a debate with myself about where to put this stuff. After the murder stats seemed as good as any... Frank van der Hulst offers: "Whilst doing a spot of research in Massey's library, I took the time to look for road traffic accident stats. Like all stats, take them with a grain of salt. Your mileage may vary :-) "What I found is somewhat dated, but FWIW here are comparisons of injury accidents/100mill km for various countries. Illuminating perhaps for those who claim NZer's are the worst drivers in the world (possibly excepting Romans). Finland 62 Norway 70 USA 72 Niger 79 Denmark 79 NZ 88 * Canada 88 Turkey 88 Italy 91 Australia 92 Spain 120 France 127 Germany 129 Great Britain 130 Peru 131 Netherlands 157 Hungary 193 Israel 229 India 242 Syria 264 Morocco 279 Belgium 285 Japan 320 Ivory Coast 539 "These data are for 1970/71. As usual, I ask anyone with more recent stats to email them to me or post them. "Don't go driving in Ivory Coast!" Steffan Berridge has added the following. Here's some authoritative info which I found in "Motor Accidents in New Zealand" published by the LTSA, originally entered in the OECD International Road and Traffic Accident Database held by Bundesanstalt fur Strassenwesen, Germany. The data are all 1993 except the ones with *s which are 1992 and the countries are ordered in decreasing vehicles per capita. Country Deaths per Deaths per 100,000 pop 10,000 vehicles USA 15.6 2.1* NZ 17.0 2.7 Italy 12.6 2.0 Luxembourg 19.2 3.1 Canada 12.5 2.0 Australia 11.1 1.9 Switzerland 10.5 1.8 Germany 12.3 2.2 Japan 10.6 1.9 UK 6.8 1.3 Austria 16.2 3.1 Norway 7.6 1.3* Iceland 6.4 1.3 Sweden 7.3 1.5 Belgium 16.5 3.4 France 16.6 3.4 Spain 16.3 3.6 Finland 9.6 2.1 Netherlands 8.2 1.9 Denmark 10.8 2.7 Ireland 12.1 3.7 Greece 20.3 6.6 Turkey 14.3 - Portugal 32.9* - Kind of makes you wonder what they get up to in Portugal... NZ roads are safe after all! It looks like the figures for 1994 should have been published by now, and the 1995 due shortly. ----- Hantie Braybrook wrote: "all reported crimes per 100 000 of the entire 1994 population: South Africa 5651 Norway 5563 USA 5820 <lots of countries deleted> UK 8986 Canada 11443 NZ 13247 Sweden 14188 Why are the figures for NZ almost 3 times those of SA ?" The following suggestions are in response. John Mee: "According to Statistics New Zealand, Distinct Cases Resulting in Conviction: 1991 1992 1993 Against the person 7,603 8,454 10,681 Property 20,669 21,166 21,459 Drug 6,930 6,652 7,949 Other 16,115 16,661 20,759 Total convictions, exclusive of traffic: 60,848 And the population: Census at 31 March 1993 1994 1995 Total Population 3,435.0 3,541.6 3592.4 Since the only overlap is 1993, only consider that year, therefore there are 34.35 (100,000) divided into 60,848 gives a rate of 1771.412/100,000 CONVICTIONS (not crimes). Since I can't lay my hands on a conviction rate, or total of crimes committed, this will have to do. I suspect somebody fouled up, or there are vast differences in reporting methodologies from country to country, making any statistic meaningless." Bruce Hoult: "I'd take a wild stab in the dark and guess that these numbers include everything down to and including speeding tickets, and that the majority are in fact exactly that." Paul Dansted: "Because of changing attitudes towards domestic violence in NZ assaults in the home are now more likely to be reported as crimes. I think domestic violence accounts for something like 80% of violence in NZ! Policy changes have encouraged police to treat these incidents as crimes rather than 'just domestics'." Hantie Braybrook "There was a follow-up article the next day which is summarised below. Anyone interested can search the articles at the Independent Newspapers WWW site viz. "Essentially, the crime and murder rates could be double estimates due to the 50% rate of under-reporting. According to Nedcor researcher Simon Lee, the project used current SAPS (SA Police Service) crime statistics and statistics obtained through its own study to calculate an overall crime rate of 5,651 per 100,000 people. "Lee said that the crime rate could be doubled to at least 11,500 if the under-reporting rate were taken into consideration. This would also apply to the murder rate of 45 per 100,000 people which could in fact be 90. "Commenting on the high overall crime rate in countries such as Sweden, New Zealand and Canada, Lee said it could be attributed to the fact that these countries had a reporting rate of at least 95%. "The international rates had been obtained through Britannica World Data, which publish reliable forms of comparative crime statistics." -------------------- B3.3.5 Finding A Job Try: and/or: and/or: The Ministry of Health has started a new web site for health related work: There is a weekly computer section there as well as jobnet. The latter consists of situations vacant in the computer industry in NZ. There is an outfit called Willing Workers On Organic Farms (WWOOF) which costs $15 to join. For that you get a booklet containing a list of addresses and phone contacts for hundreds of organic farms. It is up to you to make the contact and arrangements with the specific farm where you would exchange work for food and lodging. Contact: Janet & Andrew Strange PO Box 1172 Nelson, NZ. phone 025-345-711 (mobile) The NZ Employment Service appears to be a final resort. It is far better to have a job lined up before you arrive (from overseas) or before you're out of school... Labour force: 1,603,500 (June 1991) services 67.4% manufacturing 19.8% primary production 9.3% (1987) -------------------- B3.3.6 Schools And Education Compulsory from age 7 to 15, but almost all children start kindergarten at age 4 and then school at 5. Primary schools: J or Primer (pron. 'primmer') 1 and 2: approx age 5-6 Standards 1-4: approx age 7-11 Intermediate schools: Form 1-2: approx age 11-13 (these are sometimes included in primary schools or in secondary schools) Secondary schools: Form 3-7: approx age 13-18 NZ schools have a high international reputation, especially for their reading and remedial reading programmes. A growing number of schools have special programmes for children whose first language is not English. National exams/qualifications: Form 5: School Certificate Form 6: Sixth Form Certificate Form 7: Bursary (entrance to university is mostly based on this) -------------------- B3.3.7 Universities Otago is the oldest, Waikato is the newest, Auckland is the largest, and Lincoln is the smallest. Apart from Lincoln which is essentially a technical university offering a very limited range of courses (but is expanding fast), all are full-scale universities. Try: This will send you to home pages (and all sorts of info including snail mail) of universities in NZ. As an indication, deadline for enrolment in 1996 closed on 12 dec for returning students, 7 Dec for new students and for overseas students it closed much earlier. The first semester starts at the end of February. ---------- B3.3.7.1 Teaching Focus Most Universities have a core of basic subjects common to all; Chemistry, Physics, Biology, Maths, Stats, Economics, English, Psychology, etc. etc. Univerity of Auckland (Auckland) fine art, architecture, engineering, law? Univerity of Auckland (Tamaki) ? University of Waikato (Hamilton) provide internet into NZ, Maori, Computing, Psychology Massey University (Albany - Auckland's North Shore) Business Studies, Information and Mathematical Sciences, Social Sciences, Food Science. Massey University (Palmerston North) Agriculture & Horticulture, Business Studies, Information and Mathematical Sciences, Science, Social Sciences, Technology, Veterinary Science, Aviation, Education. There is also an arts faculty... * Many of the Massey programmes are available by distance education (Centre for University Extramural Studies) Victoria University of Wellington (Wellington) arts, law, computing, commerce/economics, geology, meteorology Canterbury University (Christchurch) fine art, all sciences, computing, engineering, commerce, law, forestry, music Lincoln University (Christchurch) agriculture, economics, landscape architecture, cultural studies Otago University (Dunedin) medicine, law, phys. ed., computing, consumer sciences, surveying, dentistry, commerce Marty Burr wrote: "Aviation has been around since 1990, when the Massey University School of Aviation was established. It offers degrees in Aviation (BAv) with majors in flight crew development (probably one of the most expensive degrees in NZ!), Aviation Systems, and Air Traffic Systems Management (ATSM This major trains Air Traffic Controllers in association with the Singapore Aviation Academy, and the Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore) It also offers Masters in Aviation (MAv), and Doctorates in aviation. "Education is offered as a degree in conjunction with the Palmerston North College of Education. Next year (1996) the Palmerston North College of Education is to become part of Massey, and come under the Faculty of Education at Massey. I'm not sure what the name will be. It also offers several postgrad degrees in Education." Michelle Elleray wrote: "I think you'll find Massey, Auckland, Victoria, Canterbury, Otago and Waikato Universities all offer Maori Studies. "As for PI studies - Auckland has a PI Studies Centre and teaches Samoan, Victoria used to teach Samoan and Cook Island Maori. There's sure to be more at both these universities, and possibly at other universities around the country - check the web pages." ---------- B3.3.7.2 Addresses University of Auckland (Auckland) Private Bag 92 019 or Auckland ph (09) 373-7999 University of Waikato Private bag 3105 Hamilton Massey University Private Bag Palmerston North Victoria University of Wellington PO Box 600 Wellington University of Canterbury Christchurch ph (03) 366-7001 Lincoln University Christchurch ph (03) 325-2811 University of Otago PO Box 56 Dunedin Email to postmaster@university.of.choice for someone who can help. You can try sending email to for details. There is a NZ Universities page at: will send you to home pages (and all sorts of info including snail mail) of universities in NZ. A fair chunk of VUW information is on line. The starting point is For Victoria's English Department, have a look at: Computer Science departments at various universities: You can view the University of Canterbury Dept of Civil Engineering home page at: ---------- B3.3.7.3 The University Hierarchy Basically, it goes something like this: Professor(s) Associate Professors/Readers (depends on department) Senior Lecturers Lecturers There are also Head of Departments, Deans, etc., which may or may not be professors, although they are usually pretty senior. In NZ universities, a Professorship is a *very* prestigious title. There may be a rough equivalence between a US associate professor and a NZ lecturer, and a US professor and NZ senior lecturer. There is likely to be some overlap. Per department there is about 1 professor per approx 10 'lower' positions. For example, in Electrical Engineering at Canterbury there are currently 2 professors, 3 associate professors, 9 senior lecturers, and 5 lecturers (from the 1994 calendar). ---------- B3.3.7.4 Postgrad Study ??? I'd appreciate some information on ease of obtaining positions in post-grad study, what positions are increasing/decreasing, etc. Please. -------------------- B3.3.8 Health NZ operates a no-fault accident compensation scheme which covers residents and visitors. Personal injury through accident entitles the injured party to compensation for reasonable expenses related to the accident. Due to abuse, this has been reworked recently and compensation is far harder to obtain. The official line (on the health care reform) can be obtained from The Ministry of Health at: For general comment and opinion then consult NZ Doctor magazine online at: Life Expectancy (M) 71.0 years Life Expectancy (F) 77.0 years Crude Birth Rate 16.3 /1000 Crude Death Rate 8.3 /1000 Infant Mortality 10.8 /1000 Total fertility rate 2.1 children born/woman (1992) No. of Hospitals 318 No. of Hospital Beds 23,052 No. of Physicians 5,210 No. of Dentists 1,160 No. of Pharmacists 2,300 Nursing Personnel 22,000 ---------- B3.3.8.1 Water Supply NZ cities and towns have good public water. Water is safe to drink out of the tap. The water in Christchurch *is* totally untreated and is supposed to be the purist domestic water supply in the world... In bush walking areas giardia has been found so its advisable to check before drinking from rivers or streams. Boiling water for five minutes or more is advised where advice is not available. -------------------- B3.3.9 Communications Telephone Country Code 64 National Directory 018 International Directory 0172 National Tolls 010 International Tolls 0170 Telex Access Code 791 Ham Radio Prefix ZL For information about NZ broadcasting, particularly locally produced material, have a look the New Zealand On Air site: which has info on broadcasting fees, programme funding news, weekly updates of funded programmes, contact information, etc. -------------------- B3.3.10 Misc Air Craft Registration PreFix ZK Yatch Registration PreFix KZ X.25 Country Code 05301
Subject: B3.4 Holidays B3.4.1 National Jan 01 New Years Day (first Monday/Tuesday if 1st is Sat/Sun) Jan 02 Day After New Years day Feb 06 Waitangi day (not moved if on a weekend) Apr Easter Friday (Friday before Easter Sunday) Apr Easter Monday (second weekend after the equinox or something?) Apr 25 ANZAC Day (not moved if on a weekend, shops closed morning only) Jun (first Monday) Queens Birthday (3/6/1996) Oct (fourth Monday) Labour Day (28/10/1996) Dec 25 Christmas Day (first Monday/Tuesday if 25th is Sat/Sun) Dec 26 Boxing Day -------------------- B3.4.2 Regional Note these are subject to variations typically to accommodate local show days. As a general rule (apart from holidays which are observed on show days) if the Anniversary Day falls on Friday to Sunday (inclusive) it is observed the following Monday, if it falls on Tuesday to Thursday it is observed the preceding Monday. Observed Date Region 1994 Jan 17 Southland Anniversary 1994 Jan 24 Wellington Anniversary 1994 Jan 31 Auckland and Northland Anniversary 1994 Jan 31 Nelson Anniversary 1994 Mar 14 Taranaki Anniversary 1994 Mar 21 Otago Anniversary 1994 Sep 26 South Canterbury Anniversary 1994 Oct 31 Hawkes Bay Anniversary 1994 Oct 31 Marlborough Anniversary 1994 Nov 11 North and Central Canterbury Anniversary (3rd Friday after Labour Day) called 'Show Day' and on the third day of the annual Chch A&P Show. 1994 Nov 28 Chatham Islands Anniversary 1994 Nov 28 Westland Anniversary
Subject: B3.5 Technical Stuff If it isn't here, ask in s.c.n-z. If no-one can tell you, your problem is either dazzlingly obscure, or embarrassingly mundane! Whatever it is, if you still can't find out, wait till you get to wherever you're going; they are likely to have all the fixes for foreigners with their strange voltage gear, and they will even have the right plug to put on it. B3.5.1 Electricity The normal electricity supply is 230 volts 50 hertz alternating current (AC). 3 pin appliance socket from a viewpoint looking at the wall or a plug seen from the inside as one would while wiring it up. phase -----> / \ <---- neutral (or live) | <--------- earth If the wires you have are brown, blue, and green [yellow or white striped], then; brown = phase, blue = neutral, green = earth. The old code is red, black, green respectively. If you have ANY doubts, please consult a qualified electrician. Most hotels will have shaver plugs suitable for all international appliance of low power rating, and which will supply 110 and 230 volts. These plugs may be for shavers only. If in doubt, ask. -------------------- B3.5.2 TV Info NZ runs on PAL G on UHF. This gives the same picture and sound spacing (5.5MHz), but the channel spacing is slightly wider - the same as that used for 6MHz intercarrier spacing. Standard 50 hertz field rate, 25 hertz frame rate. We also use NICAM for stereo tv, rather than one of the various analogue systems. In the Southern Hemisphere, the locally-vertical component of the field is in the opposite direction to where it would be an equivalent distance north of the equator. This affects the colour convergence of video monitors. It's not a *huge* difference, and it took computer companies until the late 1980's to wake up to the difference and ship different monitor versions to New Zealand, South America, and Australia. Northern hemisphere monitors *work* but the colours won't be as crisp as you'd expect. Mike Tuppen wrote: " lines ch bw Vision bw Sound spacing Vision Mod Sound Mod U.K. 625 8MHz 5.5MHz +6MHz -ve f.m. N.Z. 625 7MHz 5MHz 5.5MHz -ve f.m. UK NICAM Standard I Second sound carrier is at 6.552MHz Main carrier modulated with mono sound or A The 2nd carrier digitally modulated with L & R or A and B or Mono plus data or full data. NZ NICAM Standard B/G Second sound carrier is at 5.85MHz Main carrier modulated with mono sound or A. The 2nd carrier digitally modulated as in UK So without tweaking you coils your audio output is likey to be somewhat poor! Also if channel spacing is different (as the channel band width hints) and if you set is digitally tuned you may possibly not be able to tune into the NZ stations. If your set is modern it might be worth contacting the manufacturer to see if it can be modified. Alan Brown wrote: "Our video/audio intercarrier separation is 5.5MHz compared to the UK 6MHz and the cost of getting the traps adjusted and IF retuned makes it uneconomic - especially on modern TVs where to achieve the change an entire module usually has to be swapped out. "Additionally few UK PAL sets have VHF modules and our free-to-air channels work almost exclusively in VHF 1 and 3 bands." -------------------- B3.5.3 Video Conversion NTSC/PAL tv's are available but expensive. Commercial conversion facilities are available. -------------------- B3.5.4 Bringing Computers In Only problems are power supply suitability. Large monitors may experience problems changing hemisphere (or Sun would have us believe!). See notes on tv info and video conversion above as applicable. -------------------- B3.5.5 Telephone Similar to British Telecom style. Uses BT 600 plug (not RJ-11) Phone line is pins 2 and 5 of the BT 600 plug (RJ-11 is pins 3 & 4). Hotels will have difficulty in converting plugs styles but conversion cables are available from retailers. Most NZ telephone systems can handle DTMF tone dialling. BEWARE: NZ pulse dialing is the reverse of most countries. The digit are reversed and so produce different numbers of pulses. The conversion is: digit | # of Pulses --------+------------ 0 | 10 1 | 9 2 | 8 [.....] 8 | 2 9 | 1 The best solution is to use tone dialing. Lin Nah contributes: "Here's something that may be handy for travellers with a digital Mobile phones. "There are SIM cards available on short term rental. This allows them to use their digital mobiles. They will be allocated a NZ mobile number. "The price (4 Aug 1995) for the rental is around $NZ3 a day. Payments are by credit cards. There seems to be no deposit on it. What they do is take an imprint of your credit card and allocate charges to it at the end of your trip. "Usage charges (as at 4 August 1995) Outgoing: National NZ$0.90 per min International NZ$0.90 plus int'l tolls Incoming: Free. ;) "They can drop the card off at the Budget rental car desk at the airport on their way out of the country. "There is no need to reserve a card. Arrangements can be made when they arrive in NZ. All they need to do is call 0800 800 021. Ask the help desk person where is your nearest Bellsouth office. (I think this presumes you are going to arrive in one of our cities with international airports like Auckland, Wgtn or Chch. I have this feeling that trying to get it when you are in Colville won't be too successful ;) ) The Telecom white and yellow pages are apparently available online at: but searching on some parameters may be a little slow. -------------------- B3.5.6 Radio Apparently NZ radio stations broadcast on different frequencies to the US which may cause problems with some [imported] radio gear. Conversion kits are often required for radios in imported Japanese cars.
Subject: B4.1 Travel To NZ Fly, sail, paddle or swim. See a travel agent near you. Soon! -------------------- B4.1.1 Travel Details One of the cheapest ways to fly is as a courier. You must be reasonably groomed, have a clean record and be over 21 to do this sort of thing, also you have to be prepared to wait around until a job comes up. The following is becoming something of a jumble. As I know nothing about the machinations of the Immigration Department, I'd be more than happy if someone would be kind enough to rewrite this section into a more coherent form. In the meantime, people might like to know that Christopher Werry has created a 'Moving to New Zealand' web page, which has info and links to nfo on Immigration, Jobs, Housing, Appliances and Kiwi Expressions. The url is: Also try: or or and follow the links through there; the latter has a lot of immigration info, including a comprehensive explanation of the points system. Other sites for immigration info include: Also, try Reading the FAQ for hints on saving money and for stuff specific to us. Visitors to NZ must have a valid passport. The only exceptions are children under 16 who are included on the passport of an accompanying adult. Passports must be valid 3 months beyond date of departure. Visas may be required depending on nationality, purpose of visit, and intended length of stay. Visas are not required of US citizens in possession of a return or onward ticket staying up to 90 days. Australians and NZers need passports to get into each others countries. NZers now need visas too, although these tend to be no real difficulty. A departure tax of $NZ20 per person (over 5 years old) is charged of people leaving New Zealand who have been in the country more than 24 hours. A person in New Zealand cannot renew their visitor's permit if they have applied for residence whilst in the country. If the Immigration Office cannot process the application within the validity of the V.P., the applicant has to leave New Zealand. The application is forwarded to the overseas post which deals with the country to which they have returned. It is better to apply before going to New Zealand, especially when you take into account the customs concessions available to first time migrants. Residency gives you the right to live and work here, but it can lapse if you're out of NZ for too long (a couple of years I think). A first permit is valid for a period of four years from date of issue. To prevent individuals from receiving residency and never actually living in the country, future renewals to a returning residents permit may be issued for shorter terms, depending on how long the person has actually been resident in NZ, work status, etc. If you are given a visa for residency you have some time to move to nz, but it pays to come in once within the first 6 months. This proves you are taking up permanent residency. If you provide a good reason, it's possible to take as much as two years before you move here. There are 2 types of residence permits; single entry and multiple entry. If you have single entry it means you have to apply every time you want to leave to ensure you can come back in. What you may get is a 1 year or 5 year permanent residency permit. At the end of that period, the amount of time you spend in NZ will probably determine if it is going to be renewed or not. So if you have not spent even a year living in NZ by the end of 5 years you better have a good explanation. There is probably a minimum. Check with the department. What you need to do is be able to explain why you are not permanently living in NZ (if you are not). Talk to your nearest NZ counsulate. Also you will be given an allowance of value of goods to be brought into NZ. So within the next 5 years ( I think) you can bring in quite a lot and not be taxed (customs duty) provided they are personal belongings for your use here. Citizenship is separate from residency and can only be applied for once a person has NZ residency and has lived in the country for a certain number of years (3?). NZ allows dual citizenship, but the US may not. If they don't, you'd have to give up your American citizenship to get Kiwi citizenship. US will insist that you renounce all other citizenships when you swear allegiance (whether the other countries recognise this will depend on their own regulations). For someone who already holds US citizenship, there should be no problem. Judy Shorten wrote: My own daughter, born 1977, who has spent a total of 6 weeks in NZ over 2 visits, has NZ citizenship *By Grant* meaning that she can pass on the NZ citizenship to her children even if she and her future children never set foot in NZ. After our last trip to NZ in 1991 I applied for my daughter, and she was subsequently given citizenship By Grant. Until that point she had (unbeknown to me) NZ citizenship *By Descent* only - not able to pass her citizenship on to her children, but still able to hold a NZ Passport. Brian Harmer wrote: Children born after 1978 must be registered with the NZ embassy, or consulate. The fee is NZ$100 per child and must be accompanied by the (long form) birth certificate, marriage certificate (where applicable) of the parent through which citizenship descends. This must be done before age 22, otherwise they would not qualify as citizens. Mike Dowling responded at great length. Permission to repeat it here has been given. I'm no longer working on it. I think it's beaten me... ----- Health: Facilities are good. No special precautions necessary. No vaccination certificates are required to enter New Zealand, but if illness occurs within three weeks of entering the country, consult a doctor. Customs are generally more formal than in neighbouring Australia. Duty Free quantities: Alcohol; 3 x 1.125l bottles of spirits - total value can't exceed NZ$700 - must declare 2 bottles 4.5l of beer and/or wine - equivalent to 6 x 750ml bottles of wine or 1 doz cans of beer Cigarettes; 1 carton For more information see the section on Overseas Offices of the NZ Tourism Board. ----- Richard Turner offers: "Well, I've just had the experience of moving back to New Zealand after spending ten years in the USA. Since there are oftentimes a number of enquiries about moving companies on this newsgroup, I thought I'd pass on my experience - in hopes that it may help someone else. "The cost of getting a moving company: "Quoted Rates from Iowa (Midwest USA) to Wellington, New Zealand ranged from US $160 to $225 per 100 pounds of goods. depending on the company. Also, an insurance cost of $25 per $1000 of goods values was also added. (This was door to door - other rates are cheaper if you go door to port or port to port) "In my experience, I got a number of quotes, I decided to go with a company (I won't name them - but think of Pilgrims and Plymouth Rock and the ship they came on) - Anyway, we were all set for them to come and get the stuff 2 weeks before we were due to fly out - a couple of days before the movers were to arrive, they called up and said that they could come and pick the goods up, but that they would have to sit in the Des Moines Warehouse for 3 months. I then requested that they not even bother to show up the next day. "The next company I went with was Allied Van Lines - the agent I dealt with, and the company were quite good to deal with. Between the time they picked the stuff up till the time I will get my stuff will be less than 6 weeks. "Also, the NZ agents for Allied, seem to be quite competent, but you should be aware that when your goods arrive certain forms have to be delivered to the company. These are quarantine forms and customs declarations, along with these you need to send your passport, and if you have been away more than 21 months - some proof of your extended absence from NZ - such as Tax forms and financial records (all of mine - were packed aboard the boat) - or a letter from your foreign employer. "As for moving a car - it would cost about $4000 US to ship a mid size car such as a Camry (weighs about 3000 pounds) "Also, if, at some point, you wanted to sell it in NZ, you would then have to convert it to right hand drive - this can get VERY expensive." ----- Frits Schouten adds: "It's not really a followup on Richard Turners experience, but it's certainly related. Five years ago or so, I had to move my household from The Netherlands to New Zealand and using movers is not the cheapest way to go. "Here is my experience. Note: all prices are in US dollars unless otherwise stated! "Various big international movers quoted me between $7000 and $9000 for door to door moving. Basically what they do is, pack your goods in a container (20ft for a normal household) and ship it for you. This is an easy way of doing it but not cheap. Also, if anything is broken on arrival the insurance will pay for replacement. The insurance is in most cases based on an itemised list of the contents of the container and is not cheap. Normally 6% of the contents value. "If you like a bit of challence in life you could do it my way. "I went to a shipping company (NEDLLOYD) and asked them what it would cost me to hire a 20ft container (you know the same one the movers were using) to ship my household to New Zealand. Answer: $2500 from Rotterdam to Auckland. I had to pay an aditional $150 for the truck to bring the container to Rotterdam and agreed to have the transport in New Zealand organised by their agent in Auckland. Here was a cost risk I was prepared to take. "The insurance is quite different. You can only insure the container for total loss. You agree on a contents value and the premium is normally 1.3% to 1.6% of that value. If the container goes overboard or is dropped from a crane etc. the insurance pays out the value you have agreed. This means that if, on arrival, you find lets say your beautiful mirror broken that is then to bad. But that is not a problem because this will not happen you know. You've packed it yourself :-) "The people from NEDLLOYD gave me heaps of help and excellent information on how to go about packing a container to get it flawless through customs and MAF inspections. "Bottom line is: - Have a very detailed list of the contents of the container, like box numbers and content lists per box. - Very inportant is to state how everything is cleaned!!! "The container arrived at the worst possible time of the year. The week before Christmas. Anyway the local agent for NEDLLOYD worked out to be of great value too (for the really keen ones, check out That was btw International Forwarding Co Ltd. "We got a phone call from them telling me that the container had arrived and if I could come to Auckland to organise the paperwork. I dropped in just before lunch and the guy said: give me your passport and consignment papers and I'll take care of the rest. Bit scary but. Come back after lunch, please. So I did and guess what, everything was organised after lunch. The only thing left was to pay an additional few hundred NZ dollars to get the container to Papakura. The cost risk wasn't really there. "Two day later the container arrived and within a few hours I had several people asking if I had a garage sale. My whole household was on the front lawn :-) "Moral of the story is: take that challenge, it's exciting and it might save you a lot money." -------------------- B4.1.2 Agricultural Restrictions NZ's isolation has kept its free of many animal and plant diseases. To maintain this, restrictions are imposed on the importation of certain animal and plant material. Before arrival you will be asked to complete a declaration stating whether you have food, plant or animal material with you or in your baggage. Aircraft cabins are often sprayed before disembarkation to ensure there are no foreign insects imported accidentally. You may ask to be removed if you have respiratory problems. ---------- B4.1.2.1 Animal Quarantine Gloria Williams wrote: "I've seen this query from time to time in this news groups so thought there might be some interest in the latest policy on animal importation into NZ as documented by the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries. "The main changes are: quarantine for dogs and cats can now take place within NZ instead of outside the country (Hawaii for instance) and the quarantine period is 30 days instead of 6 months. Your animal needs to be microchipped and there is a very stringent set of tests and treatments for diseases such as rabies, heartworm, parvo, distemper etc. which must be administered and verified by an accredited veterinarian. Travel to NZ from the country of origin must be in an IATA approved container which is sealed with a government approved seal. Animals must be from countries which have declared themselves rabies-free, or countries which NZ recognises as not having urban rabies or it is well contained. (Canada and US fall into this latter category) These are the basic changes. To see if your animal will qualify for the new procedure, obtain the complete information package and the import health permit application from the Chief Veterinary Officer, Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, P.O. Box 2526, Wellington. Ex-pats overseas can obtain the information package from their NZ consulate. -------------------- B4.1.3 Overseas Embassies In NZ AUSTRALIA: Union House 32/38 Quay St. Auckland ph 0 9 303 2429 72 Hobson St Thorndon Wellington ph 0 4 473 6411 GERMANY 52 Symond St Auckland ph 0 9 377 3460 90 Hobson St Thorndon Wellington ph 0 4 473 6063 GREAT BRITAIN 151 Queen St Auckland ph 0 9 303 2971 2 The Terrace Wellington ph 0 4 472 6049 JAPAN 37 Shortland St Auckland ph 0 9 303 4106 Cnr Victoria and Hunter Sts Wellington ph 0 4 473 1540 USA Cnr Shortland and O'Connell Sts Auckland ph 0 9 303 2724 29 Fitzherbert Tce Thorndon Wellington ph 0 4 472 2068
Subject: B4.2 Immigration Stuff, Points System See also the section on Coming To New Zealand (B4) ----- Paul Nixon has provided the following (reformatted) outline of the new points system. The old sections (B4.2 to B4.2.6) are quite possibly obsolete. "I have listed below what I understand will be the points structure of the new General Skills Category [formerly the General Category] which will come into effect in October 1995. PREREQUISITES English Language: Principle applicants to meet a minimum standard of English ie pass the IELTS General Modual Level 5. Non-principal applicants aged 16+ must also meet this standard or pay a fee of $NZ20,000 [refundable if qualification attained later]. Character & Health: No change. Applicants are required to be of good character and health. Evidence of this by references and medical. HUMAN CAPITAL FACTORS Flatter points structure created. Ten pts minimum requirement. Base degree [or equivalent], trade or 3 year diploma/cetificate = 10 pts. Advanced trade or professional qualification = 11 pts. Masters degree [or equivalent] = 12 pts. Statutory resistration for professionals eg. doctors, dentists, vets. EMPLOYMENT FACTORS Maximum age = 55 Job Offer; offer of skilled employment = 5 pts. SETTLEMENT FACTORS Settlement Funds: $100,000 - $200,000 transferred to NZ and readily available = 1 - 2 pts. Spousal Human Capital: If spouse/partner has base degree, trade or 3 year diploma/certificate = 1 pt. Advanced qualifications = 2 points. New Zealand Work Experience: Up to 2 pts available for work experience already gained in NZ on a lawful permit. Sponsorship: Family sponsorship = 3 pts, Community sponsorship scrapped. Under the new system there will not be an automatic points pass mark which applicants will have to equal or exceed. But a floating mark which may change from month to month, no doubt depending upon the "quality" of applicants at that time. Clearly the new system makes it much more difficult to get points in the first place and then much more difficult for applicants to assess if their points total will be enough to obtain a visa." ----- To assist you in calculating the points you have, Mark Cresswell offers: Version 2 of the New Zealand Immigration Calculator for 16-bit Windows, is now available to download: This program is still FREEWARE, and is targeted at those amongst you who wish to gain residency in New Zealand. It covers the following categories of entry: General Skills Business Investement Family Humanitarian There is an extensive amount of online immigration information, and the program will calculate your points score based on the revised immigration policies. You are advised to contact your nearest NZ Embassy or NZIS office, to find out the current Pass Mark (25 according to the immigration office in Chch 10/5/96), and for more detailed info. ----- This section (B4) is out of date. It will be replaced as soon as I find appropriate material... The following is from a New Zealand Immigration Service pamphlet entitled "Applying for Residence in NZ; Self-assessment Guide". It should be noted that people in NZ unlawfully are ineligible to apply for for residence (except under certain circumstances). If one has less than the current requirements of 25 (May 96) points it's very difficult to get a job/grant money. Migrants can apply for residence under FOUR categories, and need only meet the requirements of ONE category to 'qualify' for residence. The four categories are: 1. General Category (the points system; awards points against a number of quality criteria). 2. Business Investment (applicants are assessed on basis of skills, work or business experience, and their ability to transfer >NZD 100,000 to NZ. 3. Family (prospective migrants must have a 'genuine' relationship to NZ citizen/ resident). 4. Humanitarian (people with "exceptionally" difficult circumstances, resolvable only by moving to NZ, providing there's a close family connection). The New Zealand Qualification Authority is online - their address is <username> -------------------- B4.2.1 Assessment For The General Category To succeed here, score more than 20 points. This category is based on employability, age and "settlement factors". Applicants must be proficient in English. (20 pts is actually the 'fail' mark; the govt sets a higher pass mark, but applications which fall between the pass and fail marks are placed into a pool. The highest scoring applications in this pool are periodically drawn, they're in!). -------------------- B4.2.2 Employability Postgraduate degree in any area of study, OR a bachelor's degree in any science, technical or engineering area. 15 pts Bachelors degree in any area of study not mentioned above, or trade certificate or advanced trade qualification. (min completion time = 3 years). 12 pts Diploma or certificate (2 to 3 yrs full time study). 8 pts Diploma or certificate (1 to 2 yrs full time study). 4 pts 12 years schooling successfully completed. 2 pts (points obtainable for only ONE qualification; qualifications must be of comparable standards to NZ ones). -------------------- B4.2.3 Work Experience 1 pt for every TWO years of work experience, up to a max of 10 pts. Work must be relevant to either your qualification or in an approved occupation. Work that is not directly related to a qualification can't be counted. Work experience must have been obtained after completing a qualification in order to be counted. -------------------- B4.2.4 Age People over 55 yrs of age cannot be considered under the general category. 18-24 yrs 8 pts 25-29 yrs 10 pts 30-34 yrs 8 pts 35-39 yrs 6 pts 40-44 yrs 4 pts 45-49 yrs 2 pts -------------------- B4.2.5 Settlement Factors Gain a MAX of 5 pts from any combination of the following; -Settlement funds of NZD 100,000 (or equivalent) 2 pts -investment funds; 1 pt for every NZD 100,000 max 3 pts (investment funds must be additional to any claimed settlement funds). -sponsorship by an immediate family member 2 pts OR sponsorship by an approved community organisation 3 pts -offer of skilled employment in an approved occupation 3 pts Maximum obtainable points under general category = 40. -------------------- B4.2.6 Business Investment Category Must score min of 7 pts in 'employability' section (Qualifications + work experience) in general category. Business experience? (ie. owned and operated a business?) 1 pt for every 2 yrs (add this score to qualifications section to get 'employability' score). Business investment funds must be the direct result of your business/professional skills over a period of at least three years. There are 3 types of investment which count: 1. invest > NZD 750,000 into a passive investment; ie bank a/c, trust funds, or stocks. 2. invest > NZD 650,000 in a commercial venture in either Auckland or Wellington urban areas. 3. invest > NZD 500,000 elsewhere in NZ. At least ONE member of the family (over 17 yrs old) must be proficient in English, in order to enter under this category. Funds must be invested in NZ for a period of not less than 2 yrs, and they must provide a commercial return. The last two categories are apparently pretty self explanatory. The above info is just a rough guide. The pamphlets seem to be freely available, the copy used above was from the Wellington Community Law Centre. -------------------- B4.2.7 Importing a Car Martin Lange wrote: "I imported my left-hand drive Fiat Uno from Germany after I was granted residency. That was three years ago. The rules in 1993 where: a) You can get a "Left-Hand Drive Exception Permit" if - You are a Permanent Resident, Holding a Work Permit or have a long-term Visitors Permit - Owned the car for at least two years overseas. b) You are not allow to sell the car unless it is older than 20 years OR converted to a right-hand drive. c) Your car must pass a technical check through the Land Transport authority. For up-to-date information, contact the Land Transport Safety Authority, Head Office, 7-27 Waterloo Quay, P.O. Box 27-459 Wellington Ph: +64-4-494-8600 Fax: +64-4-494-8601 Anyhow, unless your car is something VERY special, it is not worth the hassle. Especially Japanese assembled car are not expensive. If you arrive in Auckland, rent a car for a few days and shop around at the "Japanese Assembled Car Dealers". Be aware of the fact that most "Japanese Assembled Cars" have tinkered clocks. Do not believe the mileage the dealer tells you - it has been manipulated in every second import. The dealers have huge ranges for negotiations. A friend of mine in Auckland negotiated the price down by 45% THREE times. After purchasing such a car he brings it to a PIT Stop, gets the brakes fixed and drives around. Another hint: The New Zealand Automobile Associations runs at least one independent workshop in Auckland. You can bring your potential "next car" there and get an non-partisan assessment."
Subject: B5 TRAVEL WITHIN NZ Be warned that transport services are likely to be VERY well patronised around the beginning and end of any school or university holiday period. These change yearly (the overall pattern is changing now; details, anyone?) so anything more specific would be pointless. Watch out for the: Last week of January/first week of February Last week of February/first week of March First and third/fourth weeks of May First two weeks of July Last week of August/second week of September First two weeks of November Third week of December
Subject: B5.1 Info Sources B5.1.1 Tourism Board There is one. There is also the Visitor Information Network which has conspicuous black, green, and white signs including a large italic 'i' at the left hand end, throughout NZ cities/towns. -------------------- B5.1.2 Maps See the nearest branch of the Department of Survey and Land Information, or Department of Conservation. Bookshops are likely to have maps too. It pays to carry a light tent and be prepared to camp if travelling in the more popular places during the summer. Watch out for Giardia. Boil drinking water in areas known to be infected (ask at a DoC office) and FOLLOW the rules for waste disposal; we don't want it to spread...
Subject: B5.2 Accommodation Two of the main sources of ideas relating to accommodation are the AA guides and the Jason's Handbooks. The AA guides provide an extensive outline of all types of accommodation for all areas as well as local attractions. Jason's Budget Accommodation gives information about cabins, tourist flats, cheap motels, camping and caravan sites. There is also Jason's Motels and Motor lodges. Some consider them more comprehensive than the AA book. There are 2 or three backpackers guides available in NZ as well as YHA guides. Normally you only need to book up to a week ahead for backpackers. However if you ar looking for double rooms or family type rooms in backpackers, you best book earlier as those are quite scarce. The Lonely Planet guide to NZ is quite good. It gives you an idea of what is available. As a rule it pays to book accommodation (and transport) well in advance if you plan on being here during the tourist season (November to March). Booking is less important with Backpacker style accommodation. Besides the specific facilities outlined below, there are numerous motels and hotels of varying quality and price. Motels provide facilities but no food: you are expected to provide for yourselves. They consequently tend to be cheaper than hotels. Cabins in motorcamps are usually the next step 'down' from motels. A couple of hotel prices (these are likely to be out of date!): Quality Hotel $100+/room/night Flag Hotels $100+/room/night 'non-chain' motels/hotels $45-80/room/night For general info on accommodation try: or and take a link off the 'Web Sites of Interest - Links' page to 'Superior B&B Accommodation in NZ'. A rather complete list of Bed & Breakfast facilities for all of NZ can be found at: [ is that B-B or B+B??? ] Department of Conservation huts in National Parks have variable facilities, with charges reflecting this; a few simple shelters are free, the more comfortable huts (gas stoves, mattresses) are $15/night. You can always bring a tent... -------------------- B5.2.1 Youth Hostel Association There are about 50 YHA hostels spread throughout NZ. YHA are a few dollars more per night than Backpackers. The YHA is now on at: As an indication, This info from Judy Shorten: "The Auckland Youth Hostel, called City Hostel is excellent. Twin bed rooms, small shop and dining facilities on the premises, tourism information available, etc. It is approx. $18 per night, and you can also buy a 20/230 card which allows you to stay 20 days in any YHA around New Zealand for $230. You also can request the bus from the Airport to drop you off right at the door. There is another YHA in Parnell, a couple of miles out of the central city area." -------------------- B5.2.2 Backpackers There are six different booklets on backpackers accommodation to NZ. It is advised to get the backpackers you are at to 'forward book' you to the next place. Most of them are happy to do it without payment for the service. The number of groups catering for backpackers is expanding rapidly with nice new accommodation being built (at least in Christchurch!). In Auckland there are also a couple of backpackers advisory centres. Prices are normally $8-20/night for a room. Backpacker accommodation in Chch: Dreamland 03-3663519 21/23 Packe St Foley Towers 03-3669720 208 Kilmore St Stonehurst Hotel 03-3794620 241 Gloucester St Pavlova Backpackers 03-3665158 50 Cathedral Square Charlie Browns 03-3798429 268 Madras St Backpacker accommodation in Auckland: Parkside Backpackers Inn 09-3098999 189 Park Road, Grafton Aotea Backpackers Hostel 09-3033350 295 Queen Street, Central Kiwi Hilton Backpackers 09-3583999 430 Queen Street, Central Auckland Central Backpackers 09-3584877, fax 09-3584872 cnr Fort Street & Jean Batten Place, Central Central City Backpackers 09-3585685, fax 09-3584716 26 Lorne Street, Central Here are the details of who published guides: NZ's VIP Hostel Network admin: Backpackers Resorts of NZ Ltd Box 991, Taupo, NZ Phone/fax: (07) 377 1157 Budget Backpackers Hostels NZ Ltd Mark Dumble: 99 Titiraupenga St, Taupo, NZ Phone/fax: (07) 377 1568 Eric Foley: 208 Kilmore St, Christchurch, NZ Phone/fax: (03) 379 3014 YHA (Youth Hostel Association) NZ PO Box 436, Christchurch, NZ Phone: (03) 379 9970 Fax: (03) 365-4476 * you can get the info from your nearest youth hostel. NZ Backpacker Hostels Association Ltd PO BOX 5475, Auckland, NZ Backpackers Accommodation Down-Under PO Box 4446, Auckland, NZ Phone: (09) 303 4482 Fax: (09) 443 8004 ATA (Accommodation Travel Activities) PO Box 8, Kaikoura, NZ Phone or fax:(03) 319 5916 (03) 319 5359 (business hours only) The main NZ site, 'the "blue" book', appears to be: It covers quite a lot of the backpackers in NZ but not all. There is an internet resource called The Internet Guide to Hostelling which, among other things, contains a list of hostels in New Zealand. It is available via WWW, Gopher, FTP, and Email. The WWW URL is: Try also: For information on how to access the guide in other ways send email to:
Subject: B5.3 Transport Trains are good but have limited distribution. Buses tend to be more flexible and there are a variety of regional bus passes available. Information should be available from the relevant booking offices. Bus tickets for around the South Island are around $250 per person. The 'Travelpass' offers unlimited travel on Tranz Rail (formerly New Zealand Rail) trains and InterCity buses for, for example, five days travel over fifteen days, or fifteen days travel over five weeks. A further option (to be taken at time of purchase) is to add one trip by air with Ansett New Zealand at extra cost. There's are also 'through fares' (you have to ask for them) but there are limited seats. Typically: Auckland to Picton for $99 Auckland to Christchurch $138 and these include a seat on the train then the Interislander. Unofficial details at: Buses and trains have seats discounted at around 20-50% but there are limited seats each day allocated on a first come first serve basis. So the earlier you book the more chance you have of getting them, eg. try to make bookings for Christmas/New Year break in mid-October and you may find many of the cheap fares are gone. 'The Kiwi Experience' and similar budget travel systems are worth investigating if you want less structured transport arrangements. Due to an increase in theft and vandalism, leaving vehicles on the main roads has become unwise. Always remove valuables and lock it when leaving the vehicle. Backpackers card holders (includes YHA cards) also gives you a 30% discount on any bus or train fare on the main bus lines or TranzRail. -------------------- B5.3.1 Cycling/Sea Kayaking Excellent cycling in NZ but it pays to like hills... Bringing a bike in from overseas is often a good idea and resale here is possible although it may take several weeks at some times of the year. ALWAYS lock your bike solidly to something immobile when you aren't actually on it. For cycle tourists, there are two books available - Cycle Touring in the South Island and Cycle Touring in the North Island. There is also one that covers both islands, but apparently there are many mistakes in it. Lin Nah kindly generated this contribution. "For the Auckland area, go to the Auckland visitor's centre and ask for advice. For further afield, look into one of the packages like Wild Cycles offered by Kiwi experience [phone (64 9) 366 1665; fax (64 9) 357 0524] there are probably other companies that offer similar packages. Here's a list of places to rent bicycles from (typed late 1993). Auckland Name Phone Fax Address Bicycle Tour Services 276 5218 276 5218 PO Box 11296 Cycle Xpress 379 0779 11 Beach Road Kiwi Experience 366 1665 357 0524 PO Box 1553 Mountain Bike Hire 358 9893 575 5105 5/28, Armadale Rd, Remuera NZ Pedaltours 302 0968 302 0967 PO Box 37575, Parnell Pedal Packers 302 0880 25 St Georges Bay Rd, Parnell Pedal Pushers 360 0512 Ring when arrive in Auckland Penny Farthings 379 2524 309 1559 PO Box 8829, Symond St Ross Adventures 357 0550 357 0502 PO Box 33686, Takapuna If you are interested in the Kiwi Experience, they have something called Wild Cycles. This combines their bus trips and cycling. KE runs a cheap bus network in both the North and South Island. So the deal in Wild Cycles (as I understand it) is that you can send you luggage ahead by the bus. So you carry the minimal necessities with you while you are cycling. If you are tired of cycling (tired, fed up, too hot, too cold and whatever excuses you want to discontinue) just stop on the road side along one of their routes and flag the next KE bus that comes along. It is also good for those who only have time to cycle one way and have to take the bus back. Unfortunately no one seems to have email 8-( The ones below I have not called. They are either not within the Auckland calling area or are within the Auckland area but no one replied whan I called. Name Phone Address Adventure South 03 332 1222 Box 33153 Christchurch Classic Cycle Tours 06 358 9893 Box 4499, Palmerston North Desert Coast Bikes 09 411 8612 47 Waitea Rd, Muriwai Rock Hard Mountain Bike 07 892 2938 National Park Sounds Cycling 03 578 0442 2 Selwyn St, Blenheim" David Morris offers: "Another option: Active Leisure Cycle Express, cnr Beach Rd/Anzac Ave, Auckland. Ph 379-7790. The guy who runs it is a real cycle nut... his knowledge of touring is encyclopaedic. "If I want any work done on my machine I go to him. Can't give a better recommendation that that!" For ideas on where to go, try: It's the NZ Mountain Bike Web Page. If it's run by [one of] the legendary Kennett Brothers, it's likely to be well worth a look! ----- Sea kayaking is a great way (the best way?) to see parts of NZ, and guided tours are becoming more popular and available. For information on cycle touring or sea kayaking, email The coastlines around Abel Tasman National Park and the Marlborough Sounds are renowned as sea kayaking areas with trips possible all year round. Lin wrote: "For the Abel Tasman National Park (cruise, coach - from Nelson to the park, and everything related to activities in the Abel Tasman National Park) talk to: Abel Tasman National Park Enterprises ph (+64 3) 528 7801 fax (+64 3) 528 6087 "They are open all year except for Christmas Day. The 1994/95 prices: "Full Day Cruise. I took this on NY day '95, it was excellent. Bring your own lunch. 9am - 3:30/4pm, adult $42, child $14 "Coach, Cruise, Kayak and Hydrofoil. Start 9am at Kaiteriteri. Take the launch to Torrent Bay - arriving at around 10.25am. Your guide and kayak are there. You start on a 5 hour guided kayak from Torrent Bay to Bark Bay. then you catch the hydrofoil back to Kaiteriteri, ETA 6pm. Start & finish Kaiteriteri; adult $90 "There are quite a few more variations. Once you see their brochure you will know what I mean. I was very impressed at how flexible it is. For example with the kayak example above, you could have paid $80 to start and finish in Torrent Bay. You could have left Kaiteriteri a few days before by the boat, been dropped off at Totaranui (or any beach the cruise passes) and walked your way back to Torrent Bay. "The park has one of the most beautiful set of beaches and scenery I have seen. I hope no one spoils it. "Kaiteriteri to Torrent Bay; if you don't want the guided kayak trip you can hire kayaks from them. Single kayaks $18; double kayaks $25 (this is from the 93-94 brochure). "No, I have no connection to the family who owns the Abel Tasman enterprise (this is a family business). I was very impresssed with the choice and service. "In the Nelson/Marlborough region; don't forget the swim in the river at the Pelorus Bridge. Also visit the vineyards in that area." ----- If anyone can suggest a better place to put this, I'd like to hear it! NZ Tides Tidal predictions are now available for Auckland, Wellington, Lyttelton and Dunedin, a week at a time from: Other major boating areas will be added. Thanks to the Hydrographer RNZN. -------------------- B5.3.2 Hitchhiking Hitching is *relatively* safe in NZ, but generally speaking, busing is advised in the more obscure corners on NZ; it's likely to be quicker and safer. -------------------- B5.3.3 Renting A Car/Campervan Several main companies; Hertz, Avis, Budget, Maui, etc. Some agencies have mini-buses as well as cars. There are usually cheaper local alternatives to the big chains. Taking a vehicle from one island to the other is expensive and it is normal(?) to drop a rental vehicle off on one side of Cook Strait and pick up another on the other side, but may not be possible. If you leave a car at the end of a road asnd fly out (eg. Milford Sound) you may be charged the cost of retrieving it. The general impression is that renting a car in NZ is are not cheap compared with US and European rates. From an advert in a New Zealand Tourist Board info packet, Ed Guy ( contacted Pegasus Rentals in Christchurch. The result was a car at about $35/day. In Auckland, it is possible to hire a car for around $40 a day if it is for a 'long' period, but the problem with using these cheaper companies as opposed to the well known ones is the quality of the car. The bigger (more expensive) rental agencies have newer cars (1-2 years old). The cheaper companies have older cars. Most of them provide you with a special AA (Automobile Association) membership for the duration of the car rental which covers towing anywhere in NZ. Most companies have branches or associates around the country and although there are (were?) only 3 international airports in NZ (Auckland, Wellington and Christchurch) there is usually no problem in being be able to drop off cars elsewhere. Christmas/New Year is a peak period so it is difficult getting a car at the last minute. Most cars in NZ are not automatic so if you want one you had better specify. Check the Yellow Pages of the phone directory for an extensive list of rental companies. ----- Campervans Regarding campervans, Greg Lauer offers: Last May (1995) we hired a '2 berth luxury' campervan from Adventure Rentals in Christchurch. Because it was off season it cost us NZ$60 a day. From what I can remember we just phoned them and picked it up the same afternoon. We had four people in it. If you want some more info email me at <> ----- A while back, Dale Gold wrote: "Here's what I posted on the subject in Oct '94. No doubt the prices are all different now, but I hope it is helpful. Perhaps you can repay the favour by posting any changes to this newsgroup :-) [hear hear! ps-j] "This is *only* a list of the companies that had brochures at Christchurch Airport on 10-Oct-94, and I can make no recommendations. I included some points which looked interesting, but made no attempt at any detailed comparisons. Hopefully, this will provide a rough guide and a means of getting more detailed information. GENERAL INFORMATION: Most places require that vehicles be returned to their starting point, but you'll have to ask about this. $200-500 deposits are typical, and some companies have age restrictions, minimum hire periods, etc. Most vans will come with cooking gear, heater, etc. Bedding, ski racks, bikes, etc. are often available at extra cost. All prices are in NZ dollars. GST = a 12.5% tax. The two prices are for High and Low seasons. High Season = 1 November - 30 April Low Season = the colder months Area codes: Auck=09, Chch=03, Picton=03, Wgtn=04 --- Avon Campervans 2 berth $124 $74 Includes: GST Excludes: $15 insurance 7 day minimum, age 21, appears to allow auck-chch rental! Auck 275-3040, fax: 275-3496 Chch 379-3822, fax: 365-5651 NZ Freephone: 0508-258-258 UK enquiries: (0993) 823-363, fax: (0993) 823-648 --- Gypsy Hire Ltd. 2-3 hi-top $129 $83 2-4 $135 $90 4-6 $189 $95 shower, loo big 6 $210 $130 shower, loo Includes: Unlimited km, GST, insurance. 5 day minimum Auck 480-5098, fax: 443-0485, cell: 025-328-126 Chch 327-6230 (ph/fax), cell: 025-328-126 --- Maui 2 berth $144 $89 4 berth $203 $123 6 berth $228 $137 Includes: GST Excludes: $13.50 daily insurance Auck 275-3529 Chch 358-4159 --- Newmans One of the 2 biggest companies, but no brochure. Auck & Chch branches --- New Zealand Adventure All sizes, no prices listed. Auck 256-0255, fax: 275-3027 Chch 359-7917, fax: 221-7305 --- NZ Travel Bureau Ltd 2 berth $139 $59 4 berth $199 $89 shower, loo, diesel 6 berth $229 $109 shower, loo, diesel Includes: insurance, GST, unlimited km Chch 358-9888 PO Box 14189, Chch Airport --- Pegasus/Thomlinson Thrifty 2 $69 $49 Townace Economy 2 $79 $59 Hiace S.W.B. Tourist 2 $99 $79 Hiace L.W.B., 2 adults, 2 kids Executive $119 $99 Hiace Pop-top, Diahatsu Delta All include: GST, insurance, unlimited kms 4days+ Auck 358-5757, fax: 373-5727 Chch 365-1100, fax: 365-1104 Picton 573-7733, fax: 573-7759 Wgtn 384-4883, fax: 384-3225 --- Pleasure Motor Homes 2 berth $90 $60 All inclusive. Minimum age 25. minimum 7days (sum), 5 days (win). Also offer 4 & 6 berth vans. Chch 359-9657, fax: 359-9628 516 Wairakei Road, Chch --- Breakaway in Hastings offers 4 berth campers, no prices in brochure, minimum age 30 ph: 06-874-8833, fax: 06-874-8850 -------------------- B5.3.4 Train Services Good, if they go where you are going. In the North Island, there are the main line from Auckland to Wellington which runs west of the central volcanoes, a main line to the east coast at Tauranga and a number of branch lines. In the South Island, there is the main trunk line north-south down the east coast between Picton and Invercargill, and the midland line east-west between Christchurch and Greymouth via Arthurs Pass. The middle and long-distance trains operated by Tranz Rail under the name "Tranz Scenic" are listed below. All fares quoted are full adult fare in NZ$ as at November 1995. Various discounts are available, even during the peak travel season. Overlander; (Daylight) Auckland to Wellington, 685km/10 hours 40 mins, both ways, Daily $55-129 (route includes cities, rural towns, lakes, volcanic plateau, gorges, bush, rolling farmland). Northerner; (Overnight) Auckland - Wellington, 685km/11 hours, both ways, departs Sun-Fri $109 Kaimai Express; Auckland - Tauranga, evening, 3 hours 25 mins daily $49 Tauranga - Auckland, morning, 3 hours 30 mins daily $49 Geyserland Express; Auckland - Rotorua - Auckland, approx 4 hours 10 mins each way, daily with extra service on Friday and Sunday $59 (route includes rolling farmland, towns, city, bush, volcanic plateau, thermal areas) Bay Express; (Daylight) Wellington - Napier 334km/5 hours 20 mins, both ways daily - $63 (route includes city, farmland, bush, river gorge, hill ranges, wine making country) Southerner Express; (Daylight) Christchurch - Invercargill, 594km/8 hours 40 mins, both ways, Daily with extra service on Friday $97 (route is east coast of South Island to the southern-most town, farmland, hill ranges, coastal) This train has in the past run only Monday to Friday during winter. There is only one train per day north and one south between Invercargill and Christchurch. Coastal Pacific; (connects with Interisland ferry) Christchurch - Picton, 350km/5 hours 20 mins, both ways, daily $59 (route is northern half of east coast of the South island, hills, seaward mountain ranges, fishing towns, whale watching area, Marlborough Sounds) Tranz-Alpine Express; (Daylight) Christchurch - Greymouth, 5 hours 20 minutes each way, daily, $99 return or $74 one way (route is spectacular crossing of Southern Alps from east to west coasts; Pacific Ocean to the Tasman sea) The Taieri Gorge Railway run excursion trains through the spectacular Taieri Gorge to the west of Dunedin. It's possible to take the Taieri Gorge Limited from Dunedin and connecting bus service to Queenstown or vice versa. The timetable for the Taieri Gorge Limited varies through the year, running only on some days of the week outside the peak season. All Tranz Rail services (except suburban) and Taieri Gorge Railway services, together with a reasonable sample of current fares and the details of the various discounts on offer, can be found at: Everything that's there is accurate as at November 1995. Be warned that Tranz Rail's fares are not as systematic as those in some countries. Also try: ----- Three suggestions regarding scenic train runs. The Railway Enthusiasts' Society do excursions from time to time as well as operate the Glenbrook Vintage Railway, SW of Auckland. Write to: PO Box 13-684, Onehunga, Auckland Phone: 64-9-636-9361 Fax: 64-9-636-9558 The Mainline Steam Trust,PO Box 2722, Wellington Phone: 64-4-476-2733 Fax: 64-4-476-3164 Otago Excursion Train Trust, PO Box 140, Dunedin Phone: 64-3-477-4449 Fax: 64-3-477-4953 -------------------- B5.3.5 Cook Strait Ferry (See also under B5.3.4 Train Services) The Interislander - ferry service connecting North and South Islands between Wellington and Picton. As at 1st October 1995, the full adult fare was $44 one way. The fare for a car up to 6m was $160, with an extra $35 per half memter. A range of discounts are available for advance bookings. For timetables, see It is possible (and cheaper?) to drop a rental car at one terminal, travel as foot passenger and pick up another rental car on the other side. The trip takes 3 hours 15 min, with spectacular scenery of mountains and the sounds. The ferry usually departs Wellington and Picton five times a day depending on weather. Another 'high-speed' ferry service is in operation seasonally. The Lynx (the catamaran) is back for the summer; timetable at: Bruce Hoult offered: "Booking is not required, but it can be a very good idea if you don't want to end up on the 2am sailing at peak times. You should be OK in November or the first week or two of December though. Foot passengers and motorcyclists (that's me :-) will virtually always get on any sailing they want, without booking in advance. "If you will have a rental car, the best option is usually to use a company that lets you drop your car in Picton and get a new one in Wellington and take the ferry as a passenger." To which Lin Nah adds: "They have changed the booking rules recently. Those who book early may get a discount. I believe they are using the similar rules of allocating "seats" as airlines, buses and trains are. "I agree with bruce's advice regarding rental car. IMHO the cost of taking the car across far outweighs the inconvenience of having to unload and reload the car at each end." ----- There is a new venture for the yatch 'Lion New Zealand', renamed 'Phantom of the Straits' which runs between Wellington and Picton. Any information about making reservations, etc., would be appreciated. ----- The ferry to Stewart Island, the Foveaux Express, sails twice daily from Bluff, phone; +64 03 212 7660 The only alternative is to fly. Southern Air have several flights daily from Invercargill and one from Dunedin. YHA/Student standby rates are available. Phone; +64 03 218 9129. -------------------- B5.3.6 Coach Travel Buses go pretty much everywhere there are main roads. There are many different options with several companies including the Backpacker buses for which you buy a ticket to travel the whole country and get on and off when you wish (prices for Backpacker buses fluctuate wildly due to a price war). Here is some miscellaneous information (prices quoted are in $NZ). Auckland to Wellington overnight; around $45 - $50 per person Intercity bus currently (March 96) has only one bus per day north and south along the West coast. There is a daily bus between Queenstown and Dunedin, via Cromwell, each way, but you will not be able to make connection in Cromwell without an overnight stay. There is a small van bus that travels between Invercargill and Dunedin via the Catlin region that is a beautiful trip. For details, contact Charles Eggen. Most(?) coach lines run strictly point to point. If you want to stop in the intermediate sections, you will need to pay more. eg. Intercity coachlines: Greymouth - Queenstown $125 or Greymouth - Franz Josef $42 Franz Josef - Fox Glacier $10 Fox Glacier - Queenstown $87 totalling $139 Mount Cook Land Line: Nelson to Queenstown $144 Wanaka to Queenstown $25 Then there are the backpackers bus routes. These stop at interesting places as you go. You can hop off at any stop and rejoin them at the same time the next day or any day they pass through. Kiwi Experience (KE) have a package called the 'Back Paddock' which runs from Christchurch through Arthur's Pass to Greymouth then down the West Coast and back to Chch via Wanaka, Queenstown, and Mount Cook. For $204, you need a minimum of 6 days and can take up to 3 months to finish this route. They take you to a few places on the way. You pay for your own accommodation and any entrance fee to any sights. KE run daily so there is no problem with stopping as long as you like. Magic Travellers' 'Tranzalpine' is very similar to the 'Back Paddock' but swaps Mount Cook for Dunedin. For $229, your route needs a minimum of 7 days and should be valid for 3-6 months. The network only runs every other day so if you want to stay longer than one night, you may end up staying 3 nights. Intercity coach lines has a route from Auckland to Rotorua via Waitomo Caves for $100.50 including admission to the caves. KE has a trip called Geyserland. Minimum of 3 days of travel and valid up to 3 months. The route is: Auckland -> Thames -> Waitomo -> Rotorua -> Auckland. Your night stops are at Waitomo and Rotorua. Cost is $75 but this doesn't include accommodation or the $12 entry to the glow-worm caves. They can arrange blackwater rafting, hangi, stay at a marae in Rotorua, abseiling, etc. Magic Travellers network had a route called 'Top of the Town' for $120: Auckland -> Hamilton -> Waitomo -> Rotorua -> Taupo -> Turangi -> Rotorua -> Thames -> Auckland. Discounts are available on some lines if you have a backpackers card and/or book [well] in advance. Numerous other tour operators and routes exist. Shop around! Contact numbers: Tourist Information Centres may handle all the bookings for you (see A1.2.2) or, for Auckland: Intercity: Phone 357 8400 Mt Cook: Phone 309 5395 Kiwi Experience: Phone 366 1665 Fax 357 0524 Magic Network: Phone 358 5600 Fax 358 3471 -------------------- B5.3.7 Driving Visitors should get, and READ, a copy of the Road Code. The most important thing to remember is that driving is on the left hand side. Bruce Hoult: "I've hired cars the three times I've been in the US, and I don't think it took any longer than 30 seconds or a minute to get comfortable driving on the "wrong" side of the road each time. Your US license [presumably this also applies to licenses from other countries] and passport are all you'll need. The international license is an unnecessary ripoff." Lyndon Watson: "Most people seem to have little trouble adapting. Remember, right-hand turns cut across the traffic, and that you give way to the right. Watch the speed limits and remember that they are in km/hr, not mph." If you want to go between (or even to) main centres, and can drive, check the car hire companies. Some of them may want to relocate cars and will let you drive their car, for free hire as long as you pay petrol AND pay the insurance excess if you meet an accident. There are likely to be other conditions, such as delivering the car within 24 hours of picking it up. -------------------- B5.3.8 Commercial Tours Are available in most main and holiday centres. Prices will vary and it may be worth shopping around. See B5.3.6. -------------------- B5.3.9 Flying Three main options (Air New Zealand, Ansett and Mount Cook) and numerous smaller airlines including companies offering helicopter transport/tours. If you have a backpackers card, you can also opt for standby seats at 50% discount. Here are some air fares for Christchurch to Auckland one way: Mt Cook Air/Air NZ cheapest fare is $124 Unlikely to be any left for this summer due to a recent special where you could book a seat for $149 to anywhere in another island, or $99 to anywhere within the same island. These turn up from time to time so keep an eye open. Air National: $119 Relatively unknown (check the Auckland phone book). Not so much an airline as a cargo plane with seats. The service cost $99 back in January 1995 (Lin posted something then). Night flights Air NZ: $164 Ansett: $168
Subject: B5.4 Misc Info B5.4.1 Film Developing I recommend Monochrome in Durham Street Christchurch for b/w developing. Lyndon Watson: I recommend Kiwi Photolab on Gloucester Street for 35mm, and New Zealand Photocorp on Welles Street for roll and sheet film.
Subject: B6. Map Of New Zealand Maps are copyright, North Cape _, please do not repost. \\ \\__ \ \_ \ \ Bay of Islands \ 1( \ > o \O \ _ 1 Whangarei \2(_ \\ 2 Auckland \O2\| | Bay of Plenty 3 Hamilton \ \_ __ 4 Tauranga | \_ _/ > 5 Rotorua | 3 4 \____,' | 6 Taupo | 5 7/ 7 Gisborne __/ _6 | 8 New Plymouth ,'8 >_) ,--, 9 Napier/Hastings ( Lake ( Hawkes 10 Wanganui `- _ Taupo 9 | Bay 11 Palmerston North \_10 / 12 Masterton \ _/ 13 Wellington ___ | 11 / / (_ , | 12 _/ | | ///, / _/ / (_////// (13___/ _/ 14 ( Cook | 15 16\ Strait TASMAN SEA / / / / PACIFIC OCEAN /17 _/ _/ _/ 14 Nelson __/18 / 15 Westport __/ , 19(_ 16 Blenheim __/ 20| _<>_n) 17 Greymouth __/ \ | __/ Banks 18 Hokitika _/ // __/ Peninsula 19 Christchurch _/21 |22 23/ 20 Mount Cook _/ |_24 | 21 Milford Sound _/ _-| | 25/ 22 Wanaka / -|26 / 23 Timaru / - | 24 Queenstown | _- 27> Otago 25 Oamaru \_,-__ _/ Peninsula 26 Te Anau Foveaux \28_ _/ 27 Dunedin Strait ,_ `-.___/ 28 Invercargill \ c_ /_ / Stewart /- Island
Subject: B7 Contributors ? ? Aidan Heerdegen Alan Brown Andy Bond Andrew White Anne Riddick Barry Allan Barry McDonald BLImpact Brian Dooley Brian Harmer Brian McInturff Brian Sorrell or Bruce Barton via (Julia Barton) Bruce Cowin aq141@FreeNet.Carleton.CA Bruce Hoult C. N. Robertson cakes Carlo Fusco Charles Eggen Chris Fitzgerald Chris Rennie Christopher Hutton Christopher Werry Dale Gold Darren Overby Dave Matoe Dave_Matoe@UK.IBM.COM Dave Walker Dave Frame David Lobb David Morris David White Delia Cioffi Dennis Gray Jr. Dirk Rossouw Don Stokes Donald Neal Ed Ablon(?) Errol Hunt Ewan McKissock Frank Pitt Frank van der Hulst Frits Schouten Garry Collins Gavin Bell Geoff McCaughan Gina Willingale Gloria Williams Graham C. Grant D. Pease Greg Lauer or Guillermo Gamero Hantie Braybrook Hineihaea Murphy Howard Edwards Hugh Grierson James Yetman yetmanj@qed.uucp Jaqui Lynch Jennifer Mary George jmgeorge@leland.Stanford.EDU Jeremy Clyma Jim Lovell-Smith Jon Clarke John Davis John Hopkins John Mee John Ryder John Spavin John Taber Judy Shorten Justine Lee Karen Fursdon Karen Lysaght Kelvin McMichael Ken Moselen Ken Wilson Klaus Failenschmid Lachy Paterson Larry Robbins Laurie Kennedy Liam Greenwood Lin Nah Lyndon Watson MJ Pickering M W Woodhams Mark Borrie Mark Cresswell or Mark Doherty Mark Wightman Martin D. Hunt Martin Lange Marty Burr Michael Hood Michael Lyford Miche Michelle Elleray Mike Gill Mike Leon Mike Tuppen Mike Wright Murray Shadbolt Nathan Schmidt Neville C. Dempsey Nick Mein Nina O'Flynn Noeline McCaughan Oliver Bohnenberger Pat Cain or Paul Caples(?) Paul Campbell Paul Dansted Paul Gillingwater Paul Nixon Paul Walker Pete Moore Peter Hunt Peter Kerr Peter Lowish Peter Morris Phil Abercrombie abercrom@UG.EDS.COM *Philip* 100317.3527@CompuServe.COM Philip Greenspun R. Bowen Raewyn Whyte Ray Steel Richard Keightley Richard Miller Richard Naylor Richard Stevenson Richard Symonds Richard Turner Rob Hay Rob Simpson Robert Burling-Claridge Roberta Gorman Rod Bicknell or Rod Snowdon Roger Dennis Ross Finlayson finlayson@Eng.Sun.COM Ross Levis Ross Stewart or Roy T. Fielding Russell Turner Sam Sampson Sean Coley Sharon Simon Lyall Simon O'Rorke Steffan Berridge Stephen D. Neely Steve Harris Stuart Yeates Thomas Wilson al419@FreeNet.Carleton.CA Tony Randle or Tony Wilkes Trevor Walker Tuan Nguyen Van (?) Vaughan Clarkson Wee Fi Thanks, people! =========================================================================== PART C
Subject: C1 Definition Of 'Kiwi' For a 'definitive' definition of what a 'kiwi' is (and isn't), here is pete@bignode's contribution. Americans take particular note... :-) "The kiwi is a rare flightless (& very much protected) bird native to New Zealand, and is a symbol of NZ in much the same way that the bald eagle is a symbol of the US. "Kiwi" is also a (generally affectionate) informal term for a New Zealander. The pulpy green fruit with the brown skin that Americans call "kiwi" is known everywhere else in the world as "kiwifruit", and not all NZers realise that Americans don't know the correct name for it. "If you tell a New Zealander that you ate a *kiwi*, you are unlikely to be accused of cannibalism, but if the NZer doesn't realise that you mean a *kiwifruit*, you will probably shock & offend them (what would your reaction be if I told you that I ate a bald eagle?). If they *do* realise that you mean a *kiwifruit*, they will probably just be annoyed. If you can't understand why they should be annoyed, think of something that America introduced to the world & imagine your reaction if we insisted on ignoring the name that you gave it, & called it "bald eagle" or "stars and stripes" instead."
Subject: C2 Cities Of New Zealand WHANGAREI. It's the gateway to the Bay of Islands, Whangarei Falls is beautiful, it has excellent diving (Poor Knights), excellent fishing, a fairly interesting Kauri museum near by (can't remember the name of it), that clock museum (yawn).... Golfing all year round. AUCKLAND. It's the biggest, it's hilly, it's got a motorway or two, no water except what gets caught in rain barrels, Rob Hay's brother and his family and a couple of his friends live there, it has more winebars and cafe's than Chch - but not within walking distance of each other.... HAMILTON is smaller, messier, and wet. Fast growing, vibrant, strong University influence. "It's a hole". ROTORUA stinks! It's quite nice but it still stinks. :-) GISBORNE fits in here somewhere... NEW PLYMOUTH is sitting on the side of an 'extinct' volcano. NAPIER/HASTINGS is where kiwifruit grow and the earth moved... WANGANUI has a nice river, but no-one knows who owns it. PALMERSTON NORTH Mark Doherty offers: Population about 80,000. The city has (to me anyway) a distinctly rural/parochial atmosphere which I kind of like. It's VERY laid-back. It's built (mostly anyway) on a regular grid plan - wide streets, low traffic density and definately lowrise building. Since the city is almost entirely on a very flat plain, it's fairly compact for its population. Plusses? The town hosts a reasonable sized university, so nightlife is somewhat more diverse than you might expect (it ain't Seattle or SF, tho'!). People are friendly. House prices are low, so is cost of living generally. It's a great town for getting around by bike - flat as a griddle, plenty of bike lanes and traffic density is SO LOW that last time I went there I wondered where all the people were. Easy access to outdoor lifestyle - hiking and hunting in the Ruahines and Tarauas (little bitty mountains on the order of the Shenandoahs or Smokies), canoeing on the Manawatu and Wanganui, hiking and skiing in the central plateau (real mountains), horse riding etc - all within about an hour or two's easy driving. There is nothing even remotely resembling a US-style commute - you can live (literally) in the country and drive to work in 10 minutes, or cycle to work in half an hour (easy!). Great Pubs! Easy and relatively cheap internet access. Minuses? The weather is grotty. Not really cold in winter, but grey and rainy. Summers are often nice - long, dry and warm, but not really hot. It is, when all is said and done, a provincial town. I really enjoyed the 6 years I spent in Palmerston, but I would find it hard to go back now for more tan a visit (those I always enjoy the hell out of!). But then, I wouldn't move to Kalamazoo either! So there you go. Not the place to move if you like bright lights, but a good place if raising a family looms large in your agenda. WELLINGTON is a tectonic nightmare. Go there if you like politicians, wind (oops, redundancy :-) and dangerous airports. It's the capital of NZ. NELSON is sunny and warm and a nice place to retire to (if you can afford the house prices). BLENHEIM is sunnier, warmer, and a great place to grow grapes (ask Montana). WESTPORT is on the We[s]t Coast and is therefore wet. GREYMOUTH is also on the We[s]t Coast and, being backed by higher hills is wetter still. HOKITIKA is a little drier because it's away from the hills. No other redeeming feature. CHRISTCHURCH was founded in about 1845. The older part of the city is laid out on a grid system bounded by four avenues. Other roads take you out to the suburbs which started as separate villages and have now grown together. Chch is the largest city in the South Island with a population of about 350,000 people. It has a nearby port and an international airport. Industry is a mixture of high tech (software, electronics design and assembly) and agricultural oriented service and processing. Tourism is expanding and is important. There are two universities, Canterbury (near town), and Lincoln (30 km out of town) and lots of opportunity for recreation. There are many parks in the city and the CBD is experiencing an increase in nightlife. Access to the rest of the SI, and indeed the NI is excellent. If you like golf, there are 42 courses available in Canterbury... TIMARU is 160kms down the coast from Chch. It's the other main port in Canterbury. My sysadmin is from there so I thought I'd better include it! WANAKA is by Lake Wanaka in the Southern Alps and is a predominately tourist and holiday centre. Treble Cone and Cardrona skifields are near by. The Warbirds Over Wanaka Airshow in April (usually in Easter weekend) is an awesome show but unless you've booked accommodation you won't find anywhere to stay within 100 kilometres - it'll probably attract about 50,000 visitors. There's the MAZE in Wanaka if you like solving puzzles. It is an excellent place to while the day away. QUEENSTOWN is by Lake Wakatipu and is the main tourist trap of the NZ 'Lake District'. Coronet Peak and The Remarkables skifields are the main winter attractions, bungying takes place all year round. Richard Symonds gives us: "I too recommend the Doubtful Sound trip (known as the Triple trip if you take in the underground power station too - ever gone underground by bus before?!) A few long trips (still under a day) I enjoyed as a kiwi tourist in his own country: - Dart River - Nomad Safari's Skippers Canyon (you get to view bungee jumping) - Nomad Safarils Macetown trip (over forty river crossings by landrover) - Kawarau Jet, which was cheaper, longer, more fun and moe exciting than the Shotover Jet (which is a rip-off). O.K. the river is wider but they got closer to the edge. It departs from the main town pier. - The gondola and the film that shows in the building at the top. "Its a couple of years since I last went to Queenstown so some of these attractions might have changed." Lin Nah offers (edited pretty hard): There's Skippers Canyon. Famous for the pipeline bungy (102m jump) but you can take a safari trip there. It is well worth it. I did not do it but paid $40 for an empty seat on the bungy bus. They don't sell this till just before the bus leaves. You end up watching people jump off the bridge but the scenery on the way was well worth it. There's some concern about the safety record of the people who run the white water rafting trips. There has been quite a few fatalities there in the last few years as well as a few major accidents. The North and South magazine in December 1995 did a feature on this. You can actually use Queenstown as the base for your trips to Milford, Wanaka, Arrowtown etc. It is a very touristy town and is often alive when other parts of NZ are asleep. Many trekkers use it as the stockup and information point before they head off for the various Milford tracks. There's a trip to Milford Sound (details in section C3.1.5). If you take the one that goes overnight, on a good weather day it is definitely the best value for money. The rushed day trip that leaves at 7am from Queenstown and returns at 7pm is not even half the price of the overnight trip. Not sure how they have time to make the number of stops we did. There are some vineyards around Queenstown. OAMARU is a really nice little rural centre of about 15K people. Source of the famous white limestone used in buildings. It's in here mainly because I was born there... DUNEDIN is the second largest city in the SI but despite this, is a fairly small city and the University is an important part of the place. There is a very strong Scots tradition. During holidays, the place is pretty dead, but during term time it is (in Richard Bowen's humble opinion :-) the most sociable campus in the country. The university is right next to the centre of town, and to the student suburbs (or slums :-) so there is always a pub within staggering distance. The vast majority of students are from out of town (most from the North Island (?)), so they are there just as much to have an enjoyable time as to learn. Atmosphere is more casual than anywhere else, doesn't have the snobbishness of Auckland, or the executive orientation of Victoria (Wellington). As for the university itself, most universities in nz are pretty similar, unlike overseas. The Otago Med school is better than the Auckland one though. I don't know of any weaknesses. Note that good flats are hard to come by in Dunedin, you might have to start paying from the end of the previous year. Lousy weather much of the time. INVERCARGILL is at the bottom end of the SI and is cold even in the middle of summer, except on hot days... It rains lots and the Comalco aluminium smelter is just down the road at Bluff (where the oysters used to come in). Any other cities which *should* be included? If so, post them *with* a description. Help filling out the cities above would be appreciated too!
Subject: C3 Holidaying In NZ
Subject: C3.1 Places C3.1.1 Parks And Tracks Over 20% of New Zealand is Forest or National parks. New Zealand's national parks and protected areas are treasures of irreplaceable value. There are 13 National Parks which preserve NZ's most spectacular scenery, rare and endangered flora and fauna and archaeological sites. Besides the National Parks system, there are two World Heritage sites within NZ; Tongariro (the boundary coincides with the National Park of the same name) and the South West New Zealand World Heritage area (incorporating Westland, Mount Cook, Mount Aspiring, and Fiordland National Parks, and well as extensive state land making a total of 2.6mill hectares). Tongariro National Park was the second(?) place in the world designated as such, beaten by Yellowstone by only a year or so. Additionally there are three maritime parks and a host of forest parks, reserves and conservation areas throughout the country. Public access is possible in all New Zealand Parks and many have magnificent walking tracks within their boundaries. The Department of Conservation administers the parks on behalf of the New Zealand people. DoC provide and maintain facilities such as huts, lodges, camping grounds and tracks. Most parks have a visitor centre and many run visitor programmes including guided walks. There is usually no charge for entry into the parks although charges are often made for overnight stays and hut use. The Department of Conservation has several pamphlets available. Try writing to their head office at PO Box 10420, Wellington, phone 04-4710726. Steve Harris offers: "... guide for New Zealand on the net to give an idea about some of the activities and destinations in the country at: While not a park, Kapiti Island (west of southern NI) is worth a visit if it can be arranged. Brian Harmer wrote: "I went to Kapiti Island, the nature reserve off the West coast of the Southern part of the North Island. Never have I seen so much bird life so close up. The Kaka (native forest parrot)were so tame they would fly up to the visitors and perch on their shoulders, and deftly swipe the filling out of sandwiches. I have the nature trail running down my back to prove it! There were wekas galore, kereru, saddleback, stitchback and takahe, robins and kakariki. The bush is glorious, but my calf muscles will ache for a week after trudging for two hours to the summit for views to the South Island, and Eastward towards New Zealand :-) "Landing on the island is allowed by permit only. The focus is on preservation of nature rather than provision of tourist attraction." -------------------- C3.1.2 Beaches, etc. There are lots of these. As a result of the 'Queens Chain' law, all coastline and river cbanks (within 20m+/-) are available for public use. All coastline is also public land. However, access to such areas may be restricted by having to cross private land. -------------------- C3.1.3 Distinctive Features There are hundreds of distinguishing landmarks around NZ and any attempt to catalogue them would far exceed the limits of my resources! Everything from coastal caves and arches, to some of the oldest trees in the world, bird sanctuaries, castles, geothermal areas and underground power stations. -------------------- C3.1.4 Archaeology/Historical/Heritage Sites Definitely worth investigating if one is (or might be) interested. -------------------- C3.1.5 Places To Go To Marty Burr is twisting my arm to combine certain areas with common attractions into logical groupings, eg. Marlborough/Nelson. It's a sensible idea and I'll work on it over the next month. As many as there are holiday enthusiasts. I'm sure a list will evolve slowly. Start by including all the national parks and main beaches... Any of the National or Maritime Parks Any of the South Island high-country lakes Anywhere in the mountains Most of the coastline The NI Central Plateau/Desert Road Cape Reinga Ninety Mile Beach Bay of Islands Rotorua/Whakarewarewa Lake Taupo Mount Egmont Hawkes Bay (vineyards) Farewell Spit Golden Bay Heaphy/Wangapeka Tracks Karamea Marlborough Sounds Blenheim (vineyards) Kaikoura coast (whale watching) Mount Cook MacKenzie Basin Central Otago/Clutha Valley Fiordland The Catlins Stewart Island Bruce Hoult wrote: "Queenstown is the only real tourist trap, but is so stunning that you'll love it anyway and you'd be silly to not go there." Hugh Grierson wrote: "Queenstown [is a tourist trap]. Wanaka is nicer." Paul Caples(?) wrote: "Tourist spots in and around Auckland - Waitakere Ranges: heaps of bush walks (try Fairy Falls), Arataki Visitor Centre. - West Coast Beaches: Piha, Muriwai (if you like surf) - Wine: theres plenty of vineyards heading toward Muriwai and several organised wine trails from Central Auckland. - Harbour Island's: Rangitoto or Waiheke (ferry's from bottom of Queen St)." Charles Eggen Wrote: "I had a nice stay at Te Anau Backpackers, 48 Lake Front Drive, phone 64-3-249-7713 and they are within a few blocks of "downtown". ----- Lyndon Watson provides the following suggestions in response to someone saying they were spending all of their three month stay in the North Island: "I must disagree here with those who say, "Oh, no, forget the North Island and see the South instead." "If you're only ever going to make one trip, then you should see the things that are *most* peculiar to the country. Those must include, first and foremost, the Maori aspect of the country which is best seen in the North - at Rotorua, the Urewera and East Coast if you're really interested, and Northland, especially. The early colonial history of New Zealand is also best seen in the North, particularly in the Bay of Islands in Northland and the Land War sites in the Waikato and Bay of Plenty. As far as natural features are concerned, some that are most exotic to tourists (depends, I suppose, on where they come from) are also in the North - the Rotorua/Taupo/Bay of Plenty geothermal features, the Kauri forests of Northland, Mt Egmont. By contrast, the South Island is mainly visited for its (admittedly grander) scenery and the historical remains in Central Otago. I think that the one-time visitor should try to cover the country, with the emphasis on the North Island, and only devote all of his time to the South if grand scenery is all that he is interested in. "If this is (hopefully) the first of many visits, then I think that a case can be made for a reasonably brisk trip over all of the country, arguably still putting the main emphasis on the North Island - a sort of preliminary survey as it were. Let the first visit touch on the high tourist points and act as a sort of general survey of what the country has to offer; later visits can concentrate on what appeals most - once again the South Island if grand scenery is what you want to see. "Three months seems to me to be ample for a general look at the country, even allowing for one or two extended stays at places that you particularly like. Spend, say, a week each at Rotorua and the Bay of Islands, a few days in Auckland and perhaps Wellington, another week in Central Otago using Queestown as a base, and the rest of the time just meandering around the country and lingering where you like. "I would do a round trip around Northland, taking in the Bay of Islands, the bus trip to Cape Reinga and the drive down the west through th kauri forests, then head south from Auckland. Take it slowly! Spend a day driving the 70 miles to Hamilton, looking round Rangiriri, Ngaruawahia and so on. Spend another day meandering east to the Bay of Plenty and stop at Tauranga or Whakatane. Explore the eastern Bay. Spend a few days driving round East Cape and back through the Urewera and the pine forests to Rotorua. Then south to Taupo, do some fishing if you like, and take a side trip to the west to Taranaki. Spend a day driving right round Mt Egmont. Go back to the centre and drive back north through the volcanic bush of National Park and across to Turangi. Then south along the Desert Road and through the North Island sheep country to Wanganui or Palmerston North before crossing through the Manawatu Goge to the Wairarapa. Sample the local wines and drive (with care) across the ranges to Wellington. "Then, at last, take the slow ferry to Picton and start on the South..." ----- Tourism Nelson, via Peter Lowish, contributes this tome on the Nelson region. The Nelson Region The Nelson region is located at the north western tip of the South Island. Nelson is renowned for a warm and sunny climate, golden sand beaches, lakes, mountains and native forests. Combine this with the fine foods, superb wines, innovative arts and crafts and warm hospitality to see why visitors enjoy the greater Nelson region all year round. Nelson is the oldest city in New Zealand (Queen Victoria signed a Royal Charter proclaiming Nelson to be a city on 27 September 1858) and historic buildings throughout the region reflect a bygone era. Accommodation caters for everyone offering luxury lodges and hotels to camping/cabin facilities and backpackers hostels. National Parks The three National Parks in the region are a haven for wildlife enthusiasts and trampers alike, offering a vast scope from coastal tracks to mountainous terrain. The Abel Tasman National Park can be explored by foot, launch or sea-kayak. Nelson Lakes National Park is a complete contrast with alpine likes, flora and fauna. Kahurangi is the country's newest National Park, an unequaled wilderness experience. Arts and Crafts The Nelson region is home to a diverse range of visual and performing artists and craftspeople. Painters, potters, wood workers, textile artists, sculptors and jewellers have studios right across the region reflecting the area's colourful, vibrant environment. These artists have been co-ordinated into trails, ideal for the free independent traveller. The Nelson School of Music is steeped in tradition and hold regular performances. Nelson is also home to the New Zealand Wearable Art Awards, which attracts entrants and spectators from all over the world. Lifestyle: Food and Wine The relaxed atmosphere and great climate makes Nelson a sought after holiday destination and place to live. The extensive selection of local beverages and fine foods, of which seafoods are a speciality, tantalise taste buds in the many cafes and restaurants around the region. Action Two ski fields in the Nelson Lakes National Park offer a season extending from July to October. Rafting, bungy jumping, horse trekking, skydiving and fishing operate all year round. In the geographical centre of New Zealand, Nelson is an all season, all age, all year visitor destination. We are pleased to announce a new web site: The pages consist of travel help to the region, including information on the gateways of Marlborough and the West Coast, details of the three national parks - Nelson Lakes, Kahurangi, and Abel Tasman, articles about the 5 sub-regions of Nelson, Motueka/South Abel Tasman, Takaka/North Abel Tasman, Nelson Lakes and Murchison. Each sub district contains information on accommodation, activities, services, eating out etc. (end Peter Lowish's contribution) To which Lin Nah adds: "Perhaps a mention about the popularity of Takaka Hill for New Years eve should be included. I did not know about this till I got there. It felt like everyone wanted to be there. "The Nelson area makes a significant contribution to the beer (hop growing), and wine (several wineyards) industries, and of recent past, tobacco industry (tobacco know frequently being replaced by green tea!). Is the Riwaka Beer Fest on 2 January an annual thing or only happened this year? "More action: tramping in the National Parks kayaking in Marlborough Sounds kayaking along the Abel Tasman National Park hike or mountain bike (carefully!) on the Heaphy Track tandem sky diving (Around $170 per person) white water rafting on the Karamea River. "The last can be arranged through Buller Adventure Tours at Inangahua Junction (near Westport). This trip consists of a helicopter ride into the area, raft down a grade 5 river (more thrills than the grade 4 river in Queenstown). There are other bits you can add to it. The basic package that starts at Wesport and ends there is around $200 per person. For those in our bus, he offered a free glacier rafting trip on the Franz Josef glacier." ----- The hyperactive Lin then adds (hacked together from two posts): "Spots you MUST hit in the South Island: Abel Tasman National Park West Coast: amazing scenery The Glaciers Milford / Fiordland Otago Peninsula: albatross colony, yellow eyed penguins, fur seals various native birds, spectacular scenery "There is a 2 day trip that may interest some. Leave Queenstown at 9am, taking a steam boat (The Earnslaw) across Lake Wakatipu (we were served a Continental breakfast) to Walter Peak sheep station, then a bus on the other side takes you along the back farm roads towards Te Anau. You see sheep, deer etc. along the way. Lunch at Te Anau (provide for yourself) then down to Milford with stops on the way including a couple of short walks. One was the cascade creek loop track. The second was the chasm. In between the two we stopped at a stream (Monkey Creek) to collect some fresh water from the stream and went through the Homer Tunnel. On the way the driver makes quite a few stops. "We were in Milford by 4:45pm and were on board a boat named the Wanderer by 5pm. After a trip around the firod and out towards the Tasman Sea we were fed a very delicious meal and spent a night on the boat, anchored in the fiord. Sleeping bags and linen are provided in this trip. The next morning we were woken up very very early. Most on the boat work up at 6am when the boat's generator's started. the others were politely woken up by 7am. If you feel restless you can go kayaking at 6:15 - 7am. Someone tried to go for a swim. But with water temp around 5-7 deg C, he did not stay in very long. (When we stopped to fish the evening before, some did go for a swim. Water was slightly warmer). We were served continental and cooked breakfast. At 9am we were back in Milford to rejoin the bus. Then we stopped at the start of the Routeburn Track. Most on the bus went on the short 3 hour return walk to Key Summit (make sure you take good shoes). We then headed back to Te Anau for lunch, then it is back to Queenstown. Best value for money IMHO - provided the weather is good. This is the 'Milford Overland' by Fiordland Travel. I think it is better than the one organised by the Intercity Bus. If you are short of time, then take the one by the Intercity Bus. You leave at 7am and come back at 7pm. Not many stops along the way." There is also a smaller boat called Tutuko(?) It is good for private parties like groups of 10 - 15 people. The Wanderer takes around 40 - 50 people and is a more stable boat. You do not really need to book very far ahead. I was there first/second week of January. I needed to book 1 week ahead. The only problem would be if a big tour group(s) wants to go on the same day as you. Most of the accommodation is single bunks, 4 bunks per berth. They tried to segregate by gender but did not work for our lot as we were used to mixed dorms and some of them were couples (14 of the people in the backpackers bus was in the same trip). There are a couple of double bunks. I think if you want those, you should book earlier. It is a trip I WHOLEHEARTEDLY recommend to everyone provided the weather is good. The group before us had a partial refund because the rain was too heavy for the wanderer to leave the dock at Milford. Milford has 7m (SEVEN METRES) of rainfall a year. Be prepared. The trip is run by Fiordland Travel. I think the cost is around NZ$200 per head. I paid $176 because I was travelling with Kiwi Experience. (thanks Lin, sorry about the editing...) -------------------- C3.1.6 Places To Avoid As above, only in the negative! Start with Bulls, Dannevirke, Dargaville, Wellington... -------------------- C3.1.7 Temporary Attractions January 1995 (so you've missed it!) The Gliding World Championships held at the small town of Omarama (between Christchurch and Wanaka/Queenstown).
Subject: C3.2 Activities C3.2.1 Tramping There is extensive tramping in NZ with a range of experience to suit any enthusiast. See the tramping faq by available via ftp from: or: as: pub/misc/tramping.faq Also available is: a collection of misc other pictures and text that doesnt quite fit the FAQ (it wants to be an html documnet when it grows up). Thanks, KLox. The Department of Conservation has several pamphlets available. Try writing to their head office at PO Box 10420, Wellington, phone 04-4710726. -------------------- C3.2.2 Skiing There are something like 28 ski fields in NZ, only 5 of which are in the North Island. Snow-making equipment is keeping the main fields open for longer now. Ski season is May/July? to August/October? depending on the weather that year. Try: -------------------- C3.2.3 Climbing/Mountaineering There is extensive mountaineering and rock climbing available. The highest mountains are in the South Island, but the volcanoes of the north possess their own challenge. Snow and ice climbing is available on faces up to 2300 metres high. Multi-pitch alpine rock routes are also available, sometimes on excellent rock. Crags abound on both islands, but are probably more extensive in the south. There is a wide variety of rock types available. The New Zealand Alpine Club now has a web site at: with information about the club, about climbing and outdoor activities in NZ, and links to related sites. There is a web site at: but access is restricted to within NZ only (costs and all that). -------------------- C3.2.4 Watersports New Zealanders are renowned for their love of activites in, on, or near the water. We have produced some of the worlds top sailors and boat designers. Sea kayaking is getting popular. There is a guide book for Tasman Bay and the Marlborough Sounds. For more information on seakayaking, email -------------------- C3.2.5 Whale/Dolphin Watching This is becoming very popular around the Kaikoura area (north-eastern South Island) particularly now that the area's part of the new world whale sanctuary. Highly recommended. Justine Lee wrote: "However, the service itself is heavily dependent on the weather. If the seas are too big, the boats won't go out. Often you can't know until say, half an hour before you're 'sposed to go out if they will or not, when the weather is a bit dodgy. If you do decided to come down and do the whale thing it would pay to book in, to avoid disappointment. Sometimes thay can be booked up say 2 weeks in advance. Whale Watch Kaikoura Ltd are the main outfit. There is also another firm who take you out in a helicopter or a plane - not suprisingly this is more expensive. There is also an outfit who take you swimming with the dolphins. "If your travel agent can't help you find out more information - generally or re bookings - drop a line to the newsgroup and I'm sure one of us will help you out." -------------------- C3.2.6 Pubs To Go To/Nightlife Can't give you much on this, I spend too much time editing this damned faq! For a comprehensive FAQ on NZ beer, contact: -------------------- C3.2.7 Anything Else???? Baldwin Street, Dunedin, is apparently the steepest (suburban?) street in the world. It's the scene of an annual running race to the top and back, and apparently one has to be very careful when parking and entering and exiting drives as there's a distinct chance of rolling over! Simon Lyall has suggested the Hamilton Balloon Festival, but I regret news of that has not reached this far south (yet?). I've mentioned the trip to Kapiti Island elsewhere. Anything else you people want to include???
Subject: C4 General Culture
Subject: C4.1 Sport We are basically mad about sports in NZ. Many weekend activities are based around some form of organised sport. NZ has generated some of the finest sports people in the world. A very few are listed in the section on Famous New Zealanders (C5.6). -------------------- C4.1.1 Why do New Zealander Sportspeople Wear Black? Dave Frame wrote: "Around that time (don't know if it was before or after the change) they played against some British [rugby] team and a correspondent wired his paper in his report to say that the NZers played like they were "all backs", meaning they were heaps more mobile than their British counterpart (that should sound familiar to anyone who's seen the RWC this year). Anyway, somehow it got messed up in the wiring process and it got printed as "all blacks" and the name stuck." And Brian Dooley confirmed; "The first story here is close enough to the truth if "An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand" is to be believed. The story was reputedly confirmed by one of the last living members of the team." and Lin Nah adds: "It used to refer to athletes representing NZ as well. I think the change (with respect to NZ athletes) occured in the 1994 Commonwealth Games and the Olympics." Brian Sorrell 'complicates' things with: "Soccer (and sometimes cricket) are about the only team sports that don't. Can't remember what the hockey team (hockeyers? hockeyists?) wear. "But it did all begin with rugby. The story (as I recall it) was that it arose from when the first NZ rugby team toured Britain (the 1905 team?) with far more success than either they or the British expected. A British sports journalist, impressed by the NZers unconventional style of play, wrote that they played as if they were "all backs" (referring to the speed and mobility of the forwards, a tradition continued to this day). A printer's error converted this to "all blacks", the name stuck, and an all-black uniform was adopted. "I think I read this some years ago in, if memory serves right, N.A.C. McMillan's bible of All Black history, "Men in Black." So I don't think it's apocryphal (although if it is, it's a good yarn anyway :-))."
Subject: C4.2 Food Pavlova, pikelets, Sally Lunn, cream buns, Lammingtons, Afghans, Golden Syrup, Gingernuts, Milky bars, Moro Bars, weetbix, marmite/vegemite, lemon and paeroa, crayfish, whitebait, oysters, venison, lamb burgers, roast lamb, fish and chips, Hokey Pokey icecream, kiwifruit, food cooked in a hangi... Pavlova info should be available from: /"> Whitebait can be purchased fresh from the water in and around the river mouths of Westland from Aug. 15th to Oct. 31st. Be prepared to pay plenty for it. However it will still be cheaper than the $50.00 per kg often charged in cities... Raewyn Whyte gives us: The NZ Wine Trail (a Tauranga-based page): The Wine Institute of NZ website called NZ Wines Online (Vancouver-based): A very useful NZ wines web site can be found at: This site provides US and Canadian availability information in addition to comprehensive information about a host of NZ wines. The site includes promotional competitions and a mailing list, and is sponsored by TRADENZ. A web search on the terms <wines +zealand> in Alta Vista will turn up close to 100 references, many of them including availability of information for NZ wines in the USA. ----- What follows is an embryonic list (at 10th Sep) of foods sorely missed by NZers abroad. It is hoped this will grow over time and incorporate a list of alternative overseas sources... barley sugars burgers with beetroot in Buzz Bars CCs (they're Aussie but we still miss them) chocolate fish feijoas gingernuts cookies girl guide biscuits golden syrup hokey pokey jaffas L&P lammingtons (also Aussie) Mallowpuffs marmite/vegemite Minties Moro bars NZ pie/fish and chips/lamb chops NZ sausages NZ-style hot dogs pineapple lumps Pinky bars potato fritters proper-sized fresh trout... proper-sized mussels Rashuns tamarillos Twisties Vogel bread Watties tomato sauce Whittakers Peanut slab Jennifer George wrote: "I found some very acceptable "Light Golden Syrup" imported from the UK in Costco (do they have them in North Carolina)? Basically I would just check around in those kind of warehouse/importer places until you find something. Or of course a shop specialising in British foods or the like." All of these and more are sold in two shops in London; The Australia Shop, off the Strand, and Kiwi Fruits, on the Royal Opra (sic) Arcade. -------------------- C4.2.1 What Is Vegemite/Marmite? For an extensive outline of these, try Jenny George's URL below which has the FAQ and IFAQ for <a href="">My home page</a> Vegemite, Marmite and Promite are all yeast extracts and basically all the same, but: Marmite is sweeter than vegemite Promite is sweeter then marmite They're all extremely salty tasting. Or, Vegemite is very salty, marmite slightly less so. Promite is considerably less salty. They all use caramel for the dark colouring, and it's probably this part which contributes to the war. Marmite is considerably sweeter (and darker) than Vegemite, while Promite is sweeter still. Vegemite eaters will generally tolerate Marmite and Marmite eaters will tolerate Promite. Vegemite eaters find Promite sickly sweet. Marmite eaters will not (usually) eat vegemite. It's too strongly flavoured for them as a general rule. Promite is Australian (Masterfoods), but is gaining in popularity here. There are very few exclusive Promite eaters, so conclusions can't be drawn, but I'd expect that Promite eaters would react to Marmite the same way that Marmite eaters react to Vegemite. I have yet to see an advert for Promite in any medium. Marmite is made by Sanitarium Health Food company, which is wholly owned by the Seventh Day Adventist church. Our 7DA's don't run around with guns, unlike a certain Texas sect. There was (still is?) a TV ad campaign for Marmite last year which had many viewers reaching for the off switch ("The Marmities"). Vegemite is made by multi-national food company Kraft General Foods NZ Ltd, who have acquired several "NZ" labels over the last 25 years. It isn't advertised much, though Kraft have been pushing it and their jam + cheese labels recently in a series of adverts starring Billy Connolly and Pamela Stevenson (Why Billy - a Scot - is pushing vegemite is beyond me, as most non-antipodeans can't stand any of the yeast extracts...) There is a product called "Marmite" made by the Marmite company in Britain. This is not the same as the Marmite found in New Zealand - the UK version has all sorts of things added such as vegetable bits and according to those who've tried it tastes considerably different. Lyndon Watson wrote: "I don't know about the vegetable bits, but I found British Marmite to have (a) a lighter brown colour, (b) a runnier texture and (c) a stronger but otherwise similar flavour." None of these spreads should be spread thickly. That's the second mistake most foreigners make. The first is trying the stuff at the insistence of NZ hosts, most of whom are gleefully anticipating the response. Best results are obtained by spreading _very_ thinly. Discolouration of the underlying bread/toast is all that's necessary. Do not get any of these spreads on your fingers if there are domestic animals around, especially cats. They all love the stuff and will try to lick you clean. Enthusiastic felines will sometimes try to remove your digits too... There are no meat products in any of the three spreads. Ingredients: Vegemite (Kraft General Foods NZ Ltd): Yeast extract, salt, malt extract, colour (caramel), vegetable flavours, vitamins (niacin, thiamine, riboflavin) Marmite (Sanatarium Health Food Company, NZ): Yeast, sugar, salt, wheatgerm extract, mineral salt (508), colour (caramel), herbs, spices, vitamins (niacin, thiamin, riboflavin) It's also got a small note under the ingredients: "100% vegetarian" (but then, what do you expect from a company owned by the 7th Day Adventist church?) Promite: (Masterfoods of Australia) ----------------------------------- Vegetable protein extract, sugar, yeast, natural colour (caramel), salt, thickener (Wheat starch), emulsifier (Glycerol monostearate), spices, added vitamins, water Other countries' versions may vary.... -------------------- C4.2.2 Pavlova Recipe Ask Jenny George ( For a few notes on the history of meringues and the pavlova, try; /"> Also take a look at which is where Noeline McCaughan's recipes are now residing. -------------------- C4.2.3 The Edmonds Cook Book This book is the biggest selling book in NZ of all time. I guess you could expect NZer's to be fat... :-) Jenny George (jmgeorge@leland.Stanford.EDU) has a file of recipes available including pavlova, hokey pokey, afghans, Noeline's latest bread stuff, ginger beer, etc. -------------------- C4.2.4 Laying A Hangi The following are Hangi instructions were kindly supplied by Ken Moselen with additions by Robert Burling-Claridge[] and Lyndon Watson<>. This was a nightmare to splice together, so if it doesn't read well, I'll replace it with the original posts. Let me know. ----- Well, the one's I've been involved in (2-3 baskets) have been generally the slightly mangled versions involving everything in one hole (slightly non traditional), so here goes... The food preparation is fun. It helps to do this before starting the hole, so you know how big to dig it. [ Even better to get a big bunch of folk together and share the load. Remember the quality of the final hangi is directly related to the number of people involved and (most importantly) the quantity and quality of the beer provided!!! ] Find your wire baskets, and line them with tinfoil, [ Actually, I'm not sure I like these new hangis using the foil, it tends to stop the juices getting through to the stones and I reckon the hangi kai is drier to the palate. ] put down a thin layer of cabbage leaves, [ Any old cabbage-like vegetable leaf will do: cauli, brocoli, etc. ] and throw all the food on top (side of pork, lamb, chicken, etc), and surround them all with potatoes, cabbage, kumara, etc., [ Note, depending on what you want, remember gravity works inside the hangi as well. If you want tastier potatoes, kumera, pumpkin, etc., stick them under the meat, else over the meat. For the first couple why not some in both places, then you can decide. Generally, put 'drier' meats under those producing more juices. As rule of thumb I usually put beef and venison low and pork and mutton high. Pays to wrap venison and beef unless very large (about the size of a mutton hind leg) as cooking time still related to size, and you can't open the hangi to get out the beef that's cooked before the rest... ] and a liberal dose of salt. [ Remember, there are a lot of potatoes in there! Too much salt is difficult to manage! The more you add, the juicier the food will be as well (personal experience, no explanation). As a rule of thumb, for a 50-person hangi (1-2 baskets) you might use 1-2 cups of salt. ] Cover with some teatowels, and liberally pour some water on it. Hopefully it won't leak too much. [ Now, I _REALLY_ advise DO NOT USE TEATOWELS unless they're brand new! I have had one really bad experience with a teatowel that mis-flavoured the whole basket. Try for clean, non-coloured cloth of nearly anything at all. Preferably natural, rather than synthetic (taste of burnt plastic will usually put people off... ] - Dig Hole (a slope on one side helps a bit later on) :-) [ Best ground to make a hangi is one that's easy to dig!! Other than that, almost anything is possible to use. Clay, sand... Stoney ground (eg. old riverbed) will need at least some sand/soil to line the hole, otherwise the heat is lost quite quickly. This is offset to some extent by burning longer, in the cooking hole, and digging a bit deeper (making a more enclosed HOT hole (remember the soil dumped on top is relatively cold). Hole needs to be big enough that when the baskets are stacked, however you want to stack them, not much more than half the height is above the normal ground level. Don't forget to allow for the room taken by the stones/steel, but its not particularly critical. IMPORTANT: **NEVER** use treated timber!! You might be lucky, and all the nasty copper gunk, etc. will burn away before the irons (stones, etc.) cool off sufficiently for it to stick to them. However if you luck out you could have a lot of _very_ sick people on your hands (anyone remember the Wanganui Xmas hangi of around 1976, Kowhai gardens?) ] - Place paper, kindling, and lots of wood on top (enough to burn really hot for about 2 hours (at least)) - Place enough Railway Irons, Ploughshears, and any other large, heavy, solid pieces of iron or steel on top of the firewood (these don't tend to explode like stones do if there's any dampness in them) to hold the heat from the fire for a long time (the more the better - within reason). - Light fire and watch for a couple of hours, have a few drinks, etc. etc. < If you use stones (a sort that doesn't explode when heated and cooled - say granite), you would want to fire them for longer than iron, say three to four hours. I still use stones for their good heat retention. > (Traditionally, the fire and the hole are separate, you just drag the really hot stones from the fire to the pit, and forget all the mucking about with the ashes etc., but this takes lots more room, and you can't do it properly in the backyard, so I've described all the mucking around we normally do; it doesn't take too long though, only about 15min from starting the lifting of the irons, to burying the food, with three of you) [ Well, tradition varies. If the ground is damp/wet, you will get a considerably better hangi if you burn in the cooking hole. A lot of heat will be lost to warm the surrounding ground otherwise. ] Do the next bit as quickly as you safely can. - Whilst being hosed (wear strong shoes, jeans, and tee-shirt) carefully (and quickly) lift the (probably just slightly glowing) irons from the ashes (using a wooden handled rake, etc) and put them next to the pit. [ I find an old chunk of corrugate iron works really well. Scrape, shovel the stones/steel onto it, clean out the hole, then tip/scrape the stones back in. ] - Scrape the ashes out of the firepit (this is really hot work) with a woodhandled (the longer the handle the better) rake/shovel [ This is where you make/break the hangi. The more ash you leave in, the smokier the hangi will taste. Your choice. Some leave bits on purpose. Some cover the remaining ash with a light layer of sand. ] - Put the irons back into the pit - Cover the Irons with a couple of layers of very wet sacks - Put the food baskets on the sacks - Cover the food with a sheet [ NB: wet sheet. I also suggest, use several sheets, then hose them for a few seconds before covering the whole lot. The more top covering you can manage the better. As the food cooks, steam within the cooking hole will wet the top dirt. This naturally dissolves a bit, and can sometimes leak into the food, not particularly enhancing the flavour! Lay the sheets so they overlap toward the center of the pile, rather than all of then being tucked under the dirt all the way around (see later for why). Like this: ______ ______ \ sheets/sacks /+------+\ / | food | \ __/ +------+ \____ ] - Bury the lot, and wherever you see steam escaping, put some more dirt on. < Steam is what it's all about - you've got to have lots of heat and lots of water. When we do it at home, as soon as the food is in the hole, we poke a hose in and start the water running. It keeps running while we cover the hole as fast as we can, and then we turn it off and pull the hose out. A hangi must not run dry! > Now for the Good Bit. - Wait about 6 hours (longer if in doubt) [ Hey, you missed the good bit! Remember, someone has to watch that hangi like a hawk, any steam escaping could completely ruin the hangi. And besides its hot, thirsty work. Only solution is for a bunch of you to stand around leaning on fences, shovels (just in case), or anything else that's handy, and keep a close eye on the hangi hole. Of course, to avoid the attention dropping (6 hours remember!) a few good yarns wouldn't go amiss, and naturally, you're going to get very dry (6 hours!) so a few good beers also wouldn't go amiss. This usually works best if every so often someone throws a shovelful of dirt toward the hole. Try to pick a time when whoever it is that's complaining about "lazy bloody hangi diggers" is watching. NB: Try to have at least one person stay sober enough to notice when 6 hours is up! ] - Carefully dig up [ This is when you will bless having thought of laying the sheets to overlap in the middle. As the dirt comes off, scrape it outwards. Then when the sheets appear, peel them back like a banana peel, leaving the baskets of food clean and yummy inside. Also useful because minimal disturbance to hangi, and can successfully be covered back up, just in case it needs a bit more cooking!! ] - Lift baskets, and serve. [ It's a good idea to have thought ahead, and got some bits of bent fencing wire, so you don't have to lift the baskets by hand. Mind you, they're usually damn heavy, so use No 8 wire, not that pansy hi-tensile stuff! ] The bottom of the pit should still be hot enough to turn a bucket of water into steam, so keep any stray kids/pets away from it. < Those are the best bits! > That's about it. [ Oh no! not quite, remember to get the hangi stones/etc. out of the pit before you cover it up!!! Its easier to get them out (and less nasty, icky food residues, etc.) if you do it before the hole is completely cold. I usually do this while the food is being chopped/sectioned, etc. Also don't forget to enjoy! (Mind you, if you have been 'watching for steam' with sufficient enthusiasm, the food quality will be _superb_, regardless of how well cooked it is!). Don't be put off by the complexity. Its EASY. Just a bit of common sense, and you're away laughing. The best thing about it is the co-operative way it gets done, and there's probably no easier way to feed a few hundred people. Works just as well for 10-20 people, or even just the immediate family (mind you in my case that _is_ 100 people!!!) Great for family get-togethers. Spend early morning preparing (whole family gets involved littles to biggest, 1-2 hours setting up the hangi, then 6 hours to enjoy each other's company. Then, without anyone having to disappear into the kitchen for ages, right when the talk is flowing, etc., bang - all the food is ready to eat. One thing I like is everyone is involved. Even the most chauvinistic males or the most get-out-of-MY-kitchen females (no flames please, stereotyping acknowledged) will pitch in together to do something to help. And the food always tastes better when you have cooked it yourself! Hell, I'm looking forward to the weekend already! ] Good effort, gentlemen! Must go and dig a hole...
Subject: C4.3 National Anthem(s) God Save The Queen and God Defend NZ are on equal status... Words available via email request from
Subject: C4.4 The Gumboot Song See Fred Dagg. Words available via ftp from
Subject: C4.5 Some Works by NZ Authors The following is a short-list of New Zealand books, selected by the New Zealand Book Council for their brochure "Bookenz: A Traveller's Guide to New Zealand Books". It is by no means an exhaustive collection, but rather a selection of the works from indigenous Kiwi writers. Barry Crump, A Good Keen Man, and numerous others. Alan Duff, Once Were Warriors (Tandem) Maurice Gee, Going West (Penguin) Patricia Grace, Potiki (Penguin) Keri Hulme, The Bone People (Picador) Witi Ihimaera, Bulibasha (Penguin) Fiona Kidman, the Book of Secrets (Vintage) Owen Marshall, Tomorrow We Save The Orphans (McIndoe) Maurice Shadbolt, Season of the Jew (Hodder Headline) Philip Temple, Beak of the Moon (Penguin) Lauris Edmond, An Autobiography (Bridget Williams Books) Janet Frame, An Angel At My Table (Random House) James Belich, The New Zealand Wars (Penguin) Michael King, Maori: A Photographic and Social History (Reed) Claudia Orange, The Story of a Treaty (Bridget Williams Books) Christopher Pugsley, Anzac (Hodder Headline) Bill Manhire (ed.), 100 New Zealand Poems (Godwit Publishing) Ian Wedde and Harvey McQueen (eds), The Penguin Book of New Zealand Verse (Penguin). For further information please contact: New Zealand Book Council/ Te Kaunihera Pukapuka o Aotearoa PO Box 11-377 Wellington New Zealand Tel +64 4 499 1569 Fax +64 4 499 1424
Subject: C4.6 Other Bits... A comprehensive listing of NZ arts web sites exists at Updates are made at least monthly. ----- Things which need to be contributed: WHERE TO EAT: list of recommended restaurants RECIPES: try US/NZ TRANSLATIONS: they really are that different.... FISHING: favourite fishing holes? All about whitebait (thanks NMcC :-) ALTERNATIVE FAQ'S: available via ftp from
Subject: C5 Famous New Zealanders
Subject: C5.1 Cinema There's a movie database somewhere with loads of NZ stuff. If someone trips over the URL, could they please post it. C5.1.1 Films An Angel at My Table Bad Blood? (British/NZ co-production) Bad Taste Battletruck Brain Dead (US title; Dead Alive (god knows why they change it!)) Came a Hot Friday Carry Me Back End of the Golden Weather Footrot Flats (aka A Dog's Tail/Tale?) Goodbye Pork Pie Heavenly Creatures Hinemoa Illustrious Energy Map of the Human Heart (NZ director, Vincent Ward) Maui Meet the Feebles Ngati Race for the Yankee Zephyr Sleeping Dogs Smash Palace The Navigator The Piano The Quiet Earth Utu Vigil -------------------- C5.1.2 People If anyone can be bothered posting a brief summary of any of these, I'll include it (after people have commented). Jane Campion Peter Jackson Bruno Lawrence Geoff Murphy Sam Neill Ian Mune Anna Pacquin Graeme Revell - has done several major movie sound tracks (Until The End Of The World, Body Of Evidence, Hand That Rocks The Cradle). Vincent Ward
Subject: C5.2 Music C5.2.1 Pop/Rock Bands Abel Tasmans Ardijah Blam Blam Blam Crowded House Dance Exponents DD Smash Dragon Father Time Hello Sailor Herbs Jean Paul Satre Experience Mi Sex Netherworld Dancing Toys Ragnarok Screaming Mee Mees Sheerlux Shona Laing Space Waltz Split Enz Suburban Reptiles Tall Dwarfs The Bats The Body Electric The Chills The Dudes The Enemy The Exponents The Front Lawn The Johnnies The Mockers The Muttonbirds The Narcs The Residents The Swingers The Verlaines Thin Red Line Toy Love etc. etc. etc. etc. etc. For NZ bands & so on, here are some good starting points. Jonathan Milne's pages: Simon Dear's pages: Akiko: And: which includes as many NZ music web sites as we (incl. Raewyn Whyte) knew about this morning... -------------------- C5.2.2 Blues Midge Marsden -------------------- C5.2.3 Country The Warratahs -------------------- C5.2.4 Classical Michael Houston Dame Kiri te Kanawa Lili Kraus Douglas Lilburn Noel Mangin Dame Malvina Major Donald McIntyre Oscar Natzke (sp?) A WWW page of the New Zealand Symphony Orchestra is now available: Dale Gold adds: "We will soon have a new URL on our own virtual server, as well as a mirror on Akiko to speed things up for overseas users. More audio is in the works, and much of it will have a NZ slant, although it won't all be human... :-)"
Subject: C5.3 Literature Murray Ball James K. Baxter Ian Cross Barry Crump Alan Duff Stevan Eldred-Grigg A.R.D. (Rex) Fairbairn Janet Frame Maurice Gee Denis Glover Patricia Grace Keri Hulme (1) Sam Hunt Robin Hyde Witi Ihimaera John A. Lee Margaret Mahy Katherine Mansfield Gordon McLaughlan Dame Ngaio Marsh Frank Sargeson Maurice Shadbolt C. K. Stead Hone Tuwhare ----- 1 Keri Hulme was born in Christchurch, NZ in 1947 of Scottish & Maori heritage. She lives in the settlement of Okarito on NZ's wild West Coast. Okarito used to have 4,500 gold miners and 25 pubs but is now only tiny. It is famous for an old store, which is the oldest building on the West Coast, the White Heron colony and Keri Hulme. Keri lists her interests as beach walking, whitebaiting (a traditional form of fishing in NZ), reading, eating and drinking whisky. If you really are interested in her writing you could drop her a line at Okarito, Private Bag, Hokitika, NZ. She may reply.
Subject: C5.4 Fine Art Rita Angus Neil Dawson Francis Hodgson Robyn Kahukiwa Colin McCahon Lew Summers Bill Sutton
Subject: C5.5 Humour John Clarke (Fred Dagg) Barry Crump Sam Hunt Billy T James Gordon McLauchlan Pamela Stevenson Rima te Wiata
Subject: C5.6 Other... Rewi Alley (helped rebuild China after the revolution, we live in his house) Chris Amon (motor racing) Robert Davidson (apiarist) Sir Roger Douglas (accounting?) Sir Harold Gillies (pioneering plastic surgeon, 1) Ernest Godward (inventor of the carburettor) Sir Edmund Hillary (mountaineering, aid work, ambassador) Fred Hollows (eye surgeon, honorary Australian?) Dennis Hulme (motor racing) Vaughan Jones (mathematics, Fields Medal winner (theory of knots)) Sir Archibald McIndoe (pioneering plastic surgeon, 1) Bruce McLaren (motor racing) Colin Murdoch (inventor of the disposable syringe) Richard Pearse (first powered flight (probably)) Lord [Ernest] Rutherford, 1st Baron of Nelson and Cambridge (Nobel Prize, Chemistry, 2), (1871-1937) Mark Todd (equestrian) Captain Charles Upham (farmer, veteran soldier, VC and bar, 3) ----- 1 MJ Pickering wrote: (more details may be available from her) "New Zealand surgeons practically invented the process of reconstructive surgery. Well, that's not quite true - there were many instances of reattaching noses and ears and such in Italy and India and a few other places. But the first world war resulted in plenty of cases to work on and by the time the second world war rolled around, a phenomenon called Airman's Burn where pilots who disobeyed orders and removed their goggles and gloves due to the heat in their cockpits suffered extensive burns to their faces and hands when shot down meant that skin grafting really took off. "In the time between the two World Wars there were 4 full time reconstructive surgeons - three were New Zealanders (working in Britain of course). Sir Harold Gillies was the first one and pioneered many of the techniques. Rainsford Mowlem was another but the most famous was Sir Archibald McIndoe who started the Guinea Pig club of his patients which some of you may have heard aboout. By the time of the WWII more pilots were surviving crashes due to better constructed planes and penicillan ensured a greater survival rate so there were more men for him to work on. Gillies tended to work of the canon fodder of the front in WWI. The Guinea Pig club still meets every year. MacIndoe was not only at the forefront of "holistic" medicine in that he treated his patients' minds and their trauma as well as their bodies - he wouldn't let them go back into service until he was sure their minds had recovered also, but he was the one to make the connection between the recovery rate of burns victims who had fallen into the sea and the concept of saline baths for burns victims. Prior to that an oil solution was used on their burns." ----- 2 After receiving a master's from Canterbury College, Chistchurch, Rutherford went to Cambridge in 1885 to work under Sir JJ Thomson at Cavendish Laboratory. He took up a physics professorship at McGill, Montreal, in 1898, worked with Soddy and in 1902-3 identified radioactive half-life, moved to Victoria University of Manchester in 1907 and was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1908 for his work on radioactivity. He worked with Geiger in 1908 and in 1909 used alpha particle bombardment of thin foils to lead to his 1911 description of atomic structure. He was knighted in 1914, then succeeded Thomson at the Cavendish Laboratory in 1919. He was elevated to the peerage in 1931. His other awards included an Order of Merit in 1921, the Copley Medal of the Royal Society in 1922, and he was President of the Royal Society from 1925 until 1930. In 1931 he was created Baron Rutherford of Nelson. ----- 3 Howard Edwards wrote: "Captain Charles Upham (retired), New Zealand's most decorated soldier and veteran of World War Two, died last Tuesday and was buried with full military honours after a service in Christchurch cathedral on Friday. Upham was awarded two Victoria crosses for exceptional bravery during WWII. "A modest hero. Upham never saw himself as anything other than a New Zealander doing his duty. He refused to accept any land offered to returning servicemen after the war, and also turned down a knighthood. He spent the remainder of his years on his North Canterbury farm and avoided the spotlight of fame which the media oocasionally tried to shine upon him." ----- Lyndon Watson wrote: "I took my father, who served with Charlie Upham in the 20th, to the funeral on Friday, and I found the subject too close to many emotions to write about for all the world to read. "Upham's battalion, the 20th, was, in my biased opinion, the most distinguished of all New Zealand regiments in the Second World War. Together with the other battalions that comprised the 4th Brigade (the 18th Auckland, 19th Wellington and 20th South Island battalions), it was made up of the first and keenest men who volunteered in 1939, and it bore the brunt of the actions in Crete (where Upham won his first V.C. for attacking and destroying machine-gun posts in face of their fire), at Belhamed, and at Ruweisat Ridge which was, like Stalingrad in the same year, one of the crucial battles of the war (and where Upham won his second V.C. for running in the open at advancing tanks and attacking them with hand-grenades). At each of those battles the 20th was nearly destroyed, and it was rebuilt each time around the survivors who somehow kept its extraordinary spirit alive. Its third Victoria Cross was won by Sergeant Jack Hinton, who is still going strong at 84. "When Upham returned from the war, the people of Canterbury raised 10,000 pounds by public donation to buy him a farm. That was enough to buy a very good farm, but Upham declined and had the money put into an educational trust. He eventually bought a houseless block with a rehab. loan and turned it into a farm with his own hard work." ----- Charles Upham died in November 1994. =========================================================================== That's all, folks.

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