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rec.music.reggae Frequently Asked Questions (2/3)

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See reader questions & answers on this topic! - Help others by sharing your knowledge
[6]. Who was Marcus Garvey?

	Excerpted from "Reggae International", Stephen Davis and Peter Simon.

Ethiopianism includes the appreciation of Ethiopia's ancient
civilization as well as its role in the Bible. To blacks, Africa
(interchangeable with Ethiopia) became a glorious, Biblical home-
land equated with Zion. The recognition of African roots and the
desire for repatriation has been a central theme in New World
black religion before and since emancipation. Ethiopianism became
a "black religious reaction to pro-slavey propaganda."

Marcus Garvey's "Back to Africa" movement developed the spirit of
Ethiopianism to its fullest extent.

....since the white people have seen their God through white
spectacles, we have only now started out (late though it be) to
see our God through our own spectacles. Tbe God of Isaac and the
God of Jacob let him exist for the race that believe in the God
of Isaac and the God of Jacob. We Negroes believe in the God of
Ethiopia, the everlasting God--God the Son, God the Holy Ghost,
tbe one God of all ages. That is the God in whom we believe, but
we sball worship him througb the spectacles of Ethiopia.

A. J. Garvey, The Philosophy and Opinions of Marcus Garvey

Garvey's words planted the seeds for most "Black Cod" movements
in the US and Caribbean. Stressing the superiority of the ancient
Africans and the dignity of the black race, he inspired many
successful nationaiist movements and numerous African leaders
from Kenyatta to Nyerere.

Marcus Mosiah Garvey was born in St. Ann, Jamaica, in 1887,
descended from the fiercely proud Maroons. He founded the
newspaper The Negro World, which took as its motto his
nationalist cry,  "One God, One Aim, One Destiny." In 1917, he
founded UNIA (Universal Negro Improvement  Association) in
Harlem. Its aims were described in a speech delivered by Garvey
in 1924 at Madison Square Garden, New York:

The Universal Improvement Association represents the hopes and
aspirations of tbe awakened Negro. Our desire is for a place in
tbe world, not to disturb the tranquility of other men, but to
lay down our burden and rest our weary backs and feet by the
banks of the Niger and sing our songs and chant our hymns to the
God of Ethiopia.

Garvey's goal of repatriation was expressed in his famous slogan
"Africa for the Africans." His well-known Black Star Line
steamship company was established to trade and eventually carry
New World blacks to Africa. This prophet of African redemption
was not always successfull in his countless business ventures,
but by the 1920s Garvey was the most powerful leader among the
black masses in the United States.

In 1916, before he left for his US campaign, Garvey's farewell
address to Jamaicans included the words "Look to Africa for the
crowning of a Black king; he shall be the Redeemer."
----------
[7]. Can you recommend some Dancehall?

Profile's "Dancehall Stylee" Volumes I-III
VP's "Strictly The Best"  Volumes 1-8
Mango's "Ram Dancehall"

+------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Scott Cairns           	|   email: scairns@fsg.com         |

My own current dancehall faves, if yuh interested:

"Gal Wine" - Chakademus / Pliers
"Wear Yuh Size" - Lt. Stitchie
"Hypocrites" - Michael Prophet / Daddy Freddy
"Ruling Cowboy" - Cocoa Tea
"Fresh Vegetable" - Tony Rebel
"Love Fever" - Cobra
"Bandaleros" - Pinchers
"Jump Up" - Admiral Bailey
"Talk Tough" - Bobo General / Culture Lindsay

+------------------------------------------------------------------+
| DJ Scotty Ranks        	|   email: scairns@fsg.com         |

To show respect to the broad field of dancehall stylees I compiled a list 
of `Big' DJ/dancehall names (over the years, I guess somewhat since 78).
These man and man have settled their names in many ppl's memories and have
made more than a couple of albums. I added one of my favourite albums for
each of them. I must have missed great ones by lots and must have selected
semi-optimal albums for many of them, so lets grow this list please. Also
a LOT of more temporary starts have made HOT ridims and lyrics, but including
them (Ashanti Waugh, Peter Culture, Scion Sashay Success, Tapper Zukie etc etc 
etc) would make this list endless.

I roy - The General
U roy - Natty Rebel (++)
Papa/General Echo - 12" of Pleasure (man died too young, hear next album)
Clint Eastwoord & General Saint - Two Bad DJ
Michigan & Smiley -   Downpression
Yellowman & Fathead - I Cant take it (if live was a thing money coulda buy)
Yellowman & Home-T4 - Mr.Consular    (this one and previous are 12")
Barrington Levi - Here I Come
Mikey Dread - World War III
Sugar Minott - Time Longer Than Rope
Big Youth - Dread Locks Dread
Jah Thomas - Dance Hall Connection
Jah Woosh - Chalis blaze
Little John - True Confession
Max Romeo - Holding Out My Love To You (maybe not everyone finds this dancehall)
Winston Reedy - Crossover
Maxie Priest (slightly disco-ish) - You're Safe
Dr. Alimentado (not really dancehall)  - Best Dressed Chicken In Town *
Eek-A-Mouse (singing DJ) (some like it some hate it)) - Skidip
Dillinger - (SORT of, various experiments) I did like CB200 (ocassionally still)

With the very many names over the years samplers are especially useful for
selecting your taste here.  Nice samplers, i.e. `Super Fresh', `Sure Shot',
Very nice live samplers: a series called: `Live Dance Hall Session with ...',
where ... is `Aces International' or `Lees Unlimited' etc.

*) Sons of Thunder is better, yet less dancehall-ish

As I didn't purchase much dancehall the last few years, I missed the latest
great names. Also some stuff lost some actuality. All titles above are (for
me at least) timeless anyway. Oh yes, now we're on it. On MTV I saw Shabba,
Snow, and Shaggy on 3, 2, 1 in English chart as well. In Holland they must 
also be in top 5, accompanied by Dr.Alban (reggae from sweden [or danmark?]).
BTW, wouldn't someone be able and willing to post a Jamaican chart on this
group sometimes? Even with some delay it might keep us informed of what is
hot in Jamaica much quicker.

OK, sorry for the length of this, Greetings, Hans (flashbacks will change my 
musical diet for some days, and they are already doing so:-)


	Yes, it's one of the dusty, sleepy nyah mon making a dancehall
recommendation: Check out the ROIR/RAS CD, "Nice Up Dancee" featuring Sanchez,
Flourgon, Little Lenny, Johnny P., Tiger, Tippa Lee & Rappa Robert, Foxy Brown,
Little Kirk, Paul Blake & Bloodfire Posse, Super Glen, and Natural Beauty.
Also Two Tough Record's "Dancehall Boomshots". 

						EZ Noh,		mike

In article <1993Jun7.012035.27087@uvm.edu>, walker@uvm.edu (Sherrett O Walker)
writes:
|> 
|> Can someone send me email on the newest and classic dancehall favorites???
|> Thanks in advance.
|> 

	It's always difficult to determine what is the "latest" dancehall: it
always depends on how soon you were able to get to the local reggae store before
the last shipment done!!  Anyway:

-"Oh Carolina," Various Artists, King Jammy's version (Which is substantially
faster and different from the Signet (Sting Int'l) version.
-"Ghetto Vibes" Various Artists, also of Jammy's.  Features D. Brown, Courtney
Melody/Risto Benjy, Bounty Killer etc.
-Sound Boy Burial - Trouble, Tan Yah records
-Welfare/Good Enough - Blacka Ranks/ the late great Alton Black, Tan Yah.
-People - Gen. Degree, Penthouse
-Creator - Tony Rebel, Penthouse
_Operation Ardent = Buju, Penthouse
-You a lead/??? - Nardo/Galaxy P, Penthouse
-Love will lead you back - Wayne Wonder, Penthouse
-Excellence - Louie Culture, Madhouse

I will check on some new stuff that I just got in the last month and give you
the
names.  Also let me know how far back you mean (1993 stuff, last month, etc..)

As for classic favorites - I'll just name some of mine:

"Here I come" - Dennis Brown
"Pumpkin Belly," "Ring the Alarm" - Tenor Saw
"Bam Bam" - Muma (then Sister) Nancy, Techniques (Winston Riley's - its on the
same rhythm as Tenor Saw's Ring the alarm and more recently Buju's "Do dem
sup'm".  Big Beat recently rereleased it with a *Phizattt* hip-hop remix as well
as the original.).
"Murderer," "Under me Sensi" - Barrington Levy
"Night Nurse," "Mr. Brown" - Gregory Isaacs
"Loving Pauper" - Dobby Dobson
"No,no,no" (You don't love me and I know) - Ken Boothe
"Greetings" "Level the vibes" - Half Pint
"Bobo Dread," "Leggo me hand" - Josey Wales
"Gunman Connection," "Suzy Q" - Nicodemus
Innumerable Yelloeman, especially with Fat head (e.g BAM BAM)
"Cry fi the Youth", "Mud up," "Sweet for my sweet," "Under Pressure," "Boops" -
Super Cat.
"Synthersizer voice" - Pampidoo
"Gi me punany," "Think me did done" (part II), "Big Belly Man" - Adm. Bailey
"Big Batty Gal," "Jump Spread out" - Flourgon
"Ram Dancehall," "Boombastic," "No wanga gut," "Mi lover mi lover" - Tiger
Any pre-Atlantic record of Lieutenant Stitchie After: "Father Beat me hot, Old
Confession, All nations, Wear yu size"
"Pretty Looks done" - Major Mackerel
"Cover Me" - Ninja Man/Tinga Stewart


Etc. etc...

Selector Dudu Black

From: ac999a11@umbc2.umbc.edu
Subject: RE: dancehall

Here are a few more to add:

Zion in a vision - Garnet Silk
Love of a lifetime - ???
Love how de gal dem flex - Buju
If I ever fall in love again (cover) - Pinchers
Why so much gun and ammunition - Tony Rebel

They're not brand new, but are among some of the better '93 selection to come
out.

>As for classic favorites - I'll just name some of mine:
> 
> 
Some to add here would be:

Jump Up - Tiger
Babylon Boops - Lovindeer
Computer Burial - ???
Sorry - Foxy Brown
Love the life you live - Colonel Mite and Frighty
Gun Talk - Tony Rebel
Dolly My Baby (Original Version) - Super Cat
Cuff - Shelly Thunder
She a Trickster - ???
Love the Ghetto Youth - Admiral Bailey
Telephone Lover - J.C. Lodge
One Blood - ???

>Selector Dudu Black

Some Stuff That Came out in 92 that may be classic soon:

Ting-a-ling - Shabba
Boom Bye Bye - Buju
Murder She Wrote - Shaka Demus and Pliers
Lord, Me Can't Take it No More - General Degree
Granny - ??? (Same Version as that above)
Falling in Love All Over Again - Beres Hammond
Big Up Big Up - ???
Murderation - Capleton
Dem A Bleach - Nardo Ranks
Hot This Year - ???
Love is Guaranteed - Reggie Stepper

Richard Thomas

ac999a11@umbc2.umbc.edu
----------

Also, you'd asked about updating the dancehall FAQ recently. I think of course
the selectors like Mr. Black are most qualified to do so, but I do think for
'94 anyhow, the new Pepperseed Riddim should get some mention

Stress                 Michigan and Smiley
Tickle Her Body        Baja Jedd
Big Speech             Frisco Kid
Wifee                  Dugsey Ranks
Dappa                  Donovan Steele, Daddy Screw
Big Thing a Gwan       "    "
Kotch, #2              Terror Fabulous

Cocoa Tea

He's been making great music since 1982, sings conscious lyrics and is
 better than ever right now.  In addition he's now got his own label,
 Roaring Lion, which is releasing a stack of great tunes.  Despite this
 he still seems to be underrated.  My top ten favorite songs of his are,
 not in order:
 Hurry Up & Come (Xterminator)
 Burn Satan (Xterminator)
 Bun Dem
 Good Life (Xterminator)
 Love Rain
 18 & Over (Xterminator)
 Take Time (Digital B)
 On Top of The World (Arrival)
 Rocking Dolly (Arrival)
 She Loves Me Now (Xterminator)
 
 And in combination, my top 5:
  With Buju Banton Too Young (Xterminator)
 With Shabba Ranks Love Me Truly (Digital B)
 With Shaka Shamba One Love (Junjo)
 With Jesse Jender She's Got the Love (Xterminator)
 With Tony Rebel Grow Youre Locks (Penthouse)

Peter
 
[8]. Is there a newsgroup that caters to those of us who enjoy soca, zouk, 
   salsa, or merengue?

Try soc.culture.caribbean and soc.culture.caribbean

----------

[9]. Books on Rastafarianism?

The title says it all. I currently have Leonard E. Barrett's book. Anyone
know of other reputable titles?

From: "richard paul" <richard.paul@canrem.com>

Well Steve... it's been a while since I have been up on the topic... ( moved
back to Toronto Canada after working in Jamaica in 1979-80), but you may
wish to check out Joseph Owens, DREAD: The Rastafarians of Jamaica. 
Published by Sangsters (Jamaica) in 1979.

Rex Nettleford also has some interesting things to say in his book,
Caribbean Cultural Identity: The Case of Jamaica - 
AN Essay in Cultural Dynamics (1978) Institute of Jamaica

I seem to recall a professor at York University in Toronto - 
Carol Yawney  I beleive working on her PhD. dissertation on this very topic. 
If you have access to interlibrary loan, you may be able to get hold of this 
work.

From: bb@generali.harvard.edu (Brent Byer)

Steve Mcgowan wrote:
>
> .... I currently have Leonard E. Barrett's book.
> Anyone know of other reputable titles?

Check for:  "Rasta and Resistance" (From Marcus Garvey to Walter Rodney)
       By:  Horace Campbell
Publisher:  Africa World Press, Inc.
            PO Box 1892
            Trenton, NJ 08607
              Phone: (609) 695-3766
ISBN: 0-86543-035-7  (paper, 234 pg, $12.)  c1987;  3rd printing, 1990

----
From the back cover:

  "Rasta and Resistance" is a study of the Rastafarian Movement in
  all its manifestations, from its evolution in the hills of Jamaica
  to its present manifestations in the streets of Birmingham and
  the Shashamane Settlement of Ethiopia.  It traces the cultural,
  political and spiritual sources of this movement of resistance,
  highlighting the quest for change among an oppressed people.
  This book serves to break the intellectual traditions which
  placed the stamp of millenarianism on Rasta.

----
From close of Chapter 3:

"The symbols of the flag, the lion, the drum, the chalice, the locks,
 and the distinctive language were reflections of a style of resistance.
 The Rasta were neither crazy nor millenarian, for they were part of the
 sufferers who were making their own protest against the sickness of
 the colonial society.
   ....
 The Dreadlocks of the hills were making their imprint on the consciousness
 of the poor and it is to the evolution of the movement which we now turn.
 The Rastafari were creating the musical forms to strengthen the people
 to meet the violence and thuggery of neo-colonialism."

>Dear fellow internet_er, 
>       I am an anthropology student in Fredericton, Canada and I am 
>trying to obtain information about Rastafarianism. I would like to know 
>if this movement is a millinerian movement or if millinerian is just a 
>generalized title of the movement. I would appreciate any comments or 
>information pertaining to this debate.


Check out the books....

AUTHOR: Barrett Leonard Emanuel
TITLE: The Rastafarians
IMPRINT: Kingston, Jamaica Sangster's Book Stores Ltd London Heinemann
          Educational 1977
PHYSICAL  DESCRIPTION: ill
SUBJECT: Ras Tafari movement History
CLASSMARK: Theology AF 430 BAR
   Revised and Updated Edition, 1988, Beacon Press (Boston) BP795,
      ISBN 0-0870-1026-X ; ISBN 0-8070-1027-8 (paper) 


and....


AUTHOR: Cashmore  Ernest
TITLE: Rastaman the Rastafarian movement in England
IMPRINT: London Allen & Unwin 1979
SUBJECT: Ras Tafari movement England * West Indians England
CLASSMARK: Theology AF430 CAS * Adam Smith Lib 2 copies


The first book goes into this subject in reasonable depth, and also gives
valuable pointers to other sources. I've just started reading the second, so no
great comments to give for that particular one...

Maybe you should include this book in the archives...

 
AUTHOR: Cashmore  Ernest
TITLE: Rastaman the Rastafarian movement in England
IMPRINT: London Allen & Unwin 1979
SUBJECT: Ras Tafari movement England * West Indians England
CLASSMARK: Theology AF430 CAS * Adam Smith Lib 2 copies
 

--Steve.

-----
|> 	Several books to look for:
|> 
|>  	ITATIONS OF JAMAICA AND I RASTAFARI (First Itation)
|>         ISBN: 0-9512222-0-1
|>         AUTHOR: Mihlawhdh Faristzaddi
|>  
|>  AND          
|>  	ITATIONS OF JAMAICA AND I RASTAFARI (Second Itation)  
|>         ISBN: 1-962-3333-1-2                 
|>         AUTHOR: Mihlawhdh Faristzaddi
|>          
|>   Both books explore and celebrate Rastafari culture in Jamaica and
|>   elsewhere with poetry, psalms, praises and wonderful photographs,
|>   including many from Ethiopia.  These books are perfect companion
|>   pieces to Norman's insightful posts, which by the way, are respected
|>   as positive contributions to rmr.
|> 
|>   The books are available from:
|> 
|>         JUDAH ANBESA
|>         P.O. BOX 160998
|>         MIAMI, FLORIDA 33116 USA

|> Here are a few more that I found helpful and/or interesting:
|> 
|> Title:Rastafari: The Healing of the Nation
|> Author: Dennis Forsythe
|> Date: 1983
|> Publisher: Ziaka Publications
|> 	   Box 405
|> 	   Constant Springs P.O.
|>            Kingston, Jamaica
|> /// I doubt if the address is still valid but I purchased it in JA last
|> summer so, who knows.///
|> 
|> Title:  Roots of Rastafari
|> Author: Virgia Lee Jacobs
|> Date:   1985
|> Publisher:  Avant Books
|>             Slawson Communications, Inc.
|> 	    3719 Sixth Avenue
|> 	    San Diego, CA 92103-4316
|> IBSN: 0-932238-25-4 (pbk)
|> 
|> Title: Race, Class, and Political Symbols: Rastafari and Reggae in
|> Jamaican Politics.
|> Author: Anita M. Waters
|> Date: 1985; paperback edition 1989
|> Publisher: Transaction Publishers
|> 	   New Brunswick, NJ 08903
|> IBSN: 0-88738-632-6 (pbk) and 0-88738-024-7 (not pbk)
|> 
|> ///This is a scholarly work--almost a textbook--thats appears to be a spin
|> off of a PhD disertation.  Nonetheless, there is a whole heap of valuable
|> information and EXTENSIVE bibliography.
|> 
|> I hope all of this helps.
|> 
|> 
|> 					--Papa Pilgrim
|> 					Reggae Ambassadors Worldwide
|> 					pilgrim@xmission.com

|> There's a pretty new book on Rasta out called "Rastafari: Roots and 
|> Ideology" by Barry Chevannes, a professor of Sociology at UWI. I haven't 
|> read it yet, but it might be in there. ISBN 0-8156-0296-0.
|> 
|> Robert Nelson

"Rastafari: Roots and Ideology"
Author: Barry Chevannes
Copyright (1994)
Syracuse University Press

Sewell, Tony. "Garvey's Children: The Legacy of Marcus Garvey".  1990,
London, Macmillan Publishers Inc. ISBN 0-333-49124-6

_RASTAFARI: ROOTS AND IDEOLOGY_  by Barry Chevannes
Syracuse University Press, 1994.  298pp   

A Rastafari View Of Marcus Mosiah Garvey by I Jabulani Tafari

A valuable new addition to the body of work on Jamaica's most famous
philosopher and activist, Marcus Garvey. This well written, well organized
book assembles historical information on Garvey and the rise and fall of
the UNIA within the parameters of a Rastafari view of African history.
This book should be of interest to schools, colleges and all those who want 
to improve their understanding of contemporary black history, and the role 
played by Marcus Garvey.

This review was taken from the weekly Gleaner Dec. 15 - 21. 1995.
For ordering information call the Greatcompany Inc. at 305 746-7299, or
write to:
Greatcompany Inc.
2270 N.W 60 Terrace
Sunrise, Fl. 33313

"I am a Rastafarian" (Children's Book) 
UK ISBN: 0 86313 260 X
US ISBN : 0-531-10440-0
Lib of Congress Cat card no: 87-50455.
printed in italy

Malika Books
1116 Flatbush Avenue.Suite 340
Brooklyn.N.Y. 11236-6101
E-mail;Malikabook@aol.com
Rastabooks@aol.com

-----
[10.] What are the different reggae styles?

From: Paul Harvey
Subject: Re: Reggae styles

In article <Mar08.171038.66404@yuma.ACNS.ColoState.EDU> 
jn163051@longs.LANCE.ColoState.Edu (Joel Nevison) writes:
>One thing I am a bit fuzzy on is the defining characteristics of
>the various styles of reggae; dancehall, rock steady, etc etc.
>I have a grip on the difference between ska and dub, but those
>are pretty obvbious.  Could some of the experts here give an outline
>of the musical characteristics of the various styles?   Also helpful
>would be a short list of titles that are good examples of or define
>a particular style.   I've been listening to reggae for so long, and
>mainly break it down into two groups; love it, and okay.  Seems I
>ought to maybe think about it a little more now.

I'll start but, it's not easy to do in writing. And I could probably
stand some education myself, anyway:

Ska - 50-60's, pioneered by the Skatalites? There is a thing called the
ska beat, which I don't really know how to describe, maybe you take each
beat and make it triplet with the two outer notes played by a guitar or
keyboard or horn and the center note a drum hit. Anyway, much ska was
just American pop of the 50-60's with a ska beat, but there was orginal
stuff also and there were certainly a lot of variations in the basic ska
beat.

[For more info on Ska, check the alt.music.ska FAQ:

<URL:http://www.cis.ohio-state.edu/hypertext/faq/usenet/music/ska-faq/top.html>

<URL:ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/news.answers/music/ska-faq/part1>
<URL:ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/news.answers/music/ska-faq/part2>
<URL:ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/news.answers/music/ska-faq/part3> ]

Dub - is just dubing something, usually vocals, onto an instrumental
version, often a B side.

Rock Steady was late 60's and was a slowed down version of ska with more
of a rock feel.

Roots was sort of a cross between American Rock and Ska/Rock-Steady, The
Wailers being the equivalent of the Beatles.

Dancehall seems to be the catchall for 80's and 90's Jamaican music and
is a varied as American Modern Rock/Pop music. Shabba Ranks is probably
the big name here, but there are of course many others. There are lots
of terms for sub-types of Dancehall.


From: ld21@cunixf.cc.columbia.edu (Lee Dirks)
Subject: Re: Reggae styles

In article Paul Harvey) writes:

>In article <Mar08.171038.66404@yuma.ACNS.ColoState.EDU> 
>jn163051@longs.LANCE.ColoState.Edu (Joel Nevison) writes:
>>One thing I am a bit fuzzy on is the defining characteristics of
>>the various styles of reggae; dancehall, rock steady, etc etc.

>Ska - 50-60's, pioneered by the Skatalites?

I'm not sure anyone can say exactly who pioneered ska, but the Skatalites 
were definitely right there at the beginning...and are still going strong!

>Dub - is just dubing something, usually vocals, onto an instrumental
>version, often a B side.

As far as I know, Dub should probably come in later down in this list, but
that is a minor point.

>Rock Steady was late 60's and was a slowed down version of ska with more
>of a rock feel.

I think you could safely say early 60s...

>Roots was sort of a cross between American Rock and Ska/Rock-Steady, The
>Wailers being the equivalent of the Beatles.

Good call.  Fitting in after Roots (chronologically) would be Lover's Rock
and the man Gregory Isaacs, along with many other smooth singers of this style.

Before we jump on to dancehall, I think you should mention its origins, those
being Toasting and DJ.  At least I would say these are the precursors, or the
given to dancehall before it was called dancehall. Toasting: U-Roy would 
probably be one of the grand-daddys of this musical form (Big Youth as well?),
working the sound systems and chanting and toasting over dub versions of other
popular tunes of their day.  Then, that was followed by the DJ style 
popularized by The King (in his day) Yellowman; this style glided straight 
into Dancehall as we know it today.  At least, this is my take on the 
situation.  I'm more a roots man myself, so I'm not exactly taking about my 
field here.

>Dancehall seems to be the catchall for 80's and 90's Jamaican music and
>is a varied as American Modern Rock/Pop music. Shabba Ranks is probably
>the big name here, but there are of course many others. There are lots
>of terms for sub-types of Dancehall.


I think this idea of drawing up catageories and writing descriptions and 
listing artists which define the style is a good idea which should be 
continued by all who wish to contribute.  This could develop into a file
worth saving.  Let's keep filling in the blanks!!

From: bbe001@acad.drake.edu
Subject: Re: Reggae styles

In article <1993Mar10.153518.4235@news.columbia.edu>,
ld21@cunixf.cc.columbia.edu (Lee Dirks) writes:
> In article <f0lZvYp@quack.kfu.com> Paul Harvey writes:
> 
>>In article <Mar08.171038.66404@yuma.ACNS.ColoState.EDU> 
>>jn163051@longs.LANCE.ColoState.Edu (Joel Nevison) writes:
>>>One thing I am a bit fuzzy on is the defining characteristics of
>>>the various styles of reggae; dancehall, rock steady, etc etc.
> 
>>Ska - 50-60's, pioneered by the Skatalites?
> 
> I'm not sure anyone can say exactly who pioneered ska, but the Skatalites 
> were definitely right there at the beginning...and are still going strong!
Most people contribute it to Laurel Atikan (I know I spelled that wrong).
>>Dub - is just dubing something, usually vocals, onto an instrumental
>>version, often a B side.
Ah but so much more brah. It started out with people like King Tubby and
Augustus Pablo taking the instrumental tracks from the A-sides, then pumping up
the bass, using delay (like an echo) effects on the instruments and sometimes
maybe a snatch of vocals for the B-sides. If it was just stripping the vocals o
ff, then it's just a "version" record. This is why some songs use the same ridd
ims. But then, they just started having studio musicians provide the music.
Now, with the new techno-dub, for lack of a better word, the drum machines and
synths are doing a lot of it- like Jah Shaka and King (used to be Prince)
Jammy's newer stuff.
> As far as I know, Dub should probably come in later down in this list, but
> that is a minor point.
> 
>>Rock Steady was late 60's and was a slowed down version of ska with more
>>of a rock feel.
> 
> I think you could safely say early 60s...
> 
>>Roots was sort of a cross between American Rock and Ska/Rock-Steady, The
>>Wailers being the equivalent of the Beatles.
> 
> Good call.  Fitting in after Roots (chronologically) would be Lover's Rock
> and the man Gregory Isaacs, along with many other smooth singers of this style.
> 
> Before we jump on to dancehall, I think you should mention its origins, those
> being Toasting and DJ.  At least I would say these are the precursors, or the
> given to dancehall before it was called dancehall. Toasting: U-Roy would 
> probably be one of the grand-daddys of this musical form (Big Youth as well?),
> working the sound systems and chanting and toasting over dub versions of other
> popular tunes of their day.  Then, that was followed by the DJ style 
> popularized by The King (in his day) Yellowman; this style glided straight 
> into Dancehall as we know it today.  At least, this is my take on the 
> situation.  I'm more a roots man myself, so I'm not exactly taking about my 
> field here.
> 
>>Dancehall seems to be the catchall for 80's and 90's Jamaican music and
>>is a varied as American Modern Rock/Pop music. Shabba Ranks is probably
>>the big name here, but there are of course many others. There are lots
>>of terms for sub-types of Dancehall.
Definately true- about the deejay style of the 80's before dancehall now. Like
Eek-A-Mouse, Michigan and Smiley, and King Yello. For those of you interested
in some CONSCIOUS DANCEHALL- check out Charlie Chaplin -"Take Two," etc.
> 
> I think this idea of drawing up catageories and writing descriptions and 
> listing artists which define the style is a good idea which should be 
> continued by all who wish to contribute.  This could develop into a file
> worth saving.  Let's keep filling in the blanks!!
>
I remeber reading about all these wierd names like "sleng-teng" and some others
I don't remember. I think sleng-teng was real techno-synth stuff. And I still
don't know what "inna yard style" is! Yeah yard is your house, but someone tell
me an actual artist in the yardee style, if any.


Respect,
Brad

From: mcbean@vax.oxford.ac.uk
Subject: Re: Reggae styles
Date: 13 Mar 93 07:29:05 GMT

In article <C3pyGB.sq@dcs.glasgow.ac.uk>, stevem@dcs.glasgow.ac.uk (Steve
McGowan) writes:
> ld21@cunixf.cc.columbia.edu (Lee Dirks) writes:
> 
>>In article <f0lZvYp@quack.kfu.com> Paul Harvey writes:
> 
>>>In article <Mar08.171038.66404@yuma.ACNS.ColoState.EDU> 
>>>jn163051@longs.LANCE.ColoState.Edu (Joel Nevison) writes:
>>>>One thing I am a bit fuzzy on is the defining characteristics of
>>>>the various styles of reggae; dancehall, rock steady, etc etc.
> 
> 
> I posted a very similar question a couple of months ago, but got 
> no replies.  I asked if anyone knew how/where the music style 
> known as Mento fitted in with the development of reggae.
> 
> I think Mento may have been more blues oriented than reggae (as we
> know it today), but not so distant that reggae could not evolve
> from it.
> 
> Anyone shed some light?

My understanding of mento was that it is more like calypso (old calypso as
opposed to soca).  It certainly sounds like it, more rhythmical lyrically, in a
storytelling tradition which suggests that it is closer to the original African
music forms.  Some fuzzy memory tells me I'm on the right track but don't quote
me definitely.  It was probably more influenced by the folk music forms of
England & great britain, since it comes from an era where dances like the
quadrille were still prevalent.

It definitely predates ska, and if you listen to ska then you can hear some of
the mento influence coming through, and of course reggae comes out of the ska
tradition.

There is a Jamaican "musicologist" (whatever that is supposed to mean), Dermot
Hussey, who has published several articles on this.  Unfortunately residing in
"Babylon" at present means I have no way of enlightening you:-)

-----------
[11.] Can anyone give me some info on the rasta culture?

     Rastafarians
     
     {rah-stuh-far'-ee-uhnz}
     
          Rastafarians are members of a Jamaican messianic movement dating back
     to the 1930s; in 1974 they were estimated to number 20,000 in Jamaica.
     According to Rastafarian belief the only true God is the late Ethiopian
     emperor HAILE SELASSIE (originally known as Ras Tafari), and Ethiopia is
     the true Zion. Rastafarians claim that white Christian preachers and
     missionaries have perverted the Scriptures to conceal the fact that Adam
     and Jesus were black. Their rituals include the use of marijuana and the
     chanting of revivalist hymns. REGGAE music is the popular music of the
     movement. The Rastafarians, who stress black separatism, have exercised
     some political influence in Jamaica.
     
     Bibliography:
     Barrett, Leonard E., The Rastafarians: Sounds of Cultural Dissonance
     (1977); Sparrow, Bill, and Nicholas, Tracy, Rastafari: A Way of Life
     (1979).


   "In the beginning Jah created heaven and earth". 

   This is what the the Bible says. Jah is the creator, Jah is God. Jah,
Jahova, Jehova, Jahve are just different spelling of the name of God. 
   In the beginning of this century, a man called Marcus Mosiah Garvey
from Jamaica said "Look to Africa, where a black king shall be crowned". A
little after that, Ras Tafari Makonnen was crowned, and became the Emperor
of Ethiopa, His Imperial Majesty Haile Selassie I, King of Kings, Lord of
Lords, conquering Lion of the tribe of Judah, Elect of God. 
   Marcus Garvey started an organization with the aim to help black people
in Babylon (the West World) cross river Jordan (the Atlantic Ocean) and go
back to Zion (which is not Israel, but all of Africa, especially
Ethiopia). People in Jamaica followed Marcus the prophet. This was the
beginning of the Rasta movement. Rasta is of course short for Ras Tafari,
the name of Haile Selassie.
   There is more to say, and I'm sure many others will add to and correct
what I have written.

Jah Love

Bo


[12.] Could anyone out there suggest to me any albums which combine reggae 
      and jazz?

From: dudley@treefort.Corp.Sun.COM (dudley)

Just about every jazz/hip-hop fusion album has a couple of reggae
numbers.  Check out Us3, Arrested Development, or Dream Warriors.

Of course, if you aren't into get-down funky groovin' dance music,
you probably won't like the rest of the stuff on the albums.

dudley
.
From: eznoh@niceup.com (Mike Pawka)

	I would suggest some Dean Fraser, in particular "Taking Chances".

	Along these lines, there is an interesting snippet in the current issue
of The Beat about a sax player named Arturo Tappin and an album called "Strictly
Roots Jazz".  Anybody heard it?

						EZ Noh,		mike


From: ckhan@bbn.com (Chico Khan)

I'd recommend Jamaican pianist Monty Alexander.  Check out his Chesky 
release "Caribbean Circle".

Chico.

From: Kofi Apeagyei-Wiredu <ka27+@andrew.cmu.edu>
John P. Stevenson@coral. 


    try rico rodriguez.

From: ibsenj@govonca.gov.on.ca (Jeff Ibsen)


	I'm a big fan of a hitherto neglected sub-genre of reggae that
	I call "instrumental reggae" This type of reggae generally is very
	horn-heavy and contains lots of solos. It is frequently also heavily
	dubbed, and often the 'straight' and dubbed versions of songs are
	both included on the same album. Some examples of albums which I
	consider to belong to this category are:

	Aggrovators Meet Revolutionaries: Side 1 is straight instrumental
	stuff, lots of horn solos, side 2 has dub versions of the songs
	on side 1

	Fatman Riddim Section Meets Downtown Horns: A great album with
	reggae versions of some well-known jazz standards.

	The Workers Speak To Their Slave Masters With STRIKE!: The best
	album title (and cover) in the known universe. I've never seen
	another copy of this one but it has great tunes, with titles
	like 'Better Working Conditions for Workers' and 'More Opportunity
	for Workers' Children'! A Studio 16/Winston Edwards production,
	all tracks played by the 'Well-Pack Band' Some tunes are dubbed
	versions.

	Count Ossie -:Tales of Mozambique: Not strictly instrumental,
	but lotsa horns and good soloing.

	Also, there is tons of early instrumental ska that contains
	extended soloing - anything by the Skatalites - Tommy McCook,
	Don Drummond, Roland Alphonso et. al. The jazz pianist George
	Shearing considered the late Don Drummond one of the best
	trombonists in the world.
	

	Jeff Ibsen	

Check out Arturo Tappin's "Java" on the SaxRoots Label!!
Any fan of Jazz/Reggae should love this album ...

				Mike
----------

[13.] What is the significance of the "Two Sevens"?

	here is what the liner notes for the album has to say:

"One day Joseph Hill had a vision, while riding a bus, of 1977 as a year of 
judgement -- when two sevens clash -- when past injustices would be avenged. 
Lyrics and melodies came into his head as he rode and thus was born the song
"Two Sevens Clash" which became a massive hit in reggae circles both in Jamaica 
and abroad. The prophecies noted by the lyrics so profoundly captured the 
imagination of the people that on July 7, 1977 - the day when sevens fully 
clashed (seventh day, seventh month, seventy-seventh year) a hush descended on 
Kingston; many people did not go outdoors, shops closed, an air of foreboding 
and expectation filled the city."

From: redingtn@athena.mit.edu (Norman H Redington)
Subject: Re: Two Sevens Clash

"Mi know prophet Marcus Garvey prophecI say:
 St. Jago de la Vega and Kingston is gonna meet.
 And I can see with mine own eyes
 It's only a housing scheme that divides.
 What a liv on bamba yay when the Two Sevens clash!

 Marcus Garvey was inside at
 Spanish Town District Prison,
 And when they were about to take him out
 He prophecied and said:
 As I have passed through this gate,
 No other prisoner shall enter and get through.
 And so it is until now:
 The gate has been locked. So what,
 What a liv on bamba yay when the Two Sevens clash!"

                           --Culture

Excerpts from a very interesting article by Beverly Hamilton
in the June '91 _Jamaica Journal_:

"...One version of the prophecy claimed that Garvey said there
would be severe hardships, doom, and destruction 'when the two
sevens meet'. Another was that Garvey said that if black people
could pass through the seventies, they could pass through anything. 
A third claimed that Garvey said that the black man would rise up
when the two sevens met. This prophecy received official sanction
when Mr. Edward Seaga, the then-Leader of the Opposition and a
noted sociologist, referred to it in his New Year's message. The
idea gained further currency through the music of some reggae artists,
especially Culture...

"In 1977 I interviewed two Garvey elders about the prophecy. Z. Monroe
Scarlett said quite clearly he had never heard Garvey make any specific
statement about two sevens. What he remembered him saying was that if
black people could pass through the seventies they could overcome all
major difficulties. The other, Van Riel, a BITU veteran, explained: 
'Him (Garvey) say 1977 will be a hard year. Yu see already. The Prime
Minister say yu belt tight.' ... Two months later, Jamaica went to the
International Monetary Fund for assistance.

"...One must remember that this period followed the 1976 elections, the
most violent in Jamaica up to that time. As 1977 progressed, different 
versions were added to the prophecy...finally it was a special day, July
7, 1977, when the 'four sevens' met. One even heard that blood was going
to flow and that Manley's head would roll. A report in the _Daily Gleaner_
of July 7, 1977 [says]:'...The Combined Security Forces have been put on
full alert so as to be prepared [for] possible trouble when the four 7s
meet today (the 7th of the 7th month of '77), Minister of National Security
Munn told the _Gleaner_ yesterday...'

"There was a further official response. That day was used to launch a
constitutional reform programme...with the Prime Minister scheduled to
speak at 7 p.m. -- when the 'five sevens' met...

"...Other Garvey prophecies are about Jamaica...Garvey is credited with
predicting the twinning of Spanish Town, the capital of St. Catherine, 
with Kingston, the present capital of Jamaica. In the late sixties and
early seventies, a massive housing development scheme known as Portmore
was carried out in southern St. Catherine. A causeway was built across
Kingston Harbour to link this development with Kingston, thus fulfilling
Garvey's prophecy...

"...Another prophecy relating to Garvey's stay in Spanish Town prison
is that he is supposed to have put a seal on the prison door through
which he left. Many claim that this door has been fastened to this day.
Prisoners in the Spanish Town Penitentiary still tell of being shown
the gate on which Garvey was supposed to have put this curse..."

[from "The Legendary Marcus Garvey", by Beverly Hamilton, _Jamaica Journal_
24(1)54, June 1991.]

_________________________________________________________________________

COMMENT: I used to think that the Two Sevens was a classic example of
failed prophecy. However several explanations have been offered.

1) Who knows what happened that day which didn't get noticed by the
world? Maybe someone was born, for instance.

2) The mid Seventies were the high water mark of the Soviet Empire,
which engulfed Ethiopia a little earlier and was on the move in the
Caribbean along with its CIA mirror-image. In late 1976, an Orthodox
monk named Seraphim Rose (who was almost certainly unaware of the Garvey
prophecy) had a vision on the Day of the Seven Sleepers in which he
saw a vast multitude singing the Easter Psalm ("Let God arise, let his
enemies be scattered, as smoke vanishes so let them vanish, as wax which
melts before the fire!"). It was explained in the vision that for one
particular enemy - the Soviet Empire - this would "now" be fulfilled:
it would vanish. In 1977, people doubted this prophecy, to say the least!

3) As Bop pointed out in his post, two sevens clash in Pharaoh's dream in
Genesis. The clash reflects conflict and opportunity, as do the various
versions of Garvey's prophecy. The clashing sevens saved Israel, because
Joseph by correctly interpreting the dream went from being a slave (and on 
top of that, in jail and presumed dead by his relatives!) to Prime Minister
of Egypt, able to save his people. But the Israelite migration into Egypt
was a mixed blessing; they would end up as slaves and it would take Moses
to get them back to Zion. All this is connected to the Garvey prophecy,
which seen in this light is very much deeper than it appears.   

From atohakeem@aol.com Tue Jul 21 08:46 PDT 1998

 The way Iman interpret the lyrics, has nothing to do with the Gregorian
Calendar  year 1977.   There is nothing particularly magical or significant
about the months or years as used in Europe, to my way of thinking.  For
example, the date July 7, 1977 in Ethiopia, was Senie 30, 1970 !!!  (Senie
being the 10th month)

Rather, when I hear the song about Two Sevens Clash, I interpret it as total
invironmantal downstruction of the Elemants.  The two "sevens" are: the Seven
Spirits of the Heavenly Faada, and the Seven Spirits of the Earth  (see Rev.
1:20 & 4:5) who, while not opposed to one another, are bein downstroyed by the
hand of humankind in many ways, as man pollutes the Air, Earth, Water, etc. &
misuses it.   The coming "clash" (& it has already begun) will result in more
trees dying, until they "are so few even a child could count them" (Isaiah). 
If the end hasn't come by then, it will come when there are not enough forests
left to produce the oxygen necessary to sustain animal life.  Then, prophecy
tells us there will be 1) Resurrection of the dead 2) Judgemant (especially  on
those responsible for the trees!) 3) Eternal Kingdom of JAH.   **Im not makin
this up, this was all foretold thousands of years ago. 

Peace & Raspect,

Ras William I

Mike Pawka       eznoh@niceup.com   RAW #94
Jammin Reggae Archives Cybrarian  niceup.com
Jammin Reggae Virtual Radio Cyber-DJ  reggaeradio.org
Nice Up Enterprises   FAX/PH: 619-226-6108

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