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misc.fitness FAQ (part 3)

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Archive-name: misc-fitness/part3

See reader questions & answers on this topic! - Help others by sharing your knowledge
                     MISC.FITNESS FAQ and a little more..
                             Revision: 1.0.5

     
                                Created By
                     Jeff Gleixner (glex@cray.com)
                     with various contributions from people 
                              on misc.fitness.
     
                     A big thanks to Katie Henry who
                     created the home equipment section, and
                     to Kyle Wilson for HTMLing this.
                     
     

This is the FAQ for misc.fitness.  I'd like to thank everyone on 
misc.fitness for sharing their advice and experiences.  I tried to keep 
names and addresses of articles that I included, but a few were lost.  
I'm sure this will grow over time.  If you notice anything that's incorrect 
or if you'd like to add your point of view, please send some nice e-mail 
to glex@cray.com.  I'll correct, or add it, to this document.

This is available via anonymous ftp from ftp.cray.com in the /pub/misc.fitness
directory.  I have also placed a supplemental document in there which is
a collection of various posts from people on misc.fitness about protein,
carbohydrates, muscle, supplements, etc. called "supplemental.doc" 
(see question #19).  The URL for the HTML version is
ftp://ftp.cray.com/pub/misc.fitness/. 

This document actually consists of 5 parts.

Part 1: The FAQ.
Part 2: Exercise Equipment information.
Part 3: Listing of 2-4 exercises per body part and the areas they work.
part 4: Listing of recommended books and magazines.
Part 5: Glossary of Basic Definitions of fitness terms.

Because of the size they will be posted as

Part 1: FAQ 
Part 2: FAQ continued & Exercise Equipment Information 
Part 3: Exercises, Books & Magazines, Glossary


This is part 3.

--------------- Part 3: Weight Training Exercises. -----------------



EXERCISES FOR EACH BODY PART

  First, locations of basic muscle groups from the feet up to the hands:

	Calves: Back of leg, between the knee and ankle.  The two main
		muscles in this area are the Soleus, lower area, and the
		Gastrocnemius, the "meat" of the calves.

	Quadriceps (Quads): Front leg between the waist and knee. (Thigh)

	Hamstrings (Hams): Back leg between the butt and the knee. 

	Gluteus Maximus: Butt.

	Abdominals: Front of body between chest and groin.  Also consist
		of the Obliques, which are on the middle and outer walls 
		of the abdomen.

	Latissimus Dorsi (Lats): Between the Spine and the sides of the
		ribs starting near the from the armpit and going down to 
		the last rib.  Gives people the "V-Shape", along with a
		small waist.
	
	Trapezius (Traps), Between the back of the neck and the shoulders 
		tapering to the middle back area.

	Pectorals (Pecs): Chest.

	Deltoids (Shoulders): Made up of 3 muscles. 
		Front:Anterior Deltoid 
		Middle: Medial Deltoid
		Back: Posterior Deltoid

	Triceps (Tris): Back of the upper arm, making up about 2/3 of the 
		upper arm.

	Biceps (Bis): Front of the upper arm, accounting for the other 1/3
		of the upper arm.

	Forearms: Between the elbow and wrist.

   -----------
   QUADRICEPS:  Upper front leg. (Thigh)
   -----------

      General Advice: 
         - Keep back as as vertical as possible.
         - Go slow, no bouncing.
         - Inhale at the top of the motion.  Exhale from the bottom of
            the motion to the top.
         - DON'T lock knees or bounce at the top or bottom.

      SQUATS:

         Set-up: Standing upright.  Stance is a comfortable shoulder width 
            apart, toes pointed slightly outward.  

         Movement: Very similar to sitting down on a chair.  Focus your
            vision on something in the room slightly higher than the level 
            of your eyes.  Start by moving the butt back and downward.  
            Don't start by bending the knees.  Continue downward, by
            bending the knees, DON'T allow your knees to move forward,
            this will cause undo stress on the knees.  When the thighs 
            reach parallel begin exhaling and return to the starting
            position.  There should be no lateral movement, especially in
            the knee or hip area.

         Adding Resistance: Place a barbell across traps or hold dumbbells
            throughout exercise.

         Additional notes: Use a spotter. Start out light.  Although this
            is exactly like sitting down, NEVER do squats above a chair or
            bench.  Going to parallel is a must! Place bar on traps NOT on 
            back of neck.

         Muscles Worked: Quadriceps (Thighs),  Hamstrings (Back of leg),
		Gluteus Maximus (butt)


      LEG EXTENSIONS:

         Set-up: Sitting on the edge of a bench or leg extension machine,
            with knee at ~90-degree angle. 

         Movement: Extend and straighten lower leg.

         Adding Resistance: There are many Leg Extension machines
            available.  Sit on the machine with the padded end against 
            the front area of the ankle.

                  
         Variations: Working the inner Quad can be done by point the
            toes toward each other at ~20-degree angle.  The outer Quad
            can be worked by pointing the toes out at ~20-degree angle.

         Muscles Worked: Quadriceps



      LUNGES:

         Set-up: Standing upright with feet shoulder width apart.

         Movement:  Take a 2-3' step forward.  Once the step is taken the
            upper body and the front knee should not move forward during
            the lowering and raising of the body.  Keeping the upper body 
            vertical, lower body straight down until back knee comes close 
            to the ground. Raise body straight up and return to starting
            position.

         Adding Resistance: Barbell may be placed across traps or dumbbells 
            held in hands or barbell placed between legs (straddled) (Obviously
            the last variation must be used in this case).

         Variations:
            -Work 1 leg at a time or switch for every rep.
            -Step onto a 6"-1' platform for an added stretch.
            -Step backwards or sideways.
            -Instead of returning to the starting position just go up/down
                for the required reps, then return to the starting position
                and do the same for the other leg.
                  
         Muscles Worked: Quadriceps, Hamstrings, the Glutes


      LEG PRESS:

         Set-up: Performed on a machine where the legs usually press a
            platform.  Once in the machine place feet shoulder width
            apart with toes pointed slightly out.

         Movement:  Lower platform until knee is at a 90-degree angle.
            Press platform up until legs are almost straight.  DON'T
            lock knees or bounce at the top or bottom.

         Adding Resistance: The machine should have a place to add 
            weight.  Most large platforms are ~150 pounds.

         Variations:  The inner and outer Quads can be worked by
            changing the stance.  Wide stance will work the outer
            Quad, narrow stance will work the inner area.
                  
         Muscles Worked: Quadriceps, Hamstrings, the Glutes

   -----
   BACK:
   -----

      Basic Form: Don't swing the weight by using the lower back.  
         Concentrate on squeezing the shoulder blades together.  Use
         a thumbless grip.

      PULL-UP

         Set-up: Hang from a pull-up bar with a wider than shoulder, palms
            facing away from the body, using a thumbless grip.

         Movement: Pull the body up, concentrating on the back doing the
            work.  Lean back slightly and touch mid chest to bar, or to 
            height of hands.  Slowly lower down to the starting (hanging) 
            position.

         Adding Resistance: Weight belt or a weight held by the feet.

         Variations:
            grip: The wider the grip the more work the Lats will do.  A 
                  narrow grip makes the biceps, forearms, and middle back 
                  do more work.

                  Pronated: Moves the stress to the Back. 
                  Supinated: Moves the stress to the Biceps. 

            Pull-downs: Same movement except the bar is being pulled down
                  instead of the body being pulled up.

                  - A close, palms up, grip hits the middle of the back. 
                  
         Muscles Worked: Back "V-shape" (Latissimus Dorsi) and biceps


      BENT-OVER ROWS

         Set-up: Bend at the hips, keeping the trunk straight and firm with no 
            bending of the spine at the waist.  Knees slightly bent, feet
            shoulder width apart.  Weight being held using a pronated, 
            thumbless grip (palms facing the legs).

         Movement: Pull the weight to the chest, keeping the elbows out and 
            away from the body.  Slowly lower weight, keeping the back 
            straight and horizontal throughout the movement.  Squeeze 
            shoulder blades together at the top of the lift.

            Keeping elbows in changes the stress to the Lats.

         Variations:
            T-bar rows: A device with one end attached to the floor as a 
                pivot.

            One-arm dumbbell rows: Use one dumbbell with the same grip.  
                Opposite knee resting on bench, along with the opposite 
                hand.  Pull dumbbell up without rotating upper body.

            Seated cable rows: Done using a low pulley.  Sit on floor with 
                feet secure, knees slightly bent.  Pull handle to chest, 
                keep upright and avoid bending forward or backward to reduce 
                stress on lower back.

         Muscles Worked: Back/sides of neck out to shoulders and tappering 
                down to mid back(Trapezius), Rear shoulder (Posterior deltoid)



      DEADLIFTS

         CAUTION: These could cause lower back pain.  Please start out 
            with very light weight and do them slow.  If there is any
            pain, stop!

         Set-up: Knees bent at about 90-degrees, shoulder width pronated
            grip. 

         Movement: Slowly stand up, keeping back straight, head up and
            the bar close to/touching the body.  Return back to starting
            position (watch the knees). 

         Adding Resistance: Dumbbells held in each hand or a barbell held
            with an overhand grip.  It is much safer to start with the
            barbell already off the floor and at waist height.  Don't 
            pick up or set down the weight with your legs straight.

         Variations: 
            Sumo: feet very wide, grip very narrow.        
            Stiff legged: see hamstrings.

         Muscles Worked: Back (Lats), Deltoids, Quads


      SHRUGS

         Set-up: Hands at waist level, shoulder width stance.

         Movement:  Raise shoulders straight up, try to touch ears.  The
            "I don't know" movement.  Keep the head up and bring the shoulders
            to the ears, don't bring the head down to the shoulders.
            Don't roll the shoulders.

         Adding Resistance: 
            Dumbbells:  Let them slide along the sides of the waist. 
 
            Barbell: Pronated grip, keep bar against body.

         Muscles Worked: Trapezius "Traps"

   ------
   CHEST: 
   ------

      BENCH

         Set-up: Lying on a bench, feet firmly on floor, butt, back,
            shoulders, and head on bench.  Roll shoulders back and down so
            the shoulder blades are firmly pressed against the bench and
            the chest is sticking up (high).  Arms straight and above 
            shoulders, palms facing the feet.  

         Movement: Bend arms so the elbows move away from the rib cage and 
            the hands move down in a slight arc, until they are about even 
            with the sternum (nipple) and your elbow is at about a 90-degree 
            angle.  Push up and back to the starting position, again in 
            a slight arc.  To keep the deltoids from doing too much work, 
            don't allow the rear deltoids to come off the bench, especially 
            the last few inches when pushing the weight up.  They should 
            remain in the same position throughout the movement.

         Adding Resistance: Dumbbells give a wider range of motion.
            Barbells and a good bench are usually used.

         Variations:
            Grip - The wider the grip the more the outer area of the
                chest is worked. (Nearer the deltoids).  A narrow
                grip works the middle of the chest and triceps.  A 2-6" 
                wider than shoulder grip is common and will work most of 
                the chest.

            Flat bench - Works the middle and to some degree the upper
                and lower part of the chest.

            Incline bench - Works the upper area of the chest and the front
                deltoids are worked more than the flat bench.  A 30-degree
                bench is all that's needed, more than that and the deltoids
                begin to take the brunt of the load.

            Decline bench - Works the lower area of the chest and reduces
                the load on the front deltoid.
                  
         Muscles Worked: Chest, Triceps, Shoulders (Posterior Deltoids)


      DIPS

         Set-up: Hands supporting full body weight on a Dip bar, hands
            facing each other. Knees bent so they're ahead of the body, 
            chin on, or near, chest.  Body should form a crescent shape 
            and it should be keep during the exercise.
            

         Movement: Lower body until chin is near the height of the bar.
            Let elbows flare out, keeping them parallel to each other 
            will turn this into a tricep exercise.  Concentrate on the 
            chest pulling the elbows/deltoids together and press the
            body upward back to the starting position.
            
            
         Adding Resistance: Weight belt or a dumbbell/weight held by 
            crossing the feet or placed on the calves by another person.

         Variations:
            - Can be done by using 2 benches, bar stools, parallel bars, etc. 

            - If the Dip bar makes a V-shape use the wider end.

            - Reverse the grip so the palms are facing away from each
                other.

         Muscles Worked: Chest (outer), Triceps


      FLYES

         Set-up: Lying on a bench, feet firmly on floor, butt, back,
            shoulders, and head on bench.  Arms slightly bent and slightly
            wider than shoulders, palms facing each other.

         Movement: Keeping a slight bend in the arms slowly move them in
            an arc away from the body.  Lower them until a comfortable
            stretch is felt in the chest/deltoid area. Raise them along
            the same arc back to the starting position.  To keep stress
            on the chest keep the hands just wider than the shoulders at
            the top (start) of the movement.
            
         Adding Resistance: Dumbbells are usually used, can also use
            a low pully machine, or a Pec Deck machine.

         Variations:
            Pec Deck - Place elbows and hands on pad.  Keep head up and
               chest up (out) throughout exercise.  Push with the elbows 
               not the hands.

            Incline Flyes - Works the upper outside of chest.

            Decline Flyes - Works the lower outside of chest.
                  
         Muscles Worked: Chest, Shoulders (Posterior Deltoids) 

   ----------
   SHOULDERS:
   ----------

      MILITARY PRESS

         Set-up: Seated with hands at shoulder height, palms forward, arms
            in the same plane as the upper body.

         Movement: Press up until arms are straight above the head.  Lower
            back to starting position.

         Adding Resistance: Dumbbells or a barbell may be used.

         Variations:

            Can be done standing. 

            Behind the neck press: Same movement except the bar travels
                 behind the head.  This should be done by the shoulders
                 moving the bar back, not the head moving forward or the
                 chin down.

            Arnold Press: Start with palms facing each other, instead of
                 facing forward, and using dumbbells.  Rotate hand forward
                 while pressing, rotate the hands toward each other while
                 lowering the weight.
                  
         Muscles Worked: Front & Rear Deltoids (Anterior and Posterior
                 Deltoid), Back of upper arms (Triceps)


      LATERAL RAISES

         Set-up: Standing with a shoulder wide stance knees slightly bent.
            Arms, slightly bent, hanging in front of body, palms facing 
            each other.

         Movement: Lift arms out and away from body, using the shoulders, 
            until the hands are at shoulder height.  In the top position 
            the arms and body would resemble the letter "T".  Lower arms, 
            using the shoulders, back to the starting position. 

         Adding Resistance: Usually done with dumbbells or by using a 
            Lateral Raises machine.

         Variations:

            At the top of the movement turn the hand in a "Tea pouring" 
                motion.

            Lateral Raise machine: Seated with arms resting on the pads.
                Push out and up on the pads, with the forearms/elbows, to
                shoulder height. 

            Palms up Lateral raises: The same as normal raises except the 
                palms are facing away from each other at the beginning 
                and face the ceiling at the top and the starting position
                has the arms out away from the sides of the body.

            Front Raises: The arms are lifted and lowered in front of the 
                body. 

         Muscles Worked: Middle of shoulder (Medial Deltoid), Posterior 
                Deltoid, forearms.

 
      BENT-OVER RAISES

         Set-up: Seated, or standing, bent over so the upper body is
            parallel with the ground.  Shoulder wide stance with the  
            knees slightly bent.  Arms, slightly bent, hanging in front 
            of body, palms facing each other.  Head up. 

         Movement: Lift arms out and away from body, using the shoulders, 
            until the hands/elbows are at shoulder height (trying to fly).
            Keep the rest of the body motionless.  Hands face the floor at
            the top of the movement.  Lower arms, using the shoulders, back 
            to the starting position. 

         Adding Resistance: Usually done with dumbbells or by using
            a low pulley.

         Variations:

            Seated: Sit on the end of a bench, extend legs so there's 
                enough room for the dumbbells.  Bend forward until the
                chest is almost on the thighs, hands hanging down under
                the knees.  Movement is the same.

         Muscles Worked: Back of shoulder (Posterior Deltoid)

    ---------------------------------------
    ROTATOR CUFF & SHOULDER REHABILITATION: also check FAQ #29 
    ---------------------------------------
	Short explanation of various exercises to strengthen the shoulder and 
	Rotator Cuff:

	SHOULDER ABDUCTION: Stand with elbow straight and hand rotated 
 	  outward as far as possible, raise involved arm to the side of 
	  body as high as possible, Hold for 2 seconds, then lower.

	SUPRASPINATURS-"Empty Can": Stand with elbow straight and hand 
	  rotated inward as far as possible, raise arm to eye level at 
	  30-degree angle to body. Hold for 2 seconds, then lower.

	PRONE HORIZONTAL ABDUCTION: Lie on table on stomach with involved 
	  arm hanging straight to the floor.  With had rotated outward as 
	  far as possible, raise arm out to the side, parallel to the floor. 
	  Hold for 2 seconds, then lower.

	SHOULDER EXTENSION:  Lie on table on stomach with involved arm 
	  hanging straight to the floor.  With hand rotated outward as far 
	  as possible, raise arm straight back into extension as far as 
	  possible.  Hold for 2 seconds, then lower.

	90/90 EXTERNAL ROTATION:  Lie on table on stomach with shoulder 
	  abducted at 90-degrees and arm supported on table with elbow bent 
	  at 90-degrees.  Keeping shoulder and elbow fixed, raise arm into 
	  external rotation.  Hold for 2 seconds, then lower.
  
	SIDE-LYING EXTERNAL Rotation:  Lie on uninvolved side, with involved 
	  arm at side of body and elbow bent at 90-degree angle.  Keeping 
	  elbow of involved arm fixed to side, raise arm into external 
	  rotation.  Hold for 2 seconds, then lower.  -- The therapist I saw 
	  suggest folding and rolling up a towel into a short cylindrical shape 
	  about 4"-6" in diameter 8"-12" long and placing it between your elbow 
	  and your ribs of the involved side.

	SITTING DIP: Sit on edge of chair.  Gripping sides of chair with 
	  hands, straighten arms, lifting buttocks off chair seat.  Hold 
	  isometric contraction for 5 seconds then lower.  -- Can be done 
	  using a dip bar.  Keep body straight and only go down 3"-4".  Try 
	  to use the shoulders to do the whole movement.
  

     Additional Rotator Cuff exercises:  

		Using rubber tubing or Thera-Bands attach one end to a pole, 
		door knob, etc. about waist to chest high.  A low pulley 
		machine can also be used, sit or kneel if using a pulley.

	Same position as Side-Lying External Rotation except that you're
	standing with the secured end, or pulley, to the uninvolved side of 
	the body.  Involved arm is at 90-degrees in front of body (broken arm 
	position), the handle or tubing held securely in your hand.  Keeping 
	the elbow against ribs, or towel as suggested above, pull and rotate 
	outward about 135-degrees from chest.  Upper body is motionless all 
	that's moving is your forearm.   Hold for 2 seconds, then return to
	starting position.

	Same as above only the attached end is to the involved side of the
	body and it's a pulling and rotating toward the chest.

     To help the throwing muscles:

	Again using rubber tubing or Thera-Bands attached about chest
	high to something.  

	Facing away from the attached end with arm in a throwing position 
	(90-degree angle between upper arm and ribs and 90-degree angle
	 at elbow, forearm at a slight angle backwards.)  Hand facing 
	forward and holding the rubber tubing.  Rotate forearm forward 
	about 30-degrees, hold for 2 seconds, then return to starting
	position.  The hand only goes through a 6"-12" arc.  The only
	thing moving should be your forearms.  
	
	Same as above except you face the attached end and you pull
	back to the starting position of the above exercise.

   -----------
   HAMSTRINGS: Back of upper leg.
   -----------

      LEG CURLS

         Set-up: Laying on stomach legs straight or standing.

         Movement: Lift heel up as close as possible to the butt, keep the 
            knee, and the rest of the body, still.  Contract Hamstring at
            the top of the movement.  Lower foot back to starting position.

         Adding Resistance: Ankle weights or use a Leg Curl machine.

         Variations:
            - Lying Leg Curl machine: Place Achillies tendon/heel under
                the pad the knee should be comfortably over the edge of
                the bench.  Raise weight, keeping thighs, hips, stomach, 
                and chest on the bench throughout the movement.

            - Standing Leg Curl machine: Similar to above except it is
                done one leg at a time and the upper body should be
                straight.

            - Seated Leg Curl machine: Similar to above except the
                heel/tendon is placed on the pad and the foot is pushed
                down in an arc under the knees.

            One Leg or both legs at the same time.
                  
         Muscles Worked: Hamstrings, Glutes


      STIFF LEGGED DEAD LIFTS

         CAUTION: These could cause lower back pain.  Please start out 
            with very light weight and do them slow.  If there is any
            pain, stop!

         Set-up: Standing with a narrow stance, legs and upper body 
            straight.

         Movement: Slowly bend over, keeping the legs straight and the
            upper body straight. Go until a comfortable stretch is 
            felt and slowly stand back up.  Keep the head up, look ahead
            not at the floor.

         Adding Resistance: Dumbbells held in each hand or a barbell held
            with an overhand grip.  It is much safer to start with the
            barbell already off the floor and at waist height.  Try not
            to pick up or set down the weight with your legs straight.

         Variations:  For a greater stretch SLDLs can be done on a pedestal
            (bench, sturdy block, etc..).
                  
         Muscles Worked: Hamstrings, Glutes

   -------
   CALVES: Back of leg between knee and ankle.
   -------

      Basic Form:  Many different beliefs about how to hit the inner and 
          outer parts of the Calves.  Try one of the following:

               -Inner: Try doing one of these to find what works.
                  Point toes out at ~30-45-degree angle throughout
                     movement. (May stress knees & ankles).
                  Use a narrow stance, feet almost touching.
                  Roll up/down on the middle to outside of foot.

               -Outer:
                  Point toes in at ~30-45-degree angle throughout
                     movement. (May stress knees & ankles).
                  Use a comfortable stance just wider than your shoulders.
                  Roll up/down on the middle to inside of foot.

            Also, bending knees slightly at the top of the motion will
               increase the stretch on the calves.

            Go as high and a low as possible.

            Don't bounce, hold the contraction and stretch for at least
              a second.
                  

      STANDING CALF RAISES

         Set-up: Standing erect, knees locked or close to locked.  Place 
            feet, toes to ball of foot supported, arch to heel sticking 
            out over the edge of a 4-6" block (stair/block of wood/etc.)

         Movement: Lower heel as far as possible, use a higher block if
            the heel's range of motion is impeded.  Raise heel and
            stand as tall as possible. Repeat.  Really focus on your 
            calves doing all the work and hold the contraction for a few seconds.  
            Don't bounce. Keep leg straight and the knee and hip locked.

         Adding Resistance : Dumbbells may be held in hand(s), a barbell 
            supported on traps (similar to the beginning of a squat),  or 
            one leg may be worked at a time.  There are also many 
            squat/calf machines that support the weight so balance isn't 
            a problem.

         Muscles Worked: Calves (upper/mass part - Gastrocnemius & Peroneous group)


      SEATED CALF RAISES

         Set-up: Seated with weight supported on lap, near knees, which
            are bent ~90-degrees.  The feet, toes to ball of foot 
            supported, arch to heel sticking out over the edge of a 4-6" 
            block (stair/block of wood/etc.)  Usually the block is a
            piece of metal at ~60-degree angle and is part of the machine.

         Movement:Lower heel as far as possible, use a higher block if
            the heel's range of motion is impeded.  Raise heel and
            as high as possible. Hold for 1 second. Repeat.  Really 
            focus on your calves doing all the work.  Try not to lean
            back or bounce the weight. 

         Adding Resistance : This is usually done on a machine with pads
            for your lap and an adjustable weight stack or place to
            add weights.  Can also be done by placing dumbbbells/barbell/or
            virtually any weight on lap. 

         Muscles Worked: Calves (lower area  - Soleus)



      LEG PRESS CALF RAISES

         Set-up:  Using the Leg press machine, place toes to ball of foot
            on edge of platform, so the heels are in mid air.


         Movement: Push platform by extending foot (toes higher than
            heels, calves contracted).  Lower platform by contracting foot 
            (toes lower than heels, calves stretched).  Don't bounce.
            Knees locked.

         Adding Resistance : This is usually done on a machine with a
            place to add more weight.

         Muscles Worked: Calves (Tibialis, Gastrocnemius, and Peroneous group)


      DONKEY CALF RAISES

         Set-up: Usually done with a partner.  Feet are placed on a
            secure block, as described above.  The block is placed 
            ~2' from a stable horizontal structure that is ~3' tall 
            (Usually one end of a Roman Chair or a tall bench.)
            With feet placed on block, knees straight,  bend at the 
            waist and use the structure for balance.  The partner, using 
            a chair or bench to make it easier, sits on your back/butt 
            facing your back (if they were riding a horse they'd be just 
            in front of the tail), their weight should be directly above 
            the block and NOT on your lower back.

         Movement: Lower heel as far as possible, use a higher block if
            the heel's range of motion is impeded.  Raise heel as far
            as possible.  Repeat.  Really focus on your calves doing 
            all the work.  4 seconds down 2 seconds up, pause for ~1 
            second on each end of movement.  Partner should remain
            motionless throughout exercise.

         Adding Resistance:  Use a heavier partner.  Have partner hold
            additional weight.

         Muscles Worked: Gastrocnemius

   -------
   TRICEP: Back of upper arm.
   -------

      Basic Form: Work triceps with slow movements to reduce the stress on
              the elbows.  Try to keep your biceps slightly flexed.

      CLOSE GRIP BENCH

         Set-up: Assume a stable position on a flat bench.  Feet flat on
            the floor, butt, back, rear deltoids and head on bench.  Grasp
            barbell with a narrow (6 inch) grip.

         Movement: Lower barbell to sternum, keeping elbows near rib cage. 
            Press bar upward using the triceps.  Make it feel as if the
            weight is pressed slightly toward the feet.

         Variations:  Can be done using dumbbells and/or on a decline bench.
            Using a Reverse grip (palms facing biceps instead of triceps.   
            Underhand), with a shoulder width grip. will also hit the Triceps.

         Muscles Worked: Triceps (Medial head), Shoulders (front delts), 
            Pectorals (inner chest)


      CABLE PUSHDOWNS 

         Set-up: Take a comfortable position in front of a high pully.
            Grab bar with a narrow, thumbless grip.  Pull weight until 
            elbows are tight against rib cage and hands are around the 
            upper chest, knees slightly bent. 

         Movement:  Keeping your elbows and upper body motionless press the
            bar in a slight arc until the elbows are comfortable locked and
            triceps are contracted.  Slowly resist the weight as it is
            returned to the starting position.  The elbows are the pivot point,
            Don't cheat by swinging the weight or upperbody.

         Variations:  The best "bar" is a rope handle, avoid using a long
            straight bar, use a V-shaped bar if rope isn't available.  Can 
            also be done with elbows spread out to the sides and the upper 
            body bent forward so the weight is being pushed down in a straight
            line.  If using rope handle flare hands out at the bottom position.
                  
         Muscles Worked: Tricep (Outer head)



      OVERHEAD DUMBBELL EXTENSIONS

         Set-up: Stand with feet about a shoulder width apart, and a
            dumbbell resting on your shoulder with your elbow pointing
            straight up and your biceps flexed.  The dumbbell is held
            with a regular "curl" grip.  The starting position looks like 
            the weight is being used to scratch the upper back.

         Movement: Without moving the upper arm, lift the weight, rotating
            the hand so the palm faces forward, until the dumbbell is
            above the elbow.

         Variations: Two handed dumbbell extension, where the weight of the
            dumbbell is being supported by the palms of both hands, thumbs
            wrapped around the bar.  Using a barbell or EZ-curl bar or a low 
            cable pully with a rope handle.  One-arm extensions give a wider 
            range of motion.
                  
         Muscles Worked: Triceps (inner & medial heads)


   -------
   BICEPS: Upper arm between inner elbow and front shoulder.
   -------

      Basic Form: Keep wrists straight.  Don't rock backward.  Flex biceps 
             at the top.  Keep elbows down and against the ribs.

      BARBELL CURLS

         Set-up: Standing, using a shoulder width, palms up grip on barbell.
             Barbell resting on the upper thighs, arms straight.

         Movement:  Lift the bar in a slow, steady arc toward the shoulders.
             Raise until forearms are almost verticalthen lower the bar in 
             a slow arc back to the starting position.  Keep elbows and upper 
             body motionless.  Keep elbows level with, or in front of the
             body.

         Variations: EZ-curl bar will place less stress on forearms.
             Dumbbells - Start with arms at side and rotate hands until
                the hands face the outside bicep area at the top of the
                movement.
 
             Cable Curls - Same movement.  Use machine with a low pulley
                and a straight cable handle.

             To avoid cheating try them with the upper back against a wall with 
                heels about 1 foot away from it.
                  
         Muscles Worked: Biceps, brachialis, forearms.



      PREACHER CURLS:

         Set-up: Seated on the preacher bench with a slightly wider
            than shoulder underhand grip on barbell.  Lean into the 
            preacher stand, firmly pressing the upper-pectoral muscles 
            against it.

         Movement: Lift bar slowly upward in an arc until it almost touches
            biceps.  Keep upper arms on the pad and don't let the elbows
            spread apart.

         Variations:  Use EZ-curl bar, dumbbells, or a low pulley and
            a straight handle machine.
                  
         Muscles Worked: Biceps (lower), forearms



      HAMMER CURLS:

         Set-up: Dumbbells held at sides with palms facing the body.

         Movement:  Raise the dumbbell as far as possible without
            allowing the elbows to move.  Keep the palms facing
            the body throughout the movement.

         Variations: One arm at a time or try them seated.
                  
         Muscles Worked: Biceps, forearms.

   ---------
   FOREARMS:  Between elbow and wrist.
   ---------

      SEATED WRIST CURLS

         Set-up: Seated on the middle of a flat bench in a straddle
            position.  Place forearms on bench, palms up so the wrists
            are just over the edge of the bench.  Legs parallel to bench
            are be used to keep forearms from spreading apart.

         Movement: Lower hands, keeping forearms on the bench, until the
            palms face away from the body.  Lift the hands, by bending at
            the wrist, until palm is facing the body.

         Adding Resistance: Dumbbells or a barbell may be used.  Allowing
            the bar to roll partially down the hand, while lowering the
            hand, will help strengthen the hand/gripping muscles.

         Variations: Standing with barbell behind back back, hands on
            the butt or upper hamstrings and curl the weight by only
            using the wrists.

         Muscles Worked: Forearms and muscles in hands.


      STANDING REVERSE CURLS

         Set-up: Exactly the same as regular curls except that the grip
            is a palms down instead of a palms up grip.  Grasp bar with
            palms down and resting on upper thighs.

         Movement:  Curl weight until forearms are perpendicular to the 
            floor.  Lower weight slowly back to upper thighs.  Keep upper 
            body and elbows motionless.

         Adding Resistance: Dumbbells or a barbell may be used.

         Variations: Use EZ-curl bar or a cable pulley machine.
                  
         Muscles Worked: Forearms and biceps.


      WRIST ROLLS

         Set-up:  With hands on a turnable dowel, preferably with the forearms
            parallel to ground.

         Movement:  Rotate dowel in one direction, then in opposite direction.

         Adding Resistance: These are usually performed on a machine that
            has an adjustable resistance dial.  

         Variations:  One of the best forearm exercise can be done by making
            a weighted rolling device.  Get a wooden or metal dowel about 1.5
            inches in diameter and about 2.5 feet long, and about 2.5 feet of
            thin rope.  Drill a hole through the dowel, at the midway point, 
            big enough to accommodate the rope.  Put the rope through the hole 
            and tie a knot at it's end.  At the other end attach a weight.  
            Rolling the dowel, keeping the forearms parallel to the ground, 
            will raise the weight.  Roll until the weight touches dowel then 
            roll in the opposite direction until the weight goes all the way 
            down and back up to the dowel.  Add weight or more reps as needed.
                  
         Muscles Worked: forearms and hands.

----------------- Part 4: Books and Magazines -----------------------

BOOKS that have been suggested:

	"The NEW Fit or FAT"  (or Fit or Fat)  by Covert Bailey  $7.95
	  Covert explains how the body burns fat and why.  Easy
	  reading and probably the best information/dollar ratio.

	"Getting Stronger" by Bill Pearl ~$15
	    Good all around book.  It lists programs for specific sports.

	--
	From: jedwards@unixg.ubc.ca 
	  "BRAWN"   by Stuart McRobert $18.95
	  Brawn is a good book for hardgainers... His methods are unlike 
	  any others in the bodybuilding industry, especially his routines, 
	  # of exercises, and number of sets. However, he claims to have a 
	  high success rate with his clients and the book is pretty cheap,
	  through Musclemag International.

	It can also be ordered from:
 
	  Send a check or money order for $18.95 plus $3.00 s/h to
	  HARDGAINER, PO Box 6365, Louisville, KY 40207.
	--
	Or from
	  CS Publishing Ltd
	  P.O. Box 8186 
	  Nicosia
	  CYPRUS

	1-800-292-6435
  		or 
	in Ca (209)-736-4501

	--
	From: Matt Brzycki
	"Nancy Clark's Sports Nutrition Guidebook" by Nancy Clark $15

	  Contains 300 pages of common sense nutritional information and 
	  more than 100 recipes.  Clark is a nationally-known speaker and 
	  writer.  Chapter topics include healthy snacks, "sports salads," 
	  eating on the road, pre-exercise foods, post-exercise foods, 
	  supplements, weight gain/loss and eating disorders.  The book 
	  is published by Leisure Press (a subdivision of Human Kinetics) and 
	  goes for about $15.  ISBN is 0-88011-326-X

	--
	From Marty Banschbach
	"Introduction to Nutrition, Exercise and Health" $39.95

          Frank Katch, Ph.D.
          Professor
          Department of Exercise Science
          University of Massachusetts
  
          William McArdle, Ph.D.
          Professor
          Department of Health and Physical Education
          Queens College
  
          Publisher: Lea and Febiger 4th edition 1993
                     Box 3024
                     200 Chester Field Parkway
                     Malvern, Pa 19355-9725
                     (215) 251-2230
  
          Customer Service 800 number: 1-800-638-0672
  
	  This is by far the best nutrition book for people interested in 
	  general fitness that I have ever come across in all my reading 
	  of different nutrition textbooks.
  
	  It has a chapter devoted to building muscle size and strength
	  (chapter 18) geared more to bodybuilders and it also has a chapter 
	  devoted to general conditioning with sections on both aerobic 
	  workouts and anaerobic workouts geared for other types of 
	  athletes(Chapter 19).  It also has a chapter(20) devoted solely 
	  to exercise and diet for cardiovascular health for the people who 
	  aren't really interested in improving their performance in a specific 
	  sport but simply want to get some cardiovascular tone.

	--
	From: "Timothy J. Block" <tblock@umich.edu>
	"Weight Training and Lifting" by John Lear, ISBN 0 7136 5643.

	  This books concerns it self with power lifting and training.

	--
	From: Fahey@psyvax.psy.utexas.edu (Richard Fahey)

  	AUTHOR:         Fleck, Steven J., 1951-
  	TITLE:          Designing resistance training programs/Steven J. Fleck,
                   	William J. Kraemer.
  	PUBLISHED:      Champaign, Ill. : Human Kinetics Books, c1987.
  	DESCRIPTION:    xv, 264 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.
  	NOTES:          Includes index.
                  	Bibliography: p. 235-260.
  	SUBJECTS:       Isometric exercise
  	OTHER AUTHORS:  Kraemer, William J., 1953-
  	ISBN:           0873221133
  	OCLC NUMBER:    15630379

	--
	From: barry@math.ucla.edu (Barry Merriman)
	Subject: Hi Volume vs. Mentzer/Darden/Jones HIT training

	Weight Training: A Scientific Approach,
	by Michael Stone, PhD and Harold Obryant, Phd.
	ISBN 0-8087-6942-1
	360 pages, illustrated.
	copyright 1987. cost: about $27.
	--

	From khenry@austin.wireline.slb.com
	Kenneth Cooper's "Aerobics"
	--

  
	Other interesting books found at my local library:
  
	  "Encyclopedia of Modern Bodybuilding" by Arnold Schwarzenegger

	  "Arnolds Bodybuilding for Men" by Arnold Schwarzenegger
    
	  "High Performance Bodybuilding"  by John Parillo & Maggie 
		Greewnwood-Robinson
    
    	  "Winning Bodybuilding" by Franco Colombu
    
  


MAGAZINES:

	Muscle Media 2000: 1yr(8 issues) $36.00

  	  Probably the best (most honest) and most informative bodybuilding
	  magazine available.

	  Muscle Media 2000
	  P.O. Box 277
	  Golden  CO 80402-0277
  	

	IRONMAN: 1 year for $27.95 12 issues

	  Very good source of routines and information.
	  IRONMAN
	  P.O. Box 12009
	  Marina del Rey, CA  90295-3009
	  1-800-447-0008


	Muscle & FItness: 1 year $35.00 12 issues

	  Usually an interesting article is in there somewhere.  Stuffed 
	  full of self promoting Weider hype.

	  Muscle & Fitness
	  P.O. Box 3739
	  Escondido, CA 92025-9819
	  1-800-423-5713


	SHAPE 1yr $19.97
	
 	  Geared toward women.

	  Shape 
	  P.O. Box 563
	  Mt. Morris, IL  61054-7796
	  1-800-998-0731


	American Health: Fitness of Body and Mind  10 issues $14.97

	  Pretty good all around magazine for general fitness.

	  American Health
	  P.O. Box 3016
	  Harlam, IA  51593-2107
	  1-800-365-5005


	Walking  1yr $19.95

	  Walking Magazine
	  Subscription Dept.
	  P.O. Box 52341
	  Boulder,, CO 80321-2341


	FLEX  1yr $29.97

	  Another Weider publication.

	  FLEX
	  P.O. Box 559
	  Mt. Morris, IL  61054-7804


	Hardgainer- Very good source of information.
          Hardgainer Magazine
          c/o Stuart McRobert
          C.S. Publishing
          P.O. Box 8186
          Nicosia, Cyprus

          (In North America)
          Hardgainer
          PO Box 6365
          Louisville, KY  40207

	Health for Life: Various Pamphlets. Check #29 in FAQ.

	  Health for Life
	  8033 Sunset Blvd.
	  Suite 483
	  Los Angeles, CA  90046
	  1-800-874-5339   (U.S.)
	  +1 310 306 0777 (International)
	  +1 310 305 7672 (Fax)

------------- Part 5: Glossary of Basic Definitions -----------------

Aerobic: Occurring only in the presence of oxygen. Your muscles need
	to work in an aerobic state to provide FAT burning qualities.

Anaerobic: Occuring only in the absence of oxygen. Your muscles need
	to work in an anaerobic state to provide hypertrophy.

Barbell: A bar, usually over 3' long, with a place on each end where
	weights/plates are placed.  Usually used with two hands.

Carbohydrate (carbs):  4 calories per gram.  Recommendations are 50-70% of 
	your total caloric intake should come from carbohydrates.  Common 
	sources are bread, bagels, potatoes, oatmeal, cereals, sugars, etc. 

Circuit Training: Going from one exercise to another until the whole
	body is worked, then taking a short rest and doing the circuit
	again.  Provides minimal aerobic benefit, used primarily to shorten 
	the workout.

Dumbbell: A bar, usually about 1' long with plates on each end.  Usually
	used with one hand.

EMS: Electro Muscle Stimulation.  Provides only therapeutic effects no
	hypertrophy.

fast Twitch muscles (type II): Strength fibers.   Responsible for strength
	and explosiveness and hypertrophy.

FAT (fat):  9 calories per gram, round up to 10 to make the math easier and to 
	give even more emphasis on how many FAT calories that makes up 
	a certain food .  Recommendations are 10-20% of your total caloric 
	intake should come from FAT. Common sources are nuts, dairy products, 
	chocolate, ice cream, egg yolks, red meat, etc.

Hardgainer: Not being genetically predispositioned to put on muscle.

Hyperplasia: The splitting of a muscle fiber into multiple fibers.

Hypertrophy: This refers to actual growth of a given fiber.

Periodization/Cycling: Varying the weights used or the reps used over
	a certain period of time.  Usally cycled through endurance, mass,
	and strength cycles.

Plate: The weight that's placed on a barbell. "Put on a 25-pound plate".

Positive: The part of the activity where the weight is moving against
	gravity.  The actual pushing or pulling of a weight or object.

Pronated : Palm down or thumbs pointing toward each other.

Protein: 4 calories per gram.  Reccommendations are 10-20% of your total 
	caloric intake should come from protein.  Common sources are fish, 
	chicken, egg whites, milk (skim), beans, etc.

Pyramid: Sets, for a certain muscle, are performed by adding weight and 
	doing less reps.  Others prefer starting with a heavy weight
	and lower the weight every set.

Rep: Doing an activity through it's full range of motion.

Set: A group of reps.  Usually the activity is started and performed
	for a certain number of reps then it is stopped and you rest.
	This is one set.

Slow Twitch (type I): Endurance muscle fibers.  They provide the stamina 
	needed for long duration activities and don't hypertrophy very much.

Step: Basically a platform, usually made of plastic, that's anywhere
	from 3-12" high.  It takes more energy to step up on a platform.
	The higher the platform the harder an activity will be and the
	greater the chance for injury.

Supinated : Palm up or when the thumbs point are away from the body.

Volume Training: Doing a lot of sets, usually 15-25, per body part.

---------------------------- THE END --------------------------------
-- 
glex@nitro.cray.com  === "Difficult tasks are never easy..."

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