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MISC.FITNESS FAQ and a little more.. Revision: 1.0.5 Created By Jeff Gleixner (firstname.lastname@example.org) with various contributions from people on misc.fitness. A big thanks to Katie Henry who created the home equipment section, and to Kyle Wilson for HTMLing this. This is the FAQ for misc.fitness. I'd like to thank everyone on misc.fitness for sharing their advice and experiences. I tried to keep names and addresses of articles that I included, but a few were lost. I'm sure this will grow over time. If you notice anything that's incorrect or if you'd like to add your point of view, please send some nice e-mail to email@example.com. I'll correct, or add it, to this document. This is available via anonymous ftp from ftp.cray.com in the /pub/misc.fitness directory. I have also placed a supplemental document in there which is a collection of various posts from people on misc.fitness about protein, carbohydrates, muscle, supplements, etc. called "supplemental.doc" (see question #19). The URL for the HTML version is ftp://ftp.cray.com/pub/misc.fitness/. This document actually consists of 5 parts. Part 1: The FAQ. Part 2: Exercise Equipment information. Part 3: Listing of 2-4 exercises per body part and the areas they work. part 4: Listing of recommended books and magazines. Part 5: Glossary of Basic Definitions of fitness terms. Because of the size they will be posted as Part 1: FAQ Part 2: FAQ continued & Exercise Equipment Information Part 3: Exercises, Books & Magazines, Glossary This is part 3. --------------- Part 3: Weight Training Exercises. ----------------- EXERCISES FOR EACH BODY PART First, locations of basic muscle groups from the feet up to the hands: Calves: Back of leg, between the knee and ankle. The two main muscles in this area are the Soleus, lower area, and the Gastrocnemius, the "meat" of the calves. Quadriceps (Quads): Front leg between the waist and knee. (Thigh) Hamstrings (Hams): Back leg between the butt and the knee. Gluteus Maximus: Butt. Abdominals: Front of body between chest and groin. Also consist of the Obliques, which are on the middle and outer walls of the abdomen. Latissimus Dorsi (Lats): Between the Spine and the sides of the ribs starting near the from the armpit and going down to the last rib. Gives people the "V-Shape", along with a small waist. Trapezius (Traps), Between the back of the neck and the shoulders tapering to the middle back area. Pectorals (Pecs): Chest. Deltoids (Shoulders): Made up of 3 muscles. Front:Anterior Deltoid Middle: Medial Deltoid Back: Posterior Deltoid Triceps (Tris): Back of the upper arm, making up about 2/3 of the upper arm. Biceps (Bis): Front of the upper arm, accounting for the other 1/3 of the upper arm. Forearms: Between the elbow and wrist. ----------- QUADRICEPS: Upper front leg. (Thigh) ----------- General Advice: - Keep back as as vertical as possible. - Go slow, no bouncing. - Inhale at the top of the motion. Exhale from the bottom of the motion to the top. - DON'T lock knees or bounce at the top or bottom. SQUATS: Set-up: Standing upright. Stance is a comfortable shoulder width apart, toes pointed slightly outward. Movement: Very similar to sitting down on a chair. Focus your vision on something in the room slightly higher than the level of your eyes. Start by moving the butt back and downward. Don't start by bending the knees. Continue downward, by bending the knees, DON'T allow your knees to move forward, this will cause undo stress on the knees. When the thighs reach parallel begin exhaling and return to the starting position. There should be no lateral movement, especially in the knee or hip area. Adding Resistance: Place a barbell across traps or hold dumbbells throughout exercise. Additional notes: Use a spotter. Start out light. Although this is exactly like sitting down, NEVER do squats above a chair or bench. Going to parallel is a must! Place bar on traps NOT on back of neck. Muscles Worked: Quadriceps (Thighs), Hamstrings (Back of leg), Gluteus Maximus (butt) LEG EXTENSIONS: Set-up: Sitting on the edge of a bench or leg extension machine, with knee at ~90-degree angle. Movement: Extend and straighten lower leg. Adding Resistance: There are many Leg Extension machines available. Sit on the machine with the padded end against the front area of the ankle. Variations: Working the inner Quad can be done by point the toes toward each other at ~20-degree angle. The outer Quad can be worked by pointing the toes out at ~20-degree angle. Muscles Worked: Quadriceps LUNGES: Set-up: Standing upright with feet shoulder width apart. Movement: Take a 2-3' step forward. Once the step is taken the upper body and the front knee should not move forward during the lowering and raising of the body. Keeping the upper body vertical, lower body straight down until back knee comes close to the ground. Raise body straight up and return to starting position. Adding Resistance: Barbell may be placed across traps or dumbbells held in hands or barbell placed between legs (straddled) (Obviously the last variation must be used in this case). Variations: -Work 1 leg at a time or switch for every rep. -Step onto a 6"-1' platform for an added stretch. -Step backwards or sideways. -Instead of returning to the starting position just go up/down for the required reps, then return to the starting position and do the same for the other leg. Muscles Worked: Quadriceps, Hamstrings, the Glutes LEG PRESS: Set-up: Performed on a machine where the legs usually press a platform. Once in the machine place feet shoulder width apart with toes pointed slightly out. Movement: Lower platform until knee is at a 90-degree angle. Press platform up until legs are almost straight. DON'T lock knees or bounce at the top or bottom. Adding Resistance: The machine should have a place to add weight. Most large platforms are ~150 pounds. Variations: The inner and outer Quads can be worked by changing the stance. Wide stance will work the outer Quad, narrow stance will work the inner area. Muscles Worked: Quadriceps, Hamstrings, the Glutes ----- BACK: ----- Basic Form: Don't swing the weight by using the lower back. Concentrate on squeezing the shoulder blades together. Use a thumbless grip. PULL-UP Set-up: Hang from a pull-up bar with a wider than shoulder, palms facing away from the body, using a thumbless grip. Movement: Pull the body up, concentrating on the back doing the work. Lean back slightly and touch mid chest to bar, or to height of hands. Slowly lower down to the starting (hanging) position. Adding Resistance: Weight belt or a weight held by the feet. Variations: grip: The wider the grip the more work the Lats will do. A narrow grip makes the biceps, forearms, and middle back do more work. Pronated: Moves the stress to the Back. Supinated: Moves the stress to the Biceps. Pull-downs: Same movement except the bar is being pulled down instead of the body being pulled up. - A close, palms up, grip hits the middle of the back. Muscles Worked: Back "V-shape" (Latissimus Dorsi) and biceps BENT-OVER ROWS Set-up: Bend at the hips, keeping the trunk straight and firm with no bending of the spine at the waist. Knees slightly bent, feet shoulder width apart. Weight being held using a pronated, thumbless grip (palms facing the legs). Movement: Pull the weight to the chest, keeping the elbows out and away from the body. Slowly lower weight, keeping the back straight and horizontal throughout the movement. Squeeze shoulder blades together at the top of the lift. Keeping elbows in changes the stress to the Lats. Variations: T-bar rows: A device with one end attached to the floor as a pivot. One-arm dumbbell rows: Use one dumbbell with the same grip. Opposite knee resting on bench, along with the opposite hand. Pull dumbbell up without rotating upper body. Seated cable rows: Done using a low pulley. Sit on floor with feet secure, knees slightly bent. Pull handle to chest, keep upright and avoid bending forward or backward to reduce stress on lower back. Muscles Worked: Back/sides of neck out to shoulders and tappering down to mid back(Trapezius), Rear shoulder (Posterior deltoid) DEADLIFTS CAUTION: These could cause lower back pain. Please start out with very light weight and do them slow. If there is any pain, stop! Set-up: Knees bent at about 90-degrees, shoulder width pronated grip. Movement: Slowly stand up, keeping back straight, head up and the bar close to/touching the body. Return back to starting position (watch the knees). Adding Resistance: Dumbbells held in each hand or a barbell held with an overhand grip. It is much safer to start with the barbell already off the floor and at waist height. Don't pick up or set down the weight with your legs straight. Variations: Sumo: feet very wide, grip very narrow. Stiff legged: see hamstrings. Muscles Worked: Back (Lats), Deltoids, Quads SHRUGS Set-up: Hands at waist level, shoulder width stance. Movement: Raise shoulders straight up, try to touch ears. The "I don't know" movement. Keep the head up and bring the shoulders to the ears, don't bring the head down to the shoulders. Don't roll the shoulders. Adding Resistance: Dumbbells: Let them slide along the sides of the waist. Barbell: Pronated grip, keep bar against body. Muscles Worked: Trapezius "Traps" ------ CHEST: ------ BENCH Set-up: Lying on a bench, feet firmly on floor, butt, back, shoulders, and head on bench. Roll shoulders back and down so the shoulder blades are firmly pressed against the bench and the chest is sticking up (high). Arms straight and above shoulders, palms facing the feet. Movement: Bend arms so the elbows move away from the rib cage and the hands move down in a slight arc, until they are about even with the sternum (nipple) and your elbow is at about a 90-degree angle. Push up and back to the starting position, again in a slight arc. To keep the deltoids from doing too much work, don't allow the rear deltoids to come off the bench, especially the last few inches when pushing the weight up. They should remain in the same position throughout the movement. Adding Resistance: Dumbbells give a wider range of motion. Barbells and a good bench are usually used. Variations: Grip - The wider the grip the more the outer area of the chest is worked. (Nearer the deltoids). A narrow grip works the middle of the chest and triceps. A 2-6" wider than shoulder grip is common and will work most of the chest. Flat bench - Works the middle and to some degree the upper and lower part of the chest. Incline bench - Works the upper area of the chest and the front deltoids are worked more than the flat bench. A 30-degree bench is all that's needed, more than that and the deltoids begin to take the brunt of the load. Decline bench - Works the lower area of the chest and reduces the load on the front deltoid. Muscles Worked: Chest, Triceps, Shoulders (Posterior Deltoids) DIPS Set-up: Hands supporting full body weight on a Dip bar, hands facing each other. Knees bent so they're ahead of the body, chin on, or near, chest. Body should form a crescent shape and it should be keep during the exercise. Movement: Lower body until chin is near the height of the bar. Let elbows flare out, keeping them parallel to each other will turn this into a tricep exercise. Concentrate on the chest pulling the elbows/deltoids together and press the body upward back to the starting position. Adding Resistance: Weight belt or a dumbbell/weight held by crossing the feet or placed on the calves by another person. Variations: - Can be done by using 2 benches, bar stools, parallel bars, etc. - If the Dip bar makes a V-shape use the wider end. - Reverse the grip so the palms are facing away from each other. Muscles Worked: Chest (outer), Triceps FLYES Set-up: Lying on a bench, feet firmly on floor, butt, back, shoulders, and head on bench. Arms slightly bent and slightly wider than shoulders, palms facing each other. Movement: Keeping a slight bend in the arms slowly move them in an arc away from the body. Lower them until a comfortable stretch is felt in the chest/deltoid area. Raise them along the same arc back to the starting position. To keep stress on the chest keep the hands just wider than the shoulders at the top (start) of the movement. Adding Resistance: Dumbbells are usually used, can also use a low pully machine, or a Pec Deck machine. Variations: Pec Deck - Place elbows and hands on pad. Keep head up and chest up (out) throughout exercise. Push with the elbows not the hands. Incline Flyes - Works the upper outside of chest. Decline Flyes - Works the lower outside of chest. Muscles Worked: Chest, Shoulders (Posterior Deltoids) ---------- SHOULDERS: ---------- MILITARY PRESS Set-up: Seated with hands at shoulder height, palms forward, arms in the same plane as the upper body. Movement: Press up until arms are straight above the head. Lower back to starting position. Adding Resistance: Dumbbells or a barbell may be used. Variations: Can be done standing. Behind the neck press: Same movement except the bar travels behind the head. This should be done by the shoulders moving the bar back, not the head moving forward or the chin down. Arnold Press: Start with palms facing each other, instead of facing forward, and using dumbbells. Rotate hand forward while pressing, rotate the hands toward each other while lowering the weight. Muscles Worked: Front & Rear Deltoids (Anterior and Posterior Deltoid), Back of upper arms (Triceps) LATERAL RAISES Set-up: Standing with a shoulder wide stance knees slightly bent. Arms, slightly bent, hanging in front of body, palms facing each other. Movement: Lift arms out and away from body, using the shoulders, until the hands are at shoulder height. In the top position the arms and body would resemble the letter "T". Lower arms, using the shoulders, back to the starting position. Adding Resistance: Usually done with dumbbells or by using a Lateral Raises machine. Variations: At the top of the movement turn the hand in a "Tea pouring" motion. Lateral Raise machine: Seated with arms resting on the pads. Push out and up on the pads, with the forearms/elbows, to shoulder height. Palms up Lateral raises: The same as normal raises except the palms are facing away from each other at the beginning and face the ceiling at the top and the starting position has the arms out away from the sides of the body. Front Raises: The arms are lifted and lowered in front of the body. Muscles Worked: Middle of shoulder (Medial Deltoid), Posterior Deltoid, forearms. BENT-OVER RAISES Set-up: Seated, or standing, bent over so the upper body is parallel with the ground. Shoulder wide stance with the knees slightly bent. Arms, slightly bent, hanging in front of body, palms facing each other. Head up. Movement: Lift arms out and away from body, using the shoulders, until the hands/elbows are at shoulder height (trying to fly). Keep the rest of the body motionless. Hands face the floor at the top of the movement. Lower arms, using the shoulders, back to the starting position. Adding Resistance: Usually done with dumbbells or by using a low pulley. Variations: Seated: Sit on the end of a bench, extend legs so there's enough room for the dumbbells. Bend forward until the chest is almost on the thighs, hands hanging down under the knees. Movement is the same. Muscles Worked: Back of shoulder (Posterior Deltoid) --------------------------------------- ROTATOR CUFF & SHOULDER REHABILITATION: also check FAQ #29 --------------------------------------- Short explanation of various exercises to strengthen the shoulder and Rotator Cuff: SHOULDER ABDUCTION: Stand with elbow straight and hand rotated outward as far as possible, raise involved arm to the side of body as high as possible, Hold for 2 seconds, then lower. SUPRASPINATURS-"Empty Can": Stand with elbow straight and hand rotated inward as far as possible, raise arm to eye level at 30-degree angle to body. Hold for 2 seconds, then lower. PRONE HORIZONTAL ABDUCTION: Lie on table on stomach with involved arm hanging straight to the floor. With had rotated outward as far as possible, raise arm out to the side, parallel to the floor. Hold for 2 seconds, then lower. SHOULDER EXTENSION: Lie on table on stomach with involved arm hanging straight to the floor. With hand rotated outward as far as possible, raise arm straight back into extension as far as possible. Hold for 2 seconds, then lower. 90/90 EXTERNAL ROTATION: Lie on table on stomach with shoulder abducted at 90-degrees and arm supported on table with elbow bent at 90-degrees. Keeping shoulder and elbow fixed, raise arm into external rotation. Hold for 2 seconds, then lower. SIDE-LYING EXTERNAL Rotation: Lie on uninvolved side, with involved arm at side of body and elbow bent at 90-degree angle. Keeping elbow of involved arm fixed to side, raise arm into external rotation. Hold for 2 seconds, then lower. -- The therapist I saw suggest folding and rolling up a towel into a short cylindrical shape about 4"-6" in diameter 8"-12" long and placing it between your elbow and your ribs of the involved side. SITTING DIP: Sit on edge of chair. Gripping sides of chair with hands, straighten arms, lifting buttocks off chair seat. Hold isometric contraction for 5 seconds then lower. -- Can be done using a dip bar. Keep body straight and only go down 3"-4". Try to use the shoulders to do the whole movement. Additional Rotator Cuff exercises: Using rubber tubing or Thera-Bands attach one end to a pole, door knob, etc. about waist to chest high. A low pulley machine can also be used, sit or kneel if using a pulley. Same position as Side-Lying External Rotation except that you're standing with the secured end, or pulley, to the uninvolved side of the body. Involved arm is at 90-degrees in front of body (broken arm position), the handle or tubing held securely in your hand. Keeping the elbow against ribs, or towel as suggested above, pull and rotate outward about 135-degrees from chest. Upper body is motionless all that's moving is your forearm. Hold for 2 seconds, then return to starting position. Same as above only the attached end is to the involved side of the body and it's a pulling and rotating toward the chest. To help the throwing muscles: Again using rubber tubing or Thera-Bands attached about chest high to something. Facing away from the attached end with arm in a throwing position (90-degree angle between upper arm and ribs and 90-degree angle at elbow, forearm at a slight angle backwards.) Hand facing forward and holding the rubber tubing. Rotate forearm forward about 30-degrees, hold for 2 seconds, then return to starting position. The hand only goes through a 6"-12" arc. The only thing moving should be your forearms. Same as above except you face the attached end and you pull back to the starting position of the above exercise. ----------- HAMSTRINGS: Back of upper leg. ----------- LEG CURLS Set-up: Laying on stomach legs straight or standing. Movement: Lift heel up as close as possible to the butt, keep the knee, and the rest of the body, still. Contract Hamstring at the top of the movement. Lower foot back to starting position. Adding Resistance: Ankle weights or use a Leg Curl machine. Variations: - Lying Leg Curl machine: Place Achillies tendon/heel under the pad the knee should be comfortably over the edge of the bench. Raise weight, keeping thighs, hips, stomach, and chest on the bench throughout the movement. - Standing Leg Curl machine: Similar to above except it is done one leg at a time and the upper body should be straight. - Seated Leg Curl machine: Similar to above except the heel/tendon is placed on the pad and the foot is pushed down in an arc under the knees. One Leg or both legs at the same time. Muscles Worked: Hamstrings, Glutes STIFF LEGGED DEAD LIFTS CAUTION: These could cause lower back pain. Please start out with very light weight and do them slow. If there is any pain, stop! Set-up: Standing with a narrow stance, legs and upper body straight. Movement: Slowly bend over, keeping the legs straight and the upper body straight. Go until a comfortable stretch is felt and slowly stand back up. Keep the head up, look ahead not at the floor. Adding Resistance: Dumbbells held in each hand or a barbell held with an overhand grip. It is much safer to start with the barbell already off the floor and at waist height. Try not to pick up or set down the weight with your legs straight. Variations: For a greater stretch SLDLs can be done on a pedestal (bench, sturdy block, etc..). Muscles Worked: Hamstrings, Glutes ------- CALVES: Back of leg between knee and ankle. ------- Basic Form: Many different beliefs about how to hit the inner and outer parts of the Calves. Try one of the following: -Inner: Try doing one of these to find what works. Point toes out at ~30-45-degree angle throughout movement. (May stress knees & ankles). Use a narrow stance, feet almost touching. Roll up/down on the middle to outside of foot. -Outer: Point toes in at ~30-45-degree angle throughout movement. (May stress knees & ankles). Use a comfortable stance just wider than your shoulders. Roll up/down on the middle to inside of foot. Also, bending knees slightly at the top of the motion will increase the stretch on the calves. Go as high and a low as possible. Don't bounce, hold the contraction and stretch for at least a second. STANDING CALF RAISES Set-up: Standing erect, knees locked or close to locked. Place feet, toes to ball of foot supported, arch to heel sticking out over the edge of a 4-6" block (stair/block of wood/etc.) Movement: Lower heel as far as possible, use a higher block if the heel's range of motion is impeded. Raise heel and stand as tall as possible. Repeat. Really focus on your calves doing all the work and hold the contraction for a few seconds. Don't bounce. Keep leg straight and the knee and hip locked. Adding Resistance : Dumbbells may be held in hand(s), a barbell supported on traps (similar to the beginning of a squat), or one leg may be worked at a time. There are also many squat/calf machines that support the weight so balance isn't a problem. Muscles Worked: Calves (upper/mass part - Gastrocnemius & Peroneous group) SEATED CALF RAISES Set-up: Seated with weight supported on lap, near knees, which are bent ~90-degrees. The feet, toes to ball of foot supported, arch to heel sticking out over the edge of a 4-6" block (stair/block of wood/etc.) Usually the block is a piece of metal at ~60-degree angle and is part of the machine. Movement:Lower heel as far as possible, use a higher block if the heel's range of motion is impeded. Raise heel and as high as possible. Hold for 1 second. Repeat. Really focus on your calves doing all the work. Try not to lean back or bounce the weight. Adding Resistance : This is usually done on a machine with pads for your lap and an adjustable weight stack or place to add weights. Can also be done by placing dumbbbells/barbell/or virtually any weight on lap. Muscles Worked: Calves (lower area - Soleus) LEG PRESS CALF RAISES Set-up: Using the Leg press machine, place toes to ball of foot on edge of platform, so the heels are in mid air. Movement: Push platform by extending foot (toes higher than heels, calves contracted). Lower platform by contracting foot (toes lower than heels, calves stretched). Don't bounce. Knees locked. Adding Resistance : This is usually done on a machine with a place to add more weight. Muscles Worked: Calves (Tibialis, Gastrocnemius, and Peroneous group) DONKEY CALF RAISES Set-up: Usually done with a partner. Feet are placed on a secure block, as described above. The block is placed ~2' from a stable horizontal structure that is ~3' tall (Usually one end of a Roman Chair or a tall bench.) With feet placed on block, knees straight, bend at the waist and use the structure for balance. The partner, using a chair or bench to make it easier, sits on your back/butt facing your back (if they were riding a horse they'd be just in front of the tail), their weight should be directly above the block and NOT on your lower back. Movement: Lower heel as far as possible, use a higher block if the heel's range of motion is impeded. Raise heel as far as possible. Repeat. Really focus on your calves doing all the work. 4 seconds down 2 seconds up, pause for ~1 second on each end of movement. Partner should remain motionless throughout exercise. Adding Resistance: Use a heavier partner. Have partner hold additional weight. Muscles Worked: Gastrocnemius ------- TRICEP: Back of upper arm. ------- Basic Form: Work triceps with slow movements to reduce the stress on the elbows. Try to keep your biceps slightly flexed. CLOSE GRIP BENCH Set-up: Assume a stable position on a flat bench. Feet flat on the floor, butt, back, rear deltoids and head on bench. Grasp barbell with a narrow (6 inch) grip. Movement: Lower barbell to sternum, keeping elbows near rib cage. Press bar upward using the triceps. Make it feel as if the weight is pressed slightly toward the feet. Variations: Can be done using dumbbells and/or on a decline bench. Using a Reverse grip (palms facing biceps instead of triceps. Underhand), with a shoulder width grip. will also hit the Triceps. Muscles Worked: Triceps (Medial head), Shoulders (front delts), Pectorals (inner chest) CABLE PUSHDOWNS Set-up: Take a comfortable position in front of a high pully. Grab bar with a narrow, thumbless grip. Pull weight until elbows are tight against rib cage and hands are around the upper chest, knees slightly bent. Movement: Keeping your elbows and upper body motionless press the bar in a slight arc until the elbows are comfortable locked and triceps are contracted. Slowly resist the weight as it is returned to the starting position. The elbows are the pivot point, Don't cheat by swinging the weight or upperbody. Variations: The best "bar" is a rope handle, avoid using a long straight bar, use a V-shaped bar if rope isn't available. Can also be done with elbows spread out to the sides and the upper body bent forward so the weight is being pushed down in a straight line. If using rope handle flare hands out at the bottom position. Muscles Worked: Tricep (Outer head) OVERHEAD DUMBBELL EXTENSIONS Set-up: Stand with feet about a shoulder width apart, and a dumbbell resting on your shoulder with your elbow pointing straight up and your biceps flexed. The dumbbell is held with a regular "curl" grip. The starting position looks like the weight is being used to scratch the upper back. Movement: Without moving the upper arm, lift the weight, rotating the hand so the palm faces forward, until the dumbbell is above the elbow. Variations: Two handed dumbbell extension, where the weight of the dumbbell is being supported by the palms of both hands, thumbs wrapped around the bar. Using a barbell or EZ-curl bar or a low cable pully with a rope handle. One-arm extensions give a wider range of motion. Muscles Worked: Triceps (inner & medial heads) ------- BICEPS: Upper arm between inner elbow and front shoulder. ------- Basic Form: Keep wrists straight. Don't rock backward. Flex biceps at the top. Keep elbows down and against the ribs. BARBELL CURLS Set-up: Standing, using a shoulder width, palms up grip on barbell. Barbell resting on the upper thighs, arms straight. Movement: Lift the bar in a slow, steady arc toward the shoulders. Raise until forearms are almost verticalthen lower the bar in a slow arc back to the starting position. Keep elbows and upper body motionless. Keep elbows level with, or in front of the body. Variations: EZ-curl bar will place less stress on forearms. Dumbbells - Start with arms at side and rotate hands until the hands face the outside bicep area at the top of the movement. Cable Curls - Same movement. Use machine with a low pulley and a straight cable handle. To avoid cheating try them with the upper back against a wall with heels about 1 foot away from it. Muscles Worked: Biceps, brachialis, forearms. PREACHER CURLS: Set-up: Seated on the preacher bench with a slightly wider than shoulder underhand grip on barbell. Lean into the preacher stand, firmly pressing the upper-pectoral muscles against it. Movement: Lift bar slowly upward in an arc until it almost touches biceps. Keep upper arms on the pad and don't let the elbows spread apart. Variations: Use EZ-curl bar, dumbbells, or a low pulley and a straight handle machine. Muscles Worked: Biceps (lower), forearms HAMMER CURLS: Set-up: Dumbbells held at sides with palms facing the body. Movement: Raise the dumbbell as far as possible without allowing the elbows to move. Keep the palms facing the body throughout the movement. Variations: One arm at a time or try them seated. Muscles Worked: Biceps, forearms. --------- FOREARMS: Between elbow and wrist. --------- SEATED WRIST CURLS Set-up: Seated on the middle of a flat bench in a straddle position. Place forearms on bench, palms up so the wrists are just over the edge of the bench. Legs parallel to bench are be used to keep forearms from spreading apart. Movement: Lower hands, keeping forearms on the bench, until the palms face away from the body. Lift the hands, by bending at the wrist, until palm is facing the body. Adding Resistance: Dumbbells or a barbell may be used. Allowing the bar to roll partially down the hand, while lowering the hand, will help strengthen the hand/gripping muscles. Variations: Standing with barbell behind back back, hands on the butt or upper hamstrings and curl the weight by only using the wrists. Muscles Worked: Forearms and muscles in hands. STANDING REVERSE CURLS Set-up: Exactly the same as regular curls except that the grip is a palms down instead of a palms up grip. Grasp bar with palms down and resting on upper thighs. Movement: Curl weight until forearms are perpendicular to the floor. Lower weight slowly back to upper thighs. Keep upper body and elbows motionless. Adding Resistance: Dumbbells or a barbell may be used. Variations: Use EZ-curl bar or a cable pulley machine. Muscles Worked: Forearms and biceps. WRIST ROLLS Set-up: With hands on a turnable dowel, preferably with the forearms parallel to ground. Movement: Rotate dowel in one direction, then in opposite direction. Adding Resistance: These are usually performed on a machine that has an adjustable resistance dial. Variations: One of the best forearm exercise can be done by making a weighted rolling device. Get a wooden or metal dowel about 1.5 inches in diameter and about 2.5 feet long, and about 2.5 feet of thin rope. Drill a hole through the dowel, at the midway point, big enough to accommodate the rope. Put the rope through the hole and tie a knot at it's end. At the other end attach a weight. Rolling the dowel, keeping the forearms parallel to the ground, will raise the weight. Roll until the weight touches dowel then roll in the opposite direction until the weight goes all the way down and back up to the dowel. Add weight or more reps as needed. Muscles Worked: forearms and hands. ----------------- Part 4: Books and Magazines ----------------------- BOOKS that have been suggested: "The NEW Fit or FAT" (or Fit or Fat) by Covert Bailey $7.95 Covert explains how the body burns fat and why. Easy reading and probably the best information/dollar ratio. "Getting Stronger" by Bill Pearl ~$15 Good all around book. It lists programs for specific sports. -- From: firstname.lastname@example.org "BRAWN" by Stuart McRobert $18.95 Brawn is a good book for hardgainers... His methods are unlike any others in the bodybuilding industry, especially his routines, # of exercises, and number of sets. However, he claims to have a high success rate with his clients and the book is pretty cheap, through Musclemag International. It can also be ordered from: Send a check or money order for $18.95 plus $3.00 s/h to HARDGAINER, PO Box 6365, Louisville, KY 40207. -- Or from CS Publishing Ltd P.O. Box 8186 Nicosia CYPRUS 1-800-292-6435 or in Ca (209)-736-4501 -- From: Matt Brzycki "Nancy Clark's Sports Nutrition Guidebook" by Nancy Clark $15 Contains 300 pages of common sense nutritional information and more than 100 recipes. Clark is a nationally-known speaker and writer. Chapter topics include healthy snacks, "sports salads," eating on the road, pre-exercise foods, post-exercise foods, supplements, weight gain/loss and eating disorders. The book is published by Leisure Press (a subdivision of Human Kinetics) and goes for about $15. ISBN is 0-88011-326-X -- From Marty Banschbach "Introduction to Nutrition, Exercise and Health" $39.95 Frank Katch, Ph.D. Professor Department of Exercise Science University of Massachusetts William McArdle, Ph.D. Professor Department of Health and Physical Education Queens College Publisher: Lea and Febiger 4th edition 1993 Box 3024 200 Chester Field Parkway Malvern, Pa 19355-9725 (215) 251-2230 Customer Service 800 number: 1-800-638-0672 This is by far the best nutrition book for people interested in general fitness that I have ever come across in all my reading of different nutrition textbooks. It has a chapter devoted to building muscle size and strength (chapter 18) geared more to bodybuilders and it also has a chapter devoted to general conditioning with sections on both aerobic workouts and anaerobic workouts geared for other types of athletes(Chapter 19). It also has a chapter(20) devoted solely to exercise and diet for cardiovascular health for the people who aren't really interested in improving their performance in a specific sport but simply want to get some cardiovascular tone. -- From: "Timothy J. Block" <email@example.com> "Weight Training and Lifting" by John Lear, ISBN 0 7136 5643. This books concerns it self with power lifting and training. -- From: Fahey@psyvax.psy.utexas.edu (Richard Fahey) AUTHOR: Fleck, Steven J., 1951- TITLE: Designing resistance training programs/Steven J. Fleck, William J. Kraemer. PUBLISHED: Champaign, Ill. : Human Kinetics Books, c1987. DESCRIPTION: xv, 264 p. : ill. ; 24 cm. NOTES: Includes index. Bibliography: p. 235-260. SUBJECTS: Isometric exercise OTHER AUTHORS: Kraemer, William J., 1953- ISBN: 0873221133 OCLC NUMBER: 15630379 -- From: firstname.lastname@example.org (Barry Merriman) Subject: Hi Volume vs. Mentzer/Darden/Jones HIT training Weight Training: A Scientific Approach, by Michael Stone, PhD and Harold Obryant, Phd. ISBN 0-8087-6942-1 360 pages, illustrated. copyright 1987. cost: about $27. -- From email@example.com Kenneth Cooper's "Aerobics" -- Other interesting books found at my local library: "Encyclopedia of Modern Bodybuilding" by Arnold Schwarzenegger "Arnolds Bodybuilding for Men" by Arnold Schwarzenegger "High Performance Bodybuilding" by John Parillo & Maggie Greewnwood-Robinson "Winning Bodybuilding" by Franco Colombu MAGAZINES: Muscle Media 2000: 1yr(8 issues) $36.00 Probably the best (most honest) and most informative bodybuilding magazine available. Muscle Media 2000 P.O. Box 277 Golden CO 80402-0277 IRONMAN: 1 year for $27.95 12 issues Very good source of routines and information. IRONMAN P.O. Box 12009 Marina del Rey, CA 90295-3009 1-800-447-0008 Muscle & FItness: 1 year $35.00 12 issues Usually an interesting article is in there somewhere. Stuffed full of self promoting Weider hype. Muscle & Fitness P.O. Box 3739 Escondido, CA 92025-9819 1-800-423-5713 SHAPE 1yr $19.97 Geared toward women. Shape P.O. Box 563 Mt. Morris, IL 61054-7796 1-800-998-0731 American Health: Fitness of Body and Mind 10 issues $14.97 Pretty good all around magazine for general fitness. American Health P.O. Box 3016 Harlam, IA 51593-2107 1-800-365-5005 Walking 1yr $19.95 Walking Magazine Subscription Dept. P.O. Box 52341 Boulder,, CO 80321-2341 FLEX 1yr $29.97 Another Weider publication. FLEX P.O. Box 559 Mt. Morris, IL 61054-7804 Hardgainer- Very good source of information. Hardgainer Magazine c/o Stuart McRobert C.S. Publishing P.O. Box 8186 Nicosia, Cyprus (In North America) Hardgainer PO Box 6365 Louisville, KY 40207 Health for Life: Various Pamphlets. Check #29 in FAQ. Health for Life 8033 Sunset Blvd. Suite 483 Los Angeles, CA 90046 1-800-874-5339 (U.S.) +1 310 306 0777 (International) +1 310 305 7672 (Fax) ------------- Part 5: Glossary of Basic Definitions ----------------- Aerobic: Occurring only in the presence of oxygen. Your muscles need to work in an aerobic state to provide FAT burning qualities. Anaerobic: Occuring only in the absence of oxygen. Your muscles need to work in an anaerobic state to provide hypertrophy. Barbell: A bar, usually over 3' long, with a place on each end where weights/plates are placed. Usually used with two hands. Carbohydrate (carbs): 4 calories per gram. Recommendations are 50-70% of your total caloric intake should come from carbohydrates. Common sources are bread, bagels, potatoes, oatmeal, cereals, sugars, etc. Circuit Training: Going from one exercise to another until the whole body is worked, then taking a short rest and doing the circuit again. Provides minimal aerobic benefit, used primarily to shorten the workout. Dumbbell: A bar, usually about 1' long with plates on each end. Usually used with one hand. EMS: Electro Muscle Stimulation. Provides only therapeutic effects no hypertrophy. fast Twitch muscles (type II): Strength fibers. Responsible for strength and explosiveness and hypertrophy. FAT (fat): 9 calories per gram, round up to 10 to make the math easier and to give even more emphasis on how many FAT calories that makes up a certain food . Recommendations are 10-20% of your total caloric intake should come from FAT. Common sources are nuts, dairy products, chocolate, ice cream, egg yolks, red meat, etc. Hardgainer: Not being genetically predispositioned to put on muscle. Hyperplasia: The splitting of a muscle fiber into multiple fibers. Hypertrophy: This refers to actual growth of a given fiber. Periodization/Cycling: Varying the weights used or the reps used over a certain period of time. Usally cycled through endurance, mass, and strength cycles. Plate: The weight that's placed on a barbell. "Put on a 25-pound plate". Positive: The part of the activity where the weight is moving against gravity. The actual pushing or pulling of a weight or object. Pronated : Palm down or thumbs pointing toward each other. Protein: 4 calories per gram. Reccommendations are 10-20% of your total caloric intake should come from protein. Common sources are fish, chicken, egg whites, milk (skim), beans, etc. Pyramid: Sets, for a certain muscle, are performed by adding weight and doing less reps. Others prefer starting with a heavy weight and lower the weight every set. Rep: Doing an activity through it's full range of motion. Set: A group of reps. Usually the activity is started and performed for a certain number of reps then it is stopped and you rest. This is one set. Slow Twitch (type I): Endurance muscle fibers. They provide the stamina needed for long duration activities and don't hypertrophy very much. Step: Basically a platform, usually made of plastic, that's anywhere from 3-12" high. It takes more energy to step up on a platform. The higher the platform the harder an activity will be and the greater the chance for injury. Supinated : Palm up or when the thumbs point are away from the body. Volume Training: Doing a lot of sets, usually 15-25, per body part. ---------------------------- THE END -------------------------------- -- firstname.lastname@example.org === "Difficult tasks are never easy..."