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misc.fitness FAQ (part 1)

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Archive-name: misc-fitness/part1

See reader questions & answers on this topic! - Help others by sharing your knowledge
                     MISC.FITNESS FAQ and a little more..
                             Revision: 1.0.5

     
                                Created By
                     Jeff Gleixner (glex@cray.com)
                     with various contributions from people 
                              on misc.fitness.
     
                     A big thanks to Katie Henry who
                     created the home equipment section, and
                     to Kyle Wilson for HTMLing this.
                     
     

This is the FAQ for misc.fitness.  I'd like to thank everyone on 
misc.fitness for sharing their advice and experiences.  I tried to keep 
names and addresses of articles that I included, but a few were lost.  
I'm sure this will grow over time.  If you notice anything that's incorrect 
or if you'd like to add your point of view, please send some nice e-mail 
to glex@cray.com.  I'll correct, or add it, to this document.

This is available via anonymous ftp from ftp.cray.com in the /pub/misc.fitness
directory.  I have also placed a supplemental document in there which is
a collection of various posts from people on misc.fitness about protein,
carbohydrates, muscle, supplements, etc. called "supplemental.doc" 
(see question #19).  The URL for the HTML version is
ftp://ftp.cray.com/pub/misc.fitness/. 

This document actually consists of 5 parts.

Part 1: The FAQ.
Part 2: Exercise Equipment information.
Part 3: Listing of 2-4 exercises per body part and the areas they work.
part 4: Listing of recommended books and magazines.
Part 5: Glossary of Basic Definitions of fitness terms.

Because of the size they will be posted as

Part 1: FAQ 
Part 2: FAQ continued & Exercise Equipment Information 
Part 3: Exercises, Books & Magazines, Glossary


-------- Part 1: The Frequently Asked Questions (and answers :) ----

1.  FAT: How is it measured?
2.  How to get a washboard stomach? or How can I get rid of the FAT around
	my _ANY_BODY_PART?
3.  What should my heart rate be to lose FAT? 
4.  How long should I work out to burn FAT?
5.  What are the best ways to lose weight?
6.  What are the best ways to gain weight?
7.  What is an aerobic exercise?
8.  What is an anaerobic exercise?
9.  What things should I know before starting a training program?
10. What's a warm-up and cool-down?
11. What's a suggested beginner weight routine?
12. How to get over a plateau?
13. Should I train a muscle if it's sore?
14. Will aerobics hurt growth?
15. Do I count the weight of the bar?
16. How should I breath while lifting?
17. Should I use a lifting belt?
18. Should I eat before or after training?
19. Is more protein necessary for weight training?
20. How tall is Arnold?
21. I'm not getting any bigger.  What can I do?
22. Is there a table for doing X pounds for Y reps?
23. What are Fat burners and Stacking.
24. What are lifting straps?
25. Should I train if I'm sick?
26. Free Weights vs Machines?
27. What exercises should I  avoid?
28. Where can I get plates that are less than 5 pounds?
29. What's HFL? Legendary Abs? Rotator Cuff solution?
30. What's High Intensity training (HIT)? or What can be done to work the
       muscle further?
31. What type of routine should I use when lifting weights?
32. Is the order in which muscles are worked important?
33. Periodization/cycling what is it?
34. Where can I get the abs, stretching, Nordic Track, weights or
	Hardgainer FAQ, and access to Medline articles?
35. What's the best exercise to do and when is the best time to workout?
36. Shin splints: what is it and how to get rid of them.
37. Will muscle turn into FAT?
38. What are Plyometrics? or How can I jump higher?
39. I don't want to be HUGE.  Should I still lift weights?
40. If I'm doing both aerobic exercise and weight training, which one 
	should be done first?
41. Is there a nutritional database available via FTP?
42. How does form affect the muscles that are worked?
43. Supplements (Chromium Picolinate, Met-Rx, Vanadyl Sulfate,
	Cybergenics, etc. ), Do they work?
44. How much protein is in an egg?
.........
0. What's misc.fitness?

	In misc.fitness there are discussions about many aspects of
	fitness.  From bodybuilding and training methods to aerobics
	and nutrition.  Hopefully this FAQ will answer some basic
	questions about fitness, with an emphasis on weight training,
	and make your training more productive.

	As with any news group, please observe proper net etiquette,
	read news.announce.newusers or news.newusers.questions before
	posting.  Also PLEASE take flame wars off the news group.  The 
	thousands of people reading this news group don't want to read 
	flames, they want to read about fitness.  Send the person E-Mail, 
	if you must flame them.  THINK before you post!  Lets get this news 
	group focused on fitness and make it enjoyable reading.

	Other related newsgroups, listed in your .newsrc file:
		sci.med.nutrition 	
			archived at sunsite.unc.edu (anonymous ftp)
cd pub/academic/medicine/alternative-healthcare/discussion-groups/newsgroups

		alt.food.fat-free,
		rec.sport.{volleyball, running, many other sports}
		rec.skating.inline
	

1. FAT: How is it measured?

   	Body FAT (BF) is usually given as a percentage of total weight.  If a 
   	100lb person has 10% body FAT, that person has 10lbs of FAT and 90 
	pounds of lean body mass (LBM) (water, muscle, bone, etc).  There 
	are 3500 calories in 1 pound of FAT.
	
   	Body FAT is usually tested in 4 different ways.  

     	  Hydrostatic weighing (Immersion): Weight is taken while under the 
			water and it is used to find your %BF.  
		Pros: Thought to be the most reliable.
                Cons: A lot of equipment is needed, usually found at most
                        Universities.  Time consuming and sort of a hassle.
			What you eat the day before, or before the test,
			can affect the accuracy.

     	  Infrared:  Infrared light is used to determine your body FAT.
		Pros: Fast.
                Cons: Not very reliable.

     	Impedance: The %BF is calculated by measuring the impedance between 
         		certain areas of the body, usually between the fingers 
			and the toes.
		Pros: Fast.
                Cons: Not very reliable.

     	Pinch test: Calipers are used to measure skin fold thickness.
		Pros: Thought to be very reliable.  The more places tested
			the more accurate the results.  Most gyms have a
			caliper.
                Cons: May be embarrassing to have someone pinch your FAT.
			If the person is inexperienced the results may be 
			very inaccurate.

	From the Weights mailing list:
	From: Steven Heston <heston@homey.som.yale.edu>
	Subject:  Easy bodyfat measure

		Here is a simple formula for estimating your bodyfat 
		(in pounds).  I think it was published in the a book with 
		a title like _The YMCA Guide to Physical Fitness Assessment_.

		For men:    Bodyfat = -98.42 + 4.15*waist - .082*bodyweight,
		For women:  Bodyfat = -76.76 + 4.15*waist - .082*bodyweight,
	
		where "waist" is your waist measurement in inches, and 
		"bodyweight" is your total body weight in pounds.  Divide 
		your bodyfat by your total weight to get your bodyfat 
		percentage.
	

     	Regardless of which test you use, record the %BF and have it tested
     	after a few months, using the same method and person, if possible, 
	to make sure what you're doing is having the right effect.  If 
	involved in resistance training your weight should go up or stay the 
	same while your BF goes down. (An increase in LBM is a GOOD thing).

	For men < 15% is considered athletic, 25 being about average.
	For women < 22% is considered athletic, 30 being about average.


2. How to get a washboard stomach? or How can I get rid of the FAT around
     my _ANY_BODY_PART?
	
	Repeat after me "You can't spot reduce!".  Men generally store FAT
	around their waist, while women generally keep it around their hips.
	There is no exercise, magical cream (yet), plastic wrap procedure, 
	or anything else other than liposuction, that will remove FAT from 
	a certain area.  That's usually the first place it builds up and
	it's the last place it will depart.
	
   	The best way to get and keep a washboard stomach, or shapely hips, is 
	by following a low FAT diet and doing plenty of aerobics.  Crunches, 
	or side leg raises, while strengthening and building the muscles, 
	will not make them appear through the layer of FAT between them and 
	the skin.  Get rid of the FAT and the abs will should show up
	and/or the hips will become firm and trim.

	( For more details about training the abs specifically, refer to the
	  Abdominal Training FAQ. See question #34.)

3. What should my heart rate be to lose FAT? 

   	Heart Rate (HR) is the number of times the heart beats per minute.  
   	This is usually taken by pressing on the front, left side of the neck,
   	or the inner wrist, and counting the number of beats in a certain time.  
   	i.e. If you counted 10 beats, starting at zero, in 10 seconds your 
   	HR would be 60 (10*60 sec(1min)/10).  When doing an aerobic work out 
	your Max Heart Rate (MHR) needs to be determined. Your MHR is defined 
	as 220-Your Age.  A 20-Year old's MHR would be 200, while a 50-Year 
	old's would be 170.  While performing aerobic exercise your HR should 
	stay in the range of MHR*.50 to MHR*.80.  This is your Training Zone.  
	So a 20-year old should keep their HR between 100 and 160.  Keeping 
	the HR above this zone will not provide additional aerobic benefit, 
	in fact, it may provide no aerobic benefit at all.  For best results, 
	aerobic and FAT burning, keep your HR in the aerobic zone for at least 
	12 minutes.  The longer and more frequently you do this the more 
	improvement you'll see.
  	 

   	Read "Fit or Fat" by Covert Bailey,listed in the books section, for a 
	good reference.


4. How long should I work out to burn FAT?

   	An aerobic work out should last at least 12 minutes, not counting 
	warm up or cool down, only the amount of time your HR is within your 
	Training Zone. The longer and more frequently you do this the sooner 
	you'll see an improvement (Less Fat..).

   	Why 12 minutes?

   	According to Covert Baily this is the amount of time needed for the 
	body to start producing FAT burning enzymes.  It does level off, but 
	the idea is that you want to get your body to use FAT for energy.
	After 12 minutes you start to burn fat at a higher rate.

		--------
	Stephen Holt, CSCS holtcscs@supercom.win.net

	To quote _Galloway's Book on Running_, "After 5-10 minutes the
	percentage of FATs burned rises while the percentage of
	carbohydrates drops."

	The following graph (please forgive the artwork) is from David
	Costill, perhaps the world's foremost exercise physiologist. (From 
	his book, A Scientific Approach to Distance Running.)

	|                              FAT
 	|                           f
 	|                         f
 	|                       f
 	|                     f
 	| f      c
 	|  f   c   c        f
 	|    fc      c    f
 	|   c  f        fc
 	| c     f     f   c
 	|         f  f        c
 	|          f            c
 	|                        c
 	|                          c
 	|                           c
 	|                            carbs
  	------------------------------------
  	0             15     30     40
   	time in minutes


   	The fact is, after 30 minutes of running, the body burns a
	_higher_ percentage of FAT.
		--------

	From John Galleher 
	
	From a Sci.med.nutrition post: at rest the body is burning
	65%-80% fat 20-35% glycogen.  The body does this to conserve
	glycogen.  It takes much less oxegen to burn glycogen than
	fat (fatty acids).  That is why the preferred fuel (from the
	bodies standpoint not yours) for heavy exercise is glycogen.
	And then the body will replace the glycogen by further food
	intake or burning fat later on.  The brain requires glycogen
	(cannot burn fatty acids) so if you are burning glycogen
	long enough (The 12 minutes)  the body realizes that it is
	going to run out of glycogen if things keep going and starts
	to shift over to burning fatty acids to spare the glycogen



5. What are the best ways to lose weight?

   	
	Don't be so concerned about how much you weigh.  Instead be concerned
   	about how much of that weight is FAT.  You want the weight loss to be 
   	caused by losing FAT, not muscle or water.
	
   	To lose weight you need to burn more calories than you take in.  
   	To do it efficiently and to make sure it stays off the following
   	three steps should be taken and should become part of your every day
   	life.

 	-Start an aerobic program.  The activity should be something
           that you like doing, and look forward to doing.  The activity
           doesn't need to be an aerobics class.  Instead it could be
           walking, biking, inline/ice skating, dancing, etc.  Anything
           that will elevate your HR and keep it around your Training Zone
           for at least 12 minutes.  Remember the longer the better.. 

        -Modify what you eat.  Eat plenty of fruits and vegetables, chicken,
           rice, potatoes, etc.  Read the labels.  1g FAT = 9 calories
           (to make the math a little easier round that up to 10 calories)
           1g protein or carbohydrates = 4 calories.  Don't be fooled by
           "95% FAT free"!  Look carefully at how many calories come from
           FAT.  i.e. if something has 120 calories, which is pretty low,
           but it has 9 g FAT and 5 g protein and 5 g carbohydrates, almost
           70% of that product is FAT.  Try to eliminate the FAT that you
           eat.  There is FAT in virtually everything so shooting for a
           0% FAT diet will probably put you in the 10%-20%, just because
           not everything is FAT free, and you do need some FAT in your
           diet.  Simply switching the obvious foods will make a big
           difference, such as, skim instead of whole milk, chicken instead
           of hamburger, bagels instead of croissants, etc.  Also eating small
           meals more frequently during the day will raise your metabolism
           and keep you from getting that "I'M STARVING" feeling.

        -Resistance Training: To build muscle that will, in turn, help
           burn calories throughout the day.  A simple weight program 
           where you slowly add weight and perform basic exercises every
           other day, such as, Squats, Bench Press, Pull-downs, and Military 
           Presses are enough for most people.

	General hints on Weight Loss:

		* Don't go on starvation diets.  This will slow down
                  your metabolism and may actually make you FATter.

                * Don't take products such as SlimFast.  Drinking SlimFast 
	          may work in the beginning, but you need to modify your 
		  eating habits for a lifetime.

                * Don't buy anything that looks like a gimmick.  The
                  Thighmaster, Fat burning pills, some portable
                  thing-a-ma-jig.  Spend the money on good food and save
                  it for your new clothes you'll need in a couple of months. 
           
                * Get your BF% calculated and check it every other month.

                * Forget about the scale and buy a full length mirror.
                  Standing in front of it nude will tell you much more than
                  the scale will.  "A picture is worth a thousand words"

                * Whatever you do HAVE FUN!  If you start on some horrible 
                  (grapefruit) diet, a month later you're going to hate it
                  and, more than likely, end up putting on more FAT. 
     

6. What are the best ways to gain weight?

	I know everyone will say "I wish I had to gain weight.." but 
	gaining weight (LBM) is a goal for a lot of people.

	To gain weight you need to consume more calories than you burn up.  
	To do it efficiently, and to make the weight muscle, not FAT, you'll 
	need to start a weight training program.  You want the weight to be 
	muscle, not FAT.  To do this you'll need to slowly increase your 
	caloric intake, usually by eating another meal during the day or by 
	using a weight gain supplement.  Make sure the food is protein and 
	carbohydrates and not FAT.  Give it time. 10-15 pounds of muscle in 
	a year is pretty good.
  	 

7. What is an aerobic exercise?

   	Aerobic means oxygen.  Your muscles are working in an oxygen rich 
	state.  After 12 minutes it causes your body to produce FAT-burning 
	enzymes.
	
	According to Covert Baily, an aerobic exercise is one that fits the 
   	following four requirements.

	A. Is steady, nonstop.
        B. Lasts twelve minutes minimum.
        C. Has a comfortable pace. 
        D. Uses the muscles of the lower body.

    	 An easy way to measure if your training too hard/fast is a simple
     	talk test.  If you can't carry on a conversation without huffing
     	and puffing for breath you need to slow down.  If you can carry on
     	a conversation without stopping every now and then for a breath
     	then you need to go a little faster.  You have to be doing some
	work.  Your heart rate and your breathing needs to be elevated.

     	Examples: walking/running, cycling, rowing, stair climbing, dancing.


8. What is anaerobic exercise?

   	Anaerobic means lack of oxygen.  Your muscles are working in an
   	oxygen deprived state.  This causes your body to produce sugar-burning
   	enzymes. You are expending energy faster than your body can
	replace it by metabolizing oxygen.
	
   	An anaerobic exercise is any activity that fails to meet the above 4
   	requirements.  An aerobic activity can become anaerobic if the heart
   	rate is elevated above the training zone for a long period of time.
	Any start/stop activities would qualify.
	
     	Examples: tennis, football, sprinting, skiing, weight training.


9. What things should I know before starting a training program?

    	A person beginning a training program needs to realize a few things
    	before they begin. First, changes don't happen overnight.  You have
    	to think about where you want to be a year or two from now and 
    	slowly achieve minor goals.  Putting on muscle, or taking off FAT
    	should be done slowly and correctly for best results.  Second, if you
    	want to become more healthy you'll probably need to alter your
    	lifestyle for your lifetime. Many people take up aerobics or 
    	weight training, lose/gain a few pounds and quit.  Months later 
	they're back where they were.  Third, you need to be informed.  There 
	are plenty of books and magazines to help get you started.  Ask a lot 
	of questions and experiment with different exercises and/or activities.
    	Last, not everyone has the genetics to have 20" arms or to run a 
    	sub 4 minute mile.  Don't get discouraged about what you don't have.
    	Improve on what you do have.
	
	
10.What's a warm-up and cool-down?

	A warm-up is an activity that gets your muscles "warmed up".  
	Usually a 5 minute bike ride at a steady comfortable pace, or a 
	brisk 5 minute walk, is enough.  Most people like to go until they 
	"break a sweat".  A cool-down is just the opposite.  You want to 
	gradually slow the body down.  This is usually done by biking/walking 
	at a fairly fast pace and gradually slowing down over a few minutes.  
	Stretching also makes up a part of the cool down.
   	 
11.What's a suggested beginner weight routine?

    	Beginners, as well as advanced, should stick to the basic exercises.  
    	Basic is not meant as -beginner- but as an exercise that uses a lot 
    	of muscles.  Rest is very important.  During the actual weight training
    	the muscle is broken down, it grows/rebuilds while it's resting,
    	usually taking 48-96 hours.  So a program should also have "days off".
    	A beginner should also exercise the whole body.  Beginners also need
    	to find the correct weight to use.  Generally the weight should be
    	heavy enough so you can do 10 reps, with the last couple being pretty
    	tough.  If you can do 11 then raise the weight slightly.  You should
    	keep a log and write down the sets and poundages you used.  Slowly
    	up the weight when you can do at least 10 reps (work set).  Don't 
    	get all wrapped up in how much weight you can do.  Focus on good form
    	and think about that muscle doing the work.  Weight and strength will
    	come with time.  Okay, here's a basic beginner exercise program, it
    	is by no means "THE" only program, it's just meant as a guideline:
	
        Done every other day, then 2 days off. (typically M-W-F, weekend off)
        	Warm-up: 5-10 minutes
	Squats: 2 sets of progressive warm-ups. 1 work set
        Deadlifts: 2 sets of progressive warm-ups. 1 work set
        Bench Press: 2 sets of progressive warm-ups. 1 work set
        Pull-ups/downs: 2 sets of progressive warm-ups. 1 work set
        Abs
        Cool down & stretching: 5-10 minutes.

    	All of this should take < 60 minutes.  The log book may look
    	something like this, the weights are just made up (YMMV):

          Date: 9/30/94
          Squats: 100x10         (thats 100 pounds for 10 reps)
          Deadlifts: 50x10
          Bench: 45x10
          Pull downs: 40x10
          Abs: 10 crunches

     	After 1 month of this you should add another set to your work out.  The
     	log may look something like this:

          Date: 10/30/94
          Squats: 130x10 130x10  
          Deadlifts: 65x10  65x10
          Bench: 45x10  60x10
          Pull downs: 40x10  60x10
          Abs: 20 crunches

     	After 1 month of this (month 3) you may add another set to your 
     	work out and stay with this for 3 months then take a week off and add
     	exercises as needed.  The idea is to slowly add weight(1-5 lbs) per
     	week and do the same number of reps as you did before.  If you can't
     	do that weight then try it again next week.  If you still can't do it
     	the next week, then you've hit a temporary plateau.
	
12.How to get over a plateau?
	
     	Plateaus are when you become "stuck" at lifting a certain weight 
     	for weeks and you can't seem to get past it.  Here are a few ways
	to get through a plateau.

         - Take a week off.  Give your body a chance to rest.
         - Cycle your training and change your exercises.
         - Work on the "weak link".  i.e. Your triceps could limit your
                                     bench. 
         - Shock the muscles.
                - Stripping (explained in other parts of the FAQ)
                - Negatives (explained in other parts of the FAQ)
                - 10 sets of 10 using a light weight.

	  - Have your training partner put on the weights using a lot of
		10-lbs and 5-lbs so you don't know what you're lifting
		just by glancing at the weights.  It should be around your
		normal weight.  It might be because of a mental block.
    
13.Should I train a muscle if it's sore?

    	No.  If your legs are sore from squatting and today is bench day, 
    	that's okay.  But if your legs are still sore from the last leg
    	work out, take at least another day off.  Rest is when the muscle grows.

14. Will aerobics hurt growth?

	Yes.  If you're training for maximum muscle mass, aerobics
        will slow down muscle growth. 

15.Do I count the weight of the bar?

	Yes.  Normal Olympic barbells are 45 pounds.  EZ-Curl bars are
        around 20.  It's for your own purposes, so you don't have to, but
        when you start talking weights you should know that most people
        include the weight of the bar.  In some cases, such as, Leg Press or 
        various other machines, just record the weight you add.  Be careful 
        when going to other gyms, their platform/sled may weigh a lot more 
        than yours.

16. How should I breath while lifting?

	Usually exhale on the contraction of the muscle.  It's the 
	part of the exercise that occurs when you're working against 
	gravity.

17. Should I use a lifting belt?

	In most cases a lifting belt is not needed.  Using a belt all
	the time actually weakens the abdominals and the lower back,
	by making them work less.  Weight belts are suggested when
	doing max squats or heavy lifting above the head.

18. Should I eat before or after training?

	When training you should work out on an empty stomach, or close to
	it.  You want the blood to be available for your muscles, not tied
	up digesting food.  You want to eat within 90 minutes after a
	work out.

	MM2000 suggests riding the stationary bike at the end of your
	work out for about 10 minutes and slowly drink apple juice during
	your ride.

	Post workout snacks should be simple carbs with a little protein.
	Orange Juice and some yogurt or a banana would be a good snack.


19. Is more protein necessary for weight training?
	
	Taken from a post from Marty B. discussing Ironman and Protein.
	(If you'd like the scientific discussion about muscle, FAT, and
        other topics, posted from Marty, and various people, it is 
	available via anonymous ftp from ftp.cray.com in the 
	/pub/misc.fitness directory called supplemental.doc.  It is very
        long and I couldn't find an appropriate place to put it in the FAQ.
               -Jeff  )


	...keep the protein intake at 12-15% of total calories.  If
	you can't gain muscle mass on this kind of protein intake,
	you may have a genetic requirement for more protein than
	what the average bodybuilder would need.  Another factor is
	the stage of your training.  If you are just starting out,
	you will need more protein.  But as you reach plateau, your
	protein intake should be cut back(0.8 to 1.0 grams per kg
	of body weight).
	
	Muscle is just like FAT cells, once you have reached the
	genetic max for protein in muscle cells or FAT in adipose
	cells no additional amount of protein or carbohydrate will
	get these cells to become bigger.  Dr. Lemon at Kent State
	recommends that during the growth phase, protein intake be
	kept in the 1.5 to 2.0 grams per kg body weight range but
	even with this kind of protein intake, Dr. Lemon says that
	your protein intake as a percent of total calories should
	still be kept in the 12 to 15% range.  This advice is for
	the natural bodybuilders.  Using steroids and/or growth
	hormone stimulators decreases your protein requirement for
	muscle development(this is probably why the Russians cut
	back on their protein intake once they started using their
	little tricks).

20. How tall is Arnold?

	The NET consensus was that he's about 6'0".

21. I'm not getting any bigger.  What can I do?

	There are basically four things to look at.  First, you may
	be over training.  Try taking a week off and when you come back
	take it easy for a few weeks and evaluate your work out.  Second, 
        eat, eat, eat!  You'll never get bigger if you don't give your 
        body the resources to rebuild itself.  Make sure the food you're 
        eating is nutritious.  Third, your body may be used to doing the 
        same thing every work out.  Try changing your exercises.  Finally, 
        you may be hitting your genetic peak.  Not everyone can have 20" 
        arms.  Basically, taking a break, eating more and changing your 
        work out should help when you hit a growth plateau.

22. Is there a table for doing X pounds for Y reps?

	This was posted on misc.fitness a while ago.
	
	Reps    % of max        Reps    % of max
	1       100             6       85
	2       95              7       82.5
	3       92.5            8       80
	4       90              9       77.5
	5       87.5            10      75

23. What are Fat burners, Stacking, and Thermogenesis?

	Fat burners are described as something that will either
	burn more FAT, than normal, or inhibit FAT from being created.
	Caffeine could be considered a FAT burner, since it raises the
	heart rate causing the body to burn more calories, but it's
	affects on burning FAT are minimal. 

	Stacking refers to taking more than one drug at a time to get
	more of an effect.  Taking caffeine, ephedrine, and aspirin at 
	the same time will produce a greater effect than the total if 
	taken separatly.

	  (From an article that appeared in the weights mailing list,
		whose address is listed in #34)
	From the JUNE/JULY 1993 issue of Muscle Media 2000.  According
	to a study in  in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
	(1992; 55:246S-82).

	  According to the study, the stack that proved to be the most 
	  effective is 20mg ephedrine / 200mg caffeine. They also suggest 
	  adding 300mg of aspirin to further enhance the thermogenic effect.
	
	  The stack should be taken 3 times a day to optimize the "FAT-burning"
	  effect. The study says the side effects, insomnia, jitterness, etc.
	  are only temporary.

	  The study also surmises that the stack may also inhibit the bodys
	  ability to form FAT as well as burn it.

	From: RSSMITH@CHEMICAL.watstar.uwaterloo.ca (R Scott Smith, Librarian,)

        The "optimal" synergistic effect of caffeine and ephedrine is
	reported in numerous muscle mags (for want of more reliable sources) 
	as 1mg ephedrine to 10 mg caffeine.  A dose of 20 mg of ephedrine with 
	200 mg of caffeine is used in the studies.  A product containing these 
	two compounds in this ratio (but not the only product, just the only 
	one I know off hand) is TwinLab's RIPPED FUEL. It is also HUGELY 
	expensive.  [RIPPED FUEL's capsules have proportions of ephedrine to 
	caffeine at 20mg to 100mg. big thanks to George Berger for pointing
	this out..] A less expensive route is to buy ephedrine (either in pills 
	or drops) and use coffee as your caffeine source.  The problem with 
	this is that the amount of caffeine in coffee varies with the type of 
	coffee how it is brewed.  A bench-mark I use is 1 cup of coffee = 
	100mg caffeine.

        If you are really interested in the thermogenic combinations, adding
	an aspirin to the mix increases the effect, and naringenin (found in
	grapefruit and grapefruit juice) prolongs the caffeine effect.  
	Theophyllin (sp?) in tea is reported to be thermogenic as well 
	(according to Michael Colgan), although caffeine levels in tea vary 
	more than do those in coffee.  Chinese green tea supposedly contains 
	ephedrine and caffeine (according to Robert Haas) although I have 
	yet to find anything that shows what the levels of each are.

	--
	Also from R Scott Smith

	Thermogenesis is the conversion of fat and food to produce heat, and 
	not chemical energy (ATP).  When thermogenic effects are stated, it 
	implies that the substance or substances encourage the body to 
	increase metabolic rate in the production of heat.  This generally 
	results in an increase in body temperature (of at most 2 degrees, 
	from what I've read, although I don't recall if those were fahrenheit 
	degrees or Celsius degrees).  This corresponds to an increased 
	utilization of calories and as a result, fat loss.
	--

	From:krissy@mitre.org (Kristine A. Recktenwald):

		DPS Nutrition 1-800-697-4969.  Their latest catalogue 
		lists ephedrine 25 mg 100 tabs for $4.95.  They also 
		advertise a bunch of the ephedrine/caffeine/aspirin 
		combinations.

	--
	From: sgm@sturgeon.ssd.ray.com (Steven G. Myerson)

		Mother Natures sells 1000 25-mg pills of ephedrine for $20.
		Call 1-800-458-1613 for a catalog.

		They will not ship to AZ, ID, OR, NV, WA, or CA in the 
		United States.
	--
	PLEASE NOTE THAT THE ABOVE STACK MAY BE DANGEROUS FOR SOME PEOPLE!
	PEOPLE SUFFERING FROM HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE, HEART/LUNG PROBLEMS, ETC.
	SHOULD STAY AWAY FROM SUCH PRODUCTS.  IF YOU NOTICE ANY PROBLEMS,
	DISCONTINUE USE AND SEE YOUR DOCTOR IMMEDIATELY!
	

24. What are lifting straps?

	Lifting straps are worn around the wrist and wrapped tightly around 
	the bar.  They are usually made out of a heavy cloth and have an
	open loop at one end, so a loop may be made and your hand placed
	through it.  This allow you to lift more weight than your grip
	can handle.  Usually done while working the back, such as deadlifts, 
	various rows, pull-[ups/downs], and sometimes curls.  Treat these 
	similar to lifting belts.  Use them as a lifting aid for your heavy 
	sets.  Do plenty of lighter sets to help improve your grip and forearm 
	strength.

25. Should I train if I'm sick?

	Generally if the sickness is above the neck, it's alright to 
	exercise (sinus, headache, sore throat, etc).  Just take it easy 
	and respect others who aren't sick by wiping off the bar or 
	handlebars when finished and by washing your hands frequently
	if your sickness is contagious.  It might also be a good time
	to take a few days off to let your body recuperate, getting sick
	might be a sign of overtraining.

26. Free Weights vs Machines?

	There will always be an argument as to which one is better.
	Free weights work more muscles, indirectly, for stability
	and balance and they allow a free range of motion.  Machines 
	isolate muscles better and are safer, since you can't drop
	a bar on you or get pinned under a bar on your final rep, and 
	you don't need a spotter.  Most people who train use both, or
	whatever type is available.  A lot can also be accomplished
	by doing exercises with neither, such as, push-ups, pull-ups,
	one-legged squats, lunges, etc.  Each exercise or piece of
	equipment hits the muscles at a slightly different angle.
	Experiment to find what works for you.  A good way to use
	free weights and machines is by doing an exercise, using
	the free weights, then go directly to a machine and work the
	muscle further.  This way the muscle can be worked to failure
	with less risk of injury and you'll probably work the muscle
	harder knowing that you're not going to get stuck under the bar.

27. What exercises should I  avoid?

	Any exercise can cause an injury when done improperly.  To
	keep it safe go slow, don't bounce, and don't cheat.  The
	only exercise that are generally not advised are the following:

		-Full sit-ups, do crunches instead.
		-Upright Rows, may cause shoulder problems/pain.
		-Deep pullovers, may cause shoulder problems/pain.

	If you feel any pain during any exercise STOP!


28. Where can I get plates that are less than 5 pounds?

	"Maverick", 213-257-9139
	They sell a set of 6 weights: 1.1 lb; .55 lb;
	.275 lb (fractions of a Kg, 2 each weight) for
	$30 plus shipping, in case anyone else is
	interested. Or you can buy them individually for
	$5 apiece ("for cost of machining them", their
	representative said).  
	Grover Furr furr@apollo.montclair.edu

	From IRONMAN magazine

	  Ironman Products 1-800-570-IRON ext 3.
	  1 1/4-100lb Olympic weights machined 10lbs/$10
	  1 1/4-100lb Olympic weights $0.55/lb
  
	  Bodybuilder's Discount Outlet (708) 268-1611
  
	Many more exist.  Check local fitness stores.

29. What's HFL? Legendary Abs? Rotator Cuff solution?

	Health for Life
	8033 Sunset Blvd.
	Suite 483
	LA, CA  90046
	1-800-874-5339


	HFL's pamphlets have had a very positive reaction
	from the NET.  Their ads are in IRONMAN as well
	as various other Magazines.  30-day money back 
	refund.

	The most talked about pamphlets have been:

	  The 7-minute Rotator Cuff Solution- Various
	  exercises and diagrams showing how the
	  shoulder and the rotator cuff work and
	  how to strengthen them.  They're the ones
	  that suggest staying away from Upright Rows
	  and Pullovers. $14.95  
  
	  Legendary Abs- Discusses their approach
	  to working abs and gives a very good
	  program.  There's also Legendary Abs II.
	  $14.95
      	
	Others:
	  TNT (Total Nexk and Traps) $14.95
	  Maximum Calves $14.95
	  The Human Fuel handbook $24.95
	  Secrets of Advanced Bodybuilding $19.95
	  Power forearms  $11.95



30. What's High Intensity training (HIT)? or What can be done to work the
       muscle further?

	High Intensity training is using various methods to further
	stress the muscle, to cause more growth.  The following are
	some common methods.  These should be used sparingly to 
	shock the muscles or to help you get over a plateau.  Allow
	for adequate warm-up and rest and go to positive failure on 
	each set.

	Forced Reps: After positive failure is reached spotters assist
		you in doing a couple of more reps.

	Partials: Doing a movement through a small range of motion.
		Usually used to strengthen the weak part of a lift.  Also
		commonly seen when the person is using too much weight and 
		can't do the full movement.

	Negatives: Using a weight that's above your max and only perform
		the negative portion (The part of the activity where the 
		weight is moving with gravity).  Spotters lift the weight 
		through the positive area and you do the negatives.

	Stripping: Doing a set to failure then the spotters remove some
		weight and you do a few more reps to failure.  This can
		continue for many reps.

        Burns: After positive failure occurs, continue doing mini-reps (a
                few inches of movement) to keep stress on the muscles.

        Super Set: To further fatigue a muscle an isolation movement is 
                followed immediately by a basic movement.  i.e. Flyes followed 
                by doing a Bench press.

        Tri Set: Similar to Super Sets only three exercises are used instead 
                of two.

        21's: Do half of the movement for 7 reps, then do the other half
                for 7 reps then do 7 full reps.  i.e. Barbell curl: Curl
                from arms straight to 90-degrees for 7 reps.  Then curl
                from 90-degrees to arms perpendicular to floor for 7 reps.  
                Then do 7 full reps.  This is done non-stop and considered 1 
                set.


	From: Tim Mansfield <timbomb@cs.uq.oz.au>

	MODIFIED HIGH INTENSITY SETS
	This is a summary of "The Modified High Intensity Method" by Robert
	Hinson, Natural Physique, v3 n2, Sept 1990.
	
	The so-called "High Intensity Training" method championed by Mike 
	Mentzer, Arthur Jones and Ellington Darden calls for a reduced number 
	of sets and a reduced workout frequency. The reduced number of sets 
	(down to only one work set in some versions of the method) and greater 
	recovery time allows the trainee to work each set to failure.
	
	The article claims that many HIT trainees have not made the gains
	claimed by HIT advocates and that this failure can be attributed to
	three reasons:
	
	1) insufficient warmup
	2) too heavy weights
	3) over-emphasis on forced reps and negative reps
	
	The Modified High Intensity Training method (or MHIT) aims to solve
	these problems by restructuring the sets by:
	
	* incorporating proper warmup into the single set using 65-70% of the 
		1 rep max weight
	* expand the single set to 15 reps with the first half done super-slow
		and the second half done explosively
	
	This keeps the weights safely low, incorporates a warmup and exhausts
	both slow and fast-twitch fibres.
	
	So a single MHIT set follows the following pattern:
	
	phase 1: 8 reps
	 	5 second positive contraction
	 	6 second negative contraction
	phase 2: 7 reps
	 	1 second positive contraction
	 	2 second negative contraction
	
	There is no rest between phase 1 and 2.
	
	Hinson recommends a three day per week workout on a two-way split as
	follows:
	
	Monday:    chest, back, legs
	Wednesday: shoulders, arms
	Friday:    whole body


31. What type of routine should I use when lifting weights?

	There are many routines that people use.  The "best" one
	is the one that fits your schedule and gives you adequate rest.  
	There are many variables to each routine, how often, how much
	rest, what exercises, when to cycle, etc.  All of these
	are very different for everyone.  Experiment, try them all,
	make up your own, find what works for you and stick with it. 

	Here are a few common ways to split up your work out. 
	
	Upper body/Lower body: Work the muscles above your waist
		on one day, then work the muscles below your waist
		on the next work out.
	
	Push/Pull: Work the opposing muscle groups on the same
		work out.  Triceps & Biceps, Quads & Hamstrings,
		Chest & Back.  Or work only those muscles that
		"push" on one day and the muscles that "pull"
		on another.
	
	3(or 4)-on-1(or 2)-off: Working the different muscles 
		every day, the "on" days, until the whole body
		is worked, then taking a day or two off.

		i.e.

		Day 1: Back and Biceps.
		Day 2: Legs & Calves
		Day 3: Chest, Shoulders, and Triceps
		Day 4: OFF
		Day 5: OFF or Day 1


			Or

		Day 1: Back and Traps
		Day 2: Chest, Shoulders
		Day 3: Triceps & Biceps
		Day 4: Legs & Calves
		Day 5: OFF
		Day 6: OFF or Day 1
	
	Work one body part in the morning and another in the
		evening.

	M-W-F: Working out every other day, then take the weekend off.

	Work different body parts on on Monday/Tuesday and Thursday/Friday
		taking Wednesday and the weekend off.

	Work a different body part every day, take at least 2 days off then
		start again.

	Give larger muscle groups (Legs, back, chest) more days off, and
		hit the smaller muscles, since they recover faster, more
		often.

	Alternate between light weight(12-15 reps) and High weight 6-8 rep 
		days.

		i.e.
		Day 1: Back and Biceps (Heavy)
		Day 2: Legs & Calves (Light)
		Day 3: Chest, Shoulders, and Triceps (Heavy)
		Day 4: OFF
		Day 1: Back and Biceps (Light)
		Day 2: Legs & Calves (Heavy)
		Day 3: Chest, Shoulders, and Triceps (Light)
		Day 4: OFF

32. Is the order of when muscles are worked important?

	YES!  The muscles should be work from largest to smallest.  If you
	already have enough size in most of the large muscles then work
	your weakest body part first.  The muscles should be worked in
	this order: quads, chest, back, hamstrings, shoulders, calves,
	triceps, biceps, forearms/wrists, abs.

	Why?  To get the most gains the large muscles have to be worked
	hard enough to promote growth.  If, for example, you worked your
	triceps to failure then tried to bench press, to work the chest,
	your triceps would be worn out before your chest worked hard
	enough to grow.

        Avoid working abs and then doing Squats.  The abs are a very
        important link in doing squats, they shouldn't be tired before doing
        squats.  If triceps are worked before the chest make sure to lower 
	the weight when working the chest.


33. Periodization/cycling what is it?

	Cycling is where you cycle the training of your muscles to keep
	them growing.  You train them for a certain period then switch 
	or rest.  Here are two common ways to use periodization:

	10-rep cycle:  I'm not sure of the "official" name I just
	tagged it with this title.  When performing this type of cycle you
	never do more than 10-reps per set, and only 2 work sets.  To
	start, you need to know your 10-rep/MAX weight for the exercises
	you're going to perform.  That is at what weight do you hit positive
	failure at around the 10th rep.  Write this weight down and figure
	out 80%, 90%, 95% of that weight, for each exercise.  To begin the
	cycle start out at doing only 80% of your maximum 10-rep weight
	for 10-reps.  This should be a very easy work out.  At the next 
	work out use 90%, then 95%, then 100% at your fourth work out, which
	should be about 3-4 weeks after the cycle is started.  If you 
	work out more than once per week then gradually add weight during
	the week, keeping pace with the above outline.  When you hit your
	previous 100% weight you should be able to add a little more weight
	at next week's work out.  Keep adding a small amount of weight, 1-2 
	lbs, per work out until you can't do 10-reps for 2 weeks in a row.  
	When that happens your muscles are no longer getting stronger.  Take a 
	week off.  Then start at 80% of your new max.

	Week 1: 1x10  light 
		1x10  medium 
	        2x10@80% of 10-rep max 

	Week 2: 1x10  light 
		1x10  medium 
	        2x10@90% of 10-rep max 

	Week 3: 1x10  light 
		1x10  medium 
	        2x10@95% of 10-rep max 

	Week 4: 1x10  light 
		1x10  medium 
	        2x10@100% of 10-rep max 

	Week 5-?: 1x10 light
		  1x10 medium
		  2x10@100%+ of previous 1-rep max.

		Continue to add small amounts of weight until you have
		2 weeks in a row where you couldn't hit 10-reps at the
		same weight.

	Take 1 week off and start again.




	Another CYCLE is to cycle both the reps and weight over ~12 weeks.
	The following is from "GETTING STRONGER".

	Weeks 1-4:   1x10  light 
	             1x10  medium 
	             3x10  heavy (target weight)

		If you can do more than the 10 reps, at your target weight,
	 	then add a small amount of weight next week.

	Weeks 5-8:   1x10  light 
	             1x5   medium 
	             3x5   heavy (target weight)
	             1x10@70% of target

		If you can do more than the 5 reps at your target weight,
		then add a small amount of weight.

	Weeks 9-10:  1x10  light 
	             1x3   medium 
	             1x3   medium-heavy 
	             3x3   heavy (target weight)
	             1x10@70% of target

		If you can do more than the 3 reps at your target weight,
		then add a small amount of weight.

	Weeks 11-12: No organized work outs.  Experiment with new
		exercises, bike, aerobics, anything but intense 
		lifting.  Give your body a small vacation.

	GO TO Weeks 1-4: and start all over.	

34. Where can I get the abs, stretching, Nordic Track, weights or
	Hardgainer FAQ, and access to Medline articles?

	Abs FAQ:

	  The Ab FAQ is posted every month to misc.fitness and misc.answers. 
	  It is also available from the following URL:
  http://www.dstc.edu.au/RDU/staff/nigel-ward/abfaq/abdominal-training.html

	Nordic Track/Nordic Sport:

	  A FAQ for cross-country ski machines, Nordic Track/Nordic Sport, is
	  available by sending mail to Dana Crom <danac@morc.mfg.sgi.com>.  It
	  isn't available via ftp at this moment.


	Stretching FAQ:

 	  This document is available in ascii, texinfo, postscript, and 
	  dvi formats via anonymous ftp from the host `cs.huji.ac.il' located 
	  under the directory `/pub/doc/faq/rec/martial.arts'. The file name 
	  matches the wildcard pattern `stretching.*'. The file suffix 
	  indicates the format.

	weights mailing list: To get the weights FAQ

	  Send your request to "weights-back-issues@fa.disney.com".  Include 
	  the word "frequent" on a line in the body of the message.  


 	The following is a good site for clinical studies on a wide variety 
	of topics.  They are listings of abstracts from Medline.  They will 
	point you to the source for more information.

	  From: Michael Shiffman shiffman@netcom.com

	    I did searches, on medline, on supplements (creatine, l-carnitine,
	    vanadyl sulfate, and chromium picolinate) and on weightlifing and 
	    have made them available via anonymous FTP at netcom.  You can get 
	    them from:

        	ftp ftp.netcom.com
        	cd /pub/sh/shiffman

  	    If I can be of help getting reference resources in this way please 
	    don't hesitate to ask.


	HardGainer FAQ:

	  The HardGainer faq is now available by anonymous ftp from:
          sonofsun.sdsu.edu in the /pub/hardgainer directory.

	Various fitness related links to get you started:

	  http://www.fitnessworld.com/">FitnessWorld Home Page
	  http://www.solutionsrc.com/~keric/">Eric's Fitness Home Page
	  http://www.cs.unc.edu/~wilsonk/weights.html">The Weightlifting Page
	  http://rampages.onramp.net/~chaz">http de Charles



Continued in part2...
-- 
glex@nitro.cray.com  === "Difficult tasks are never easy..."

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