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Archive-name: meteorology/storms-faq/part2
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Part II:
I: Real-Time Information
J: Historical Information

By Christopher W. Landsea
NOAA AOML/Hurricane Research Division           
4301 Rickenbacker Causeway
Miami, Florida 33149

18 July, 1997

This is currently a two-part FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions report) that 
is in its second full incarnation (version 2.4).  However, there may be some 
errors or discrepancies that have not yet been found.  If you do see an item 
that needs correction, please contact me directly.  Part I contains various 
definitions, answers for questions about names, myths, winds, records, 
forecasting, climatology and observation of tropical cyclones.  This section 
(Part II) provides sites that you can access both real-time information about 
tropical cyclones, what is available on-line for historical storms, as well 
as good books to read and various references for tropical cyclones.  Keep in 
mind that this FAQ is not considered a reviewed paper to reference.  Its main 
purpose is to provide quick answers for (naturally) frequently asked 
questions as well as to be a pointer to various sources of information.

Much of the on-line information is pulled from Ilana Stern's wonderful 
"Sources of Meteorological Data FAQ" and I acknowledge the time and effort
she has put in in originally compiling this information.  Also Gary Gray
has put together a very comprehensive listing of tropical cyclone Web
sites that I've included here with his permission.


I1) Where can I get real-time advisories for tropical cyclones?
I2) Where can I get real-time tropical weather analyses and forecast fields?
I3) Where can I get real-time ship and buoy data?
I4) Where can I get real-time sea surface temperature data?
I5) Where can I get real-time satellite pictures?
I6) Where can I get real-time radar data?
I7) Where can I get real-time hurricane aircraft reconnaissance data?
I8) Where can I get real-time tropical cyclone motion and intensity model 
I9) Where can I get tropical cyclone preparedness information?
I10) What computer software is available for tracking tropical cyclones?

J1) Where can I get historical data on tropical cyclones ?
J2) What journals have regular articles on tropical cyclones ?
J3) What books have been written about tropical cyclones ?
J4) What refereed articles were written in recent years about tropical 
    cyclones ?


Subject:  I1) Where can I get real-time advisories for tropical cyclones?

There are three good ways to get these.  Either telnet to a site and 
peruse the advisories you would like to see via a menu, have the advisories 
sent directly to you via email, or visit sites via the World Wide Web.

Option 1:  Telnet to a site
     The site that has a very comprehensive listing is the Weather 
Underground at University of Michigan.  Simply telnet to:

     Make sure to include the '3000' at the end of the command.  From 
there you have a simple menu driven system to get to the USA National 
Hurricane Center, the USA Central Pacific Hurricane Center, and the
USA Joint Typhoon Warning Center products.

Option 2:  Advisories automatically sent to you
     WX-TROPL was created for people who want receive, as an email,
tropical bulletins originating from the US National Hurricane Center, the
Central Pacific Hurricane Center, and the Joint Typhoon Warning Center.  To 
get information as to how to sign up onto WX-TROPL, ftp to and 
use anonymous FTP to retrieve the file WX-TALK.DOC from the directory
"wx-talk".  If you don't have ftp access, contact either Chris Novy
<> or Charley Kline <>.

Option 3:  Get the advisories via surfing the Web
     The World Wide Web is a great source for real-time tropical cyclone 
advisories.  For brevity here are some reliable http sites (provided by
Gary Gray): 

        gopher:// (good source) (everything) (most info available) (full advisory list) (map) (new stuff... looks great) (simple & excellent) (strike probs & track maps) (simple search) (JTWC forecasts) (forecasts & conditions of Caribbean)


Subject:  I2) Where can I get real-time tropical weather analyses and
              forecast fields?

(Provided by Gary Gray.)

        gopher:// (lots of info) (Mike Fiorino's site) (most products) (most info available) (nice tropical graphics) (most products) (many products) (links to tropical weather summary) (several products) (some unique maps) (good set of info) (basic info) (excellent!)


Subject:  I3) Where can I get real-time ship and buoy data?

(Provided by Gary Gray.) (great source) (good set of data) (great graphic buoy/cman source) (nice ship, bouy, and wave data) (Gulf & W Atlantic)


Subject:  I4) Where can I get real-time sea surface temperature data?

(Provided by Gary Gray.)

        gopher:// (several products) (global SST image) (decent AVHRR SST maps) (analysis & anomaly) (a few different "styles") (several good SST maps) (global SST image) (global SST image)


Subject:  I5) Where can I get real-time satellite pictures?

(Provided by Gary Gray.) (Chris Velden's site) (Jeff Hawkins' site)
        gopher:// (many good pix) (GOES 8 & 9, specials) (a few good pix) (lots of sat pix) (nice GOES-8/9 full disk images) (many pix have bad links) (the basics) (Bermudocentric & other sat pix) (Atlantic) (GOES-8 US & Atlantic & FL) (tropics) (several decent sat pix) (tons of sat pix) (GOES-8 & 9, and historical)


Subject:  I6) Where can I get real-time radar data?

(Provided by Gary Gray.) (nice source) (full set of rad pix) (Mid-Atlantic sites) (decent selection) (Miami radar) (Mobile, AL radar) (coastal TX radar only) (New Orleans radar)


Subject:  I7) Where can I get real-time hurricane aircraft reconnaissance

(Provided by Gary Gray.) (info from the source)
        gopher:// (good recon lists) (decent source) (excellent site) (simple recon report grabber) (decoding info) (TCPOD & recon reports)


Subject:  I8) Where can I get real-time tropical cyclone motion and 
              intensity model forecasts?

(Provided by Gary Gray.) ("normal" model, but good for TS) (not models, but some forecasts) storms) (Gary. Gray's model)


Subject:  I9) Where can I get tropical cyclone preparedness information?

(Provided by Gary Gray.) (all the basic preparedness info) (Alachua Co., FL) (FEMA) (several links) (general preparedness) (basic preparedness info) (disaster preparedness) (lots of preparedness info) (great preparedness info)


Subject:  I10) What computer software is available for tracking tropical 

(Descriptions kindly provided by Tom Berg and via the authors.  Note that 
this does not constitute an endorsement of any product. "Low $" 
indicates less than $50, "Medium $" indicates between $50-$100,
and "High $" indicates more than $100.)

1. HURRTRAK (Windows-based) --- shareware, semi-functional available on
Compuserve in Aviation and Weather Channel forums. Also on AOL.  It is
also available through the WeatherNet:
                                 The company is   PC Weather Products
                                                  P.O. Box 72723
                                                  Marietta, GA 30007-2723
They primarily market their professional versions (high $), but still 
provide a hobbyist edition (medium $). The professional software allows 
for many additional capabilities such as plotting county lines & roadways, 
more detailed charts, detailed impact reports as well as animation and 
strike probabilities.  See their WEB site at for more

2. STORM (DOS-based) ------ shareware, semi-functional available on AOL.
                                        The company is  Utopia Software
                                                        P.O. Box 420324
                                                        Houston,  TX  77242
They offer a regular (low $) and enhanced version (medium $).  What the 
enhanced offers special is the ability to enter and plot the forecasted 
positions from the NHC and to include offshore platforms or ships 
positions on the charts.

3. FORCE12 (Windows) ---- shareware, semi-functional available on Compuserve 
in Aviation and Weather Channel forums and AOL. 
                                     The company is  Epperson Computing
                                                     P.O. Box 1094
                                                     Baytown, TX  77522-1094
There is only one version (low $).

4. MERLIN (DOS) ----- shareware, semi-functional available on Compuserve in
Aviation and Weather Channel forums.    The company is  T.M. Parker
                                                        P.O. Box 1431
                                                        La Porte,  TX  77572
There is only one version (low $).

5. GCANES (DOS) ----- shareware, semi-functional available on Compuserve in
Aviation forum.                         The company is  Robert Terwilliger
                                                        2398 SW 22nd Ave.
                                                        Miami,  FL     33145
There is only one version (low $).

6. HURRICANE FORECASTER (DOS) - shareware, semi-functional available on AOL.
                                   The company is  Craig Rorrer
                                                   3809 Iola Ct.
                                                   Virginia Beach, VA 23456
There is only one version (low $).

7. HURRICANE TRACKER (Windows) -- shareware, semi-functional available on 
Compuserve forum Aviation.         The company is  Nicheware
                                                   P.O. Box 1312
                                                   Summerville,SC 29484-1312 
There is only one version (low $).

8. HURRICANE WATCH! (Windows) --- shareware, semi-functional available on 
Compuserve forum Aviation and AOL.   The company is  SeaBorne Systems
                                                     414 Long Leaf Acres Dr.
                                                     Wilmington, NC  28405
There is only one version (low $).

9. TRACKEYE (Windows) ----- shareware, semi-functional available on 
Compuserve forums Aviation and Weather Channel.    
                                  The company is  GenCode Technologies
                                                  7907 N. Rome Ave.
                                                  Tampa, FL   33604
There is only one version (low $).

10. TRAKHUR (DOS) --- I only found it advertised in Weatherwise magazine.
                                     The company is  Bryan Lambeth, PE
                                                     Hurricane Research Srvc
                                                     P.O. Box 181032
                                                     Austin,  TX 78718
There is a regular version (low $) and the TRAKHUR PRO version (medium $). 

11. TRACKER (DOS) -- again, I found it through Weatherwise.
                                        The company is  OceanSoft Inc.
                                                        P.O. Box 1224
                                                        Largo,  FL  34649
TRACKER (medium $) also includes something unique called Mapper, this
allows you to build your own maps of any ocean and will show the map in
Mercator, Azimuthal, and spread types.

12. WINSTORM --- shareware (no cost), semi-functional available on 
Compuserve forum Aviation and AOL.      The company is  Ingramation
                                                        2437 Bay Area Blvd.
                                                        Suite 349
                                                        Houston, TX   77058

13. MCHURRICANE -- a hurricane tracking program for the Macintosh,
posted on AOL, along with several shareware (low $) CDs.
                                        The company is  William I. Chenault
                                                        149 Country Club Rd
                                                        Shalimar, FL 32579


Subject:  J1) Where can I get historical data of tropical cyclones?



     For unofficial near-real time summaries of global tropical cyclone
activity, Jack Beven of the USA National Hurricane Center/Tropical
Prediction Center produces these on a weekly basis and has done so for
over three years.  Text copies of past weekly summaries can be retrieved 
via the Web at: <>. If you'd 
like to obtain these near-real time summaries directly, simply email 
Jack at: and ask him to start sending you the 
summaries.  Note however that these are already posted on 
sci.geo.meteorology and WX-TALK.



   ftp  	[]
Atlantic basin tropical storm and hurricane best track data, 1886-1996.
Every 6 hour intensity and position information in an ASCII file 
including a README documentation file (tra86to96.atl and README.atl).  
Also, Northeast/North-central Pacific tropical storm and hurricane data 
(1949-1996) are also provided (tra49to96.epc and README.epc).

Provided by (Chris Landsea).

This best track information for the Atlantic has provided in seperate
images for each years by some people at Purdue University.  The tracks for 
the individual years have been provided in a color coded (for intensity) 



   World Weather Disc ($295):
Monthly temp, precip, pressure, sunshine data for about 2000 world 
stations for period of record.  Daily weather data at hundreds of US 
stations.  Data for some stations on temp, precip, freeze, drought, soil 
moisture, wind, storms.  Frequency and movement of tropical cyclones.

  Contact:  Cliff Mass, Dept. of Atmos. Sci. (AK40), University of 
Washington, Seattle, WA  98195, USA.  206/685-0910.


Global Tropical and Extratropical Cyclone Climatic Atlas (GTECCA) ($100):
  This CD-ROM contains all global historic tropical storm track data 
available for five tropical storm basins.  Periods of record varies for 
each basin, with the beginning as early as the 1870s and with 1992 at the 
latest year.  Northern hemispheric extratropical storm track data will be 
included from 1965 to 1992.  Tropical track data includes time, position, 
storm stage (maximum wind, central pressure when available).  The user can
display tracks, track data for any basin or user-selected geographic area,
or tracks passing within a user-defined radius of any point.  Narratives 
for all tropical storms for the 1980-1992 period will be included as well 
as basin-wide tropical storm climatological statistics.  

  Contact:  National Climatic Data Center, Federal Building, Asheville, 
NC 28801, USA.  704/271-4800, email


Web Site Historical Data:

(Provided by Gary Gray.) (1995 storm map) (1995 track info) (Allison & Erin sat pix) (archive data) (past tracks) (some nice past sat pix/loops) (great 1995 sat pix) (nice 1995 sat pix) (some 1995 storm archives) (links to much past data) (Erin & Opal stories) (brief Andrew/Gordon info) (a few old sat pix) (1995 and 1996 archives) (LA storm archives) (1995 storm archive) (1995 plots... needs Java) (TONS of GOES-8 images... not just tropical)


Subject:  J2) What journals have regular articles on tropical cyclones?

     The American Meteorological Society publishes the _Monthly Weather
Review_ which has annual summaries of Atlantic basin tropical cyclones,
Atlantic basin tropical disturbances, and Northeast Pacific (east of 140W)
basin tropical cyclones.  These summaries have a substantial amount of
data and analysis of the storms.

     _Weatherwise_ prints annual summaries of both the Atlantic and 
Northeast Pacific basins which are less technical that the _Monthly 
Weather Review_ articles, but come out months earlier.

     For just the tropical cyclones of the Southeast Indian/Australia and
the Australia/Southwest Pacific basins, the _Australia Meteorological
Magazine_ has a very thorough annual summary.

     The Indian journal _Mausam_ carries an annual summary of tropical 
cyclone activity over the North Indian Ocean.

     _Mariner's Weather Log_ has articles from all of the global basins
in annual summaries.  These are descriptive and non-technical.


Subject:  J3) What books have been written about tropical cyclones?

BEST NON-TECHNICAL BOOKS:  _The Hurricane_   and 
*************************  _Meteorology Today for Scientists and Engineers_

_The Hurricane_   
     For a excellent introductory text into hurricanes (and tropical 
cyclones in general), this book by R.A. Pielke provides the basics on
the physical mechanisms of hurricanes without getting into any
mathematical rigor.  This first version is just 100 pages of text with
another 120 pages devoted toward all of the tracks of Atlantic hurricanes
from 1871-1989.  Roger A. Pielke is a professor of Atmospheric Science
at Colorado State University (USA).  The book's 1990 edition is available 
through Routledge Publishing, New York.  (An updated version of this
book should be forthcoming in 1997.)

_Meteorology Today for Scientists and Engineers_
     For a concise mathematical description of hurricanes that has NO
calculus and NO differential equations, then I would suggest obtaining
a copy of this book by Rolland B. Stull (West Publ. Co., Minneapolis/St. 
Paul, 385 pp - Chapter 16 Hurricanes p289-304).  This paperback book is 
designed to accompany C. Donald Ahrens' introductory book _Meteorology 

BEST TECHNICAL BOOK:  _Global Perspectives on Tropical Cyclones_
     This is the revised version of _A Global View of Tropical Cyclones_ and
is the most current, detailed book available on the subject.  This book
provides the state of the science as of 1994.  Improvements over the 
previous version include a chapter on the ocean response to tropical 
cyclones.  This paperback book is written in 1995 by G.R. Foley, H.E. 
Willoughby, J.L. McBride, R.L. Elsberry, I. Ginis, and L. Chen with Elsberry 
serving as Editor and is available from the World Meterological Organization 
as Report No. TCP-38.  Their address is:

     World Meteorological Organization
     Publications Sales Unit
     Case Postale 2300
     CH-1211 Geneva 2

BEST FORECASTING MANUAL:  _Global Guide to Tropical Cyclone Forecasting_
     For the tropical cyclone forecaster and also of general interest for
anyone in the field and those with a non-technical interest in the field,
the loose-leaf book - _Global Guide to Tropical Cyclone Forecasting_ (1993)
by G.J. Holland (ed.), World Meteorological Organization, WMO/TD-No. 560, 
Report No. TCP-31 is a must get.  (See above for address of the WMO.)


______Atlantic Hurricanes_______
     A classic book describing tropical cyclones primarily of the Atlantic
basin, but also covering the physical understanding of tropical cyclone
genesis, motion, and intensity change at the time is _Atlantic Hurricanes_
by Gordon E. Dunn and Banner I. Miller.  Written in 1960, published by the
Louisiana State Press, this book gives provides good insight into the
knowledge of tropical cyclones as of the late 1950s.  It is interesting
to observe that much of what we know was well understood at this pre-
satellite era.  Gordon E. Dunn was the Director of the U.S. National
Hurricane Center and Banner I. Miller was a research meteorologist also
at the National Hurricane Center.

________Hurricanes, Their Nature and History______
     Before Dunn and Miller's book, Ivan Ray Tannehill came out with
an authoritative reference on the history, structure, climatology, 
historical tracks, and forecasting techniques of Atlantic hurricanes
as was known by the mid-1930s.  This is one of the first compilations
of yearly tracks of Atlantic storms - he provides tracks of memorable
tropical cyclones all the way back to the 1700s and shows all the
storm tracks yearly from 1901 onward.  The first edition came out in 1938 
and the book went through at least nine editions (my book was published 
in 1956).  Mr. Tannehill was engaged as a hurricane forecasts for over
20 years and also lead the Division of Synoptic Reports and Forecasts of 
the U.S. Weather Bureau.  Princeton University Press, 308 pp (in 1956

________A Global View of Tropical Cyclones_______
     A very thorough book dealing with the technical issues of tropical 
cyclones for the state of the science in the mid-1980s:  _A Global View of 
Tropical Cyclones_ (1987) by Elsberry, Holland, Frank, Jarrell, and 
Southern;  University of Chicago Press, 195 pp.  A revised version of this 
book has recently become available, see _Global Perspectives on Tropical 
Cyclones_ below.

________Tropical Cyclones of the North Atlantic Ocean, 1871-1992_______
     Researchers and those who follow Atlantic hurricanes should all have
a copy of the atlas:  _Tropical Cyclones of the North Atlantic Ocean, 
1871-1992_, by C.J. Neumann, B.R. Jarvinen, C.J. McAdie, J.D. Elms;
Asheville, NC, (1993), Prepared by the National Climatic Data Center, 
Asheville, NC, in cooperation with the National Hurricane Center, Coral 
Gables, FL, 193 pp.

________Florida Hurricanes and Tropical Storms, 1871-1993, 
        An Historical Survey_________ 
     A recent book providing a historical perspective of Florida Hurricanes 
is _Florida Hurricanes and Tropical Storms, 1871-1993, An Historical Survey_, 
F. Doehring, I.W. Duedall, and J.M. Williams, (1994), Tp-71, Florida Sea 
Grant College Program, Gainesville, Florida, USA, 118 pp.

________Cyclone Tracy, Picking up the Pieces_______
     Twenty years after Cyclone Tracy, this book recreates, by interviews 
with survivors, the events during and after the cyclone that nearly 
destroyed Darwin, Australia:  _Cyclone Tracy, Picking up the pieces_, B. 
Bunbury, (1994), Fremantle Arts Centre Press, South Fremantle, Australia, 
148 pp.

     An introductory text book for young readers on hurricanes by 
Sally Lee, Franklin Watts Publishing, New York, 63 pp.


Subject:  J4) What refereed articles were written in recent years about
              tropical cyclones?

At the ftp site:

   ftp  	[]

The files - TCpubs.1994, TCpubs.1995 and TCpubs.1996 -  contain all known 
refereed publications concerning tropical cyclones that were in journals 
around the world with a print date for those years.

Maintained by (Chris Landsea).

Chris Landsea                                   
NOAA AOML/Hurricane Research Division           Voice:  (305) 361-4357
4301 Rickenbacker Causeway                      Fax:    (305) 361-4402
Miami, Florida 33149                 Internet:
"The Florida straits were as dangerous as the Florida Indians.  There [was]...
 the extraordinary danger of hurricanes in the tropic latitudes, that could
 blow up almost without warning from June to November, gray screaming
 whirlpools of wind more than a hundred miles an hour, dragging in their
 centers a mound of sea water and blowing before them the high ungovernable
 ships like dried leaves onto that deadly line of reef and rock."
  - _The Everglades:  River of Grass_  - Marjory Stoneman Douglas - 1947 

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Mar 14, 2023 @ 2:14 pm
Regardless if you believe in God or not, this is a "must-read" message!!

Throughout history, we can see how we have been carefully conditioned coming to this point where we are on the verge of a cashless society. Did you know that Jesus foretold of this event almost 2,000 years ago?

In the book of Revelation 13:16-18, it states,

"He (the false prophet who deceives many by his miracles--Revelation 19:20) causes all, both small and great, rich and poor, free and slave, to receive a mark on their right hand or on their foreheads, and that no one may buy or sell except one who has the mark or the name of the beast, or the number of his name.

Here is wisdom. Let him who has understanding calculate the number of the beast, for it is the number of a man: His number is 666."

Referring to the last generation, this could only be speaking of a cashless society. Why so? Revelation 13:17 says that we cannot buy or sell unless we receive the mark of the beast. If physical money was still in use, we could buy or sell with one another without receiving the mark. This would contradict scripture that states we need the mark to buy or sell!

These verses could not be referring to something purely spiritual as scripture references two physical locations (our right hand or forehead) stating the mark will be on one "OR" the other. If this mark was purely spiritual, it would indicate both places, or one--not one OR the other!

This is where it comes together. It is incredible how accurate the Bible is concerning the implantable RFID microchip. Here is information from a man named Carl Sanders who worked with a team of engineers to help develop this RFID chip:

"Carl Sanders sat in seventeen New World Order meetings with heads-of-state officials such as Henry Kissinger and Bob Gates of the C.I.A. to discuss plans on how to bring about this one-world system. The government commissioned Carl Sanders to design a microchip for identifying and controlling the peoples of the world—a microchip that could be inserted under the skin with a hypodermic needle (a quick, convenient method that would be gradually accepted by society).

Carl Sanders, with a team of engineers behind him, with U.S. grant monies supplied by tax dollars, took on this project and designed a microchip that is powered by a lithium battery, rechargeable through the temperature changes in our skin. Without the knowledge of the Bible (Brother Sanders was not a Christian at the time), these engineers spent one-and-a-half-million dollars doing research on the best and most convenient place to have the microchip inserted.

Guess what? These researchers found that the forehead and the back of the hand (the two places the Bible says the mark will go) are not just the most convenient places, but are also the only viable places for rapid, consistent temperature changes in the skin to recharge the lithium battery. The microchip is approximately seven millimeters in length, .75 millimeters in diameter, about the size of a grain of rice. It is capable of storing pages upon pages of information about you. All your general history, work history, criminal record, health history, and financial data can be stored on this chip.

Brother Sanders believes that this microchip, which he regretfully helped design, is the “mark” spoken about in Revelation 13:16–18. The original Greek word for “mark” is “charagma,” which means a “scratch or etching.” It is also interesting to note that the number 666 is actually a word in the original Greek. The word is “chi xi stigma,” with the last part, “stigma,” also meaning “to stick or prick.” Carl believes this is referring to a hypodermic needle when they poke into the skin to inject the microchip."

Mr. Sanders asked a doctor what would happen if the lithium contained within the RFID microchip leaked into the body. The doctor replied by saying a ter (...)

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Last Update March 27 2014 @ 02:11 PM