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rec.gardens.roses FAQ (2/6) Rose Glossary

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Rose Glossary
rec.gardens.roses FAQ, part 2/6

Written by Bill Chandler, chandler@onr.com .

See part 1 of the FAQ for more information about this document. The latest
version of this document and the entire Rose FAQ are located on the Internet
at "http://www.mc.edu/~nettles/rofaq/rofaq-top.html" .

About this document - This is a glossary or dictionary of rose-related
terms. Hopefully, it can be useful as a quick reference for many rose
questions. Many of the entries are word-for-word the same as part 1 of the
FAQ, but may be easier to find in this document because it is organized
alphabetically. If you have any suggestions for improvement to this article,
please send email to chandler@onr.com .

TOPICS

   * abbreviations
   * aphids
   * bare root roses, see Own Root roses
   * black roses
   * blackspot
   * blue roses
   * borers
   * bud-pinching
   * cut roses
   * David Austin Roses, see English Roses
   * deadheading
   * English Roses
   * fertilizer
   * Floribundas
   * fragrance
   * fungus
   * grafted roses, see Own Root roses
   * hips
   * Hybrid Teas
   * Japanese Beetles
   * leaf cutters
   * mail-order
   * mildew, see powdery mildew
   * miniature roses
   * mites
   * Modern Roses
   * mosaic virus, see virus
   * mulch
   * Old Roses
   * once blooming
   * own-root roses
   * patended roses
   * Peace
   * planting
   * powdery mildew
   * propagation
   * pruning
   * repeat blooming
   * rust
   * shade
   * shrub roses
   * soil
   * spidermites, see mites
   * sunlight, see shade
   * thrips
   * virus
   * water
   * winter protection

abbreviations:

Here are some commonly used abbreviations used when discussing roses:

   * ARE - Antique Rose Emporium (mail-order nursery)
   * ARS - American Rose Society
   * DAs or ER - David Austin Roses or English Roses
   * FB or FL - Floribunda
   * HT - Hybrid Tea
   * J&P - Jackson and Perkins (mail-order nursery)
   * Min - Miniature
   * OGR - Old Garden Rose
   * RYT - Roses of Yesterday and Today (mail-order nursery)

aphids:

Aphids are tiny insects about a 1/16 to 1/8 inches long, usually light
green, red or black. They come in the spring and damage tender new growth.

A hard spray of water from the hose will help remove aphid infestations.
Aphids reproduce quickly and this may need to be repeated every couple days
for a couple weeks.

Aphids have a mutually beneficial relationship with ants, so ants need to be
controlled if aphids are to be controlled. Ladybugs are a natural predator
of aphids and can be used to control aphids. Water the area well and release
the ladybugs around sunset to discourage the ladybugs from leaving.

black roses:

No true black roses exist. Some roses sold as black roses are actually dark
red or maroon. The petals of many of these dark red roses tend to sunburn
easily. To see that a rose is not truly black, hold it up next to a piece of
black construction paper. To make a dark red rose appear blacker, put its
stem in water that has black ink in it.

Below is an incomplete list of some roses that have been mentioned when
black roses are discussed. Next to some of the roses a very subjective
description of the color is given.

   * Black Jade: dark red miniature
   * Cardinal de Richelieu: dark purple Gallica
   * Chateau de Clos-Vougeot: HT, deep red blossoms, blackish highlights,
     poor growth
   * Francis Dubreuil: Tea rose
   * Guinee: very, very dark red
   * Mr. Lincoln: HT, dark red
   * Nuits de Young purple Moss rose
   * Oklahoma: HT, deep crimson
   * Souvenir du Dr Jamain: Hybrid Perpetual, dark red/maroon
   * Sympathie: deep red climber
   * Taboo: Popular dark rose that has deep red flowers with darker edges.
     It reportedly has nearly black buds.
   * The Prince: English rose, very, very dark red/purple
   * Tuscany Superb: Gallica, deep maroon velvet

blackspot:

Blackspot is a fungus that causes black spots about 1/16 to 1/2 inches in
diameter to form on the leaves and sometimes stems. The infected leaves
later turn yellow around the spots and eventually fall from the plant. In
bad cases, blackspot can severely defoliate a rose bush. The conditions that
promote blackspot are wet leaves, splashing water and warm temperatures.

Here are some ways to combat blackspot. Most of these methods also apply to
preventing and treating powdery mildew.

  1. Pick a variety of rose resistant to blackspot. Many Rugosas are quite
     resistant to blackspot. Some yellow Hybrid Teas are especially prone to
     blackspot. However, yellow Floribundas such as Sunsprite seem to be
     especially resistant to blackspot.
  2. Use watering methods that don't get the leaves wet: drip watering,
     using a soaker hose, or just soaking the ground with a light stream
     from a garden hose. If overhead watering is used, do so in the morning
     so the leaves can dry off before evening.
  3. Remove all diseased leaves from the plant or ground immediately to
     prevent further spreading of the disease. Infected leaves never get
     better, they just spread the disease. Prune infected canes severely in
     late winter.
  4. Prune away crossing canes and open the center of the bush to allow
     sunlight and airflow to more of the plant.
  5. Blackspot is transmitted by water splash. Remove leaves close to the
     ground (the first 6-8 inches) which are more susceptible to getting
     water splashed on them. Mulch well to minimize water splashing onto
     leaves. If a plant had a lot of blackspot the previous year, replace
     the old mulch with clean new mulch in Winter or early Spring.
  6. Keep the plant well watered. A weak or stressed plant is more
     susceptible to disease.

Preventitive treatments for blackspot

  1. The least toxic spray for blackspot is baking soda. Combine 1
     tablespoon baking soda and either 2 tablespoons horticultural oil or a
     few drops of Ivory liquid with 1 gallon of water. Mix as well as
     possible, and spray both sides of the leaves once a week. The Ivory
     liquid helps the baking soda stick to the leaves. Reapply after a rain.
     Baking soda changes the P.H. of the leaves, helping to prevent
     blackspot.
  2. Another treatment is sulfur dust used every 7-10 days.
  3. Finally, there are the more toxic chemical fungicides. They are often
     used once every week or two and are very effective. Follow the
     directions carefully. Be especially careful to spray properly in hot
     weather to avoid leaf burn. Spray the undersides of the leaves first.
  4. Since a single fungicide may not completely wipe out all the fungi,
     using that fungicide over and over may actually cause fungus to build
     up a resistance to that fungicide. Alternating between two fungicides,
     such as Triforine (Funginex) and Daconil, is recommended to keep
     resistant fungi from building up. Fungicides generally can prevent
     blackspot, but do not cure an existing case of blackspot.

blue roses:

Though highly sought after, no blue roses exist yet. Some roses are
advertised as blue, but they are actually lavender or something. Most
lavender roses are difficult to grow and are quite susceptible to disease.
Some of the bluer roses are Blue Girl, Blue Jay(HT), and Reine des
Violettes(HP). A couple of true purple roses are Cardinal de Richelieu and
Veilchenblau.

The genetics are just not there for producing a true blue color in roses. It
will probably be necessary to use gene splicing to produce the first blue
rose.

borers:

Can enter the cane through the pruned tops. Prevented by sealing the canes
with wax, white glue, or nail polish.

bud-pinching:

When a Floribunda forms a bloom "spike" or "candelabra" - it is setting many
little blooms on one stem. To prune Floribundas for quality of bloom, rather
than the maximum number of blooms, pinch out the center, fat bud so the side
buds have a better chance at developing at the same time. This encourages a
big rounded mass of blossoms - a "spray." Floribundas like to do this so it
is relatively easy to persuade them to flower in this manner. Once some of
the blooms begin to fade, you can just cut out the few that are dying and
let the spray continue to develop blooms. Once the entire spray is spent, or
most of the individually blooms are finished, cut off the entire spray.

cut roses:

Cut flowers in early morning or after it rains, not when they are under
water stress. Cut the stem about an inch longer than you need. After
cutting, immediately place cut flower in warm water. If possible, with the
stem under water, cut off the bottom inch or so of the stem at an angle.
This keeps air from getting into the stem. Remove all foliage that remains
under water and would just rot. Recut the stem underwater every day if
possible. Some people add a small amount of bleach to the water to keep down
fungus and bacteria. Sugar or soda can be used for food. Others use a
commercial floral preservative.

David Austin Roses: see English Roses:

deadheading: (see also hips: )

Deadheading is cutting off flowers as they wither or don't look as good. Old
blooms left on the plant may have been pollinated and may begin to form seed
pods (hips). The formation of hips requires a lot of energy from the plant
and slows flower production. By preventing the formation of hips,
deadheading encourages the rose bush to grow new flowers.

The choice of which spot to deadhead at is influenced by what shape you want
the bush to take, and which direction you want a particular cane to grow.
Usually, you will want to cut the stem at a 45-degree angle just above an
outward-facing leaf. Make sure the high side of the cut is the side the leaf
set is on.

To deadhead, remove the flower by making a diagonal cut just above the next
5 or 7-leaf branch down on the stem. The idea is to cut to a bud eye capable
of producing a healthy cane. If this would cause too much of the cane to be
removed, a 3-leaf branch can be chosen instead. The first year cut back to
the first 3 or 5-leaf branch. In following years cut far enough down to get
to a 5-leaf branch with a leaf bud that is facing outward. This will open up
the plant.

Once blooming roses do not need to be deadheaded. They bloom once and then
they are finished blooming for the year. However, once-blooming roses may be
(in fact, should be) pruned after they are finished blooming. They should
NOT be pruned in the fall or before they bloom because they bloom on the
previous year's growth.

Stop deadheading as of September 1 in zones 4 and 5. It is a good practice
to let the last roses on HT's produce hips because it makes them more frost
hardy. It causes the plant to undergo chemical changes that slow down
growth, inhibit blooming and generally prepare for dormancy by focusing its
energy on 'hardening' the canes. The formation of hips tells the plant that
it's "done its job" and can now rest from its labors.

English Roses: ( abbrev. ER, see also Modern Roses: , Old Roses: )

This new group of roses, often called David Austin Roses, was introduced in
1969 by David Austin of England. These roses are an attempt to combine the
best traits of both Old Roses and Modern Roses. David Austin has attempted
to produce roses with the classic flower forms, fragrance, and disease
resistance of the Old Garden Roses on plants that repeat bloom like the
Modern Roses. Some of the popular English Roses are Abraham Darby, Graham
Thomas, Heritage, and Mary Rose. This FAQ has a larger document with more
information about English Roses.

fertilizer:

Use a high Phosphorous fertilizer such as 5-10-5, 8-12-4 or 4-12-4,
(Nitrogen-Phosphorous-Potassium), (leaves,flowers,roots). Fertilize less
during the first year while the plant is getting established.

When planting roses, it is recommended that you add long-term sources of
Phosphorous and Potassium to the soil near the roots because these two
elements move slowly through the soil. Bone meal and rock phosphate are good
long-term sources of Phosphorous. Granite sand is a long-term source of
Potassium.

Cottonseed meal (lowers soil P.H.), alfalfa meal, and blood meal are organic
sources of Nitrogen. Alfalfa meal also releases a growth stimulator as it
decomposes. Many forms of inorganic Nitrogen leach quickly from the soil.
Nitrogen also helps stimulate basal breaks.

Some rose growers fertilize with Epsom salts. Epsom salts are magnesium
sulfate, a source of Magnesium. Being a sulfate, it will lower soil P.H.
Although the need to use of Epsom salts is frequently debated, Magnesium
(along with Nitrogen) is supposed to stimulate basal breaks. Many gardeners
use 1/4 cup of Epsom salts per plant in the Spring and/or Fall. Some use as
little as 1 tablespoon per plant, others up to 1/2 cup.

Seaweed is a good organic source of trace elements.

Floribundas: (abbrev. FB or FL)

Floribundas were created about 1909 by crossing the Polyanthas with Hybrid
Teas. They produce flowers in clusters, not singly like the Hybrid Teas.
Floribundas are usually shorter plants than Hybrid Teas and tend to produce
more flowers and smaller flowers than Hybrid Teas on shorter stems. Although
Hybrid Teas provide excellent cut flowers, Floribundas are well suited as
good landscape plants providing lots of color. Many Floribundas are not very
fragrant. See the FAQ article (part 5/6) on Modern Roses, for more
information about Floribundas.

bud-pinching Floribundas: When a Floribunda forms a bloom "spike" or
"candelabra" - it is setting many little blooms on one stem. To prune
Floribundas for quality of bloom, rather than the maximum number of blooms,
pinch out the center, fat bud so the side buds have a better chance at
developing at the same time. This encourages a big rounded mass of blossoms
- a "spray." Floribundas like to do this so it is relatively easy to
persuade them to flower in this manner. Once some of the blooms begin to
fade, you can just cut out the few that are dying and let the spray continue
to develop blooms. Once the entire spray is spent, or most of the
individually blooms are finished, cut off the entire spray.

fragrance:

Fragrance contributes much to the enjoyment of roses. It is also one of the
most subjective of topics when discussing roses. Fragrance or perceived
fragrance depends upon many factors: variety of rose, time of day, weather,
growing conditions, the person smelling the rose, living flower vs. cut
flower, etc. Each person's sense of smell is different. A rose that is very
fragrant to someone, may be not at all fragrant to someone else. Roses are
most fragrant around mid-morning on a warm day with no wind and moderate or
high humidity. Their can dozens of components in the fragrance of a rose,
but rose scents are usually categorized with such descriptions as "spicey",
"tea", "old rose", or "fruity".

Here is a list of some very fragrant roses as recommended by posts to the
newsgroup rec.gardens.roses.

   * HT: Double Delight (mentioned most often), spicey, red-white bicolor
   * HT: Fragrant Cloud, reddish-orange
   * HT: Mr. Lincoln, dark red
   * HT: Crimson Glory, red
   * HT: Chrysler Imperial, red
   * HT: Papa Meilland, dark red
   * HT: Perfume Delight, pink
   * HT: Secret
   * ER: Gertrude Jekyll, pink
   * ER: Othello, dark red
   * ER: Heritage, lemony scent, pale pink
   * Alba: Felicite Parmentier, once-blooming
   * Damask: Mme. Hardy, white, once-blooming
   * Tea: Sombreuil, cream-white
   * Bourbon: Souvenir de la Malmasion
   * HP: Souvenir du Dr Jamain

As a group, David Austin roses are quite fragrant. So are many of the Old
Roses, such as the Damasks.

fungus:

Blackspot, powdery mildew and rust are the three most common fungus problems
that roses have. See blackspot for some ways of preventing and treating
fungus problems. Planting disease-resistant roses in a sunny location with
good air circulation will help prevent fungi.

hips: (see also deadheading: )

These are the rose seed pods that form after a flower's petals fall if the
bloom was pollinated. Hips are the fruit produced by rose plants. Apple
trees are members of the rosacae family and the apple is a hip. Some
varieties such as R.rugosa produce large hips that turn brilliant colors in
the fall.

Allowing the hips to develop will cause a rose to slow down or stop
producing flowers. It also helps induce dormancy, helping prepare the rose
plant for winter in colder climates. In contrast, deadheading will keep the
plant from producing hips and encourage it to produce more flowers.

Hybrid Teas: (abbrev. HT)

Hybrid Teas are easily the most popular class of roses today. Hybrid Teas as
a group have large flowers with a high-pointed bud. They are excellent
repeat bloomers, often blooming almost continually. They bloom one flower
per stem on long sturdy stems making them excellent for cutting. Hybrid Teas
come in a large variety of colors. Hybrid Teas are upright shrubs.

The rose "La France", bred in 1867, is classified as the first Hybrid Tea
rose.

Japanese Beetles:

A shiny copper green beetle that can eat entire flowers as well as foliage.
Can be controlled by milky spore.

leaf cutters:

Leaf cutter bees cut semi-circle shaped holes in the leaves of roses. They
pose no real threat to rose health, but they drive exhibitors crazy.

mail-order suppliers:

There is a whole section of the FAQ devoted to this, see part 3/6 of the
FAQ.

mildew: see powdery mildew:

miniature roses:

Miniature roses grow to only about 6"-18". The plants, leaves are all
miniatures of the larger roses. Miniature roses tend to be quite hardy and
can be grown in containers.

mites:

Spider mites are a tiny arachnid that appear like dust under the leaves.
They occur during hot, dry weather. They can be controlled by spraying the
plant every 7-10 days with water to destroy the webs and knock the mites off
the leaves. Be sure to thoroughly cover the underside of the lower leaves.
They can also be controlled with the miticides Avid or Kelthane.

Modern Roses:

Refers to roses introduced since 1867 when the first Hybrid Tea was created.
Usually refers to Hybrid Tea, Floribunda, or Grandiflora roses.

mosaic virus: see virus:

mulch:

Roses benefit from a 2-3 inch deep organic mulch such as pine bark, pine
needles, leaf mulch, etc. Keep the mulch a few inches away from the stem of
the plant.

Benefits of proper mulching:

  1. Reduced watering requirements and less water stress due to
        o milder soil temperatures and
        o reduced evaporation.
  2. Less disease from water splashing on the lower leaves of plant.
  3. Fewer weeds because the mulch blocks some of the sunlight to weed
     seedlings.
  4. Better soil as the mulch breaks down and adds organic matter to the top
     layer of soil.
  5. Good soil structure because mulch will help stop soil compaction.

Old Roses: ( abbrev. OR, OGR, see also English Roses: , Modern Roses: )

Sometimes called Old Roses, Old-fashioned Roses or Antique Roses, these are
the varieties of roses that existed before 1867 when the first Hybrid Tea
was introduced. Some of the classes of Old Roses are the Albas, Bourbons,
Boursaults, Centifolias, Chinas, Damasks, Gallicas, Hybrid Perpetuals,
Mosses, Noisettes, Portlands, and Tea roses. Some of the Ramblers and
Rugosas are considered Old Roses.

As a group, Old Roses tend to be once blooming, though some are repeat
bloomers. They tend to be more disease-resistant and require less
maintenance than the Hybrid Teas which accounts for some of their
popularity. There are exceptions to this, especially the China and Tea
roses. The China and Tea roses are tender and disease prone, but are very
important because they provide the repeat blooming genes to many classes of
roses (notably Hybrid Teas). This FAQ contains a document with more
information about Old Roses.

once blooming: (see also repeat blooming: )

Roses that bloom once a year, usually in the spring. Since, they bloom only
once a year, when they do bloom they usually put on an excellent show. They
flower on old wood, so most pruning is done just after they have finished
blooming, not in the winter.

own-root roses:

An own-root rose is a plant whose rootstock (the roots) is the same variety
as the top of the plant.

Grafted roses, commonly referred to as budded plants, are plants where the
desired rose is grafted or budded onto a rootstock of a different type. The
point where the desired variety and the rootstock meet is called the bud
union.

Own-root roses are usually recommended for those in very cold climates. This
is because an own-root rose that dies back to the ground during the winter
can grow back the next year from the roots. If a grafted rose dies back to
the ground, what will come up next Spring is the rootstock variety, usually
an undesireable variety of rose.

Even if a rose doesn't die back to the ground. Sometimes a shoot will emerge
from the rootstock. If the rose is grafted, this shoot is called a sucker,
and will be the same variety of the rootstock, not the desired plant. When
this happens with own-root roses, the shoot will be of the desired variety.

New canes can emerge each year from the bud union of grafted roses. After
many years, the bud union of grafted roses can become large and knobby and
eventually run out of places for new canes to emerge from. This is not a
problem for own-root roses, since they lack the knobby bud union of grafted
roses. Therefore, grafted roses may not last as long as own-root roses.

Most roses are sold as grafted plants, since it is more economical than
selling own-root plants. A common rootstock is "Dr. Huey", used by J&P and
Roses of Yesterday and Today and other nurseries in the western US. It does
well in alkaline soils. "Dr. Huey" has a dark red bloom about 2 1/2 inches
in diameter. R. multiflora is commonly is in the eastern US. It prefers acid
soil. Wayside uses "Manetti" rootstock.

There has recently been some discussion about R. fortuniana rootstock. It is
primarily used in Florida where its root knot nematode resistance is
important. Its fine, spreading root network is good for sandy soils. It is
not considered to be freeze hardy, so it is only recommended for mild
climates.

Don't confuse own-root roses with bare-root roses, the terms refer to
different things. Roses are usually sold either bare-root (no soil around
the roots) or potted in containers. Bare-root roses can be either own-root
or grafted. Bare-root roses tend to be less expensive than potted roses.
Since they are lighter (no soil) than potted roses, most mail-order roses
are bare-root.

patented roses:

A rose variety may be patented just like any other plant. A patent grants to
the holder exclusive rights to distribute and propagate that variety of
rose. Of course the patent holder can license others to distribute and
propagate that rose. A patent lasts for 17 years, so most older roses aren't
currently under patent. After the patent has expired, anyone can distribute
and propagate that particular variety.

Some nurseries divide their roses into patented roses and non-patented
roses, with the patented roses costing more. This is because they may freely
propagate the non-patented varieties, but their is usually a fee for
propagating patented varieties.

It is illegal to assexually reproduce a patented plant, even for personal
use. It is, however, legal to use a patented rose in hybridizing.

Peace:

Peace is the most popular rose in the world. It is a Hybrid Tea that was
smuggled out of France just before the Nazi occupation and introduced just
after the end of the World War II. It produces large blooms of yellow
blending to pink on the edges. It is not very fragrant.

planting:

Bare-root: Roses that are shipped in their dormant state with no foliage.
Bare-root roses are planted during Winter or very-early Spring.

Container grown: Nurseries will often take bare-root roses from the rose
growers and place them in containers. Container grown roses can be planted
any time of the year although it is better to plant when temperatures are
moderate, usually Spring or Fall.

powdery mildew:

This fungus forms a powdery white or grayish coating on the upper surface of
young leaves and sometimes on the buds. Infected leaves crumple and become
distorted.

Unlike blackspot, wet conditions actually inhibit the development of powdery
mildew. It can not reproduce in water. It thrives during high humidity but
forms on dry leaves. Warm dry days, cool dry nights are ideal for powdery
mildew.

One of the best ways to avoid powdery mildew is to keep things as airy as
possible. Roses planted too close to a wall may not get enough airflow.
Prune away crossing canes and open the center of the bush to allow sunlight
and airflow.

Also, spraying the foliage with a mixture of 1 T. baking soda per 1 gallon
of water can be effective.

See blackspot for other treatments of powdery mildew.

propagation:

There are two primary ways to propagate roses. Asexual reproduction is
usually used to produce a duplicate of the parent plant. Sexual
reproduction, i.e. growing roses from seed, is primarily used to create new
varieties of roses.

Common methods of asexual propagation of roses are softwood rooting,
hardwood rooting, and bud grafting. Limited space permits only a brief
description of softwood rooting.

Old Roses, English Roses and Miniatures are generally good candidates for
rooting cuttings because they usually grow vigorously on their own roots.
Modern Roses such as Hybrid Teas and Floribundas are usually sold budded
onto different rootstock. Some Modern Roses do grow vigorously on their own
roots, while others do not. Below is a description of softwood rooting from
Karen Baldwin with some changes.

ROSE PROPAGATION A LA ZIPLOCK BAGGIES

MAKING THE CUTTING

   * Preferably take a cutting on which the bloom is barely spent, so that
     all the petals have just recently dropped off. It is okay to take a
     cutting earlier, but at least make sure color is showing in the bud.
     These are indications of the maturity of the wood in the stem -- you
     want something in between the extremes of greenwood and hardwood.
   * Try to have at least four separate leafsets under the bloom, and a
     five-leaflet set at the bottom of the cutting. (Each spot where the
     leafsets meet the stem forms a "node," where the bud eyes are, and from
     which roots can form. Hybrid teas tend to have fewer "nodes" spaced
     farther apart than Old World roses, and thus require a longer cutting,
     generally speaking). Make a clean bottom cut with a sharp, clean
     pruning tool 1" below the last node. Try to leave about 1/2" of cane
     above the top leafset.
   * Keep your cuttings fresh in water while you gather more, until you're
     ready to plant them.

PLANTING THE CUTTING:

   * Fill a 1-gallon zip lock baggie 1/4 to 1/3 full (about 3") with STERILE
     loose potting mix. (e.g., 1/2 peter's potting soil and 1/2
     vermiculite). A 2-gallon ziplock baggie may be better since it will
     give the leaves more room, but use the same depth of soil you'd use in
     a 1-gallon baggie, since you'll be watching for roots growing through
     it, later.
   * Moisten the mix but do not make it extremely wet. Use 1 tsp. miracle
     gro per 1 quart of water, to provide some initial nutrients (which may
     help avoid yellowing and leaf-drop). With your hands, firm the soil
     down well, within the baggie. The soil should be very damp, but there
     should be no standing water in the bottom.
   * Snip off the stem a little above the top-most leaf set (i.e., remove
     the flowering part). Try to leave about 1/2" of cane above the top
     leafset.
   * Strip off the bottom two sets of leaves (where the stem will be pushed
     into the soil).
   * Score the bottom part of the stem along its length (vertically) for an
     inch or so. (An exacto-knife works nicely for this purpose, but
     fingernails will do fine.) Roots will form along this score.
   * Dip scored end of cutting into rooting compound, a couple inches deep.
     Knock off the excess (you can get too thick a layer). Stick the cutting
     a couple of inches into the soil.
   * If insects have eaten the leaves during previous rooting attempts, you
     may wish sprinkle a very small amount of diazinon or other insecticide
     on the soil surface. Be especially careful if you are using chemicals
     indoors.
   * Mist the cutting and the interior surfaces of the baggie with a spray
     bottle filled with the following mix (to avoid fungus and mildew growth
     in the closed "terrarium" environment). Do not use spraycan fungicides
     or insecticides ... in the closed environment, the chemicals can
     overwhelm then kill a new young plant. 1 quart water 1 tsp. miracle gro
     1 tsp. baking soda (no more!) 2-3 drops dishwashing liquid (to make it
     cling)
   * Zip baggie almost shut. Breathe into it 'til it expands kinda like a
     balloon, and zip the rest of the way closed. (Keep it closed unless it
     deflates enough to warrant breathing into it again.)
   * Put in bright, INDIRECT light - (e.g., behind sheers in a
     southeast-facing window) WARNING!!! if it gets direct sun or too much
     heat it will scorch (eventually turning black) and likely die! You may
     have to experiment a bit to find the best exposure; you might hedge
     your bets by placing some in different locations until you find the
     best spot for your house.
   * Clear away any leaves that might drop from the stem, reinflating the
     baggie after removing them.

POTTING THE CUTTING:

   * Look for roots along the bottom of the baggie in two or three weeks. A
     few stubborn ones may take six weeks, and there is a report of one
     incredibly obstinate plant that took over 10 weeks!
   * Acclimation to air outside the bag is tricky. To be careful, (1) when
     you see some top growth, unzip the baggie just a little for a few hours
     the first day, then seal it up again. (2) For the next few days, unzip
     the baggie the same amount, but leave it open for a few more hours each
     day. (3) Next, leave it open all the time, but increase the amount the
     bag is unzipped each day for about a week, until it's fully open. Don't
     rush it.
   * Put good soil into a 1-gallon pot, leaving room for the addition of the
     new plant and its soil. Place the baggie atop the soil, and cut the
     plastic away (this can be slightly tricky). Firm the soil around the
     plant only very lightly.
   * Keep the same lighting in the same location (protected from too much
     direct sun) for a week, leaving the cutting unmolested to give its
     disturbed roots a chance to heal.

PLANTING OUTDOORS:

   * After they have spent a week in their pots, you can either move them
     into more light inside for the first winter), or (preferably) move them
     outside.
   * When moved outside, set them in indirect sun at first, bright but
     shaded, and leave them there for a week. (If your area gets cold at
     night, you may need to move them inside at night for a while.) The next
     week, move the plant bit by bit toward and then into full sun. (Note:
     Gro-lights don't normally put out nearly enough light for roses, though
     it can probably be done.)
   * When kept inside for their first winter, especially in zones 5 and
     below, place them in a spot where they'll get more light. (When planted
     outside in the same summer they were rooted, even with a heavy mulch,
     many more will be lost to winter kill since the new little roses won't
     always have enough roots to carry them through. Also, chinooks
     (intense, warm winds) do their damage too. By keeping them inside for
     their first winter, and planting them in the spring, they will be
     better-established by the next fall.)
   * Plant late enough to avoid those nasty springs that get warm, causing
     the roses to break dormancy, only to follow up with a hard freeze!
   * Remember that your rose will grow in size; prepare a good-sized area of
     soil with added organic material as appropriate to your locale.

Cheryl Netter has a World Wide Web page with three descriptions on how to
root roses using softwood cuttings. They can be found by going to the URL,
http://nexus.interealm.com/p/cnetter/rose_tour/index.html . Cheryl Netter's
WWW home page with some excellent rose pictures and information is located
at the URL, http://nexus.interealm.com/p/cnetter .

pruning:

There are three main purposes to be accomplished when pruning roses.

   * Keep the plant healthy.
   * Encourage the plant to grow in a desired shape.
   * Encourage blooming, either more blooms or larger blooms.

The proper tool for most pruning is a sharp clean set of bypass pruners.
Anvil pruners should not be used for roses as they crush the stem being cut.
A saw or lopping shears may be used to cut very large canes (1/2 inch
diameter or greater) All pruning cuts on canes greater than 1/4 inch
diameter should be sealed with nail polish or glue to prevent cane borers
from entering.

Proper pruning will help keep a rose bush healthy. Dead and diseased wood
should be removed as soon as possible to prevent further damage to the bush.

The future shape of the bush can be influenced by the location of each
pruning cut. Opening up the bush to increase air circulation will help
prevent diseases. Since rose bushes like to send out a strong lateral cane
at the node just below a pruning cut, try to make pruning cuts about 1/4
inch above an "outward" facing leaf bud. By doing this and removing plant
material from the center of the bush you will create a more open vase-shaped
plant less susceptible to disease. Whenever two canes cross each other, one
can be removed.

Roses can be encouraged to bloom better if thin, weak and non-productive
wood is removed to allow the plant to concentrate its blooming on the larger
healthier canes. Generally with Hybrid Teas any cane thinner than a pencil
should be removed. Plants may be pruned hard to encourage larger blooms but
fewer blooms (commonly done with Hybrid Teas.) Or the plant may be pruned
lightly and allowed to grow larger and produce more flowers that are smaller
(commonly done with some shrub roses.) Prune first year plants only lightly
to allow them to concentrate on establishing a strong root system.

repeat blooming: (see also once blooming: )

Describes those roses that bloom more than once a year. This varies from
those that only bloom a couple times a year to those that are in constant
bloom. The terms recurrent or remontant are sometimes used in place of
repeat blooming.

rust:

This fungus is manifest by rust-colored spots on the underside of leaves and
yellow patches on the upper surface of the leaf.

shade:

Roses prefer a full day of sun. Give roses at least 6 hours of direct sun a
day. Morning sun is especially important because it dries the leaves which
helps prevent disease.

Most roses do poorly in shade. Plants bloom less, are leggy, and are more
likely to get diseases.

Many Hybrid Musks and some Albas can tolerate partial shade. A few other
varieties including the Floribunda "Gruss An Aachen" can be planted in
partial shade.

Other roses that may grow in partial shade are the Rugosas, Iceberg(FB),
Zephirine Drouhin (Bourbon), Souvenir du Docteur Jamain(HP) and Madame
Plantier.

shrub roses:

under construction.

soil:

Roses like rich, well-drained soil. Raised beds are ideal. Roses prefer a pH
of about 6.5 (6.0-6.8), slightly acid soil. Roses dislike competition for
nutrients, especially roses that repeat bloom. This means that roses do not
like being planted too close to grass and other aggressive neighbors.

suckers:

A sucker is a cane that starts from below the bud union. On grafted roses,
suckers should be removed since they are a different type of rose than the
main plant. With own-root roses, suckers can be kept as they are the same
type as the main plant and add vigor to the plant.

sunlight: see shade:

thrips:

Thrips are tiny insects that do cosmetic damage to roses by ruining the
blooms. They may either prevent blooms from opening, or if the blooms do
partially open they will have brown or black spots. Thrips prefer
light-colored flowers. Thrips can be controlled by spraying the buds and
blooms with Orthene, mixed with one tablespoon of dark brown sugar per
gallon of water.

virus:

There are several types of virus that affect roses, but the most common is
the mosaic virus. It causes interesting yellow patterns to form on some of
the otherwise healthy green leaves of the plant, hence the name mosaic.
Plants with virus will usually live, but they will be less vigorous than
non-virused plants.

Mosaic can not be transmitted from one plant to another by pruning. It can
be transmitted by grafting a healthy rose onto a virused rootstock, or less
likely, by grafting a virused rose onto a healthy rootstock.

water:

Roses appreciate lots of water. Water generously, at least 1 inch/week,
preferably 2 inches/week during growing season. Water every 4-7 days during
the summer when needed. Each bush needs about 4-5 gallons/week during the
hot summer.

Roses get all their food either through their leaves (foliar feeding) or
through their roots. The only medium for transporting food is water.

Infrequent deep watering is preferred to frequent light watering to help
promote a deep root system. Deep root systems help the rose to survive both
droughts, and winter freezes. Frequent, light watering causes roots to form
very near the soil surface, making the plant more susceptible to summer
'baking' and winter freezes.

Try to avoid getting the leaves wet (which promotes disease) when watering
late in the day. However, on hot days wetting the foliage can reduce
transpiration and relieves heat stress.

winter protection:

Local advice is preferred for this question, but here are some general
guidelines for winter care of rose bushes for those living in colder
climates. The major dangers to the plant in winter are the drying of the
wind, the effect of alternate thawing and freezing cycles on the plant when
winter temperatures fluctuate, the inability of the plant to take in water
if the soil is frozen, and damage from the cold itself to the canes and bud
union.

  1. If you live in an area with harsh winters, plant cold-hardy roses. Your
     choices are more restricted that way, but you will save yourself a lot
     of work and heartbreak. Many once blooming old roses are very
     cold-hardy; of the repeat blooomers, rugosas are rock-hardy, and many
     Austins and other shrub roses will do okay. Many yellow and lavender
     roses are especially tender. Unfortunately cold-hardiness is not an
     exact science; conditions such as wind affect roses severely in cold
     weather (by drying them out), and so zone ratings are only a first
     approximation. Beware of books that rate roses 'cold hardy' or 'not
     cold hardy'---they are likely referring to conditions in the UK, which
     has mild winters. Beware also of catalogs that overrate cold-hardiness
     because they want to move more product.
  2. When in doubt, plant own-root roses. If they die back to the ground in
     a particularly severe winter, they will grow back from the roots fairly
     quickly. This advice is not applicable to once-bloomers, because these
     usually flower only on the last year's canes. Own-root Old Roses and
     English roses are available. Hybrid Teas are almost always sold as
     grafted plants, and it is difficult to find own-root plants.
  3. In the fall, reduce the amount of Nitrogen fertilizer used. This,
     combined with lower temperatures, will slow the production of new
     tender growth, and will allow the existing growth to harden off.
  4. Stop deadheading about September 1 for zones 4 and 5. This will allow
     the plant to form hips. The formation of hips encourages the plant to
     slow down growth, slow blooming, and harden the canes, all preparing
     the plant for dormancy.
  5. Understanding rose dormancy will help to determine the proper time to
     prune during the period from late Fall to early Spring. During
     dormancy, the sap has left the canes and they are simply empty tubes of
     cellulose. Pruning too early (before the sap runs back) cuts some of
     the nutrients out, so you must be sure the plant is dormant before fall
     (winter) pruning. Winter dieback generally occurs from the end of the
     branches (canes). Pruning removes the available length that can die
     back before reaching the ground. Also, pruning a semidormant plant
     stimulates growth and sap flow in the pruned region. For a plant going
     dormant, this is bad because it inhibits dormancy. For a plant waking
     up (springtime) it's good because it stimulates growth. Ideally pruning
     should occur before sap is fully flowing.
  6. To prevent disease/fungus from overwintering, clean the rose bed by
     removing leaves and other debris. Spray the bush with dormant oil to
     kill bacteria on the bush and on the ground.
  7. Protect the crown of the rose. This is critical since the crown is
     where you want the new canes to come from. There are several methods of
     protection to choose from.
        o Cover the bed at least a foot deep with tree leaves. Do not use
          rose leaves as they may harbor disease. Oak leaves are best as
          they seem to drain better.
        o Cover the bed with straw.
        o Use rose cones.
        o Make a mound with soil or mulch to cover the crown.
        o Wrap the whole plant in burlap if necessary, in addition to one of
          above methods of protecting the crown.
     Timing is important. Covering the rose too early is unwise as it may
     prevent the rose from hardening properly and will slow the onset of
     dormancy. Covering the rose too late may risk damage from the cold.
  8. Climbers or long canes may benefit from being tied to avoid thrashing
     from the wind. Canes may be protected from drying winter winds by
     wrapping them in burlap with a layer of straw for insulation. In severe
     climates long canes may need to be tied and buried.
  9. Keep the soil well-drained, especially as the spring rains come.

end of Rose Glossary
rec.gardens.roses FAQ, part 2/6

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