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rec.gardens.roses FAQ (1/6) Frequently Asked Questions

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Archive-name: gardens/roses-faq/part1

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Last-modified: 23 April 1996
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The Rose FAQ
rec.gardens.roses
FAQ part 1/6

Written by Bill Chandler, chandler@onr.com .

The latest version of this document and the entire Rose FAQ are located on
the Internet at "http://www.mc.edu/~nettles/rofaq/rofaq-top.html" .

TABLE OF CONTENTS

   * 1. Information about this document
        o [1.1] Welcome
        o [1.2] What's New with the FAQ
        o [1.3] How to get the FAQ
   * 2. Rose Care
        o [2.1] Why won't my rose bloom?
        o [2.2] How much sun do roses need?
        o [2.3] Which roses can be grown in shade?
        o [2.4] How much water do roses need?
        o [2.5] How do I deadhead roses?
        o [2.6] How do I prune roses?
        o [2.7] How do I protect my rose bushes during the winter?
        o [2.8] How do I prepare the soil for a new rose bed?
   * 3. Diseases/Insects
        o [3.1] My rose has black spots on the leaves, what do I do?
        o [3.2] How do I avoid powdery mildew?
        o [3.3] How do I get rid of aphids?
        o [3.4] What is eating holes in the leaves of my rose?
   * 4. Rose Characteristics
        o [4.1] Which is the most fragrant rose?
        o [4.2] What kind of rose do I have?
        o [4.3] Are there any Blue roses?
        o [4.4] Are there any Black roses?
        o [4.5] What are David Austin roses or English roses?
   * 5. Miscellaneous
        o [5.1] How do I propagate roses?
        o [5.2] What is an ARS rating?
   * 6. FAQ contributors
   * 7. Disclaimer/Copyright

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

1. Information about this document

[1.1] Welcome

Welcome to "The Rose FAQ", a collection of six informative articles about
roses. These articles are primarily available on the World Wide Web at
http://www.mc.edu/~nettles/rofaq/rofaq-top.html . The FAQ is sometimes
posted to the newsgroup rec.gardens.roses. This first article discusses
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) in the Usenet newsgroup rec.gardens.roses.
If you are new to the newsgroup rec.gardens.roses, you might want to read
this article before posting questions to the newsgroup. There are additional
FAQ articles (posted separately) which discuss Old Roses, Modern Roses,
English Roses, and mail-order suppliers of roses.

Note that many things related to growing roses well depend upon your local
climate. Contact your local rose society or nursery to find out how to grow
roses in your area.

[1.2] What's New with the FAQ

Most of you already know about it, but the American Rose Society has an
excellent World Wide Web site at http://www.ars.org . The FAQ has received
only minor changes during the last few months.

[1.3] How to get the FAQ.

The best way to get the FAQ is on the world wide web at the URL
http://www.mc.edu/~nettles/rofaq/rofaq-top.html .

This document is also sometimes posted to the Usenet newgroups
rec.gardens.roses, rec.answers, and news.answers.

Other ways to obtain the faq are

   * ANONYMOUS FTP to rtfm.mit.edu (18.181.0.24) and get the files
        ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/news.answers/gardens/roses-faq/part1
        ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/news.answers/gardens/roses-faq/part2
        ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/news.answers/gardens/roses-faq/part3
        ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/news.answers/gardens/roses-faq/part4
        ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/news.answers/gardens/roses-faq/part5
        ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/news.answers/gardens/roses-faq/part6
   * EMAIL(for those without ftp access) send email to
     mail-server@rtfm.mit.edu with no subject and
        o send usenet/news.answers/gardens/roses-faq/part1
     in the body of the mail message. Parts 2-6 can be obtained the same way
     as part 1.

2. Rose Care

[2.1] Why won't my rose bloom?

Here are some of the reasons that roses don't bloom.

  1. The rose plant is not getting enough sun. Roses need at least 6 hours
     of direct sun a day to perform well.
  2. The rose needs more water. Roses like at least an inch of water per
     week during the growing season.
  3. The plant has been given too much fertilizer, especially Nitrogen. Too
     much fertilizer can either damage the plant or cause it to grow extra
     leaves and stems at the expense of blooms.
  4. The rose is a new plant. Don't expect too much from a plant during its
     first year.
  5. Rose is a once blooming variety. This means it will bloom only once a
     year in the late spring or early summer.
  6. Soil pH is too low or too high. If the pH is not in the range of 6.0 to
     6.8 (ideally 6.5) then nutrient uptake will be reduced, and the plant
     won't be getting the food it needs to produce flowers.
  7. Not enough foliage. If the bush doesn't have adequate foliage, it can't
     produce the food it needs to make new flowers. Inadequate foliage may
     result from disease or too little fertilizer.

[2.2] How much sun do roses need?

Roses prefer a full day of sun. Give roses at least 6 hours of direct sun a
day. Morning sun is especially important because it dries the leaves which
helps prevent disease.

Most roses do poorly in shade. Plants bloom less, are leggy, and are more
likely to get diseases.

[2.3] Which roses can be grown in shade?

Many Hybrid Musks and some Albas can tolerate partial shade. A few other
varieties including the Floribunda "Gruss An Aachen" can be planted in
partial shade.

Some other roses that may grow in partial shade are the Rugosas,
Iceberg(FB), Zephirine Drouhin (Bourbon), Souvenir du Docteur Jamain(HP) and
Madame Plantier.

[2.4] How much water do roses need?

Roses appreciate lots of water. Water generously, at least 1 inch/week,
preferably 2 inches/week during growing season. Water every 4-7 days during
the summer when needed. Each bush needs about 4-5 gallons/week during the
hot summer.

Roses get all their food either through their leaves (foliar feeding) or
through their roots. The only medium for transporting food is water.

Infrequent deep watering is preferred to frequent light watering to help
promote a deep root system. Deep root systems help the rose to survive both
droughts, and winter freezes. Frequent, light watering causes roots to form
very near the soil surface, making the plant more susceptible to summer
'baking' and winter freezes.

Try to avoid getting the leaves wet (which promotes disease) when watering
late in the day. However, on hot days wetting the foliage can reduce
transpiration and relieves heat stress.

[2.5] How do I deadhead roses?

Deadheading is cutting off flowers as they wither or don't look as good. Old
blooms left on the plant may have been pollinated and may begin to form seed
pods (hips). The formation of hips requires a lot of energy from the plant
and slows flower production. By preventing the formation of hips,
deadheading encourages the rose bush to grow new flowers.

The choice of which spot to deadhead at is influenced by what shape you want
the bush to take, and which direction you want a particular cane to grow.
Usually, you will want to cut the stem at a 45-degree angle just above an
outward-facing leaf. Make sure the high side of the cut is the side the leaf
set is on.

To deadhead, remove the flower by making a diagonal cut just above the next
5 or 7-leaf branch down on the stem. The idea is to cut to a bud eye capable
of producing a healthy cane. If this would cause too much of the cane to be
removed, a 3-leaf branch can be chosen instead. The first year cut back to
the first 3 or 5-leaf branch. In following years cut far enough down to get
to a 5-leaf branch with a leaf bud that is facing outward. This will open up
the plant.

Once blooming roses do not need to be deadheaded. They bloom once and then
they are finished blooming for the year. However, once-blooming roses may be
(in fact, should be) pruned after they are finished blooming. They should
NOT be pruned in the fall or before they bloom because they bloom on the
previous year's growth.

Stop deadheading as of September 1 in zones 4 and 5. It is a good practice
to let the last roses on HT's produce hips because it makes them more frost
hardy. It causes the plant to undergo chemical changes that slow down
growth, inhibit blooming and generally prepare for dormancy by focusing its
energy on 'hardening' the canes. The formation of hips tells the plant that
it's "done its job" and can now rest from its labors.

[2.6] How do I prune roses?

There are three main purposes to be accomplished when pruning roses.

   * Keep the plant healthy.
   * Encourage the plant to grow in a desired shape.
   * Encourage blooming, either more blooms or larger blooms.

The proper tool for most pruning is a sharp clean set of bypass pruners.
Anvil pruners should not be used for roses as they crush the stem being cut.
A saw or lopping shears may be used to cut very large canes (1/2 inch
diameter or greater) All pruning cuts on canes greater than 1/4 inch
diameter should be sealed with nail polish or glue to prevent cane borers
from entering.

Proper pruning will help keep a rose bush healthy. Dead and diseased wood
should be removed as soon as possible to prevent further damage to the bush.

The future shape of the bush can be influenced by the location of each
pruning cut. Opening up the bush to increase air circulation will help
prevent diseases. Since rose bushes like to send out a strong lateral cane
at the node just below a pruning cut, try to make pruning cuts about 1/4
inch above an "outward" facing leaf bud. By doing this and removing plant
material from the center of the bush you will create a more open vase-shaped
plant less susceptible to disease. Whenever two canes cross each other, one
can be removed.

Roses can be encouraged to bloom better if thin, weak and non-productive
wood is removed to allow the plant to concentrate its blooming on the larger
healthier canes. Generally with Hybrid Teas any cane thinner than a pencil
should be removed. Plants may be pruned hard to encourage larger blooms but
fewer blooms (commonly done with Hybrid Teas.) Or the plant may be pruned
lightly and allowed to grow larger and produce more flowers that are smaller
(commonly done with some shrub roses.) Prune first year plants only lightly
to allow them to concentrate on establishing a strong root system.

[2.7] How do I protect my rose bushes during the winter?

Local advice is preferred for this question, but here are some general
guidelines for winter care of rose bushes for those living in colder
climates. The major dangers to the plant in winter are the drying of the
wind, the effect of alternate thawing and freezing cycles on the plant when
winter temperatures fluctuate, the inability of the plant to take in water
if the soil is frozen, and damage from the cold itself to the canes and bud
union.

  1. If you live in an area with harsh winters, plant cold-hardy roses. Your
     choices are more restricted that way, but you will save yourself a lot
     of work and heartbreak. Many once blooming old roses are very
     cold-hardy. Of the repeat blooomers, rugosas are rock-hardy, and many
     Austins and other shrub roses will do okay. Many yellow and lavender
     roses are especially tender. Unfortunately cold-hardiness is not an
     exact science; conditions such as wind affect roses severely in cold
     weather (by drying them out), and so zone ratings are only a first
     approximation. Beware of books that rate roses 'cold hardy' or 'not
     cold hardy'---they are likely referring to conditions in the UK, which
     has mild winters. Beware also of catalogs that overrate cold-hardiness
     because they want to move more product.
  2. When in doubt, plant own-root roses. If they die back to the ground in
     a particularly severe winter, they will grow back from the roots fairly
     quickly. This advice is not applicable to once-bloomers, because these
     usually flower only on the last year's canes. Own-root Old Roses and
     English roses are available. Hybrid Teas are almost always sold as
     grafted plants, and it is difficult to find own-root plants.
  3. In the fall, reduce the amount of Nitrogen fertilizer used. This,
     combined with lower temperatures, will slow the production of new
     tender growth, and will allow the existing growth to harden off.
  4. Stop deadheading about September 1 for zones 4 and 5. This will allow
     the plant to form hips. The formation of hips encourages the plant to
     slow down growth, slow blooming, and harden the canes, all preparing
     the plant for dormancy.
  5. Understanding rose dormancy will help to determine the proper time to
     prune during the period from late Fall to early Spring. During
     dormancy, the sap has left the canes and the canes are simply empty
     tubes of cellulose. Pruning too early (before the sap runs back) cuts
     some of the nutrients out, so you must be sure the plant is dormant
     before fall (winter) pruning. Winter dieback generally occurs from the
     end of the branches (canes). Pruning removes the available length that
     can die back before reaching the ground. Also, pruning a semidormant
     plant stimulates growth and sap flow in the pruned region. For a plant
     going dormant, this is bad because it inhibits dormancy. For a plant
     waking up (springtime) it's good because it stimulates growth. Ideally
     pruning should occur before sap is fully flowing.
  6. To prevent disease/fungus from overwintering, clean the rose bed by
     removing leaves and other debris. Spray the bush with dormant oil to
     kill bacteria on the bush and on the ground.
  7. Protect the crown of the rose. This is critical since the crown is
     where you want the new canes to come from. There are several methods of
     protection to choose from.
        o Cover the bed at least a foot deep with tree leaves. Do not use
          rose leaves as they may harbor disease. Oak leaves are best as
          they seem to drain better.
        o Cover the bed with straw.
        o Use rose cones.
        o Make a mound with soil or mulch to cover the crown.
        o Wrap the whole plant in burlap if necessary, in addition to one of
          above methods of protecting the crown.
     Timing is important. Covering the rose too early is unwise as it may
     prevent the rose from hardening properly and will slow the onset of
     dormancy. Covering the rose too late may risk damage from the cold.
  8. Climbers or long canes may benefit from being tied to avoid thrashing
     from the wind. Canes may be protected from drying winter winds by
     wrapping them in burlap with a layer of straw for insulation. In severe
     climates long canes may need to be tied and buried.
  9. Keep the soil well-drained, especially as the spring rains come.

[2.8] How do I prepare the soil for a new rose bed?

?? under construction

3. Diseases/Insects

[3.1] My rose has black spots on the leaves, what do I do?

Blackspot is a fungus that causes black spots about 1/16 to 1/2 inches in
diameter to form on the leaves and sometimes stems. The infected leaves
later turn yellow around the spots and eventually fall from the plant. In
bad cases, blackspot can severely defoliate a rose bush. The conditions that
promote blackspot are wet leaves, splashing water and warm temperatures.

Here are some ways to combat blackspot. Most of these methods also apply to
preventing and treating powdery mildew.

  1. Pick a variety of rose resistant to blackspot. Many Rugosas are quite
     resistant to blackspot. Some yellow Hybrid Teas are especially prone to
     blackspot. However, yellow Floribundas such as Sunsprite seem to be
     especially resistant to blackspot.
  2. Use watering methods that don't get the leaves wet: drip watering,
     using a soaker hose, or just soaking the ground with a light stream
     from a garden hose. If overhead watering is used, do so in the morning
     so the leaves can dry off before evening.
  3. Remove all diseased leaves from the plant or ground immediately to
     prevent further spreading of the disease. Infected leaves never get
     better, they just spread the disease. Prune infected canes severely in
     late winter.
  4. Prune away crossing canes and open the center of the bush to allow
     sunlight and airflow to more of the plant.
  5. Blackspot is transmitted by water splash. Remove leaves close to the
     ground (the first 6-8 inches) which are more susceptible to getting
     water splashed on them. Mulch well to minimize water splashing onto
     leaves. If a plant had a lot of blackspot the previous year, replace
     the old mulch with clean new mulch in Winter or early Spring.
  6. Keep the plant well watered. A weak or stressed plant is more
     susceptible to disease.

Preventitive treatments for blackspot

  1. The least toxic spray for blackspot is baking soda. Combine 1
     tablespoon baking soda and either 2 tablespoons horticultural oil or a
     few drops of Ivory liquid with 1 gallon of water. Mix as well as
     possible, and spray both sides of the leaves once a week. The Ivory
     liquid helps the baking soda stick to the leaves. Reapply after a rain.
     Baking soda changes the P.H. of the leaves, helping to prevent
     blackspot.
  2. Another treatment is sulfur dust used every 7-10 days.
  3. Finally, there are the more toxic chemical fungicides. They are often
     used once every week or two and are very effective. Follow the
     directions carefully. Be especially careful to spray properly in hot
     weather to avoid leaf burn. Spray the undersides of the leaves first.
  4. Since a single fungicide may not completely wipe out all the fungi,
     using that fungicide over and over may actually cause fungus to build
     up a resistance to that fungicide. Alternating between two fungicides,
     such as Triforine (Funginex) and Daconil, is recommended to keep
     resistant fungi from building up. Fungicides generally can prevent
     blackspot, but do not cure an existing case of blackspot.

[3.2] How do I avoid powdery mildew?

This fungus forms a powdery white or grayish coating on the upper surface of
young leaves and sometimes on the buds. Infected leaves crumple and become
distorted.

Unlike blackspot, wet conditions actually inhibit the development of powdery
mildew. It can not reproduce in water. It thrives during high humidity but
forms on dry leaves. Warm dry days, cool dry nights are ideal for powdery
mildew.

One of the best ways to avoid powdery mildew is to keep things as airy as
possible. Roses planted too close to a wall may not get enough airflow.
Prune away crossing canes and open the center of the bush to allow sunlight
and airflow.

Also, spraying the foliage with a mixture of 1 T. baking soda per 1 gallon
of water can be effective.

[3.3] How do I get rid of aphids?

Aphids are tiny insects about a 1/16 to 1/8 inches long, usually light
green, red or black. They come in the spring and damage tender new growth.

A hard spray of water from the hose will help remove aphid infestations.
Aphids reproduce quickly and this may need to be repeated every couple days
for a couple weeks.

Aphids have a mutually beneficial relationship with ants, so ants need to be
controlled if aphids are to be controlled. Ladybugs are a natural predator
of aphids and can be used to control aphids. Water the area well and release
the ladybugs around sunset to discourage the ladybugs from leaving.

[3.4] What is eating holes in the leaves of my rose?

Leaf cutter bees cut semi-circle shaped holes in the leaves of roses. They
pose no real threat to rose health, but they drive exhibitors crazy.

4. Rose Characteristics

[4.1] Which is the most fragrant rose?

Here is a list of some very fragrant roses as recommended by posts to the
newsgroup rec.gardens.roses.

   * HT: Double Delight (mentioned most often), spicey, red-white bicolor
   * HT: Fragrant Cloud, reddish-orange
   * HT: Mr. Lincoln, dark red
   * HT: Crimson Glory, red
   * HT: Chrysler Imperial, red
   * HT: Papa Meilland, dark red
   * HT: Perfume Delight, pink
   * HT: Secret
   * ER: Gertrude Jekyll, pink
   * ER: Othello, dark red
   * ER: Heritage, lemony scent, pale pink
   * Alba: Felicite Parmentier, once-blooming
   * Damask: Mme. Hardy, white, once-blooming
   * Tea: Sombreuil, cream-white
   * Bourbon: Souvenir de la Malmasion
   * HP: Souvenir du Dr Jamain

As a group, David Austin roses are quite fragrant. So are many of the Old
Roses, such as the Damasks.

[4.2] What kind of rose do I have?

When posting this question to the newsgroup, include as much information
about the rose as possible, such as the following:

   * what kind of rose is it? (climber, Hybrid Tea, Old Rose, Species, etc.)
   * approximate plant size (4ft tall by 4ft wide)
   * flower color, bud color, flower size (4 inch diameter),
   * approximate number of petals per flower
   * foliage color (light, medium, or dark green)
   * foliage description (dull, shiny, leathery, large, small, etc.)
   * how many leaflets per leaf on average (3,5,7, etc.)
   * once blooming (blooms once a year) or repeat blooming
   * thorns (many, few, large, hooked, straight)
   * fragrance (none, light, heavy, spicy, fruity, tea, etc.)

[4.3] Are there any Blue roses?

Though highly sought after, no blue roses exist yet. Some roses are
advertised as blue, but they are actually lavender or something. Most
lavender roses are difficult to grow and are quite susceptible to disease.
Some of the bluer roses are Blue Girl, Blue Jay(HT), and Reine des
Violettes(HP). A couple of true purple roses are Cardinal de Richelieu and
Veilchenblau.

The genetics are just not there for producing a true blue color in roses. It
will probably be necessary to use gene splicing to produce the first blue
rose.

[4.4] Are there any Black roses?

No true black roses exist. Some roses sold as black roses are actually dark
red or maroon. The petals of many of these dark red roses tend to sunburn
easily. To see that a rose is not truly black, hold it up next to a piece of
black construction paper. To make a dark red rose appear blacker, put its
stem in water that has black ink in it.

Below is an incomplete list of some roses that have been mentioned when
black roses are discussed. Next to some of the roses a very subjective
description of the color is given.

   * Black Jade: dark red miniature
   * Cardinal de Richelieu: dark purple Gallica
   * Chateau de Clos-Vougeot: HT, deep red blossoms, blackish highlights,
     poor growth
   * Francis Dubreuil: Tea rose
   * Guinee: very, very dark red
   * Mr. Lincoln: HT, dark red
   * Nuits de Young purple Moss rose
   * Oklahoma: HT, deep crimson
   * Souvenir du Dr Jamain: Hybrid Perpetual, dark red/maroon
   * Sympathie: deep red climber
   * Taboo: Popular dark rose that has deep red flowers with darker edges.
     It reportedly has nearly black buds.
   * The Prince: English rose, very, very dark red/purple
   * Tuscany Superb: Gallica, deep maroon velvet

[4.5] What are David Austin roses or English roses?

In 1969, English Roses, often called David Austin Roses, were introduced by
the English rose hybridizer David Austin.

David Austin tried to create roses that combine the best elements of Old
Roses (roses varieties from before 1867) and Modern Roses (such as Hybrid
Teas, Floribundas and Grandifloras). Most English Roses have flowers
resembling Old Rose flowers, cupped and rosette-shaped old-fashioned
flowers, usually with many petals. English Roses generally repeat flower
well, like the Hybrid Teas and other Modern Roses. English Roses are
available in a wide variety of colors, such as yellows not very common in
Old Roses. Many English Roses have the strong fragrances of some of the Old
Roses.

There is a FAQ article called 'English Roses' which is part 6/6 of the FAQ.

5. Miscellaneous

[5.1] How do I propagate roses?

There are two primary ways to propagate roses. Asexual reproduction is
usually used to produce a duplicate of the parent plant. Sexual
reproduction, i.e. growing roses from seed, is primarily used to create new
varieties of roses.

Common methods of asexual propagation of roses are softwood rooting,
hardwood rooting, and bud grafting. Limited space permits only a brief
description of softwood rooting.

Old Roses, English Roses and Miniatures are generally good candidates for
rooting cuttings because they usually grow vigorously on their own roots.
Modern Roses such as Hybrid Teas and Floribundas are usually sold budded
onto different rootstock. Some Modern Roses do grow vigorously on their own
roots, while others do not. Below is a description of softwood rooting from
Karen Baldwin with some changes.

ROSE PROPAGATION A LA ZIPLOCK BAGGIES

MAKING THE CUTTING

   * Preferably take a cutting on which the bloom is barely spent, so that
     all the petals have just recently dropped off. It is okay to take a
     cutting earlier, but at least make sure color is showing in the bud.
     These are indications of the maturity of the wood in the stem -- you
     want something in between the extremes of greenwood and hardwood.
   * Try to have at least four separate leafsets under the bloom, and a
     five-leaflet set at the bottom of the cutting. (Each spot where the
     leafsets meet the stem forms a "node," where the bud eyes are, and from
     which roots can form. Hybrid teas tend to have fewer "nodes" spaced
     farther apart than Old World roses, and thus require a longer cutting,
     generally speaking). Make a clean bottom cut with a sharp, clean
     pruning tool 1" below the last node. Try to leave about 1/2" of cane
     above the top leafset.
   * Keep your cuttings fresh in water while you gather more, until you're
     ready to plant them.

PLANTING THE CUTTING:

   * Fill a 1-gallon zip lock baggie 1/4 to 1/3 full (about 3") with STERILE
     loose potting mix. (e.g., 1/2 peter's potting soil and 1/2
     vermiculite). A 2-gallon ziplock baggie may be better since it will
     give the leaves more room, but use the same depth of soil you'd use in
     a 1-gallon baggie, since you'll be watching for roots growing through
     it, later.
   * Moisten the mix but do not make it extremely wet. Use 1 tsp. miracle
     gro per 1 quart of water, to provide some initial nutrients (which may
     help avoid yellowing and leaf-drop). With your hands, firm the soil
     down well, within the baggie. The soil should be very damp, but there
     should be no standing water in the bottom.
   * Snip off the stem a little above the top-most leaf set (i.e., remove
     the flowering part). Try to leave about 1/2" of cane above the top
     leafset.
   * Strip off the bottom two sets of leaves (where the stem will be pushed
     into the soil).
   * Score the bottom part of the stem along its length (vertically) for an
     inch or so. (An exacto-knife works nicely for this purpose, but
     fingernails will do fine.) Roots will form along this score.
   * Dip scored end of cutting into rooting compound, a couple inches deep.
     Knock off the excess (you can get too thick a layer). Stick the cutting
     a couple of inches into the soil.
   * If insects have eaten the leaves during previous rooting attempts, you
     may wish sprinkle a very small amount of diazinon or other insecticide
     on the soil surface. Be especially careful if you are using chemicals
     indoors.
   * Mist the cutting and the interior surfaces of the baggie with a spray
     bottle filled with the following mix (to avoid fungus and mildew growth
     in the closed "terrarium" environment). Do not use spraycan fungicides
     or insecticides ... in the closed environment, the chemicals can
     overwhelm then kill a new young plant. 1 quart water 1 tsp. miracle gro
     1 tsp. baking soda (no more!) 2-3 drops dishwashing liquid (to make it
     cling)
   * Zip baggie almost shut. Breathe into it 'til it expands kinda like a
     balloon, and zip the rest of the way closed. (Keep it closed unless it
     deflates enough to warrant breathing into it again.)
   * Put in bright, INDIRECT light - (e.g., behind sheers in a
     southeast-facing window) WARNING!!! if it gets direct sun or too much
     heat it will scorch (eventually turning black) and likely die! You may
     have to experiment a bit to find the best exposure; you might hedge
     your bets by placing some in different locations until you find the
     best spot for your house.
   * Clear away any leaves that might drop from the stem, reinflating the
     baggie after removing them.

POTTING THE CUTTING:

   * Look for roots along the bottom of the baggie in two or three weeks. A
     few stubborn ones may take six weeks, and there is a report of one
     incredibly obstinate plant that took over 10 weeks!
   * Acclimation to air outside the bag is tricky. To be careful, (1) when
     you see some top growth, unzip the baggie just a little for a few hours
     the first day, then seal it up again. (2) For the next few days, unzip
     the baggie the same amount, but leave it open for a few more hours each
     day. (3) Next, leave it open all the time, but increase the amount the
     bag is unzipped each day for about a week, until it's fully open. Don't
     rush it.
   * Put good soil into a 1-gallon pot, leaving room for the addition of the
     new plant and its soil. Place the baggie atop the soil, and cut the
     plastic away (this can be slightly tricky). Firm the soil around the
     plant only very lightly.
   * Keep the same lighting in the same location (protected from too much
     direct sun) for a week, leaving the cutting unmolested to give its
     disturbed roots a chance to heal.

PLANTING OUTDOORS:

   * After they have spent a week in their pots, you can either move them
     into more light inside for the first winter), or (preferably) move them
     outside.
   * When moved outside, set them in indirect sun at first, bright but
     shaded, and leave them there for a week. (If your area gets cold at
     night, you may need to move them inside at night for a while.) The next
     week, move the plant bit by bit toward and then into full sun. (Note:
     Gro-lights don't normally put out nearly enough light for roses, though
     it can probably be done.)
   * When kept inside for their first winter, especially in zones 5 and
     below, place them in a spot where they'll get more light. (When planted
     outside in the same summer they were rooted, even with a heavy mulch,
     many more will be lost to winter kill since the new little roses won't
     always have enough roots to carry them through. Also, chinooks
     (intense, warm winds) do their damage too. By keeping them inside for
     their first winter, and planting them in the spring, they will be
     better-established by the next fall.)
   * Plant late enough to avoid those nasty springs that get warm, causing
     the roses to break dormancy, only to follow up with a hard freeze!
   * Remember that your rose will grow in size; prepare a good-sized area of
     soil with added organic material as appropriate to your locale.

Cheryl Netter has a World Wide Web page with three descriptions on how to
root roses using softwood cuttings. They can be found by going to the URL,
http://nexus.interealm.com/p/cnetter/rose_tour/index.html . Cheryl Netter's
WWW home page with some excellent rose pictures and information is located
at the URL, http://nexus.interealm.com/p/cnetter .

[5.2] What is an ARS rating?

An ARS (American Rose Society) rating is a yearly rating from 1(worst) to
10(best) given to a variety of rose. This is a U.S. national rating,
combining several district ratings. The district ratings are an average of
individual ratings given by rose growers, beginners to experienced.

The ARS ratings are print yearly in the "Handbook for Selecting Roses". It
can be obtained from the address below:

    American Rose Society
        P.O. Box 30,000
        Shreveport, LA 71130-0030
        phone: (318) 938-5402

The American Rose Society has a World Wide Web page at http://www.ars.org .

6. FAQ contributors

The FAQ is compiled and posted by Bill Chandler at chandler@onr.com . This
FAQ has been created by the generous efforts of several readers of
rec.gardens.roses. The following individuals, and others, have made
suggestions and/or contributions to the FAQ (parts 1 through 6).

   * Jolene Adams
   * Karen Baldwin
   * Kristine Carroll
   * Brent Dickerson
   * Pascal A. Dupuis
   * Pulak Dutta
   * Johanes Kalbus
   * John McCully
   * Kathleen Much
   * Cheryl Netter
   * William Nettles

7. Disclaimer/Copyright

This disclaimer applies to all parts of the FAQ. The FAQ articles are
intended as amateur information. Use FAQ information at your own risk.

"The Rose FAQ" is copyrighted 1996. Before reprinting a FAQ article (or
major portions of one) for other than personal use, please obtain permission
from the author of the article.

end of Frequently Asked Questions about Roses
rec.gardens.roses FAQ, part 1/6

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