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Archive-name: games/video-games/faq/part3

Section 7: System Capabilities:

I would like to add polygon counts here.  It is impossible to find any
decent polygon count information, however.
|          | Neo Geo  |   SNES   | Genesis  |   TG-16  |    NES   | Sega MS2 |
|Bits (CPU)|   8 + 16 |       16 |       16 |    8 + 8 |        8 |        8 |
|Bits (Gx) |       16 |       16 |       16 |       16 |        8 |        8 |
|CPU       |     68000|    65816 |    68000 |   HuC6280|     6502 |      Z80 |
|APU (Aud) |       Z80|  SPC???? |      Z80 |          |          |          |
|MHz       |   12.5, 4|      3.6 |      7.6 |  3.6  3.6|      1.8 |      3.6 |
|Graphics  | 320 x 224| 256 x 224| 320 x 224| 256 x 256| 256 x 240| 240 x 226|
| -2nd mode|          | 512 x 448|320 x 448*| 320x256**|          |          |
|Planes    |        3 |        4 |        2 |        1 |        1 |        1 |
|Colors    |4096/65536| 256/32768|   61/512 |  482/512 |    16/52 |   52/256 |
|Sprites   |      380 |      128 |       80 |       64 |        8 |       16 |
| - size   |  16 x 512|   32 x 32|   32 x 32|   16 x 16|    8 x 8 |    8 x 8 |
|Audio     |   15-lyr |PCM 8-lyr |   10-lyr |    6-lyr |     mono |     mono |
|RAM       | 64K+68Kgx|128K+64Kgx| 72K+64Kgx|  8K+64Kgx|  2K+ 2Kgx|        ? |
|          | (+2K Z80)|          |          |          |          |          |
|CD CPU/MHz|        ? |          |68000/12.5| 65802/16 |
|CD RAM    |430K VRAM |          |     768K |   CD=64K |
|          | 64K SRAM |          |          | SCD=256K |
|          |7 mg DRAM |          |          |          |
|----------+----------+          +----------+----------+
* The 320x448 mode on the Genesis is the Sonic split-screen mode.
** A 512x256 mode is possible through fiddling with registers, but not
officially supported.

Comment: The Genesis would have 64 colors, having 8x8 tiles which use 16
colors from one of 4 palettes each, except the 16th color is a "transparent"
color that's the same for all 4, making 61.  Similarly, the TG-16 has a back-
ground made of 8x8 tiles using 16 palettes of 16 colors each, and sprites also
using 16 palettes of 16 colors each, making 512 colors, which is reduced to
482 because all sprites have one transparent color and all tiles have one
background color.  (It's not 481 because the sprite color register 0 is
used for the border.)

I have no idea if other systems have similar features that lower the number
of colors below an even power of 2.

|          |  Jaguar  |    3DO   |   CD32   |  Saturn  |   Sony   | NEC PC-FX|
|Bits (CPU)|  64 + 16 |       32 |       32 |  32 + 16 |       32 |       32 |
|Bits (Gx) |       64 |       32 |       32 |    64 (?)|        ? |        ? |
|CPU       |Proprietary   ARM/60 |  68EC020 |HitachiSH2|   R3000A |     V810 |
|          |   + 68000|          |          |    (two) |          |          |
|          |          |          |          | + 68EC000|          |          |
|APU (Aud) |Proprietary        ? |Proprietary        ? |        ? |        ? |
|MHz       |     26.6 |     12.5 |       14 |       27 |  33.8688 |     21.5 |
|MHz (Gx)  |        ? |        ? |       28 |        ? |        ? |        ? |
|Graphics  | 720x526**|320x480***|1280x512**|        ? | 640 x 480| 320 x 240|
|Colors    | 16777216 | 16777216 |256/1677.*|?/16777216| 16777216 |?/16777216|
|Sprites   |      N/A |      N/A |        8 |        ? |    unlim?|      128 |
| - size   |      N/A |      N/A |64x scrnht|        ? |  256x256 |        ? |
|Audio     |    unlim |        ? |4 channels| 32 chan. | 24 chan. |        ? |
|RAM       |2 megabyte|2 megabyte|2 megabyte|2 megabyte|2 megabyte|2 megabyte|
|Video RAM |        ? |1 megabyte|        ? |     1.5m |1 megabyte|    1.25m |
|Audio RAM |        ? |        ? |        ? |     512K |     512K |        ? |
|MPEG      |MPEG1 opt.|        ? |        ? |        ? |   MPEG1? |    MPEG1 |
|CD CPU/MHz|        ? |        ? |        ? |        ? |        ? |        ? |
|CD RAM    |     256K |        ? |        ? |     512K |      32K |     256K |
|          | Jaguar 2 |  3DO M2  | Ultra 64 |
|Bits (CPU)|        ? |       32 |       64 |
|Bits (Gx) |        ? |       64 |        ? |
|CPU       |        ? |  PPC-602 |R4300i (?)|
|APU (Aud) |        ? |        ? |        ? |
|MHz       |        ? |       66 |       *4 |
|MHz (Gx)  |        ? |        ? |        ? |
|Graphics  |        ? |640 x 480?|        ? |
|Colors    |        ? | 16777216 | 16777216 |
|Sprites   |        ? |      N/A |        ? |
| - size   |        ? |        ? |        ? |
|Audio     |        ? |        ? |        ? |
|RAM       |        ? |4 megabyte|        ? |
|Video RAM |        ? |        ? |        ? |
|Audio RAM |        ? |        ? |        ? |
|MPEG      |        ? |MPEG1;2opt|        ? |
|CD CPU/MHz|        ? |        ? |
|CD RAM    |        ? |        ? |
* Also has Hold and Modify mode which gives 262144/16777216 colors and is
mainly useful for still pictures.
** Jaguar resolution includes overscan.  CD32 can do >1300x566 overscanned.
*** Usually uses 320x240, interpolated to 640x480.  It apparently has real
320x480 which is rarely used.
*4 Apparently the oft-quoted 500 Mhz figure refers to the speed of the bus
to RAM.  Real speed is unknown.

CD-I: I don't know, but very primitive.  Most of its capability seems to come
from playing video and video clips, not machine-generated graphics.

Bandai Playdia Quick Interactive System (formerly BA-X): Ditto.  It's a lot
newer, so I assume the graphics are better, but I've never seen one....
|          |  GameBoy |   Lynx   | GameGear | TExpress |
|Bits (CPU)|        8 |        8 |        8 |    8 + 8 |
|Bits (Gx) |        8 |       16 |        8 |       16 |
|CPU       |      Z80 |     6502 |      Z80 | 6502 6502|
|MHz (CPU) |      2.2 |      4.0 |      3.6 |      7.2 |
|MHz (Gx)  |          |     16.0 |          |          |
|ScreenSize|     2.6" |     3.5" |     3.2" |     2.6" |
|Graphics  | 160 x 144| 160 x 102| 160 x 144| 256 x 216|
|Colors    | mono (4) |  16/4096 |  32/4096 |  482/512 |
|Sprites   |        8 |    unlim |       64 |       64 |
| - size   |    8 x 8 |    unlim |    8 x 8 |  16 x 16 |
|Audio     |    2-lyr |    4-lyr |    4-lyr |    6-lyr |
|RAM       |      16K |      64K |      24K |  8K+64Kgx|

Most systems can change colors on successive scan lines, using more colors
than the ones listed.

The game Ex-ranza (Ranger-X in USA) for the Genesis is billed as having 128
colors.  It's not clear whether or not this is just a scan line change.

The existence of multiple graphics modes also confuses things--it might not be
possible to use all features at the highest graphics mode, as in the lack of
hardware rotation in the SNES 512x448 mode.  I'm not sure if there are
limitations on the double resolution Genesis mode (used for Sonic split

``Does the Genesis CD-ROM have extra colors, sprites, or resolution?''

No.  (Despite at least two errors in Gamepro magazine, and a repetition of
this error in the book Phoenix.)

``What is this megabit stuff?  Isn't it supposed to be byte?''

1 byte is equal to 8 bits, so an 8 megabit game is really 1 megabyte.  (Also,
``mega'' for computers is 1048576, not an even million).  Although it is widely
believed that this was popularized by Sega's "mega cartridges" for the Master
System, the idea of inflating game size this way apparently dates back at least
to Coleco's Adam.  (Some memory chips really are measured in bits, though.)

Old Neo-Geo ads claimed "megabytes" for their games, which was a lie.

'Bits' in game systems

There are several processor characteristics that measure in bits; whether or
not a processor counts as 32-bit may depend on what you consider important.
(A 32-bit processor might have 32-bit address space, perform operations on
32-bit quantities, or have a 32 bit wide bus).  It's never legitimate to add
the bits in all a system's processors, so a Sega CD is not a 32-bit system
even though it has two 16-bit processors, nor is a Neo-Geo a 24-bit system.

When discussing graphics, professionals often use "bits" to refer to how many
colors there are: if a system lets a pixel be one of 2^16 colors, the system
has "16-bit graphics".  (A common error associated with this definition is to
say that this means the machine can show 2^16 colors at once, although video
game systems don't have enough pixels on the screen to do so.)

This contrasts with video game company hype, which usually says either 1)
"This is a 16 bit machine, so we'll call the graphics 16 bits", or 2) "This is
a 16 bit processor, and we use it for graphics, so we'll say we have 16-bit
graphics".  (The latter is the method used at the top of this section of the

"How many bits of graphics" and "how many bits" are about equally worthless,
er, bits, of information.  It's only in the FAQ because people keep asking for
it anyway.

There also seems to be a trend for Usenet posters to deliberately lie about
the number of bits in systems, just to cause more confusion (the 64 bit
Jaguar is especially prone to this; one person even quoted from a Jaguar
developer, but altered the quote so as to read 32 instead of 64.).

Game Genie Genesis decoding

Merlyn LeRoy posted the method to convert Game Genie codes to real hex codes:

    For example, SCRA-BJX0 is a game genie code.  Each letter is 5 bits from
    the table ABCDEFGHJKLMNPRSTVWXYZ0123456789, A=00000, B=00001, C=00010...

      S     C     R     A  -  B     J     X     0
    01111 00010 01110 00000 00001 01000 10011 10110
    ijklm nopIJ KLMNO PABCD EFGHd efgha bcQRS TUVWX   rearrange as...

    00000000 10011100 01110110: 01010100 01111000
    ABCDEFGH IJKLMNOP QRSTUVWX: abcdefgh ijklmnop
    24-bit address              16-bit data
    MSB                    LSB  MSB           LSB

    Which is 009c76: 5478

Pro Action Replay format for Genesis

The Pro Action Replay codes for the Genesis are just an address/data format,
AAAAAADDDD.  The Pro Action Replay can either intercept reads to ROM, or in-
stall a routine which continually restores RAM values.  (Codes which modify
RAM can't be converted to Game Genie formats.)  The best educated guesses are
that FF as first two digits of the address indicates RAM, and anything else is
a page pointer for ROM.  The data is a 16 bit number, but if the first two di-
gits of the data are 00, the device only inserts an 8 bit number.  (You prob-
ably need two codes if you want to insert a 16 bit number which starts with
two zeroes.)

Game Genie SNES decoding

(This is from hexadecimal to Genie, to reverse just run it backwards)
Data - D7 down to D0
Address - A23 down to A0.  Bit 15 is always a 1; if you use a 0, the Game
  Genie will just change it to a 1 anyway.
7654 3210 1111 7654 9822 2232 1011 1111  (True address, rearranged)
          5432        32 10     98 7610
Example - Force AD at 80C7AA
Data = 1010 1101
Address = 1000 0000 1100 0111 1010 1010
Take the data in order, and then take bit 15, 14, 13, 12, 7, 6, etc. of the
address, to get:
1010 1101 1100 1010 1110 0010 1000 0001 = ADCAE281

The Game Genie hex is encoded from normal hexadecimal, so at this
point you must translate with the following table:

HEX:    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
GENIE:  D F 4 7 0 9 1 5 6 B C 8 A 2 3 E

Translates to C2AC-346F

SNES/SF Game Finger (copier code) decoding

The general format is:  AAAAABBBBBBCCD  <- a 14-digit codes
			   |   |   | |_ D:  target to replace bytes
A: address of the first    |   |   |___ C:  checksum
byte to be replaced _______|   |_______ B:  3 bytes for replacement

Unused B bytes are replaced by XX.  Note that the address only refers to a 1
meg address space.

The checksum format is: stick an 0 in front and then divide into sequences of
two hex digits representing bytes.  Add together the first six of these (the
A's and B's).  I have no idea if D is added in also, since the person who
originally posted this information used an example of D=0.

Values for D are:

0: replace values in DRAM of copier
1: replace values in backup RAM of copier
2, 8, A, C, F: non-standard codes which may be converted to 0.

The Game Finger codes are in plain hexadecimal, but they use ROM cartridge
addresses while the Game Genie uses CPU addresses.  The conversion is as

CPU        ROM (cartridge)
address    address

A23        none
A22        none
A21        none
A20        A19
A19        A18
A18        A17
A17        A16
A16        A15
A15        none (A15 is always high for ROM accesses)
A14        A14
A13        A13
A12        A12
A11        A11
A10        A10
A9         A9
A8         A8
A7         A7
A6         A6
A5         A5
A4         A4
A3         A3
A2         A2
A1         A1
A0         A0

ROMaddress = (CPUaddress and $7FFF) or ((CPUaddress and $FF0000) shl 1)

[Pro] Action Replay Codes for SNES

The format is AAAAAADD for address and data.  These use CPU addresses, not
ROM ones.

The cumulative intellect of the net doesn't seem to know much about these
codes at all.  As for the Genesis, this works by continually rewriting RAM
locations.  I don't know the format of these codes, or if they also do ROM
like the Game Genie does (though they _probably_ do).

The Game Action Replay is something different, which saves a copy of the
NES's RAM so it can be used later; for instance in returning to a level in
a game without a level select.

Game Genie codes for Gameboy: see the Gameboy FAQ.

Section 8: Connecter/Controller Pinouts:

Genesis A/V connector

Starting from the 1 o'clock position, looking at the Genesis from the back,
and going clockwise, the pins are:  red, audio, +5 volts, ground, green,
composite video, and negative combined sync, with blue on the center pin.

Neo Geo A/V connector

Same as Genesis, though the plug is a different size.

SNES controller
 1 |    U    | 20
 2 |         | 19
 3 |         | 18
 4 |         | 17
 5 |         | 16
 6 |         | 15
 7 |         | 14
 8 |         | 13
 9 |         | 12
10 |_________| 11

1 : Pad: Down
2 : Pad: Left
3 : Pad: Right
4 : Select
5 : Start
6-9: Output 1-4
10: Gnd (pin 5 on connector)
11: nc
12: nc
13: Y
14: B
15: A
16: X
17: R
18: L
19: Pad: Up
20: nc

SNES output pinouts

From Radio Electronics April 1992:

   11  9  7  5  3  1
   12 10  8  6  4  2

1.  RED VIDEO (requires series 200ufd)
2.  GREEN VIDEO (requires series 200ufd)
3.  RGB SYNCH (active low combined v+h synch pulses)
4.  BLUE VIDEO (requires series 200ufd)
7.  S-Video "Y"
8.  S-Video "C"
10. +5 Volts DC
11. L+R Sound
12. L-R Sound

SNES cartridge pinouts

 SNES Slot:

                        | 01 | 32 |
                        | 02 | 33 |
                        | 03 | 34 |
                        | 04 | 35 |
                    GND | 05 | 36 | GND
                    A11 | 06 | 37 | A12
                    A10 | 07 | 38 | A13
                     A9 | 08 | 39 | A14
                     A8 | 09 | 40 | A15
                     A7 | 10 | 41 | A16
                     A6 | 11 | 42 | A17
                     A5 | 12 | 43 | A18
                     A4 | 13 | 44 | A19
                     A3 | 14 | 45 | A20
                     A2 | 15 | 46 | A21
                     A1 | 16 | 47 | A22
                     A0 | 17 | 48 | A23
                   /IRQ | 18 | 49 | /ROM ENABLE
                     D0 | 19 | 50 | D4
                     D1 | 20 | 51 | D5
                     D2 | 21 | 52 | D6
                     D3 | 22 | 53 | D7
                  /READ | 23 | 54 | /WRITE
                    CIC | 24 | 55 | CIC
                    CIC | 25 | 56 | CIC
            /RAM ENABLE | 26 | 57 | NC
                    VCC | 27 | 58 | VCC
                        | 28 | 59 |
                        | 29 | 60 |
                        | 30 | 61 |
                        | 31 | 62 |

CIC: D413/D411 (Europe/USA) are the security chips.

The lines A16 - A23 are used for bank-switching. The cartridges use
either 32K banks (A15 not used) or 64K banks.

Cartridge ROM and EPROM layout:

           EPROM    ROM             ROM    EPROM
                    A20 | 01   36 | VCC
                    A21 | 02   35 | A22
             A19    A17 | 01   32 | VCC    VCC
             A16    A18 | 02   31 | /OE    A18
             A15    A15 | 03   30 | A19    A17
             A12    A12 | 04   29 | A14    A14
              A7     A7 | 05   28 | A13    A13
              A6     A6 | 06   27 | A8     A8
              A5     A5 | 07   26 | A9     A9
              A4     A4 | 08   25 | A11    A11
              A3     A3 | 09   24 | A16    /OE
              A2     A2 | 10   23 | A10    A10
              A1     A1 | 11   22 | /CE    /CE
              A0     A0 | 12   21 | D7     D7
              D0     D0 | 13   20 | D6     D6
              D1     D1 | 14   19 | D5     D5
              D2     D2 | 16   18 | D4     D4
             GND    GND | 16   17 | D3     D3

LS139 (two binary decoders) in less or equal 8 Mbit cartridges: 

         ROM /OE    /1G | 01   16 | VCC    VCC
             A21     1A | 02   15 | /2G    /1Y3
             A20     1B | 03   14 | 2A     A19
             /OE   /1Y0 | 04   13 | 2B     RAM /E
              NC   /1Y1 | 05   12 | /2Y0   NC
              NC   /1Y2 | 06   11 | /2Y1   NC
             /2G   /1Y3 | 07   10 | /2Y2   NC
             GND    GND | 08   09 | /2Y3   NC

LS139 (two binary decoders) in more than 8 Mbit cartridges: 

         ROM /OE    /1G | 01   16 | VCC    VCC
              40     1A | 02   15 | /2G    /1Y3
          RAM /E     1B | 03   14 | 2A     NC
              NC   /1Y0 | 04   13 | 2B     NC
              NC   /1Y1 | 05   12 | /2Y0   NC
              NC   /1Y2 | 06   11 | /2Y1   NC
     /OE and /2G   /1Y3 | 07   10 | /2Y2   NC
             GND    GND | 08   09 | /2Y3   NC

Cartridge pinouts for Gameboy: see the Gameboy FAQ.

Section 9: Compatibility:

FAMICOM: Same as NES.  Adaptors reportedly exist.

The Famicom will work on a US television, if a TV is set to "cable" and chan-
nel 95 or 96.  (It normally won't work because Japanese TV frequencies are
different from American ones, and it doesn't have a composite output, unlike
the other systems below.)

FAMICOM DISK SYSTEM: No US counterpart.  (People kept copying the disks.)

SUPER FAMICOM: Same as Super NES.  There are at least four versions:
American/Japanese, at least two incompatible European versions, and Australi-
an.  These are incompatible because of lockout chips, but you can buy an
adapter which connects a lockout chip from a native cartridge and a program
from a foreign cartridge.

Some older adapters that don't include all data lines, and on these, games
like Super Mario Kart or Starfox won't work.

Some games also have PAL protection (PAL is the TV system in Australia and
much of Europe.) This problem can't be fixed with an adaptor alone, and only
happens when trying to run American/Japanese games on PAL systems or vice-
versa.  Known games with this problem are SF2 Turbo and Super Mario All-Stars.
A Game Action Replay code to get SF2 Turbo to work is listed elsewhere in this
FAQ.  One person posted that to bypass the lockout, a circuit on the bottom
left, possibly U8, needs to have pins 1 and 10 connected.  (He advised putting
a switch on it instead of making a permanent change).  I assume no responsi-
bility for you ruining your machine by trying this; I have no idea if it works
on all SNES models.

If you're trying to play a Japanese game on an American system, or vice versa,
you can ignore the above; neither of those problems happens.  However, the
cartridges are shaped to not fit in each other's machines.  If you cut away the
plastic that prevents them from fitting, you can play them; on a US system it's
the two little plastic tabs that slide into the back of cartridges.  (Or you
can use an ``adapter'' which just changes the cartridge slot size).

News flash: It is said that some newer SNES systems have metal inside the tabs,
in which case you might actually need the adapter.  There are said to be some
newer machines which won't run any Japanese games.

PC ENGINE/COREGRAFX/DUO: Same as Turbografx-16.  Cartridges aren't compatible,
but you can buy adapters for $20-30 through many mail order places.  (If you
have a Duo, be sure your adapter fits, or else do some cutting....)  CDs work
without adapters, although the SCD and Arcade Card expansions are themselves
cartridges and so need adapters if you're using Japanese ones in a US machine.

There is a hardware difference between the two machines.  Most TG-16 car-
tridges check it, and won't work on a PCE even with an adapter.  (Known excep-
tions which _do_ work are Night Creatures, Ghost Manor, and some runs of Klax.
There is a hypothesis that US-only games which aren't Japanese ports will
work.)  Although in theory any game could be locked out this way, this has
only happened for carts, and only in one direction, so you probably don't need
to worry about it.

The Altered Beast CD won't work, but that's because of an incompatibility
with the CD system version; it won't work on a PC Engine 2.0 or SCD either.

Note: The CD-ROM2 is the the CD, not the super-CD.  The "2" comes from the
Japanese name "Rom Rom".

SUPERGRAFX: No US counterpart.  (The Supergrafx was an enhanced PC Engine and
can play PC Engine games without modification, though of course these are hard
to get in the US.)

MEGA DRIVE: Same as Genesis.  Compatibility is a bit tricky.

The European and Australian machine called the Mega Drive is identical to the
Genesis except that it emits a 50 hertz PAL signal.  The Japanese one is
identical to the Genesis except for (sometimes) the cartridge slot, and the
language setting.

First, to play games in the "wrong" machine you must plug them in.  You can
buy an adapter, or just cut away the plastic that keeps them from fitting.  On
a US/European machine, this is some plastic around the slot; on an older
Japanese machine, this is the cartridge lock (the tab that pushes into the slot
from the left when you turn on the machine).  I never even needed to remove the
cartridge lock, but some people have told me they did.

Now that you've plugged the game in, it _might_ run; cartridges can read the
language and 50/60 hertz setting, and some newer games are programmed to check
these settings and decide not to run at all.  The following games are locked
out this way (CD games refuse to run even with a Pro-CDX):

    Do not run in English mode: Japanese versions of After Burner II, Bare
      Knuckle 3, Chameleon Kid, Doraemon, Gunstar Heroes, Monster World 4,
      Ragnacenti, Rolling Thunder II, Super Monaco GP 2, Super SF2, Thunder
      Force IV, Virtua Racing, Yuu Yuu Hakusho.
    Do not run in Japanese mode: US versions of Aladdin, Bio-Hazard Battle,
      Castlevania Bloodlines, Cyborg Justice, Dragon's Fury, Eternal Champions,
      Flashback, Gauntlet IV, Gunstar Heroes, Landstalker, Lightening Force,
      Majin Saga, Outrun 2019, Phantasy Star IV, Ren and Stimpy, Rocket Knight
      Adventures, SF2CE, Shadowrun, Shining Force, Shinobi 3, Streets of Rage
      II, Streets of Rage III, Subterrania, Sunset Riders, Thunderstrike (CD),
      World of Illusion, X-Men.
    Do not run in 50 hertz mode: US versions of Flashback, Sonic Spinball,
      Streets of Rage II, World of Illusion, World Series Baseball (And
      probably most of the ones that don't run in Japanese mode, too.)
    Does not run in 60 hertz mode: European version of Xenon2.

This is nowhere near an exhaustive list--it's just the ones I heard of.

To play English/Japanese carts, you need a language switch, or a special
adaptor which acts like one.  To play European/non-European carts, you
need a 50/60 hertz switch (see below).  (The language switch is useful in its
own right.  Some games have dual ROMs, and play US versions in US/European
machines and Japanese versions in Japanese machines; you can see both versions
by installing the switch.)

CDs are locked out; there are 4 different incompatible versions: American, Eu-
ropean, Japanese, and (other) Asian.  The normal way to get around most of the
CD-ROM lockout is to buy a Pro-CDX adapter.  It doesn't work on everything;
older adapters, in particular, have problems with US CD's in Japanese
machines, and with some games in general.  Also, games can be locked out via
the language setting, just like carts, which the Pro-CDX can't fix.  (There is
only one known example of this, however.) There is an adapter called the CD-
Key which sounds similar, but I know nothing about it.

Some more details are as follows.  Most of you can probably ignore this.

There are three combinations to consider; the disk, CD drive, and console can
each be mismatches.

CD drive/disk: You can get around mismatches by replacing the ROM containing
the operating system with one from another country, and replacing the timing
crystal if there is a 50/60 hertz incompatibility.  (I have no idea if there
are non-pirated ROMs which let you do this.)  The ROM is the big chip near the
connector (at least on older versions).  The Pro-CDX and presumably the CD-Key
work to fix this problem.

CD drive/console: the American CD player won't start up on a Japanese
console (there are mixed reports about Japanese players and US consoles).
The Pro-CDX (usually), CD-Key (I presume), swapping ROMs, or a language/50/60
switch fixes this.

Disk/console: The Pro-CDX does _not_ fix this one, and can't.  Use a
language switch or a language switch-type adaptor in addition to a Pro-CDX.
Luckily, this is rare, so far.

There is supposedly a version D ROM, for internal Sega use by game developers,
with which a Pro-CDX is not needed.  I have no idea if there are pirated
versions of this floating around either....

(The excuse for incompatibility is that cartridges don't use music or footage
from licensed properties, but CDs do, and licensing might only apply to limit-
ed geographic areas.  Needless to say, cartridges _do_ use music, and at least
digitized pictures from, licensed properties.  Nor do the compatible PC
Engine/TG CD's, 3DO CDs, or for that matter regular music CDs or laser discs,
have this problem.  The real reason for incompatibility seems to be the way
some companies are structured into divisions; if a company's US and Japanese
division, for instance, are separate, purchasers of import games bring no in-
come to the local division even though they do to the company in general, and
so it is in the best interests of the local division to stop imports.)

SEGA MARK III/SEGA SG-1000: same as and compatible with the Sega Master Sys-
tem.  There is language switchability, but no known lockout.

NEO-GEO: same as and compatible with US version.  There is a 1 megabit ROM in
it which is different in different versions.  There are at least arcade ver-
sions, English-language home versions, and Japanese language home versions,
and you can make a language and/or version switch if you have an EPROM burner.

The arcade Neo-Geo carts are functionally identical to the home ones, but have
different sized boards to keep arcade owners from using the cheap home versions.
Whether or not there's an adapter for this, I have no idea.

The Neo-Geo CD has not been released in America, but does support a language
switching capability.  It will likely be the same: compatible but shows
different languages in different countries.

3DO: The only incompatibility is for games which depend on the
built-in kanji-displaying ROM routines (a US machine doesn't have these).
Known examples are the Japanese versions of Alone in the Dark and Sword &
Sorcery.  (Is it possible to ket a kanji ROM for a US version?)

JAGUAR: same as and compatible with US version.  (Its market penetration is
nearly nil in Japan, but European and American games are also compatible.)
There is one known "language switch" game; Sensible Soccer shows fake teams
in 60 hertz mode due to licensing restrictions.  See the Jaguar FAQ for
information about switching 50/60 hertz.

SEGA 32X: No new incompatibility, but the incompatibility of the underlying
Genesis/Mega Drive (and CD player, if you're playing 32X CD games) still
applies; get a language switch and/or a Pro-CDX, just like for regular Mega
Drive and Mega CD games.

VIRTUA BOY: same as and compatible with US version.

GAMEBOY: same as and compatible with US version.

LYNX: same as and compatible with US version.

GAME GEAR: same as and compatible with US version.  The Japanese TV tuner,
however, works on Japanese TV frequencies, some of which differ from US TV

There are reports that US Game Gear games play in Japanese on a Japanese
system, which suggests yet another system with a language switch....

PC ENGINE GT: This is the equivalent of the TurboExpress, and runs PC Engine
games.  The same adapter that plays PC Engine games on a TG-16 also plays them
on a TurboExpress.  Again, note that Japanese TV tuners work on different
frequencies than US ones.

SATURN: Locked out.  There are hardware modifications to fix this problem,
and there is supposedly be a plug-in cartridge which does the same.  See

PLAYSTATION: There are files on the disk which are read to determine what
country the disk is from.  You can boot a machine with a disk from one
country, letting the machine read the right file, then swap disks to play the
actual game on a non-matching disk (you need to tape a switch, letting the
machine think the drive door is still closed).  Because the machine also reads
other information after it reads the country file, the music can be messed up
or there can be other problems.

A real fix would involve exchanging the ROM on your machine with one from
another country--it's only luck that machines prior to the Playstation
didn't have to have this extreme method applied.  Of course, Sony won't
sell the ROMs, so you have to pirate them (unless someone manages to reverse-
engineer a clean-room ROM workalike).

MISCELLANEOUS: The "Master Gear" adapter plays Sega Master System games on the
Game Gear.  The games won't run at the correct speed if the game is from a
place where TV uses PAL (i.e. Europe).  Adapters in reverse, to play Game Gear
games on a Sega Master System, _might_ be possible; see the SMS FAQ.

The Power Base Converter plays Sega Master System games on a Genesis.  (If
the reverse Game Gear/Master System adapter really exists, you could play
Game Gear games on your Genesis....)  There are differently-shaped Power Base
Converters for the old and new Genesis shapes; the one for the Genesis 2 is
only available in Europe.

The Sega Nomad (currently available only at Toys 'R Us for $200) is a portable
that plays Genesis games.  The information Sega gives out about
incompatibilities seems to often be bad, and games might work which they say
don't.  (Remember to disable the 6 button controller if your game doesn't
work with them.)

There are two adapters, the Tristar and the Super-8, which allow playing NES
games on a SNES.  They cost enough that it is cheaper to just buy a used NES,
however.  The adapters do have the minor advantage of playing unlicensed
locked-out games and Famicom games.

How to make a language switch (Genesis/MD).

On a Genesis/MD, there are jumpers labelled JP1, JP2, JP4, and JP3.  The Genesis
has a capacitor on JP1 and a trace on JP2; the Mega Drive has a capacitor on
JP2 and a trace on JP1.  The bottom ends of JP1 and JP2 are connected together.
So if you cut the trace and the top end of the capacitor, and install a DPDT
switch between them which reconnects them either unchanged or swapped left to
right, you have a language switch.  You'll need some wire, a soldering iron,
solder, and a DPDT switch.

Some machines have an open circuit instead of the capacitor.  Also, I've been
told that even if there is a capacitor, you can throw it out and leave an open
circuit.  Either way, the switch is a lot simpler, requiring a SPDT switch and
less wire and solder.

Several people have told me that you could just cut both JP1 and JP2 and put a
SPST switch on JP1.  This is even simpler, but I'm not sure it really works, as
opposed to putting your machine in an intermediate state that only sort-of

The redesigned Genesis 2 machines don't appear to have either the capacitor or
circuit.  Nobody yet knows how to make the language switch for one, though
language switch adaptor/cartridges should still work.

IF YOUR MACHINE HAS NO CAPACITOR (or if you want to cross your fingers and
throw away your capacitor) and is not a Genesis 2:

Cut JP2.  The trace might be covered with paint and hard to see.  (If you
started with a Mega Drive, JP2 is open and you have to cut JP1 instead.)  If
you aren't sure which end I mean by "bottom", just check the back of the board
to see which end is connected together.

   Original state of machine:             After cutting:

       JP2 top     JP1 top              JP2 top     JP1 top
          |           |                    |           |
          |           |                    |           |
          |           |                    |           |
           \         /                      \         /
            \_______/                        \_______/
          bottom of both                   bottom of both

Add a SPDT switch which can be in one of two positions:
              ._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
             .                        .
            .           . _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
           .           .                .    .
       JP2 top     JP1 top               .    .
          |           |                  .    .
          |           |                 _________
                                        | o   o |
                                        | \     |
                                        |  \    |
          |           |                     .
           \         /                      .
            \_______/ - - - - - - - - - - - -
          bottom of both

              ._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
             .                        .
            .           . _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
           .           .                .    .
       JP2 top     JP1 top               .    .
          |           |                  .    .
          |           |                 _________
                                        | o   o |
                                        |     / |
                                        |    /  |
          |           |                     .
           \         /                      .
            \_______/ - - - - - - - - - - - -
          bottom of both

Cut both sides.  (Note: if you started with a Japanese Mega Drive the
capacitor will be on the side labelled X instead)

   Original state of machine:             After cutting:

       JP2 top     JP1 top              JP2 top     JP1 top
          |           |                    |           |
          |           |                    |           |
          |           |
          |           |
          |           |                    |
        X |          ###                 X |          ###
          |          ###                   |          ###
          |          ###                   |          ###
           \         /                      \         /
            \_______/                        \_______/
          bottom of both

add switch which can be in one of two positions:

       JP2 top     JP1 top                              (Connect 2 to 2
          |           |                                    and 1 to 1)
          |           |
          2           1                   2  1  1  2
           _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _          | o  o  o  o |
          |                   `         |  \  \      |
        X |          ###`      `        |   \  \     |
          |          ### `      `       \____o__o____/
          |          ###  `      `           '  '
           \         /     `      `- - - - -'  '
            \_______/       ` _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ '
          bottom of both

       JP2 top     JP1 top                              (Connect 2 to 2
          |           |                                    and 1 to 1)
          |           |
          2           1                   2  1  1  2
           _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _          | o  o  o  o |
          |                   `         |      /  /  |
        X |          ###`      `        |     /  /   |
          |          ### `      `       \____o__o____/
          |          ###  `      `           '  '
           \         /     `      `- - - - -'  '
            \_______/       ` _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ '
          bottom of both

50/60 hertz switch.

You can build a 50/60 hertz switch on a Genesis/Mega Drive like a language
switch, but using jumpers JP3 and JP4.  The standard setting is 50 in PAL areas
such as Europe, and 60 in NTSC areas like the US and Japan.  In the 60 hertz
mode, the game is faster and the screen taller; however, not all TVs and
monitors in Europe can display this mode.

There is some way to build one on a SNES.  I don't know how.

Some American/Japanese games are protected to keep Europeans from playing them;
this protection checks the 50/60 hertz setting.  You can often get around it
by installing the switch and switching when starting the game, then switching
back afterwards.

Some European games are simple ports of American or Japanese games and are not
redesigned for 50 hertz, so work faster and with "better" screen proportions
if played at 60 hertz.

Genesis/Mega Drive dual version (language switch) list:

    After Burner (32X): has "Super 32X" logo after the Sega logo.
   *Battle Mania II: works normally, but without joysticks it gives you a
screen telling your language mode, NTSC/PAL, and system version.
    Bonanza Brothers: Game plays in Japanese.  (Maybe.  There seems to be more
than one version floating around.)
    Chase HQ II: speedometer changes to KM/H.
    Columns: Game plays in Japanese.
    Cosmic Carnage (32X): Turns into "Cyber Brawl", with different characters.
Also shows the Super 32X logo.  (Pressing and holding X, B, and Z when you
turn the machine on lets you get Cyber Brawl on a regular Genesis.)
   *Cyberball: Japanese version has a modem option.
    Dragon's Fury: Works only with language set to English.  The original,
Devil's Crush MD, works either way.
    Dynamite Duke: Harder on the Mega Drive.
    Elemental Master: Harder on the Mega Drive.
    Fatal Labyrinth: Game plays in Japanese.
    Fire Shark: Different title screen with Kanji.
    Flicky: Characters have Japanese names and instructions are in Japanese.
    Forgotten Worlds: Game plays in Japanese.
    Gaiares: only mentions the Japanese licensee on the title screen, and has
Japanese text; you can also select Japanese text from the option screen.
   *Gain Ground: "Press start" is "Push start" in the Japanese version, and
the mention of Renovation is removed.
    Gauntlet IV: The game has lockout, but you can flick the switch and then
reset.  The Japanese version has Japanese text (sound stays English), says
"Megadrive", and has a Gauntlet (not Gauntlet IV) logo on the game screen.
If you reset too late, you have to select the text language manually.
    Ghostbusters: Game plays in Japanese.
    Ghouls and Ghosts: Different title screen with Kanji.  To see it on a
Genesis, select the last music and sound (26 and 56) from the options screen,
then press lower left; A, B, or C; and Start all at the same time.  (I never
tried this, but Gamepro magazine claimed it works.)  The game shows some other
Japanese text, and when you die during a boss you start out earlier.
    Herzog Zwei: company's name is spelled "Tecnosoft". 
    Insector X: Title screen refers to company as Hot-B, not Sage's Creation.
The MD version shoots more slowly.  The ending text is still English.
   *Marvel Land: The Japanese version says "for Mega Drive" or "for Genesis"
but the language stays Japanese.  Also, the Japanese version says "Push
Start" and the English "Press Start".
    Metal Head (32X): has a different, colored, Sega logo and a different
Sega sound, Japanese text (also available in US mode from the options screen),
and an "anime" option as well as "photo" and "picture".
    Monaco GP: Game plays in Japanese (also an option on the option screen).
    Mystic Defender: This game is actually the anime-based Kujaku-Ou (Peacock
King) 2 game.  In Japanese mode, the opening text is replaced by a graphics
screen (never seen in the US version) with Japanese.  The levels have names,
the main character wears a white robe, the lightning magic effect is different,
and the character is named Kujaku in the ending text (which is still English).
    Outrun: The attract mode lacks sound, the startup screen says "push" (not
"press") start button, and "(C) Sega 1986, 1991" is printed in reverse order.
The default options are KM/H and a different button selection (but can still be
changed on the option screen).
    Quackshot: Game plays in Japanese.
    Raiden Trad: The "licensed to Sega" line is absent on both title screens,
and the second title screen includes only the Japanese part instead of the
non-Japanese part of the first one.
   *Rambo III: Game plays in Japanese.
    Revenge of Shinobi: Title changes to Super Shinobi; credits show at the end.
    Rolling Thunder II: The Japanese version only works on a Japanese setting.
The US version works either way (and isn't bilingual).
    Sonic the Hedgehog II: Tails is renamed to "Miles".
    Space Harrier (32X): has "Super 32X" logo after the Sega logo.
    Streets of Rage: Title screen changes to Bare Knuckle, and all text is in
Japanese, including the introduction.  The clock resets when you encounter the
    Streets of Rage II: Turns to Bare Knuckle II, and renames Skate to Sammy --
_if_ you change the setting sometime after turning the machine on (to skip the
   *Super Fantasy Zone: opening cinema changes from English/Japanese.
    Super Hang-On: Plays in Japanese, which is also accessible with A+B+C on
the logo screen.
    Thunder Force II: Title screen has "MD" on it, and company name is
    Thunder Force III: company's name is spelled "Tecnosoft".
   *Thunder Force IV: claims to be licensed for Genesis, if you change the
switch after the lockout check.
   *Thunder Storm FX (CD): Turns to Cobra Command in US mode.
    Truxton: Japanese title is Tatsujin.
    Twin Hawk: Different title screen with Kanji.
   *Wrestle War: The wrestler is blond on a Genesis and black-haired on a MD.

    * Information from testing a Japanese game

Many games with a standard "Sega TM" screen also omit the TM when played in
Japanese mode, even if the game isn't otherwise bilingual.

Most of the Japanese has been removed from the Sega CD versions of Columns,
Revenge of Shinobi, and Streets of Rage.

Sega Master System and Game Gear Language Switches:

It appears that the Sega Master System and the Game Gear had language-
switchable games.  The only known methods, so far, of getting the different
versions are to either play the game on a machine from another country, or to
use a Power Base Converter on a Genesis/MD witha  language switch installed.

There is a Usenet article quoted in the SMS FAQ with a little bit more
information, but mostly, what's known is still pretty sketchy.

Neo-Geo multiple version/language switch:

Games do do different things in Japanese and American systems, as well as in
arcade/home.  There is a 1 megabit ROM that has to be replaced to change
versions; put a new ROM (copied from a different version Neo-Geo) on top of
the old one and add a switch to toggle the power pin.  There are at least 4
different versions (US/Japan, home/arcade).  Normally the difference is in the
language for US/Japan and the number of credits for home/arcade, but the most
infamous case is Samurai Shodown (Samurai Spirits in Japanese), which on a US
home version has no blood or violent killings.

Neo-Geo CD multiple version/language switch:

The Neo-Geo CD country settings are actually listed on the circuit board.
There are jumpers JN1 through 4; on a US version JN1 is connected, on a
European version JN2 is connected, and on a Japanese version neither is
connected.  So add a switch across the proper jumper (probably JN1).

Saturn country code switch:

It is necessary to remove 4 screws on the bottom, and one screw near the
powercord, to open up the machine.  Then remove the CD (several plugs to
unplug), then the metal shielding.  Then the main board must also be

On a Japanese Saturn, jumpers JP6 and JP11 are connected; on an American
Saturn, jumpers JP7 and JP10 are connected.  (JP9 and JP13 are connected
on both systems.)  So you need a switch to do the appropriate toggling.
The odd jumpers and even jumpers are connected at the bottom, so a DPDT
switch should work.

PC Engine/TG-16 pinout.

This information was posted by David Shadoff (
and is mostly verbatim:

(1) For reference, pin 1 is the short pin (on the left, if the card
    is to inserted forwards), pin 38 is the long pin on the right.
(2) *     - means I think this is what it is
    **    - means I don't know
    (bar) - means it is an active-while low condition (usually denoted
            by a bar over top)
(3) I'm telling you all I know (which really isn't much), and it may
    contain errors, also - I will not be held responsible for errors
    in this list.  (or any damages resulting from the use of, or
    inability to use, this information, etc...)

Pin      Use
---      ---
1        **                           20       D4
2        **                           21       D5
3        A18*                         22       D6
4        A16                          23       D7
5        A15                          24       CE (bar) - chip select
6        A12                          25       A10
7        A7                           26       OE (bar) - output enable
8        A6                           27       A11
9        A5                           28       A9
10       A4                           29       A8
11       A3                           30       A13
12       A2                           31       A14
13       A1                           32       A17
14       A0                           33       A19*
15       D0                           34       R/W (bar over W) - read/write
16       D1                           35       **
17       D2                           36       **
18       Gnd                          37       **
19       D3                           38       +5V

It is interesting to note that pins 6 thru 29 are basically exact
duplicates of the functions of pins 2 thru 25 on a 2764 EPROM.
Obviously, the design of the chip's die was not a complete re-work;
it just sits on a different package.

I got this information from tracing address- and data-paths through
the PC-E to the 2K static RAM (which has a known pinout), and
extending that information by reviewing an NEC data book on their
1-Megabit factory-programmed PROM's (it's an old data book, so I
couldn't go any further).

The TG-16 differs from the PC-E in that the D0-7 datalines are
reversed (actually, the PROM is programmed that way, and the wires
leading to the data bus in the machine are reversed).  I have
shown here, the card pinout (which does not differ).  I believe
that this is the PC-E port pinout (TG-16's just reverse the data
lines' order; swap 0 for 7, 1 for 6, 2 for 5, and 3 for 4).
Additional information: to copy a TG-16 game to work on a PC Engine with
copier, reverse the bit order.  There is then a sequence of code which checks
what machine the game is running on: all known examples start with 78 54 A9,
have the letters NEC at offset 15 hex, and an F0 at offset 0B.  If the F0 is
changed to an 80 (changing a conditional jump to an unconditional jump), the
game will work on both PC Engine and TG-16.

This code sequence is usually at the start of the game, but can be in other

Section 9: Game Magazines

British magazines:  To order a British magazine, call first; pay with a VISA
card or an International Money Order:

Title: Computer + Video Games  (computer and console games)
Title: Nintendo Magazine System Mean Machines (Nintendo)
Title: Mean Machines Sega (Sega)
Phone: (0858) 410510

Title: ZONE (console games)
Phone: (071) 580 8908

Title: Sega Pro (Sega only)
Phone: (0225) 765086

Title: Sega Force (Sega only)
Phone: (051) 357 1275

Title: TOTAL (Nintendo only)
Phone: (0458) 74011

Section 10: Historical References

Cohen, Scott, _Zap!__The_Rise_and_Fall_of_Atari_ (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1984)

A famous book which is supposedly rare.  I haven't seen it around recently,
but haven't seen any real evidence that it's rarer than any other
1984-published book, either.

Herman, Leonard.  _Phoenix:_The_Rise_and_Fall_of_Home_Videogames_
(Rolenta Press, 1994)

A book which has gotten good reviews by major videogame magazines and
occasionally on the net.  It was privately published as 1000 copies after
the author could not interest a publisher in it.  It covers the entire
history of videogames up to the end of 1993, with a future supplement
covering 1994.

Katz, Arnie, and Worley, Joyce, "The History of Video Gaming" (parts 1-4),
_A.N.A.L.O.G._Computing_, April 1988-July 1988.

Brief articles on video game systems up to and a bit past the crash.  Not that

Sheff, David, _Game_Over:_How_Nintendo_Conquered_the_World_ (New York:
Random House, 1993)

Mostly about Nintendo, this book has a trade paperback edition published in
1994 with a new afterword.  It notably omits NEC in Japan and Sega in Europe,
for instance.  This book has a bibliography listing a lot of other sources,
though many of them aren't specifically about video games.

Section 11: Other FAQ's/regular postings/mailing lists

Game Gear FAQ: send mail to Tony Clark ( [Someone told
me mail to him bounced, however.]

Game Boy FAQ: send mail to Marat Fayzullin (

Jaguar FAQ: maintained by Robert Jung (

Lynx FAQ: maintained by Robert Jung (

Neo-Geo FAQ: maintained by Ralph A. Barbagallo III (

Sega programming FAQ: available at, pub/micro/games/sega.
The author has stopped this FAQ at version 7.

Sega Saturn FAQ: two FAQs, maintained by Gordon Craick
( and  Do not send
Gordon requests for emailing the FAQ.  It may be obtained through WWW at

Sony Playstation FAQ: maintained by Will McBee (

Mailing Lists:
Jaguar mailing list: send a message to with the
message "subscribe jaguar".

Playstation mailing list: send a message to with the subject of "subscribe".

SNES mailing list: send mail to with the body
"subscribe snes-l".

Spoiler/Cheat Lists (not mailing lists):
Genesis and Sega CD cheat/hint list: maintained by Bill Herzog (

Lynx cheat list: ftp

Playstation codes/cheat/tips list: maintained bu Bryan (
Also available on the Game Zero web site http:/ and
on the Playstation mailing list file server.

"Secrets of the Sega Sages": maintained bu Brian Preble (
Can be found in the Sega archives on (pub/micro/games/sega)

SNES spoiler list: maintained by Tony Iaconetti (

Email Servers:
Classic system cartridge server: send mail to with
"send CARTS.LST" as the body.

Game Boy email server: send a message to with a
subject of ARCHIVE and a body consisting of commands (try 'help', 'filelist').

Game Genie/Gold Finger/Action Replay code server: send mail to (or gold-finger-serv or action-replay-serv).  The
server accepts a help command.  (This server will translate between GG and GF
formats for you.)

FTP sites:
---------, game_archive directory, has lots of stuff including
arcade game information, pinouts, and complete game lists.

Move lists (and a lot of these other lists): ftp,

FAQ for Gameboy and SNES: available at, /pub/usr/averyc.

Fighting Game Archive/FAQ site: ftp to  Includes a lot
of move lists, and includes home games.

Anime video games list: maintained by me (

CD+G page:  (This is hooked up
to a 3DO page, but CD+G works on the Duo, Jaguar CD, Saturn, Sega CD, and 3DO.
It doesn't work on the Playstation.)

GameBoy Technical Central:  (What is this?)

Multi-player adapter game list: maintained by Bobby Tribble

Japanese video game source list: maintained by Steve Pearl (pearl@  The list can be ftp'ed from

SNES review list: ftp, cd james.394.

Video game music CD FAQ/list: maintained bi Humbert Humbert

Video game FAQ web site:

Neoclassic System stuff:
Sega Master System FAQ: maintained by Jeff Bogumil (

TG-16 FAQ: maintained by John Yu (

TG-16 mailing list: send mail to
Send a help message for the server.

Classic System stuff:
Classic Atari systems: last posted by Andrew K. Heller
(  I assume he maintains it.

Classic systems FAQ FAQ: maintained by

Classic Video Game Book and Periodical List: maintained by Lee Seitz

Complete Atari 2600 Game List: maintained by Craig Pell (

Colecovision FAQ: maintained by Joe Huber (

Intellivision FAQ: maintained by Larry Anderson Jr. (

Microvision FAQ: maintained by Joe Huber ( FAQ: maintained by Norman G. Sippel

Starpath FAQ: maintained by Glenn Saunders (

Vectrex FAQ: maintained by Gregg Woodcock (
Ken Arromdee (,;

"Any creature who would disguise itself as a bone, obviously has no sense of
fair play!"  -- Superboy Annual #1

User Contributions:

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