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comp.emulators.misc Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) [3/3]

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Archive-name: emulators-faq/part3
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Last-modified: Fri, 25 Apr 1997 19:26:19 GMT

See reader questions & answers on this topic! - Help others by sharing your knowledge
  5.2 Atari 2600

      Instructions on how to dump ROM images to disk are available:

      PostScript schematic to accompany the above document:

      There is also an Atari 2600 emulation FAQ:

      Several game and hardware manuals are available from:

    5.2.1 A26 [MS-DOS]

        Very fast, all-assembly Atari 2600 emulator for MS-DOS. This 
        emulator isn't finished yet; it has preliminary support for 
        mid-line collisions and cartridge bank switching. Versions 
        after 0.11 have a speed regulator. Supports paddles, console 
        switches, and rudimentary sound effects. It can use PC 

        The program (which is incredibly small) is available for 
        download from the homepage. 

        Written by Paul Robson <>. 


    5.2.2 Activision Game Pack [MS-Windows, Mac OS]

        Activision has released three commerical game packs of old 
        Atari 2600 games that run under MS-Windows and Mac OS. The 
        games are images of the original ROM cartridges, being run on 
        an emulator. The game packs include cartridge images of the 
        following games: 

        * Pack 1: Pitfall!, Kaboom!, River Raid, H.E.R.O, Chopper 
        Command, Grand Prix, Boxing, Cosmic Commuter, Crackpots, 
        Fishing Derby, Freeway, Frostbite, Seaquest, Sky Jinks, and 
        Spider Fighter. 

        * Pack 2: Dragster, Skiing, Tennis, Laser Blast, Stampede, Ice 
        Hockey, Barnstorming, Megamania, Oink!, Dolphin, Keystone 
        Kapers, Enduro, Plaque Attack, River Raid II, and Atlantis. 

        * Pack 3: Checkers, Starmaster, Pressure Cooker, Private Eye, 
        Double Dragon, Combat, Space War, Canyon Bomber, Breakout, 
        Night Driver, Yar's Revenge, and Title Match Pro Wrestling. 

        You can load other ROM images into this emulator; for the 
        Windows emulator, this can be done by concatinating them to be 
        16k and copying them over one of the default images shipped 
        with the action pack. Under MS-DOS, you can do this with the 
        apropriate copy command: 
          copy /b 4k.bin+4k.bin+4k.bin+4k.bin 16k.bin
          copy /b 8k.bin+8k.bin 16k.bin

        (Of course, you'd do 8 of the 2k.bin images...) If you have a 
        12k image, you should be able to pad it out to 16k by tacking 
        on any random 4k image (ie copy /b 12k.bin+4k.bin 16k.bin), 
        but I haven't tried this. If you get this to work, send me 
        mail about it. 

        You will probably want to edit the .ini file to tweak some 
        values. If you have problems with sprite collisions, reduce 
        the ActiveLineMask value (it must be one less than even powers 
        of 2... ie 1, 3, 7, 15, etc.). You might also have to tweak 
        CollLineStart and CollLineEnd to specify on which lines 
        collisions should be checked. 

        The Macintosh version will take images of any size without 

        See the Atari 2600 emulation FAQ (listed in section 5.2) for 
        more information on how to tweak the action pack emulator. 

        Activision can be reached at +1 310/479-5644 or 


    5.2.3 Atari 2600 Emulation Project [MS-DOS, Unix & X]

        This project has been abandoned. Written by Adam Roach 


    5.2.4 PCAE [MS-DOS]

        100% Assembly emulation of the Atari 2600. Provides emulation 
        of one paddle (using the mouse) and two joysticks, along with 
        several other controllers. Requires an 80486 or higher. 
        Supports Atari 8k, Atari 16k, Super-chip, Parker Bros., CBS, 
        and M-Network bank switching cartridges. has a built in 
        disassembler for non-bank switched cartridges and a debugger 
        for all cartridges. Written by John Dullea <>. 


    5.2.5 Stella 96 [Unix & X, MS-DOS, MS-Windows, PowerMac, Linux]

        Atari 2600 emuator for Unix & X. Screen shots are available 
        from the homepage. The emulator is a work in progress. 
        However, it works with most 2600 games. Version 0.4 is now 
        available. The current release includes support for Linux 
        (with SVGAlib), MS-DOS, Power Macintoshes, Unix and Windows 
        (95 & NT). Version 0.4 is about twice as fast as 0.3 in most 

        Written by Bradford Mott <>. 


    5.2.6 Virtual 2600/Virtual VCS [Unix & X, MS-DOS]

        Virtual 2600 is an emulation of the Atari 2600; it is covered 
        buy the Gnu Public License. 

        A v2.0 Beta of Virtual 2600 is now available. It includes some 
        sound support, dynamic resizing (under X), paddle emulation, 
        and PC joystick support. 

        There is also a Linux SVGAlib version of the emulator 

        The MS-DOS port (also known as "Virtual VCS") is maintained by 
        Dan Boris <>. 

        Written by Alex Hornby <>. 


    5.2.7 VCS2600 [MS-DOS]

        100% 80x86 assembly emulation of the Atari 2600 VCS. It's not 
        currently released, but should be soon. Requires an 80386 or 
        higher, although a Pentium is really required for full speed 
        emulation. A Pentium 100 with a Mach 64 graphics card runs 
        about 115% original speed. See the homepage for more 
        information. Currently under development by Thomas Djafari 


    5.2.8 ??? (2)

        Currently under development by <> 

    5.2.9 ??? (3)

        Portable 2600 emulator; currently under development. 
        (Announcement made on 1996-Feb-28 in 
        The author also eventually intends to adapt it for 7800 
        emulation. Written by Joseph Jason Welser <>. 

  5.3 Atari Jaguar

      See section 6.1. 

  5.4 ColecoVision

      Sample cartridge images can be found on:

    5.4.1 ColEm [Unix & X, MacOS, PowerMac, MS-DOS, MS-Windows]

        ColEm is a portable emulator of the old ColecoVision videogame 
        system written in C. The X version of ColEm has been tested 
        under FreeBSD, HP-UX, SunOS, Solaris, and Linux. Ports to 
        MacOS, MS-DOS and MS-Windows have been completed. 

        Written by Marat Fayzullin <>. Macintosh 
        Ports by John Stiles <> and 
        Alan Steremberg <>. MS-Windows port by 
        Neal Danner <>. MS-DOS port by Marcel 
        de Kogel <>. 


    5.4.2 Mission [MSX-DOS]

        ColecoVision emulator for the MSX. Requires an MSX1 (although 
        an MSX2 is suggested) with 64K of memory and MSX-DOS. 
        Available in both PAL and NTSC versions. The program emulates 
        a ColecoVision by patching the OS ROM; this can be done 
        because of the similarity of architecture between the MSX and 
        the Coleco Vision. It works on about 1/3rd of all games that 
        the author has tested. Written by Marcel de Kogel 


  5.5 GameBoy

      Instructions on how to dump GameBoy cartridges are available:

      Other technical information on the Gameboy, along with some 
      public domain game images, are available from Jeff Frohwein's 
      home page; this page contains pointers to TONS of gameboy 
      related information, including a C compiler for cross-developing 
      gameboy games:

    5.5.1 Fondle GameBoy Emulator [MS-DOS]

        Described as "Very Beta" by the author. The eventual intention 
        of this emulator is to provide full support for multiplayer 
        gameboy play over a modem. Based on the Virtual GameBoy source 
        code (see section 5.5.6). 


    5.5.2 !GameBoy [Acorn]

        Gameboy emulator for the Acorn RISC machines. Runs at full 
        speed on an Acorn RISC 700. 

        Dave Ward <> has hacked a version of 
        this emulator that runs about 8 times faster, but can be 
        slowed down to normal speed. 



        Faster version: 

    5.5.3 GBSIM [MS-DOS]

        Gameboy Simulator/debugger for 80386 machines and higher. This 
        is more for technichally curious people, since it starts in a 
        deubgger, and has features for disassembling and tracing 
        gameboy programs. 


    5.5.4 PCBOY [MS-DOS]

        Another MS-DOS gameboy emulator. Written by Yvan Rivard 


    5.5.5 ToyBoy [Amiga]

        Note that this IS NOT a GameBoy emulator! 

        This program is a prototype that was designed with no access 
        to the specs of the actual gameboy. It will not run gameboy 
        cartridges, even if you get a good ROM dump. 

        This prototype was developed by Argonaut, a UK development 
        company, to determine how difficult programming for the 
        GameBoy would be, once it came out. However, it is based on 
        limited information about the GameBoy, so it has little in 
        common with the real item. 


    5.5.6 Virtual GameBoy [Unix & X, MS-Windows, Amiga, MacOS, MS-DOS, OS/2]

        This emulator will run GameBoy cartridge images. The Unix 
        version is freeware and comes with source code. The Windows 
        version is Shareware; a demo can be downloaded from the 
        homepage, but a US$35 registration fee is required for a fully 
        registered version. It requires a 32 bit library and WinG. The 
        Amiga version is available with source code. It is playable on 
        an A4000 with a fast video card. The Unix version has been 
        tested on SunOS, Solaris, and OSF/1. 

        There is also a Linux version of VGB that uses the SVGA 
        library instead of X. 

        A new version (0.8b1) of the MS-DOS VGB is available; it fixes 
        a few bugs, implements sprite priorities, and has a few extra 

        The current release supports using GameGenie cheat codes. 

        Anyone who wants to help on this project is welcome. 

        Written by Marat Fayzullin <>. The credits 
        for the ports are extensive; see the homepage for a list. 


        MS-DOS Homepage: 

  5.6 Intellivision

      There are some complications in emulating the Intellivision; the 
      first is that there are a set of ROM routines and bitmaps stored 
      in memory on the Intellivision console itself. Of course, this 
      information is still copyrighted by Matel. This "Executive ROM 
      software" is, in fact, one of the stumbling blocks to 
      development of a commercial emulator. To make the issue worse, 
      very little technical information is available about the unit 
      itself. Matel was hostile to other companies making games for 
      the Intellivision, even going so far as to change the executive 
      ROM to recognise and crash competitors' games. Consequently, 
      there was no developer's kit ever released. Worse even, the 
      "Blue Sky Rangers" (Matel's original design team) have been 
      instructed to not cooperate with any efforts to create an 
      emulator (since Matel is currently negotiating with a third 
      party to produce a commercial emulator.) 

      The upshot of this is that an independant emulator developer 
      will have to reverse engineer the hardware as well as dump the 
      executive ROM, reverse engineer THAT, and rewrite it. As 
      mentioned above, though, plans are in the pipeline to release a 
      commercial CD-ROM of an emulator and games (maybe even including 
      some that were never released.) 

      Some information can be found on the Blue Sky Rangers' page:

      The Intellivision FAQ can be found at:

    5.6.1 ???

        Development on a non-commercial emulator is being done by Carl 
        Mueller <>. An announcement was posted to on 1996-Mar-18. Carl has announced 
        that he doesn't know how to release it yet, since the EXEC ROM 
        is (aparently) non-trivial to dump, and no-one has put 
        together schematics for a simple cart-dumper yet. 

  5.7 NES/Famicom

    5.7.1 iNES [Unix & X, PowerMac, MS-Windows, Linux]

        iNES has now been released. Due to the boatload of newbie 
        gremlins that have come crawling out of the woodwork 
        immediately after the gameboy and SNES emulators were released 
        and discovered, Marat has made a decision not to release an 
        MS-DOS version yet. An MS-Windows version is available an a 
        registration basis only. More details are available on the 

        Binaries are available for FreeBSD/80x86, Linux/80x86, and 
        Solaris/Sparc. The Linux version also supports SVGALib access 
        as well as sound and joystick support. Other Unix versions may 
        be available; check the homepage. 

        A diagram of schematics for a device to dump cartridge ROM 
        images is available from the iNES homepage. 

        An MS-Windows version is now available; you must register (for 
        US$35) before receiving it. Contact Marat if you are 

        Written by Marat Fayzullin <>. 

        For those of you who have cartridge images for PasoFami (see 
        section 5.7.4), Marat posted the following directions: 
          1. Create a 16-byte header:
                          this byte is either $01 for 16kB games or
                          $02 for 32kB games
             and call it, let us say, mario.hdr
          2. Do 
             cat mario.hdr mario.prg mario.chr > mario.nes
             You have the .NES file now.

        And Kerry Lee High Jr <> translated 
        them to MS-DOS: 
          -e 100 "NES" 1A XX 01 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
          CX 0000
          Writing 00010 bytes
          C:\>copy /b mario.hdr+mario.prg+mario.chr mario.nes


        Linux Homepage: 

    5.7.2 LandyNES [MS-DOS]

        The original 80x86 version of the NES emulator that iNES has 
        been based on. A limited demonstration is available from the 
        Damaged Cybernetics pages. 

        Written by Alex Kravisky (aka "Landy"). 


    5.7.3 NESA [MS-DOS]

        100% 80x86 assembly implementation of the NES system. It is 
        very small and quite fast. The current version supports only 
        16k and 32k carts. It requires an 80386SX-40 or faster to run 
        at any sensible speed. Written by Paul Robson 


    5.7.4 PasoFami [MS-Windows]

        The documentation for this emulators is completely in 
        Japanese. It appears to require WinG, although a version is 
        included. From what I can discern, it requires an 80486 and 8 
        megs of RAM. 

        Unfortunately, the author has requested that the program be 
        pulled from the net. 

  5.8 SNES

      Some SNES programs are available from:

    5.8.1 Emplant [Amiga]

        See section 6.6.1. 

    5.8.2 SPW [Windows 95]

        This appears to be the real thing. Although many SNES 
        functions are not supported, this emulator is suficently 
        complete to run Super Mario, Contra, Castlevania IV, Gradius 
        III, TMNT 4, and others... Unfortunately, the entire setup, 
        documentation, menu, etc. is completely in Japanese. There is 
        also a version which includes some english translation, 
        although it's not a perfect translation, and it's only about 
        half done. 

        The program is said to run in 8 Megs of memory on a '486. 
        Preliminary reports are that it's pretty buggy. 

        Unfortunately, the author has requested that the program be 
        pulled from the net. 

        !!!! ALSO NOTE that a version of this emulator, 1.4a, has been 
        floating around on the networks. If you get ahold of this 
        program, DO NOT RUN IT. It is a trojan horse; it removes vital 
        files from your windows directory, and moves the remainder 
        into a subdirectory called "X". 

    5.8.3 SFEM 1.11 (Hoax)

        This is a package that purports to be an SNES emulator for 
        MS-DOS machines. It is, in fact, a zipfile of the following 
          SFEM    .COM   MSDOS v6.0 COMMAND.COM (Italian)
          32BEXT  .DTA   Microsoft Mail for Windows 3.02 (Italian)
          DYNAMIC .DTA   ??? from Quest Development / SLR Systems (Italian)
          FAST32B .DTA   Microsoft Mail for Windows 3.02 (Italian)
          FAST32C .DTA   Central Point Video Routines
          LIBRARY .DTA   Bitmap (PBM) - modified with EXE signature

        [Thanks to Craig Jackson <> for this 

        These files contain the following copyright notices, which 
        means that posession or distribution of this fake emulator is 
        in violation of *at least* four different copyrights: 
        (C) Copyright Quest Development Corporation 1991 
        Copyright (C) SLR Systems 1990-91 
        (c)1993 Central Point Software, Inc. 
        (C)Copyright Microsoft Corp 1981-1993. 
        (C)Copyright 1981-1993 Microsoft Corp Licensed Material 

    5.8.4 SNES 96 [Windows 95]

        Requires Direct-X. This emulator is in a very early stage of 
        development. Has a 30-minute time limit. Written by Jerremy 

        This project has been abandoned. 


    5.8.5 SNES Professional [MS-DOS]

        Under development by Paradox Software <>. 


    5.8.6 Virtual Magicom [MS-DOS]

        This program appears to be an SNES emulator for MS-DOS; it is 
        in a fairly early stage of development, however. 

        Under the current version, mode-7 is partially supported, and 
        a VGA card and 80386 processor are required. According to the 
        author, the emulator is about full speed on a 100 MHz 80486. 

        Also, a small set of commercial games now run on the emulator, 
        including Wanderers from YSiii. 

        The program needs .SMC files generated by a console backup 
        unit in order to function. (Note that .SFC files are the same 
        as .SMC files; they merely need to be renamed.) 

        Written by "The Brain" <>. Please don't 
        bug him for ROM images. 


        :Virtual Super Wild Card [MacOS] 

        SNES emulator that runs on the Macintosh machines. It's not 
        yet released. Written by Ernesto Corvi 
        <> and Richard Bannister 


    5.8.7 XNES [Unix & X]

        A group-style SNES emulation project that got cancelled by 
        legal threats from Nintendo. This is no longer active. 

        It might be worthy to note that Nintendo actually has no legal 
        foot to stand on in the way of shutting down this project; 
        they just threw their weight around enough to worry the 
        project coordinator into aborting the project. See appendix G. 

  5.9 Sega

    5.9.1 SEGA-EM 1.01 (Hoax)

        This emulator is another hoax. While it does not seem to be 
        malicious, it most certainly isn't an emulator. The file 
        "" is a packed exe file generated by BASIC. The 
        file "sega-em.ovl" is not a standard overlay file; it probably 
        is pure trash never used by the program. 

  5.10 Sega Genesis

      Miscellaneous Genesis information is available from:

    5.10.1 Emplant [Amiga]

        See section 6.6.1. 

    5.10.2 EmulatorX [MS-DOS]

        This emulator evenually aims to support several different game 
        systems; the first goal is to emulate the Genesis. Nothing is 
        available yet. Written by Teego <>. 


    5.10.3 GenEm [MS-DOS]

        Two versions are now available; an older, more stable engine 
        that runs many games, and a newer, faster engine that runs 
        only a few. GenEm requires a '486 and 8 Megs of RAM. See the 
        homepage for a list of features. By Markus Gietzen 
        <>. Don't mail him about ROM images. 


    5.10.4 Kyoto [MS-DOS, Linux, MacOS]

        Kyoto is a Genesis emulator currently in development for 
        MS-DOS based 486 or better computers. It is being written 
        primarily in Assembly. 

        Written by Haruki Ikeda <>. 


    5.10.5 MegaDrive [MS-DOS]

        The current version of this emulator will not run any 
        commercial images. Author unknown. 


  5.11 Sega Master System/GameGear (SMS)

      SMS information is available at:

    5.11.1 Massage [MS-DOS]

        SMS and GameGear emulator. Written by James McKay 


    5.11.2 MasterGear [Unix & X, MS-DOS, Macintosh]

        SMS and GameGear emulator. Includes limited sound support, 
        Joystick support (for MS-DOS version), and battery backed RAM 
        emulation (game saving). Source code is available. See the 
        homepage for more information. 

        Also, Ian Spielman <> has written a couple 
        of code patches that provide usability on 16 and 24 bit 
        displays, and allow window doubling, tripling, etc. 

        Written by Marat Fayzullin <>. 


        Color Depth/Window Size patches: 

    5.11.3 ??? [MS-DOS]

        Dave Spicer <> has announced that he 
        has begun work on an SMS emulator. No other information is 

  5.12 Sony PlayStation (PSX)

      Some PSX information is available from:

    5.12.1 PSXMooSim [Amiga, Solaris]

        "Very under construction," as per the author. Written by Jani 
         Vaarala <>. 


  5.13 Vectrex

      The Vectrex was a game console that was produced in the early 
      '80's for abour four years. Unlike most consoles, it had a built 
      in screen and displayed its graphics using vector instead of 
      raster graphics. (Remember Tempest? Asteroids? Star Wars? Those 
      are vector based graphics.) 

      The game developers have given permission for the ROM images to 
      be made available on the net; note that this is *very* 
      *different* than releasing them into public domain. They are 
      still very much copyrighted... you're just allowed to use them. 

      Technical information and ROM images are available from:

      Vectrex Newsgroup:

      Various Vectrex Pages:

      FAQ list:

    5.13.1 DVE [MS-DOS]

        A production version of this emulator is available. Source 
        code is available, so other platform support may show up in 
        the future. Version 1.0 supports sound and screen overlays. 
        Written by Keith Wilkins <>. 


    5.13.2 ??? [MS-DOS, Unix & X]

        Another vectrex emulator is under development. Written by Mark 
        Woodward <>. 

6 - Hardware Solutions

    This section is comprised primarily of emulators which require 
    plug-in cards in order to work. In most cases, these cards 
    actually contain all of the components of the target system, minus 
    some I/O. 

  6.1 Atari Jaguar

      Information about the Jaguar is available from the Atari website 

    6.1.1 Jaguar PC Card [80x86]

        There are rumors that Sigma Designs intends to develop a PC 
        card which runs Jaguar CD software and acts as a ReelMagic 
        MPEG card. It was supposed to be released in December of 1994, 
        but no further information is available. 

        Sigma Designs can be reached at: 
          Sales:     +1 510/770-0482
          Tech Supp:  1-800-845-8086
          Sales:     +1 510/770-0100
          Fax:       +1 510/770-2640
          Sigma Designs, Inc.
          46501 Landing Pkwy
          Fremont, CA 94538

  6.2 Atari ST

      TOS ROMs can be purchased from the following suppliers: 


      System Solutions 

    6.2.1 Gemulator [80x86]

        There are two versions of Gemulator available. Gemulator 3.0 
        has been out for three years now, and runs on on a 80386 or 
        better under MS-DOS. This product lists around US$100 in the 
        US and DM 300 in Europe. Gemulator 4.0 was (supposedly) 
        released around June 1995; it runs under Windows 3.1 with 
        win32s, Windows 95, and OS/2 Warp. It will list around US$150. 

        Both versions require Atari ST ROMs, which you install on an 
        8-bit ISA card. 

        March 1996 saw the release of Gemulator upgrades, which 
        include support for MS-Windows 3.1, MS-Windows 95, and 
        MS-Windows NT. They also support a cable which allows users to 
        plug 8-bit Atari disk drives and printers into your PC. See 
        the homepage, below, for more information. 

        This emlulator reportedly has trouble with games that use copy 
        protection schemes. 

        From Darek Mihocka, developer: 

        "The web page includes a link to a list of all our dealers in 
         the U.K., Germany, Holland, France, and Australia. People in 
         those countries can directly buy Gemulator from those dealers 
         in addition to buying it from us." 


          14150 N.E. 20th Street, Suite 302 
          Bellevue, WA 98007 U.S.A. 
          +1 206/236-0540 
          Fax: +1 206/236-0257 

    6.2.2 Janus [80x86]

        Janus is a hardware-based Atari ST emulator. It includes a 16 
        bit ISA card with a 68000/16, TOS V2.06 ROM chips, and 2 SIMM 
        slots (which will take up to 32M of RAM.) The emulation uses 
        its own RAM (probably due to the endian differences between 
        the processors), but uses the PC's I/O devices. The emulator 
        functions in two modes: "dual mode," which uses the PC's CPU 
        to assist the 68000, and "local mode," which uses the on-board 
        68000 exclusively. 

        The program is available from VHF Computer GmbH (Germany): 

        The program is also available from Edicta GmbH (Germany): 
          Karl-Paff-Str. 30
          70597 Stuttgart
          Tel: +49 711 763381
          Fax: +49 711 7653824
          Pricing: 698 DM for a 20 MHz version and 898 DM for a 25 MHz 
                   version. They also sell TOS 2.06 ROMs for 80 DM.

        Can anyone get me the address of a North American supplier for 
        this card? 

  6.3 DG Nova/Eclipse

      See also section 4.12. 

    6.3.1 The Hawk [80x86]

        The Hawk is a PC add-in card which executes the Data General 
        Nova and Eclipse machines. It includes a custom bitslice CPU 
        and has optional support for the original chassis I/O and 
        optional hardware floating point support. Produced by Strobe 
        Data of Redmond, WA. See section 6.7.1 for a mailing address 
        and phone numbers. 



        FTP Site: 

  6.4 IBM-PC and Compatibles

    6.4.1 A2088/A2286/A386SX-16/A386SX-25 [Amiga]

        These boards were manufactured by Commodore. They required a 
        Zorro 2 slot on the Amiga. They included a 5.25" drive, and 
        had room to add another floppy drive and an appropriate 8087 
        or 80x86 math coprocessor. The A2088 included a 4.77 8088 
        processor, and the A2286 included a 80286-10. The 386 cards 
        were capable of holding more memory. All cards included 
        bridgeboard support. 

    6.4.2 AtOnce Plus [Amiga]

        Mini-board with 80286 on board. Required the user to purchase 
        MS-DOS. Produced by GVP. 

    6.4.3 AT Speed [Atari ST/TT]

        A 286 add-on board for the Atari ST computers. Produced by 
        Compo Software. 

    6.4.4 DOS Compatibility Card [Macintosh, Power Macintosh]

        This is a plug-in card produced by Apple. The 680x0 version 
        has an 80486SX-25 processor, while the Power Macintosh version 
        has an 80486DS2-66 processor. Both plug in the Direct 
        Processor Slot. The bios on these boards is from Chips and 
        Technologies. The original board (code-named Houdini) came 
        bundled only with MS-DOS 6.22, and lacked support for NetWare 
        and Sound Blaster; it was later updated to address these 
        shortcomings. The board for the Power Mac includes MS-DOS 6.22 
        and Windows 3.11. 

    6.4.5 DOS on Mac [Macintosh]

        DOS on Mac plugs into the Direct Processor Slot and can use an 
        80486 at speeds up to 100 MHz. Optional items include ethernet 
        and soundblaster support. The card starts around US$500. 
        Produced by Reply corporation. 
          Reply Corporation
          U.S.:   1 800 801 6898
          Phone: +1 408 942 4804
          Fax:   +1 408 956 2793

    6.4.6 Falcon Speed [Falcon]

        An 80286-16 on a board; it plugs into the processor direct 
        slot on the Atari Falcon. Emulates VGA graphics. 

    6.4.7 Golden Gate 486SLC [Amiga]

        These 80486 cards require a Zorro 2 slot. They come with 2 
        Megs of memory on the board, and can be expanded up to 8 Megs. 
        All I/O is emulated through software. Supports CGA, VGA, and 
        Monochrome graphics. Produced by Vortex Computersysteme GmbH. 

    6.4.8 OrangePC [Macintosh]

        This is the original PC plug-in board for the Macintosh. 
        Orange Micro, Inc. has been manufacturing these since the late 
        80's. The most recent models plug into both 680x0 and Power 
        Macintoshes, and have 80486 uProcessors at speeds up to 100 
        MHz, 128 kb cache and up to 32MB on-board memory. Options 
        include PCMCIA suport. Orange Micro, Inc. can be reached at +1 
        714 779 2772. 

    6.4.9 PC286 [Amiga]

        These boards plugged into the GVP A500+'s proprietary slot. 
        Included 80286 processor. 

    6.4.10 SideCar [Amiga]

        SideCar was a A1000 8088 add on module which attached to the 
        right side of the A1000. It included a 5.25" floppy, and 
        supported CGA, MGA, and Hercules graphics. It was manufactured 
        by Commodore. 

    6.4.11 SunPC [Sparc]

        80x86 card for Sparc Solaris machines. Can run MS-DOS and 
        MS-Windows. Early versions of this product were software only, 
        with an optional processor add-on; however, SunPC now requires 
        a 486-66 card. See the homepage for more information. For 
        80x86 users, see Merge (section 3.5.8). 


  6.5 Macintosh

    6.5.1 A-Max [Amiga]

        ReadySoft, the company which sold this emulator, neither sells 
        nor supports this product; in fact, they may no longer exist. 

        A-Max supposedly does not work well with the latest version of 
        the Amiga OS. 

  6.6 Multiple Computers

      This is a special section basically created for the one oddball 
      card that is listed here. 

    6.6.1 Emplant [Amiga]

        This emulator is produced by Utilities Unlimited. It emulates 
        a variety of machines, including the PC, Macintosh, Apple II, 
        Commodore 64 and 128, Atari ST, Atari 400 and 800, and even 
        some game consoles, such as the Genesis and Super NES. You 
        will need to acquire appropriate ROM images to use this 

        According to my sources, this emulator does a good job of 
        emulating the Mac II, IIx, and IIci, although it's a bit slow 
        on its 80x86 emulation. 

        You can contact Utilities Unlimited at the following numbers: 
          Sales/Order:  +1 520/680-9004
          Tech Support: +1 520/680-9234
          Fax:          +1 520/453-6407
          BBS:          +1 520/453-3909

  6.7 PDP-11

      (See also software solutions in section 4.27.) 

    6.7.1 The Osprey [80x86]

        PDP-11 on-a-card solution from Strobe Data of Redmond, WA. 
        Requires an 80x86 PC; uses one ISA slot. The card itself holds 
        an actual PDP-11 CPU from DEC. The Osprey is also available 
        with Unibus or Qbus options. You can contact Strobe Data at: 
          Jerry Kennedy, VP Marketing
          Strobe Data Inc.
          4320 150th Ave N.E.
          Redmond, WA 98052  USA
          +1 206/861-4940
          +1 206/861-4295 FAX


        FTP Site: 

  6.8 Sinclair QL

      (See also software solutions in section 4.33.) 

    6.8.1 QXL [80x86]

        QXL is a hardware emulator for the QL for 80x86 machines. It 
        is a PC card with a 68040 and up to 8M of memory. Several 
        variations of this card have been produced. The emulator is 
        produced by Miracle Systems in Britian. 
        Miracle Systems Ltd
        20 Mow Barton
        Yate, Bristol
        BS17 5NF
        United Kingdom

7 - In-Circuit Emulators

    In-circuit emulators (ICEs) are not really "emulators" in the same 
    sense as the above programs. They are actually hardware devices 
    that fit between a microprocessor and control board; they monitor 
    the signals sent to/from a CPU. I would surmise they are used 
    almost exclusively for hardware design debugging, although a 
    really ambitious assembly hacker could probably make use of one 
    for realtime debugging. 

    Due to the nature of ICE manufacturers, this section is organised 
    differently; the headings are individual ICE manufacturers. 

    For information on ICEs, you'll probably have better luck posting 

  7.1 American Arium P5 Emulator [80x86]

      From an ad: 

      "Our LA/ICE has 128K real-time bus trace - cache execution trace 
       & breakpoints - trace and cache disassembly - C high-level 
       debugger - multiple Pentium analysis w/time alignment true 66 
       MHz emulation." 
        American Arium 
        14281 Chambers Rd 
        Tustin, CA 92680 
        +1 714/731-1661 

  7.2 Applied Microsystems Corporation

      From the homepage, quoted with permission: 

      "Founded in 1979, Applied Microsystems is a leading 
       ISO9002-certified manufacturer and supplier of integrated 
       development systems for embedded design. Our world-wide sales 
       offices provide engineers with high-performance development 
       tools, including CodeTAP(R) and CodeICE™ emulators with 
       source-level debuggers, RTOS-Link™ real-time code debugging 
       tools, NetROM communications gateway, and CodeTEST™ software 
       test and verification tools. These tools help engineers develop 
       products faster, more reliably, and at a lower cost." 

      See the homepage for more information. 


  7.3 Hewlett Packard

      HP provides ICEs for the following processors: 
           Intel Processors
              186EA/XL @25Mhz       HP 64767A
              186EB    @25Mhz       HP 64767B
              186EC    @25Mhz       HP 64767C
              386DX                 HP 64789A
              386EX                 HP 64789C
           Motorola Processors
              68000 Family          HP 64744 and 64746
              68331/332/F333/336    HP 64782
              68340                 HP 64751
           Hitachi Processors       
              H8/532                HP 64737F
              H8/250                HP 64738F
              H8/534/536            HP 64739A
              H8/510                HP 64732A
              H8/300 series         HP 64784A and HP 64797A

      They also have Distributed Emulation solutions for Motorola 
      PPC603, PPC603e and PPC860 processors. For more information, 
      contact John Marshal <>. 

  7.4 Huntsville Microsystems Motorola Emulators [680x0]

      Huntsville Microsystems markets Motorola processor ICEs. You can 
      contact them at: 
        Huntsville Microsystems Inc. 
        3322 So. Memorial Dr. 
        Huntsville, AL 35801 
        +1 205/881-6005 
        FAX: +1 205/882-6701 
        BBS: +1 205/881-7395 

  7.5 Lauterbach Datentechnik GmbH [680x0, 80x86, H8, others]

      Lauterbach Datentechnik GmbH is the largest European 
      manufacturer of ICEs. They can be reached vie e-mail at 
      <>. You can also contact them in Europe at: 
        Lauterbach Datentechnik GmbH
        Fichtenstr. 27
        D-85649 Hofolding
        Tel. ++49 8104/8943-29
        FAX  ++49 8104/8943-30

      Or in the US at: 
        Lauterbach, Inc.
        945 Concord Street
        Framingham MA 01701
        Tel. (508) 620 4521
        FAX  (508) 620 4522


  7.6 Orion Instruments, Inc. [680x0, 68hc11, 80196, z80, H8, others]

      Orion Instruments makes ICEs for almost 200 different 
      uProcessors; they can be contacted at <> or: 
        Orion Instruments, Inc.
        1376 Borregas Avenue
        Sunnyvale, CA 94089-1004
        Phone: (408)747-0440
        Fax: (408)747-0688


8 - Terminal Emulation

    This section has been basically discontinued. I will keep a few 
    links to terminal-related sites here, but the sheer number of term 
    emulators out there makes it impossible to keep up with. If you 
    have a particular need, check out the links below; however, if you 
    cannot find information on the net about a product that suits your 
    needs, I'm sure you can find a solution at your local software 

    Posts about terminal emulators should generally be directed to 
    comp.terminals, not comp.emulators.misc. 

    Brixton Solutions Homepage:

    DynaComm Homepage:

    You can get a full copy of EMU-TEK free for 30 days by calling 
    1-800-962-3900 (+1 714/995-3900). 

    FutureSoft homepage:

    KEA Homepage:

    Mozart Homepage:

    Wall Data Rumba products page:

    TERMiTE Hompage:

    TGraph Homepage:

    Minitel emulator:
    ou, en francais:

---------------------------------=:> * <:=---------------------------------

Appendix A - URL Formats

    A URL will generally look something like this: 
      +-1-+  +----2-----++----3----+

    The first section tells you what protocol to use to access the 
    data. (ftp for ftp; http for WWW browsers, like Netscape; gopher 
    for gopher, and so on). The second part (which is occasionaly 
    optional, like for the mail: and news: protocols) tells which 
    machine the information is kept on, and the third part gives an 
    identifier (usually a path) for the information being referenced. 

    All the URLs in this document should work with WWW browsers. 

---------------------------------=:> * <:=---------------------------------

Appendix B - DEC VTxxx Control Sequences

    The DEC VT100 control sequences are based on the ANSI standard 
    X3.64. Both the ANSI document and the DEC adaptation are available 
    via mail order. 

    You can order the ANSI standard document X3.64-1979 for $13.50 
    plus $4.00 shipping from: 
         Standards Sales Department
         American National Standards Institute
         1430 Broadway
         New York, NY 10018

    DEC sells their VT-100 spec for $13.00; order document 
    EK-VT100-UG-003 from them at: 
         Digital Equipment Corporation
         Accessories and Supplies Group
         POB CS-2008
         Nashua, NH 03061

    Below is an unofficial table of the control codes for the VT1xx, 
    VT2xx, and VT3xx terminals. 

    From Robert Frank <>: 

    The folowing sequences are written within < > and using spaces for 
    easier reading. DO NOT type the spaces or the < > unless they are 
    explicitly given as "space" or "<", ">" respectively. The term 
    chr(n), where n is a value of 0 through 255, denotes a character 
    with that decimal value. 

    The letter P followed by a label (or just "n") stands for a 
    numerical value (ascii digits i.e. 25). A parameter can be 
    omitted, in which case it will assume a certain default value 
    (denoted as D:n). If a sequence can take more than one parameter 
    (given as p followed by a label) then the paramters are separated 
    by semicolons (;). 
    mnemonic               7bit equivalent     8bit equivalent
    ------------           ---------------     ---------------
    BEL (sound beeper)     <chr(7)>            <chr(7)>
    BS  (backspace)        <chr(8)>            <chr(8)>
    HT  (tab)              <chr(9)>            <chr(9)>
    LF  (line feed)        <chr(10)>           <chr(10)>
    FF  (form feed)        <chr(12)>           <chr(12)>
    CR  (cariage return)   <chr(13)>           <chr(13)>
    SO  (shift out,G1->GL) <chr(14)>           <chr(14)>
    SI  (shift in, G0->GL) <chr(15)>           <chr(15)>
    DC1 (xon (dev ctrl 1)) <chr(17)>           <chr(17)>
    DC3 (xoff(dev ctrl 2)) <chr(19)>           <chr(19)>
    ESC                    <chr(27)>           <chr(27)>
    IND (index)            <ESC D>             <chr(132)>
    NEL (next line)        <ESC E>             <chr(133)>
    RI  (reverse index)    <ESC M>             <chr(141)>
    SS2 (single shift 2)   <ESC N>             <chr(142)>
    SS3 (single shift 3)   <ESC O>             <chr(143)>
    DCS (dev ctrl string)  <ESC P>             <chr(144)>
    CSI                    <ESC [>             <chr(155)>
    ST  (string terminator)<ESC \>             <chr(156)>
    Note: the 8 bit equivalents are only possible on the vt2xx and
          vt3xx terminals. They can always be sent TO the terminal
          but will only be sent FROM the terminal if in 8 bit
          control mode.
    The columns 1, 1a, 2 and 3 give the availability of that
    sequence on the vt100/101, vt102/131/132, vt2x0 and vt3x0
    terminals respectively.
    Control commands sent TO the terminal:
    sequence      atcion                           1 1a 2 3
    ------------- -------------------------------- - -  - -
    <CSI Pn A>    cursor up (D:1)                  * *  * *
    <CSI Pn B>    cursor down (D:1)                * *  * *
    <CSI Pn C>    cursor right (D:1)               * *  * *
    <CSI Pn D>    cursor left (D:1)                * *  * *
    <CSI H>       cursor home (top left corner)    * *  * *
    <CSI Pline ; Pcolumn H>
                  set cursor to line and column    * *  * *
    <CSI Ptop ; Pbottom r>
                  set top and bottom lines of the scroll
                  region (lines 1..24)             * *  * *
    <CSI Pn M>    delete n lines (D:1)               *  * *
    <CSI Pn L>    insert n lines (D:1)               *  * *
    <CSI Pn P>    delete n characters (D:1)          *  * *
    <CSI Pn @>    insert n characters (D:1)          *  * *
    <CSI Pmode J> erase in display: mode is of     * *  * *
                  D:0 (or none) cursor to end
                  1 beginning to cursor
                  2 entire screen
    <CSI Pmode K> erase in line: mode is of        * *  * *
                  D:0 (or none) cursor to end
                  1 beginning to cursor
                  2 entire line
    <CSI Pn X>    erase n characters                    * *
    <CSI pattribute m>
                  set character attribute(s)
                  D:0 (or none) clear all          * *  * *
                  1 set bold                       * *  * *
                  4 set underline                  * *  * *
                  5 set blink                      * *  * *
                  7 set reverse                    * *  * *
                  22 turn bold off only                 * *
                  24 turn underline off only            * *
                  25 turn blinking off only             * *
                  27 turn reverse off only              * *
    (<CSI 0 ; 7 m> will reset the attributes and then set reverse)
    <ESC # 5>     single-width single-height line  * *  * *
    <ESC # 6>     double-width single-height line  * *  * *
    <ESC # 3>     double-width double-height top   * *  * *
    <ESC # 4>     double-width double-height bottom* *  * *
    <ESC 7>       save cursor position and attribs * *  * *
    <ESC 8>       restore to saved values          * *  * *
    <CSI 4 h>     set insert mode                    *  * *
    <CSI 4 l>     set overtype mode                  *  * *
    <CSI ? 25 h>  visible cursor                        * *
    <CSI ? 25 l>  invisible cursor                      * *
    <CSI 2 h>     lock keyboard                    * *  * *
    <CSI 2 l>     unlock keyboard                  * *  * *
    <CSI 20 h>    new line mode                    * *  * *
    <CSI 20 l>    ine feed mode                    * *  * *
    <CSI ? 8 h>   autorepeat key                   * *  * *
    <CSI ? 8 l>   no autorepeat                    * *  * *
    <CSI ? 7 h>   autowrap key                     * *  * *
    <CSI ? 7 l>   no autowrap                      * *  * *
    <CSI ? 1 h>   cursor application keys          * *  * *
    <CSI ? 1 l>   cursor keys                      * *  * *
    <ESC =>       application numeric block        * *  * *
    <ESC ">">     numeric block                    * *  * *
    <CSI ? 5 h>   light background                 * *  * *
    <CSI ? 5 l>   dark background                  * *  * *
    <CSI ? 3 h>   132 columns                      * *  * *
    <CSI ? 3 l>   80 columns                       * *  * *
    <CSI ? 6 h>   move cursor withing margins      * *  * *
    <CSI ? 6 l>   move cursor absolute             * *  * *
    <CSI c>       (primary) device attrib. request * *  * *
                  response is: <CSI ? plist c>
    <CSI 6 n>     cursor position report           * *  * *
                  response is: <CSI Pline;Pcolumn R>
    user definable keys (UDKs) on vt2x0 and vt3x0:
    <DCS Pclear ; Plock | Pkey1 / Pstring1 ; ... Pkeyn / Pstringn ST>
    clear : D:0: clear all keys before loading
            1: clear this key before loading
    lock  : 0: lock the keys
            D:1: do not lock the keys
    key   : numeric key value send in escape sequence of this key.
            see: "Control commands sent FROM the terminal"
    string: string to send encoded as two digits-per-character hexadecimals
    To download a soft character font for the vt2x0 and vt3x0:
    <DCS Pfn ; Pcn ; Pec ; Pcmw ; Pw ; Pt ; Pcmh ; Pcss ; {
     Dscs Sxbp1 ; Sxbp2 ; ... ; Sxbpn ST>
    fn : font number               0 or 1
    cn : starting character (position of first character sent
         in character set)         0..95
    ec : erase control             0..2
    cmw: character matrix width    0..6
    w  : font width                0..2
    t  : text or full-cell         0..2
    cmh: character matrix height   0..12
    css: character set size        0..1
    Dscs:define character set name <"space"../ "space"../ F>
    Sxbpn: sixel bit patterns
           <sixel ; sixel ; .. ; sixel / sixel ; ... >
    Control commands sent FROM the terminal:
    sequence      key                              1 1a 2 3
    ------------- -------------------------------- - -  - -
    <CSI A>       cursor key up    }               * *  * *
    <CSI B>       cursor key down  }  cursor key   * *  * *
    <CSI C>       cursor key right }  mode         * *  * *
    <CSI C>       cursor key left  }               * *  * *
    <SS3 A>       cursor key up    }  application  * *  * *
    <SS3 B>       cursor key down  }  cursor key   * *  * *
    <SS3 C>       cursor key right }  mode         * *  * *
    <SS3 C>       cursor key left  }               * *  * *
    <SS3 P>       PF1                              * *  * *
    <SS3 Q>       PF2                              * *  * *
    <SS3 R>       PF3                              * *  * *
    <SS3 S>       PF4                              * *  * *
    <CSI 1 ~>     Find                                  * *
    <CSI 2 ~>     Insert Here                           * *
    <CSI 3 ~>     Remove                                * *
    <CSI 4 ~>     Select                                * *
    <CSI 5 ~>     Prev Screen                           * *
    <CSI 6 ~>     Next Screen                           * *
    <CSI 1 7 ~>   F6                                    * *
    <CSI 1 8 ~>   F7                                    * *
    <CSI 1 9 ~>   F8                                    * *
    <CSI 2 0 ~>   F9                                    * *
    <CSI 2 1 ~>   F10                                   * *
    <CSI 2 3 ~>   F11                                   * *
    <CSI 2 4 ~>   F12                                   * *
    <CSI 2 5 ~>   F13                                   * *
    <CSI 2 6 ~>   F14                                   * *
    <CSI 2 8 ~>   Help                                  * *
    <CSI 2 9 ~>   Do                                    * *
    <CSI 3 1 ~>   F17                                   * *
    <CSI 3 2 ~>   F18                                   * *
    <CSI 3 3 ~>   F19                                   * *
    <CSI 3 4 ~>   F20                                   * *
    key codes of the numeric keypad in:            * *  * *
    numeric application mode    key
    ---     -------             ---
    <0>     <SS3 p>              0
    <1>     <SS3 q>              1
    <2>     <SS3 r>              2
    <3>     <SS3 s>              3
    <4>     <SS3 t>              4
    <5>     <SS3 u>              5
    <6>     <SS3 v>              6
    <7>     <SS3 w>              7
    <8>     <SS3 x>              8
    <9>     <SS3 y>              9
    <->     <SS3 m>              -
    <,>     <SS3 l>              ,
    <.>     <SS3 n>              .
    <CR>    <SS3 M>              enter

    [Reposted with permission] 

---------------------------------=:> * <:=---------------------------------

Appendix C - Emulator FTP Sites/Sources

    This is a archive of many emulators; however, be considerate when 
    you're downloading from this site. They're hooked up by just a T1; 
    if everyone hopped over there and downloaded the whole archive, it 
    would bring the connection to its knees. Currently has directories 
    for Coleco, GameBoy, MSX, Spectrum, and TI-85:

    Contains emulators for Commodore-64s, Apple 2s, TRS-80s, and Macs. 
    [If this brings up a blank list in your browser, you may want to 
    try a normal FTP program. Wilbur does not like ls -l commands...]:

    Although this seems to be designed for Linux systems, most of the 
    source code will compile for just about any Unix system. This site 
    gets really busy, so you might want to use one of the mirrors 
    listed below:

    Mirrors of the sunsite emulator directory:

    Mirrors of the SimTel MS-DOS emulator directory. SimTel used to be 
    a public-access FTP site until it grew too large; all it does now 
    is get mirrored. For a more complete list of SimTel sites, send an 
    email message to <listserv@SimTel.Coast.NET> with only the 
    following in your message: get

    Simtel is also available from several web sites:

    Contains most available Spectrum emulators:

    Aminet mirror emulators directory. Many emulators designed to run 
    on Amigas appear here:

    The Aminet homepage is at:

    Contact information for commercial emulator vendors: 

    Epic Marketing sells a CD-ROM with many emulators on it. You can 
    contact them at: 
      Epic Marketing,
      Victoria Centre,          
      138-139 Victoria Road,
      SN1 3BU,
      Phone: +44 (0)793 490988     

---------------------------------=:> * <:=---------------------------------

Appendix D - Related Documents

    Emulation Software R&D WWW Page:

    WWW Personal Computing and Emulation Homepage:

    Emulation on the Macintosh:

    Instruction-Level Simulation And Tracing

    In French:

    Many other emulator-related pages exist, primarily with lists of 
    available emulators and links to them. Much of the information in 
    these pages is duplicated between each other and with this FAQ, 
    but they still provide further information you may find of use.

    And, finally, something about GeoCities (which offers free space 
    to produce web pages) seems to compel people to put up emulator 
    web pages. Here's your selection:

---------------------------------=:> * <:=---------------------------------

Appendix E - Archie

    The pointers to resources at FTP sites are almost never the sole 
    place to obtain information. If you have trouble finding a file at 
    a particular site, use archie to locate it at a different place on 
    the net. In most cases, you should have an archie client on your 
    system (type "man archie" for instructions). 

    If you appear not to have an archie client, you can telnet to one 
    of the sites listed below and login as "archie" (no password). If 
    you need further help once you log in, type "help" at the prompt. 

    Publicly accessible Archie servers, as of Mar 14th 1995: 
                     Australia     Austria    Belgium      Canada   Canada      Canada      Finland     France      Germany           Israel      Italy        Japan      Korea    Korea     Korea      Norway     Poland      Spain       Sweden       Switzerland      Switzerland    Taiwan    UK     UK     UK     UK     UK     UK     UK    UK     UK   USA (MD)         USA (NE)   USA (NJ)   USA (NJ)     USA (NJ)      USA (NJ)        USA (NY)

---------------------------------=:> * <:=---------------------------------

Appendix F - Comp.emulators.misc Charter

    The comp.emulators.misc charter, for those who are curious: 

    Emulation of computer systems on another platform. Emulators which 
    are not covered elsewhere in the comp.emulators hierarchy can be 
    discussed here. Emulation of specific hardware by other hardware 
    in the same system (such as Sound Blaster card emulation by the 
    Gravis UltraSound card) generally belongs elsewhere. 

---------------------------------=:> * <:=---------------------------------

Appendix G - Legal Issues

    Invariably, the question of legality of using soft copies of ROM 
    comes up in the newsgroup. For the exact nuances of how copyright 
    law applies in your country, I strongly suggest you go to a local 
    library and check out a book designed to explain copyright law to 

    There are also many myths about the legality of emulators 
    themselves. I'm not a lawyer, but I have read many books on 
    intelectual property laws; based on the information I have 
    gathered, emulation of a machine is completely and defensably 
    legal, provided that no copyrighted information is used in the 
    emulation of the machine. (The only other protection that could 
    possibly be afforded is trademark protection -- just be careful 
    what you call your emulators, and this one can easily be avoided 
    -- and patent protection. If a certain aspect of a machine has 
    been patented, you cannot even emulate that portion without paying 
    appropriate licensing fees.) According to precedent, emulating a 
    particular processor (based on known information) is legal (take 
    the example of AMD and Cyrix making 80x86 compatible chips free of 
    legal involvement by Intel) as long as it is done without copying 
    the actual silicon wafer masks used to produce the chips. 
    Emulating the interaction between a processor and other chips 
    themselves is legal as well (examples abound; see below). Those 
    two items are basically all that is necessary to create an 
    emulator. If, however, the machine so emulated requires a 
    copyrighted ROM image, operating system, or other programming, 
    that copyrighted material may not be included. It can be licensed 
    from the copyright holder, if they cooperate. Depending on the 
    laws in your country, it may also be sourced from a ROM that you 
    own (see section G.4 for the pertinent US copyright law). 

    Evidence of the legality of emulating machines can be seen in the 
    fact that ARDI maintains a commercial emulation of the Macintosh 
    without paying Apple any royalties (they have rewritten their own 
    workalike ROM and OS -- see section 3.7.2); Insignia maintains 
    SoftWindows (which works with a licensed copy of MS-Windows -- see 
    section 3.6.6); and Sun maintains WABI (which relpaces the Windows 
    API with equivalent X calls -- see section 3.6.8). An even more 
    common example: while most computer users use IBM *compatible* 
    PCs, when is the last time you actually sat down at an IBM *brand* 
    PC? Yes, most the 80x86 machines out there are emulations of the 
    original IBM architecture. 

    Many game console manufacturers do not seem to have a firm grip on 
    the actual scope of intelectual property laws; more than one 
    emulation project has been closed down due to legal threats from 
    large game console manufacturers. They're wrong, but they're big 
    -- so they tend to get their way. 

    Addendum: I've heard reports (although not had time to confirm) 
    that Microsoft has recently selling their products with a 
    provision in their license that restricts the software to being 
    run only "on an authorized copy of a Microsoft operating system." 
    I can only conjecture that this was done to increase legal 
    leverage if their applications are being run on pirated copies of 
    Windows; however, it is also phrased so that it could be illegal 
    to run their applications on any non-licensed emulator (eg WINE -- 
    see section 3.6.7). It is my own, private, non-lawyer opinion that 
    such provisions would be easily struck down as anticompetitive, if 
    legal action were brought. I also think that it would be the worst 
    possible PR debackle Microsoft could inflict on itself. However, 
    on the face of it, it may be in violation of the software license 
    to run certain Microsoft applications under WINE. Note that Wabi 
    and SoftWindows are both based on technology licensed from 
    Microsoft, so they are not affected by the new license provisions. 
    Also note that these restrictions are directly opposed to 
    provisions in Canadian copyright law (see section G.2), and may be 
    ruled null in that country for that reason alone. 

    World Intellecual Property Organization (a UN organization) home 

    The WIPO maintains a list of those countries that are party to the 
    Berne convention, an international agreement on intellectual 
    property rights:

  G.1 Australian Copyright Law

      The Australian provision corresponding to US Section 117 (below) 
      does not seem to allow the same liberties: 

      "...[T]he copyright in a literary work being a computer program 
       is not infringed by the making of a reproduction of the work, 
       or of a computer program being an adaptation of the work, if... 
       the reproduction is made for the purpose only of being used, by 
       or on behalf of the owner of the original copy, in lieu of the 
       original copy in the event that the original copy is lost, 
       destroyed or rendered unusable." 

      The Australian Copyright act of 1968 is detailed at:

  G.2 Canadian Copyright Law

      Canadian law is phrased similaraly to US Copyright law (see 
      below) with regards to copying software [chapter C-24, 
      subsection 27(2)]: 

      "The following acts do not constitute an infringement of 


      "(l) the making by a person who owns a copy of a computer 
       program, which copy is authorized by the owner of the 
       copyright, of a single reproduction of the copy by adapting, 
       modifying or converting the computer program or translating it 
       into another computer language if the person proves that: 

      "(i) the reproduction is essential for the compatibility of the 
       computer program with a particular computer, 

      "(ii) the reproduction is solely for the person's own use, and 

      "(iii) the reproduction is destroyed forthwith when the person 
       ceases to be the owner of the copy of the computer program..." 

      This would seem to explicitly protect Canadian users of 
      emulators from prosecution under copyright laws if they make a 
      *single* copy of their own, legal cartridges/ROM images/disk 
      images, etc. as necessary to run them on a particular computer 
      under an emulator. 

      Canadian Inellectual Property Office (Office de la Propriete 
      Intellectuelle du Canada):

      Copyright Act:*/doc/

  G.3 Hong Kong Copyright Law

      A very cursory discussion of Hong Kong Intellectual Property law 
      can be found at:

  G.4 US Copyright Law

      The rest of the information in this section is aimed primarily 
      at US residents; if you find any information on the net about 
      copyrights in other countries, I'd love to include pointers to 

      A good place to start would be Brad Templeton's "10 Big Myths 
      about copyright explained." It is available at:

      A more detailed Copyright FAQ list is at:

      You may find the information available at the copyright website 
      of use; it's available at:

      The US copyright act (title 17) is available via gopher: 

      Additionally, the US Library of Congress has a website that 
      includes information and copyright forms; it's located at:

      On the topic of copying software for personal use, Section 117 
      of the U.S. Copyright Act states: 

      "...[I]t is not an infringement for the owner of a copy of a 
       computer program to make or authorize the making of another 
       copy or adaptation of that computer program provided... that 
       such a new copy or adaptation is created as an essential step 
       in the utilization of the computer program in conjunction with 
       a machine and that it is used in no other manner..." 

      This would seem to apply to copying ROMs for use in emulators 
      (since it is arguably necessary to copy the ROM image as an 
      essential step in the utilization of the computer program), but 
      I'm not a laywer. 

---------------------------------=:> * <:=---------------------------------

Appendix H - FAQ Archive Sites

    All standard FAQs (those listed on the list of periodic postings) 
    are posted usually not less frequently than once a month to 
    news.answers; they are also archived at the following sites for 
    retreival at any time: 

    North America:




    If any of the above links don't work for you, please E-MAIL ME 
    ABOUT IT and check the list located at:

---------------------------------=:> * <:=---------------------------------

Appendix I - Credits

    Thanks to the following people for their information, without 
    which this document would not have been possible: 

    Ron Zayas <> 
    Jonathan Badger <> 
    Paul Boddie <> 
    Byron Followell <> 
    Pascal Felber <> 
    James Cooper <> 
    John Wilson <> 
    Craig Jackson <> 
    Alastair Booker <> 
    Doug Salot <> 
    Marinos Yannikos <> 
    Craig Jackson <> 
    Hetz Ben Hamo <> 
    William Kendrick <> 
    Paul Burgin <> 
    Henk Penning <> 
    Fabrice Frances <> 
    Emmanuel Roussin <> 
    Kevin P Lawton <> 
    Filip Kujawski <> 
    Martin Gerken <> 
    Ewen Roberts <> 
    Tom Seddon <> 
    Kevin E W Thacker <> 
    Hans Guijt <> 
    Jean-Francois Fabre <> 
    Jim Cook <> 
    Bill Griffith <> 
    Alexander T. Smith <> 
    Tony Smolar <> 
    Wouter Scholten <> 
    Sunil Gupta <> 
    Guenter Woigk <asbach!!> 
    James Fidell <> 
    Michael Meissner <> 
    David Alan Gilbert <> 
    Ed Joseph <> 
    Michael Gueting <> 
    Carolyn Horn <> 
    Corne Beerse <> 
    Mike O'Malley <> 
    Jeroen van den Belt <> 
    Marat Fayzullin <> 
    R Ribeiro <> 
    Steve Hawley <> 
    Juan Jose Epalza <> 
    Andrew Cagney <> 
    Maarten J. van den Hoek <> 
    Bradford W. Mott <> 
    Jean-Francois Lozevis <> 
    "The Brain" <> 
    Carolyn Horn <> 
    Alex Hornby <> 
    L. D. Tonks <> 
    Kevin Postlewaite <> 
    Samir Ribic <> 
    Ryan <> 
    Adam Narrison <> 
    Michael Weigand <> 
    Keith Wilkins <> 
    Paul Robson <> 
    Fabien Tassin <> 
    Sebastien Brochet <> 
    Mike Mallett <> 
    Reece Sellin <> 
    David Linsley <> 
    Russell Schulz <Russell_Schulz@locutus.ofB.ORG> 
    John Marshal <> 
    Robert Federle <> 
    Erik Kunze <> 
    Yury Chebykin <> 
    Matthias Jaap <> 
    Matt Conte <> 
    Paul West <> 
    Douglas W. Jones <> 
    Chris Murphy <> 
    Raymond Ancog <> 
    Adam Davidson <> 
    Frederic Gidouin <> 
    Jean-Francois Lozevis <> 
    Chris Hames <> 
    Frederic Gidouin <> 
    Barry J. Stern <> 
    Rich Drewes <> 
    Rui Ribeiro <> 

    Special thanks to Robert Frank <> for his list 
    of VT codes. 

    Another special thanks is due to Jouko Valta <> 
    for his extensive list of emulators and emulator FAQs. 

User Contributions:

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Last Update March 27 2014 @ 02:11 PM