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OpenVMS Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ), Part 8/11

( Part1 - Part2 - Part3 - Part4 - Part5 - Part6 - Part7 - Part8 - Part9 - Part10 - Part11 )
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Archive-name: dec-faq/vms/part8
Posting-Frequency: quarterly
Last-modified: 02 Sep 2005
Version: VMSFAQ_20050902-08.TXT

See reader questions & answers on this topic! - Help others by sharing your knowledge
                   Miscellaneous Information

                   Realize that defining this logical name will
                   cause license checks that are otherwise hidden
                   (unimplemented, latent, or part of a check for any
                   of a series of licenses) to become visible. In other
                   words, expect to see zero or more spurious license
                   check calls when you define this, in addition to the
                   check for the particular license.

                   For information on PAKGEN and on generating license
                   PAKs, please see Section 10.10. For information on
                   obtaining commercial and hobbyist licenses, and for
                   additional adminstrative information on LMF, please see
                   Section 2.8.4 and Section 2.8.1.



          13       Finding and Using Software

                   For information on programming on OpenVMS, see
                   Chapter 10.

          13.1  Where can I find freeware/shareware/software for OpenVMS?

                   o  Details on many commercial OpenVMS products are
                      available in the catalog located at:


                   o  The OpenVMS Freeware is is distributed with OpenVMS,
                      and is also available for download at various sites,
                      including the following:




                      and at various other sites. The website also
                      includes various updates and new packages that
                      become available after the CD-ROM distributions
                      are created.

                      Submissions to the OpenVMS Freeware can be made


                      To acquire the OpenVMS Freeware CD-ROM distribution,
                      you can order an OpenVMS distribution from HP (the
                      Freeware is included)(see the OpenVMS SPD for part
                      numbers), or you can specifically order a Freeware
                      distribution from HP under part number:

                     o  QA-6KZAA-H8

                      The Freeware CD-ROM set contains a large assortment
                      of freeware, and is a good starting point if looking
                      for utilities. Many of the packages listed below
                      are also on the Freeware CD. Some of the most oft-
                      requested OpenVMS tools on the Freeware CD include


                   Finding and Using Software

                      ZIP and UNZIP and GZIP (please see Section 13.11,
                      MMK (make), PINE, PERL, TAR, UUENCODE and UUDECODE.
                      Many other tools are available on the Freeware.

                   o  The UUENCODE and UUDECODE tools and various
                      other tools are also available as part of TCP/IP
                      Services package. (Use the DCL command procedure
                      SYS$STARTUP:TCPIP$DEFINE_COMMANDS.COM available on
                      V5.0 and later to set up the necessary DCL foreign
                      command symbols used for these and for various other
                      tools provided by TCP/IP Services.)

                   o  OpenVMS software (formerly at Western Kentucky
                      University (WKU) is now available via Madgoat and
                      via Process Software archives:



                   o  The FILESERV packages are also available via
                      anonymous FTP from:


                     o, under [.WKU.VMS.FILESERV].

                     o, under

                     o, under [.WKU.VMS.FILESERV].


                     o, under kits and kits/decwindows.

                     o, via the WWW instead of FTP.

                      The packages are also available via e-mail from
                      FILESERV@PROCESS.COM. Send the commands HELP and
                      DIR ALL in the body of a mail message to this email
                      address for further information on retrieving the

                   o  Arne Vajhj operates an OpenVMS website, with
                      software and other pointers, at:



                   Finding and Using Software

                   o  Jouk maintains a summary of various public-domain
                      and open-source software ports, and specifically
                      ports of packages for use on OpenVMS, at:


                   o  The Kermit file transfer package is available at:



                   o  ZMODEM is available at:


                      See the FILES file in that directory for further
                      details. Note that this freeware version of ZMODEM
                      will interoperate only with ZMODEM software that is
                      licensed from Omen Technology. (This package is also
                      available on various of the Freeware distributions.)

                   o  A good source of software for OpenVMS systems
                      and for various other platforms is the Encompass
                      (formerly known as DECUS) library. Online catalogs
                      are available as well as some software via


                     o  gopher://


                   o  DECUS SIG Tape collections are available on Mark
                      Berryman's system,


                   o  David Jones's DECthreads-based HTTP_SERVER World-
                      Wide Web server for OpenVMS, often known as the OSU

                     o  http://kcgl1.eng.ohio-

                   o  Secure Shell (SSH) support for OpenVMS is available.
                      Use of SSH V2 with current updates is recommended,


                   Finding and Using Software

                      as the security of older SSH releases have been
                      compromised. Server for OpenVMS:

                     o  Secure Shell (SSH) Server for OpenVMS:

                        o  http://kcgl1.eng.ohio-

                        Secure Shell (SSH) FISH Client for OpenVMS:


                        SSH V2 support is included with TCP/IP Services
                        V5.4 and later, and support is likely also
                        available within available third-party IP stacks.

                        For information on the SSH key file
                        configuration, see topic 151.22 and following in
                        the VMS notes conference on the Deathrow Cluster
                        ( and
                        You can telnet into the host, and an announced
                        anonymous login is/was available; username DEMO,
                        password USER.

                      Information on OpenSSL (SSLeay) for OpenVMS:



                      Information on OpenSSL (SSLeay) and OSU Web server


                      OpenSSL is included with OpenVMS V7.3-1 and later.

                   o  DECwindows Motif V1.2-3 includes NCSA Mosaic 2.4
                      built for TCP/IP Services (UCX). V1.2-4 includes
                      Spyglass Enhanced Mosaic, which supports many of
                      the Netscape enhancements. Versions of the Netscape
                      Navigator and particularly the Mozilla Web Browser
                      are also available for OpenVMS. The Compaq Secure
                      Web Browser (CSWB) kit is a packaged version of the
             Mozilla Web Browser.

                   o  A port of the NCSA Mosaic web browser that supports
                      TCP/IP Services, Multinet and SOCKETSHR/NETLIB is
                      available from:



                   Finding and Using Software

                      Versions of the Mosaic web browser are also
                      available on the Freeware.

                   o  Lynx (a character-cell World-Wide-Web web browser)
                      is available from


                      Versions of Lynx, a character-cell web browser, are
                      also available on the OpenVMS Freeware.

                   o  The Netscape Navigator and Mozilla web browsers are
                      available at:



                   o  PGP (Phil Zimmerman's "Pretty Good Privacy") is
                      available from various distribution sites, including
                      those listed in the PGP FAQ. Information on PGP and
                      on OpenVMS downloads of PGP is available. Relevant
                      URLs include:






                   o  GNU Privacy Guard (GPG, GnuPG) is available.

                      Search the comp.os.vms newsgroup archives for
                      information regarding GnuPG; the source code,
                      binaries for various platforms, and documentation
                      are all available at:


                      The OpenVMS source code and OpenVMS Alpha images can
                      be found at:



                      As of this writing, the port only runs on OpenVMS
                      Alpha, but an investigation of an OpenVMS VAX port
                      is reportedly under consideration.


                   Finding and Using Software

                   o  An archive of the CENA DECwindows, X Windows, and
                      VMS software packages can be found at the following






                      Other FTP mirror sites for the DECwindows archive

                     o (Multinet)

                     o (MadGoat)

             (in /contrib/vms) is effectively not a
                      mirror, but it does have various OpenVMS packages
                      from the DECwindows archive.

                      A list of the http mirror sites for the DECwindows
                      archive is available at:


                      Various of these packages are also available on the

                   o  ImageMagick is an X11 package for display and
                      interactive manipulation of images. The package
                      includes tools for image conversion, annotation,
                      compositing, animation, and creating montages.
                      ImageMagick can read and write many of the more
                      popular image formats (e.g. JPEG, TIFF, PNM, XPM,
                      Photo CD, etc.).


                      Versions of ImageMagick are also included on the

                   o  XV is a image viewing and editing tool and is
                      available from:




                   Finding and Using Software


                   o  Many software packages are available for displaying
                      various bitmap files (.JPG, .GIF, .BMP, etc) on
                      OpenVMS. Xloadimage, Xli, Xv, ImageMagick are the
                      most common tools used under OpenVMS. Various web
                      browsers such as Mozilla (qv) can also display
                      various file formats on OpenVMS. You can find some
                      of these tools at the DECwindows Archive:



                   o  GHOSTSCRIPT (gs) and GHOSTVIEW (gv) are available
                      from the Freeware V5.0 and Freeware V6.0


                      Versions are also available on the Freeware.

                      Also see:


                   o  XPDF, a DECwindows viewer for PDF (Adobe Acrobat)
                      files, is available from:


                      Software and installation kits for XPDF are also
                      available on the Freeware.

                      Beware: the XPDF tool included on OpenVMS Freeware
                      V4.0 is dated, and has been found to have various
                      bugs. Use the Freeware V5.0 version of the XPDF kit,
                      or (better) later.

                      A Java-based PDF viewer is available from Adobe,
                      and is known to operate on recent OpenVMS Alpha


                   o  Various OpenVMS-related tools-both freeware and
                      shareware-such as txt2pdf-are available from at:



                   Finding and Using Software

                   o  The MPEG library version 1.1 is available for
                      OpenVMS VAX and Alpha at



                      Various MPEG players and related tools are available
                      on the Freeware.

                   o  An Archie clone is available at INFO.CS.PUB.RO.
                      Telnet to that machine, and login as VMSARCI. It
                      contains now listings for over 30 ftp servers with
                      over 14 gigabytes of OpenVMS software.

                      The most useful commands are LIST, which generates a
                      list of scanned ftp servers, and FIND string, whichs
                      looks for a file containing "string" in the name;
                      the search modes are only "substring" [default] and
                      "exact", and regex search is not supported (so FIND
                      EMACS will work, but FIND *EMACS* or FIND *EMACS*.*
                      will not). The search is case-insensitive.

                      The maintainer of the site (
                      requests that anyone submit notifications of FTP
                      servers with OpenvMS software that are not listed on
                      the site.

                   o  The Levitte (extended :-) Family (and OpenVMS)



                   o  Robert Alan Byer's OpenVMS Hobbyist Systems,
                      including OpenVMS public domain software and various


                   o  CalTech Software Archives:


                   o  DJE Systems Website (David J. Dachtera)


                   o  Web Servers:


                   Finding and Using Software

                      Apache Web server (HP Secure Web Server (SWS,
                      formerly CSWS)):


                     o  http://www.er6.eng.ohio-

                      The SOAP Toolkit is available at the OpenVMS

                      OSU Web server

                     o  http://www.er6.eng.ohio-


                     o  email list: VMS-WEB-daemon-Request@KJSL.COM

                      WASD Web server


                      Purveyor Web server:

                     o  email list:, no
                        subject, one line message: SUBSCRIBE PURVEYOR

                      FastCGI software is available from:


                   o  CD-R (CD-Recordable) media tools are available,
                      please see Section 9.7.

                   o  Grace (WYSIWYG 2D plotting tool)


                   o  The POV-Ray ("Persistance of Vision" Raytracer) ray-
                      tracing graphics package is available on the OpenVMS

                   o  Majordomo mailing list handler:


                   o  PINE (OpenVMS tools for sending and receiving MIME




                   Finding and Using Software

                      A MIME tool is available in OpenVMS V7.2 and later.

                      Also see the mmencode base64 encode and decode
                      available at:


                   o  Menufinder (menu-driven system management


                   o  SYSLOGCLIENT (a client for processing SYSLOG
                      requests) has been provided for download by Mark
                      Hemker at:


                   o  tcgmsg, pvm, mpi, linda:


                   o  OpenVMS software that can control a Tripp-Lite
                      Uninterruptable Power Supply (UPS) is available


                      UPShot web-based software for controlling a UPS is
                      available from:


                      OpenVMS software for controlling Liebert UPS devices
                      are available from the Liebert website:


                   o  Examples of using the OpenVMS Foreign MAIL interface
                      are available at:



                   o  For tools to manage or to search your OpenVMS MAIL
                      file, see:



                   Finding and Using Software

                   o  AscToHTM attempts to convert any plain text file to
                      HTML, while AscToTab restricts itself to files that
                      are plain text tables. (Versions are also availabe
                      on the OpenVMS Freeware).



                   o  Information on the SAMBA package, a package that
                      provides SMB-based Microsoft Windows PC disk and
                      print services for OpenVMS, is available at:




                      To subscribe to the SAMBA-VMS mailing list e-mail
             with no subject line and the
                      following single line of text:

                      subscribe samba-vms Your Full Name

                      Also see:


                   o  The Perl language is available for OpenVMS, see
                      Section 13.9 for details.

                   o  XML is available for OpenVMS.

                      Source code of an XML Parser is available from

                      Also see:


                      An XML parser is available as part of OpenVMS V7.3
                      and later.

                   o  Python kit, and resource, and documentation sites





                   Finding and Using Software

                   o  GTK+ (The GIMP GUI Tookit) for OpenVMS:


                   o  The OpenVMS Porting Library now available, and
                      is intended to permit easier porting of C and C++
                      applications from UNIX systems to OpenVMS:


                      GTK is also available.

                   o  Mlucas (specialized FFT):


                   o  Tools to monitor the terminals and the activity
                      of other OpenVMS users (in addition to existing
                      auditing capabilities in OpenVMS) are available.
                      Peek and Spy (Networking Dynamics) and Contrl
                      (Raxco) are two of the commercial packages, while
                      the freeware Supervisor package is available on
                      OpenVMS VAX.



                   o  Python for OpenVMS:


                      Also see the OpenVMS Freeware.

                   o  Various packages for OpenVMS:



                   o  TSM (Terminal Server Manager) is available via:


                     o  Look at Freeware V5.0 at


                   Finding and Using Software

                     o  Beware: The TSM saveset shipped on the Freeware
                        V5.0 disk media is known to be corrupted.
                        Download a new copy of the saveset from the
                        Freeware V5.0 FTP server or from the Freeware
                        V5.0 website.

                   o  TCL for OpenVMS:


                   o  make, gmake, mmk and other build tools are available
                      on the Freeware.

                   o  An OpenVMS port of the ht://Dig web search engine is
                      available at:


                   o  A mySQL database client is available at:



                      For additional information related to the mySQL
                      port, please search the comp.os.vms newsgroup
                      archives. A MySQL port is also available on the
                      OpenVMS Freeware.


                   o  If you need to change the file modification date
                      and are looking for a utility such as the UNIX touch
                      tool, look at DFU on the OpenVMS Freeware (DFU SET
                      or simular), or use an existing DCL commands such

                      $ SET FILE/PROTECT=(current_protection_mask) [...]*.*

                   o  A table listing translations between UNIX shell and
                      OpenVMS DCL commands was posted to comp.os.vms by
                      Christopher Smith some time ago. This page should be
                      available from the google newsgroup archives.

                      For information on and the status of the OpenOffice
                      port for OpenVMS, please see:



                   Finding and Using Software

                   o  The UNIX touch tool is available via various means:

                      $ RENAME filename.ext;version *


                      MadGoat FILE tool (see the MadGoat archives)

                   o  use /REVISION_DATE or /CREATION_DATE

                   o  The DFU tool (see the OpenVMS Freeware)

                   o  The pair:

          $ set file 'p1' /acl=(ident=[system],access=none)
          $ set file 'p1' /acl=(ident=[system],access=none) /delete

                      $ SET FILE/VERSION=0

                   o  The following touch hack:

          $!   Command procedure SETDATE.COM
          $!   Changes the DATES for an input file to a
          $!   file named OUTFILE.
          $assign/nolog 'p1' outfile
          $convert/fdl=sys$input 'p1' outfile:
          creation   01-apr-2010
          expiration 01-Apr-2012
          revision   01-Apr-2011

                   o  The following RMS system service sequence:

                     o  sys$open(),  with the XABRDT XAB structure

                     o  set the desired values within the XABRDT XAB.

                     o  sys$close()

                   Various OpenVMS tools and utilities are available at:


                   OpenVMS ports of the xmcd and MPlayer tools have also
                   been reported as available.


                   Finding and Using Software

          13.2  Where can I find UNIX tools for OpenVMS?

                   There are OpenVMS DCL and UNIX shell command comparison
                   tables posted at:



                   The GNV package (Section 13.2.6) and the various C
                   library calls available in current/recent libraries are
                   the replacement for the POSIX package.

          13.2.1  C system and library routines

                   Common C system and library routines are present in the
                   DEC C run-time library, which is available for V5.5 and
                   later, and is shipped in V6.1 and later. DEC C is the
                   upgrade for VAX C, DEC C and VAX C can coexist on the
                   same system OpenVMS VAX system, and both compilers can
                   be enabled via the "C" license PAK.

                   Also see SYS$EXAMPLES:, and (if either is installed)
                   the DECW$EXAMPLES: and TCPIP$EXAMPLES (or prior to
                   V5.0, UCX$EXAMPLES:) areas.

                   The HP C Run-Time Library documentation is now part
                   of the OpenVMS Operating System Documentation, and
                   separate from the HP C compiler documentation.


                   Additionally, there have been large-scale increases to
                   the capabilities and features available within recent
                   HP C compilers. If you have not taken the opportunity
                   to skim the current C compiler documentation, you
                   may well be surprised with the sheer volume of new
                   C capabilities discussed there.


                   Finding and Using Software

          13.2.2  X Windows utilities and routines

                   Various X Windows utilities are available for
                   DECwindows. DECwindows is an implementation of the X
                   Windows environment and libraries, and provides various
                   libraries, and provides various desktop interfaces,
                   including COE, Motif, and XUI.

                   xwd, xev, mosaic web browser, xrdb, bmtoa and atobm,
                   xpr, ico, etc. are available. Look in DECW$UTILS:
                   in DECwindows Motif V1.2-3 and later. Also see
                   DECW$EXAMPLES: for example X and C programs.

                   Miscellaneous tools and examples are also available.
                   Examples include the older DWAUTH (X Windows SYSUAF
                   authorize-like tool) tool, various versions of grep,
                   fgrep, yacc, vmstar, uuencode, gawk, etc. html tools,
                   the mx SMTP mail exchange package, X windows flight
                   simulator, the mxrn X windows news reader, the
                   OSU HTTPD WWW server, a WWW gopher browser, Castle
                   Wolfenstein (Wolf3D), etc. are all on the various
                   OpenVMS Freeware distributions. (Also see the GNV
                   package (Section 13.2.6) for related materials, APIs,
                   and tools.)

          13.2.3  TCP/IP Tools and Utilities for OpenVMS?

                   TCP/IP Services (formerly known as UCX) contains tools
                   such as ping, uuencode, smtp, snmp, rcp, nfs, tnfs,

                   OpenVMS V6.2 and later includes DCL-integrated support
                   for various IP tools, with commands such as SET
                   HOST/TELNET, and COPY/FTP. This interface requires
                   the installation of an IP stack, and TCP/IP Services
                   (UCX) V3.3 and later as well as any then-current or
                   now-current third-party IP stack can be used. Once the
                   IP stack is installed and configured, the DCL command
                   qualifiers such as /FTP, /RCP, /RLOGIN, /TELNET, and
                   /TN3270 are available on various DCL commands including

                   Various C programming examples in TCPIP$EXAMPLES and
                   (on releases prior to V5.0) in UCX$EXAMPLES:.


                   Finding and Using Software

          13.2.4  The vi text editor

                   vile, vim and elvis are all clones of the vi text
                   editor, and all operate on OpenVMS.

                   Versions of vile are available on the Freeware and at:


                   vim: vi improved


          13.2.5  The Emacs Text Editor

                   OpenVMS ports of versions of the Emacs text editor can
                   be found on various OpenVMS Freeware distributions (eg:
                   OpenVMS Freeware V7.0 has a port of Emacs 21.2), and at
                   various web sites including:


                   "Emacs isn't a text editor, it's a way of life."

                   For comparisions of OpenVMS text editors and UNIX, see
                   the following:


          13.2.6  GNV: Various GNU tools

                   Information on the GNU on VMS (GNV; "GNU's Not VMS")
                   Project, which aims to port and provide GNU software
                   (bash, flex, bison, tar, grep, gcc emulation, etc) to
                   OpenVMS, is available at:


                   Software info:


                   Software archive:



                   Finding and Using Software

                   Various GNU tools are also available on the Freeware.

  GCC compiler

                   Yes, gcc is available for OpenVMS Alpha and OpenVMS

                   o  gcc compilation compatibility for OpenVMS Alpha
                      and I64 is available as a component of the GNV
                      package. This causes the HP C compiler to emulate
                      the interface and compilation behaviours of gcc.


                   o  GNV Home Page


                   o  GCC Home Page - GNU Project - Free Software
                      Foundation (FSF)


                   o  GNU/FSF


                   o  Help GCC - SUNY NCSB


                   o  Redhat's gcc Archive


                   o  Malmberg's Ftp Service - gcc281_u


                   o  updated header-files for GNU C 2.8


                   In addition to gcc, the HP C compiler and other
                   development tools are part of the OpenVMS Hobbyist
                   licensing program for non-commercial users, and these
                   and other tools are available to commercial developers
                   via the HP DSPP partner program. (See Section 2.15 for
                   information on DSPP.)


                   Finding and Using Software

          13.3  What is the status of PL/I on OpenVMS?

                   Kednos now owns and supports the former DIGITAL PL/I
                   compiler and run-time support on OpenVMS, and is the
                   contact for product status, support and associated

                   As of this writing, (older) versions of the PL/I
                   run-time library and associated supporting images
                   remain available on OpenVMS VAX and on OpenVMS Alpha,
                   including the DECmigrate VEST translated images run-
                   time support on OpenVMS Alpha, though neither the PL/I
                   shareable image nor the DECmigrate (AEST) translated
                   image support for the PL/I run-time are available
                   (from HP) on nor present on OpenVMS I64 systems.
                   Newer versions of the PL/I run-time library may be
                   (are?) available from Kednos for various OpenVMS
                   platforms; please contact Kednos for product details
                   and availability.


          13.4  Where can I get the Mozilla Web Browser?

          is an open source organization providing
                   HTML-related tools; software that is the basis for
                   various utilities including the Mozilla web browser and
                   the Secure Web Browser (SWB) package.

                   OpenVMS Engineering is continuously porting
         's web browser to OpenVMS, and OpenVMS ports
                   of the current Mozilla baselevels and releases are
                   available. The OpenVMS Mozilla port includes the web
                   browser, the mail client, the Composer HTML editor, an
                   IRC chat client, a netnews (NNTP) reader, and various
                   other tools.

                   The Mozilla web browser download and the development
                   and release schedules for this and for other Mozilla-
                   related tools are available at:



                   Finding and Using Software

                   The available Secure Web Browser (SWB) kit is a
                   packaged version of the Mozilla Web Browser, and
                   typically the SWB version number matches the underlying
                   Mozilla version.

                   A hardware configuration appropriate for Mozilla
                   generally involves an OpenVMS Alpha system with an
                   EV56 Alpha microprocessor, or an EV6 or more recent
                   processor, and with 256 megabytes of system memory.
                   The performance of Mozilla on EV5-based and earlier
                   Alpha microprocessor systems is generally viewed as
                   inadequate, this due to the extensive use of an Alpha
                   instruction subset that is first available with the
                   EV56 microprocessor generation.

                   Mozilla is not available for OpenVMS VAX.

                   Various versions of the Netscape Navigator web browser
                   are based on the Mozilla code-base.

          13.5  Where can I get Java for OpenVMS?

                   Java is available on and is included with OpenVMS
                   Alpha, starting with the OpenVMS Alpha V7.2 and later
                   releases. Java download kits are available for OpenVMS
                   Alpha V7.1 and later releases.

                   Java is not available on OpenVMS VAX. As for why: the
                   Java language definition requires a floating point
                   format (IEEE) that is not native to VAX, and this would
                   require the emulation of all floating point operations
                   within Java applications. Further, the C source code
                   used to implement for Java itself is heavily dependent
                   on passing IEEE floating point values around among the
                   many internal subroutines, and adding support for VAX
                   would entail changes to the HP C compiler for OpenVMS
                   VAX-and specifically to the VAX VCG code generator that
                   is used by HP C on OpenVMS VAX systems-in order to add
                   support for passing IEEE-format floating point doubles
                   around. Alternatively, extensive changes to the Java
                   source code to remove the assumption that the double is
                   an IEEE floating point value.


                   Finding and Using Software

                   There are currently no plans to make a version of Java
                   available for OpenVMS VAX. (A prototype version of Java
                   was created for OpenVMS VAX, and performance was found
                   to be inadequate. At best.)

                   If Java2 or other environment lifts the requirements
                   for IEEE floating point as part of the language
                   definition, this decision may be revisited.

                   If you are having problems with Display Postscript, you
                   need to upgrade your Java kit-1.2.2-3 and later remove
                   the requirement for Display Postcript extensions, and
                   Java 1.2.2-3 is required with DECwindows V1.2-6 and

                   For additional information on Java for Alpha systems,
                   please see the OpenVMS documentation (V7.2 and later),
                   and the following site:


                   HP Secure Web Server (SWS, formerly CSWS) includes
                   CSWS_JAVA, which provides the following Apache Tomcat
                   technologies: JavaServer Pages 1.1, Java Servlet
                   2.2, and MOD_JK. Also available is CSWS_PHP, a PHP
                   implementation. (SWS is based on the Apache web server.
                   See SOFT1.)

          13.6  Obtaining user input in DCL CGI script?

                   If you choose to use the GET method, then the form
                   data is available in the DCL symbol QUERY_STRING, in
                   URL-encoded format.

                   If you use the POST method, then you need to read the
                   form data from stdin. For a DCL CGI script running
                   under the Netscape FastTrack web server, you can read
                   the data using the following READ command:

                   $ READ SYS$COMMAND postdata

                   to read the information in.

                   The following describes the use of DCL command
                   procedures as CGI scripts with the OSU web server:



                   Finding and Using Software

                   DCL CGI is also discussed in the Writing Real Programs
                   in DCL book, and in the Ask The Wizard website.

          13.7  How can a batch job get its own batch entry number?

                   To have a batch procedure retrieve its own batch entry
                   number, use the following:

                   $ Entry = F$GETQUI("DISPLAY_ENTRY", -

                   Remember that the entry numbers issued by the OpenVMS
                   Job Controller are always opaque longword values. Do
                   not assume you know the format of the entry number,
                   nor the range of entry numbers you might see, nor the
                   algorithm that is used to assign enty numbers. You
                   should simply assume opaque longword.

          13.8  How do I convert to new CMS or DTM libraries?

                   A change was made to the format of the CMS database
                   for CMS libraries starting with V3.5-03-to ensure
                   that earlier versions of CMS are unable to access the
                   database once the "conversion" to V3.5-05 and later is
                   made, you must issue the following two commands when
                   upgrading from V3.5-03 and prior. (The only differences
                   between CMS version V3.5-03 and CMS version V3.5-05
                   involve changes to ensure that no earlier version of
                   CMS can access the "converted" database, and corrupt

                   To perform the "conversion", issue the following
                   commands for each CMS library present:

                   $ RENAME disk:[directory]00CMS.* 01CMS.*
                   $ COPY NLA0: disk:[directory]00CMS.CMS

                   The new file 00CMS.CMS must have the same security
                   settings as the 01CMS.CMS file, and is created solely
                   to ensure continued compatibility with tools that
                   expect to find a 00CMS.CMS file (eg: various versions
                   of the Language-Sensitive text editor LSEDIT).


                   Finding and Using Software

                   If you choose to install and use the longer variant
                   names support that is available with CMS V4.1 or later,
                   you cannot mix earlier CMS versions within a cluster.
                   If you attempt to mix older and newer versions, you
                   will typically see the following BADLIB and BADTYPSTR
                   error sequence when accessing the CMS library from the
                   older CMS versions:

                   %CMS-F-BADLIB, there is something wrong with your library
                   -CMS-F-BADTYPSTR, header block type is 145; it should be 17

                   Please see the CMS V4.1 release notes for additional
                   details on this.

                   To perform the equivalent "conversion" for DEC Test
                   Manager (DTM) V3.5 and prior versions to V3.6 and later
                   versions, issue the following DCL commands for each DTM
                   library present:

                   $ RENAME disk:[directory]00DTM.* 01DTM.*
                   $ COPY NLA0: disk:[directory]00DTM.DTM

                   Like CMS, this change is intended to prevent older
                   versions of DTM from accessing newer libraries, and
                   corrupting the contents. Like CMS, once the libraries
                   are renamed, they cannot and should not be renamed
                   back to the older names; like CMS, the changes are not

                   To convert version 1 (ancient) DTM and CMS libraries
                   forward, please see the DTM CONVERT and the CMS CONVERT

          13.9  Where can I get Perl for OpenVMS?

                   OpenVMS support is included in the standard
                   distribution of Perl, the popular scripting language
                   created by Larry Wall. In addition to nearly all
                   of the functionality available under Unix, OpenVMS-
                   specific Perl modules provide interfaces to many native
                   features, as well as access to Oracle, Ingres, and
                   Sybase databases via the Perl DBI available on OpenVMS.


                   Finding and Using Software

                   A website useful for getting started with Perl on
                   OpenVMS-where you will find such things as download
                   links, instructions, auxiliary tools, and sample
                   scripts-is available at:


                   If you have a C compiler, the best way to obtain
                   Perl is to download and build it yourself. The latest
                   production quality source kit is available from:


                   You will need GUNZIP and VMSTAR (both available from
                   the OpenVMS Freeware CD, or from other sites) to
                   unpack the archive; once you've done that, read the
                   instructions in the README.vms file.

                   Binary distributions for most Alpha and VAX
                   environments are available on the OpenVMS Freeware CD-
                   ROM and from various websites, including the following:



                   During active Perl development cycles, test kits are
                   sometimes found at: from:


                   Watch the mailing list (see below) for details on
                   experimental releases.

                   Charles Lane maintains pages on how to write CGI
                   scripts in Perl for the OSU HTTP server, as well as
                   more general tips, tricks, and patches for building and
                   running Perl on OpenVMS:


                   There are OpenVMS-specific Perl modules that implement
                   interfaces to a subset of the VMS System Services.
                   With these modules, you can get (and often set) device,
                   job, queue, user, system, and performance information.
                   The lock manager, RMS indexed files, screen management
                   utilities, and Intracluster Communication Services are


                   Finding and Using Software

                   also accessible via Perl. The relevant modules are all
                   available from:


                   To subscribe to the OpenVMS Perl mailing list (a
                   discussion forum for both user support and new
                   development), send an email message to vmsperl-

                   The mailing list archives may be searched at:


          13.10  Obtaining the DECmigrate (AEST or VEST, and TIE)

                   The DECmigrate image translation family provides tools
                   that translate OpenVMS VAX images for use on OpenVMS
                   Alpha, and OpenVMS Alpha images for use on OpenVMS I64,
                   Details are available at:


                   VEST is the name sometimes given to the DECmigrate
                   translation tool for VAX images, AEST is the name
                   given to the Alpha translation tools, and TIE names
                   the DECmigrate run-time environment within OpenVMS.
                   (If you've ever noticed images with filenames ending
                   with _TV and wondered what this meant, these images are
                   part of TIE.) And yes, you can use AEST to re-translate
                   images that were translated using VEST; you can perform
                   a second translation of a VAX image.

                   Please see Section 13.12 for related information.
                   Please see the website for the most current details
                   on availability and plans and status of translations
                   for OpenVMS I64 platforms.


                   Finding and Using Software

          13.11  Where can I get Zip, Unzip, self-extracting zip, etc?

                   Many packages are provided in ZIP, GZIP, or BZIP2
                   format, which requires you to acquire the associated
                   unzip tool to unpack it. You can get ZIP and UNZIP and
                   related and similar tools from the following areas:

                   o . Look in the
                      [000TOOLS...] and [*ZIP*...] directories.






                   o  The master Info-Zip web site is at
             . OpenVMS ports of current versions of zip
                      and unzip are typically available at this web site,
                      as is a mailing list.

                             Freeware V4.0 [000TOOLS...]*ZIP*.EXE

                      The Freeware V4.0 [000TOOLS...] pre-built
                      versions of ZIP will erroneously return BILF
                      errors on OpenVMS V7.2 and later. This is not
                      the only error lurking within these pre-built
                      versions, just the most obvious. Accordingly,
                      please use one of the far more current versions
                      that are now readily available, whether on the
                      most recent Freeware distribution, or from one of
                      the sites listed above.

                      Do not use the Freeware V4.0
                      [000TOOLS...]*ZIP*.EXE images.

                   Directions for creating and using the sfx self-
                   extracting zip file compression mechanism are available
                   in the unzip kit that is available at:

                   o  Look in a recent unzip* directory at

                   o  With the UNZIP542 directory from Freeware V5.0, look
                      for the file UNZIPSFX.TXT.


                   Finding and Using Software

                   If you want to build the zip images for yourself (eg:
                   for an older OpenVMS version), pull over the entire
                   contents of a recent unzip and unzip directory, or
                   Info-Zip directory, or visit one of the web sites.
                   With most OpenVMS ports of the tools, find and invoke
                   LINK.COM. No compilers are needed, as objects are
                   provided with most distributions.

                   HP OpenVMS Engineering uses a tool known as FTSV for
                   creating self-extracting compressed files using the
                   OpenVMS DCX compression tools, as seen with various
                   OpenVMS ECO (patch) kits. (sfx typically provides
                   better compression than does DCX.) FTSV and FTSO are
                   available on Freeware V7.0, for OpenVMS VAX and OpenVMS
                   Alpha. Due to changes in the image headers, no version
                   of FTSV is presently available for OpenVMS I64.

          13.12  Are VAX Hardware Emulators Available?

                   Software-based emulators of the VAX architecture and
                   for specific VAX hardware platforms are available from
                   various sources:

                   o  Software Resources International (SRI) CHARON-VAX

                   o  Tim Stark's TS10

                   o  Bob Supnik's Trailing Edge

                   VAX emulators that operate on PC systems and/or on
                   OpenVMS Alpha systems are available. For information
                   on an alternative to using a VAX emulator- on the
                   available DECmigrate VAX executable image translator-
                   please see Section 13.10.



          14       Hardware Information

          14.1  What are the OpenVMS differences among VAX, Alpha, and

                   In terms of software, very few. As of OpenVMS V6.1,
                   the OpenVMS VAX and OpenVMS Alpha platforms achieved
                   "feature parity". Subsequent work has seen significant
                   enhancements and new features added on OpenVMS Alpha.
                   OpenVMS I64 started with "feature parity" with OpenVMS
                   Alpha at the V8.2 release, and OpenVMS Alpha and
                   OpenVMS I64 are based on and built from the same
                   source pool. (There are low-level platform-specific
                   differences, and there is platform-specific code within
                   the shared source code pool.) Most applications can
                   just be recompiled and run.

                   Some differences to be aware of:

                   o  The default double-precision floating type on
                      OpenVMS Alpha is VAX G_float, whereas on VAX it
                      is usually D_float. D_float is available on Alpha,
                      but D_float values are converted to G_float for
                      computations and then converted back to D_float when
                      stored. Because the G_float type has three fewer
                      fraction bits than D_float, some applications may
                      get different results. IEEE float types are also
                      available on OpenVMS Alpha.

                   o  The preferred floating point format on the Alpha and
                      on the IA-64 architectures is IEEE.

                   o  Data alignment is extremely important for best
                      performance on OpenVMS Alpha and on OpenVMS I64.
                      This means that data items should be allocated at
                      addresses which are exact multiples of their sizes.
                      Quadword alignment will offer the best performance,
                      especially for character values and those smaller
                      than 32 bits. Compilers will naturally align


                   Hardware Information

                      variables where they can and will issue warnings
                      if they detect unaligned data items.

                   o  HP C is the only C compiler HP offers on OpenVMS
                      Alpha and on OpenVMS I64, and is a direct descendant
                      of Compaq C and DEC C on OpenVMS Alpha. HP C is
                      highly compatible with DEC C on OpenVMS VAX, but
                      does differ somewhat in its syntax and support
                      when compared with the older VAX C compiler most
                      OpenVMS VAX programmers are traditionally familiar
                      with. Read up on the /EXTERN_MODEL and /STANDARD
                      qualifiers to avoid the most common problems, and
                      see the documentation in the DEC C for OpenVMS VAX
                      manuals around migrating from VAX C to DEC C. (In
                      addition to HP C, there have been open-source ports
                      such as Gnu C available for OpenVMS.)

                   o  The page size on Alpha and IA-64 systems is
                      variable, but is at least 8 kilobytes. This can
                      have some effect on applications which use the
                      $CRMPSC system service as well as on the display of
                      available memory pages. The page size is available
                      from $GETSYI using the SYI$_PAGE_SIZE itemcode.

                   There are also a number of manuals which discuss
                   migration to OpenVMS Alpha and to OpenVMS I64 available
                   in the OpenVMS documentation, both in the main
                   documentation and (depending on the age of the manuals
                   involved) in the archived documentation section.

                   As mentioned earlier, more recent OpenVMS Alpha
                   and OpenVMS I64 releases have added features and
                   support that are not available on OpenVMS VAX. Salient
                   additions include the following:

                   o  64-bit addressing in OpenVMS Alpha V7.0 and later,
                      and on OpenVMS I64.

                   o  Multi-host SCSI support (SCSI TCQ) in V6.2 and later

                   o  PCI support (platform-dependent)

                   o  OpenVMS Galaxy (vPars) support in OpenVMS Alpha V7.2
                      and later


                   Hardware Information

                   Please see Section 14.4.5 for Intel Itanium

          14.2  Seeking performance information for Alpha (and VAX)

                   HP makes a wide range of performance documents
                   available through its FTP and WWW Internet servers
                   (see Section 3.2).

                   The following contain information on Integrity, Alpha
                   and VAX products, with the VAX information largely
                   accessable via archive-related links at the Alpha-
                   related product web pages:



                   The following sites are reachable via the AlphaServer
                   information pages, and contain information on various
                   retired VAX and Alpha products:



                   Also see CPU2000:



          14.3  Console Commands, Serial Lines, and Controls?

                   This section contains information on VAX and Alpha
                   consoles, and details related to console commands,
                   serial lines, and configuration settings.


                   Hardware Information

          14.3.1  What commands are available in the Alpha SRM console?

                   In addition to the normal BOOT commands and such (see
                   Section for some details) and the normal
                   contents of the console HELP text, operations such
                   as I/O redirection and floppy disk access are possible
                   at the SRM console prompt:

                   1  Format a FAT floppy, and insert it into the
                      AlphaStation floppy drive.

                   2  Perform the following at AlphaStation SRM Console :

                         >>> show * > env.dat
                         >>> show conf > conf.dat
                         >>> cat env.dat > fat:env.dat/dva0
                         >>> cat conf.dat > fat:conf.dat/dva0

                   3  You may use the SRM "ls" command to display the
                      contents of the floppy.

                         >>> ls fat:env.dat/dva0
                         >>> ls fat:conf.dat/dva0

                   4  You can now transfer the FAT-format floppy to
                      another system.

          14.3.2  What does SRM mean? What is PALcode?

                   The abbreviation SRM is derived from the Alpha System
                   Reference Manual, the specification of the Alpha
                   architecture and the associated firmware.

                   PALcode is a name assigned to a particular set of
                   functions provided by the SRM firmware. PALcode
                   is used to provide low-level functions required by
                   higher-level operating system or application software,
                   functions which may not be directly available in Alpha
                   hardware. PALcode is implemented using available
                   Alpha instructions and using the Alpha processor,
                   though PALcode operates in a mode which simplifies
                   programming. PALcode is also permitted access to
                   processor-specific and otherwise internal features
                   of a particular Alpha microprocessor implementation;
                   microprocessor-specific features which are not easily
                   accessable to operating system or application code.


                   Hardware Information

          14.3.3  Alpha COM ports and VAX console serial line information?

                   This section contains information on the Alpha COM
                   communication ports, and related settings, as well as
                   on the VAX console bulkhead and VAX console serial line

  Which terminal device name is assigned to the COM

                   COM2 is normally TTA0:. COM1 is normally TTB0: if
                   the Alpha workstation is booted with the SRM console
                   environment variable set to graphics, and is OPA0: if
                   the console is set to serial.

                   On the DEC 2000 series (sometimes incorrectly known by
                   the name of the system as sold for Microsoft Windows NT
                   Alpha; as the DECpc 150 AXP series) on older OpenVMS
                   Alpha releases, COM1 through COM4 are known as OPA0:
                   through OPA3:. On all current OpenVMS releases, these
                   ports are serviced by the terminal driver and not by
                   the console OPDRIVER driver.

                   Often the easiest way to determine the OpenVMS terminal
                   name assigned to the port is to connect a terminal,
                   log in interactively, and look at the output of SHOW
                   TERMINAL. (Device names can vary by OpenVMS version,
                   as well as by the SRM console environment variable

                   For serial console hardware and related information,
                   and for pin-outs and related information, please see
                   Section 14.3 and Section 14.26.

  Which serial port is the console on the MicroVAX 3100?

                   Just to keep life interesting, the MicroVAX 3100 has
                   some "interesting" console ports behaviours based
                   on the setting of the BREAK enable switch. When the
                   console is not enabled to respond to BREAK, MMJ-1
                   is the console port. MMJ-3 will (confusingly) output
                   the results of the selftest in parallel with MMJ-1.
                   When the console is enabled to respond to BREAK, MMJ-3


                   Hardware Information

                   becomes the console port, and MMJ-1 will (confusingly)
                   output the results of selftest in parallel with MMJ-3.

  How can I set up an alternate console on a VAXstation?

                   Most VAXstation series systems and a few Alpha series
                   systems have a switch - most often labeled S3, largely
                   for historical reasons-that enables one of the serial
                   lines as the system console device; as OPA0:. This
                   disables console output to the graphics display. (For a
                   related behaviour, please see Section 11.10.)

                   All VAXstation 3100 series systems provide a S3 slide
                   switch, though the oldest may be missing the cut-out
                   through the enclosure that provides access to the
                   switch. The slide switch is located near the diagnostic
                   LED display. (The slide switch is accessable with the
                   cover removed.)

                   Various members of the DEC 3000 series Alpha systems
                   also have a similarly-labled S3 switch for selection of
                   the alternate console.

                   The particular port that becomes the console can vary.
                   The printer MMJ connection is used on all VAXstation
                   3100 series. On VAXstation II, the console DB9 is
                   used, rather than the graphics display. On most (all?)
                   AlphaStation series systems, typically the COM1 serial
                   port becomes the console.

                   Also see Section 14.3.6, Section 11.10, and
                   Section 14.17. Beware the two different DB9 pin-outs;
                   see Section 14.27 for related details.

                   For information on registering software license product
                   authorization keys (PAKs), please see Section 5.6.2.

  Please explain the back panel of the MicroVAX II

                   The MicroVAX-series console bulkhead interface was used
                   with the KA630, as well as with the KA650 and KA655


                   Hardware Information

                   There are three controls on the console bulkhead of
                   these systems:

                     Triangle-in-circle-paddle: halt enable.
                       dot-in-circle: halt (<break>) is enabled,
                                      and auto-boot is disabled.
                       dot-not-in-circle: halt (<break>) is disabled,
                                      and auto-boot is enabled.

                     Three-position-rotary: power-up bootstrap behaviour
                       arrow: normal operation.
                       face: language inquiry mode.
                       t-in-circle: infinite self-test loop.

                     Eight-position-rotary: console baud rate selection
                       select the required baud rate; read at power-up.

                   There are several different bulkheads involved,
                   including one for the BA23 and BA123 enclosures,
                   and one for the S-box (BA2xx) series enclosure. The
                   console bulkheads typically used either the MMJ serial
                   line connection, or the MicroVAX DB9 (not the PC DB9
                   pin-out), please see the descriptions of these in
                   section Section 14.26. For available adapters, see
                   Section 14.27.

                   Also present on the console bulkhead is a self-test
                   indicator: a single-digit LED display. This matches the
                   final part of the countdown displayed on the console or
                   workstation, and can be used by a service organization
                   to determine the nature of a processor problem. The
                   particular countdown sequence varies by processor
                   type, consult the hardware or owner's manual for
                   the processor, or contact the local hardware service
                   organization for information the self-test sequence
                   for a particular processor module. Note that self-tests
                   2, 1 and 0 are associated with the transfer of control
                   from the console program to the (booting) operating


                   Hardware Information

          14.3.4  What are Alpha console environment variables?

                   Alpha systems have a variety of variables with values
                   set up within the SRM system console. These environment
                   variables control the particular behaviour of the
                   console program and the system hardware, the particular
                   console interface presented to the operating system,
                   various default values for the operating system
                   bootstrap, and related control mechanisms-in other
                   words, "the environment variables provide an easily
                   extensible mechanism for managing complex console

                   The specific environment variables differ by platform
                   and by firmware version-the baseline set is established
                   by the Alpha Architecture:

                   AUTO_ACTION ("BOOT", "HALT", "RESTART", any other value
                   assumed to be HALT),  BOOT_DEV, BOOTDEF_DEV, BOOTED_DEV,
                   BOOT_RESET ("ON", "OFF"), DUMP_DEV, ENABLE_AUDIT ("ON",
                   "OFF"), LICENSE, CHAR_SET, LANGUAGE, TTY_DEV.

                   OpenVMS Galaxy (vPars) firmware can add console
                   environment variables beginning with such strings
                   as LP_* and HP_*, and each particular console
                   implementation can (and often does) have various sorts
                   of platform-specific extensions beyond these variables.
                   These variables allow both vPars (virtual partitions)
                   and lPars and lPars (logical partition) support; vPars
                   is a generic name for soft partitioning constructs
                   such as OpenVMS Galaxy, while lPars is a generic name
                   applied to hard partitioning constructs.

                   The contents of a core set of SRM console environment
                   variables are accessible from OpenVMS Alpha using the
                   f$getenv lexical and the sys$getenv system service.
                   (These calls are first documented in V7.2, but have
                   been present in OpenVMS Alpha for many releases.)
                   Access to arbitary SRM console environment variables
                   is rather more involved, and not directly available to
                   application software operating outside of kernel-mode.


                   Hardware Information

          14.3.5  What are the boot control flag values?

                   Integrity, VAX and Alpha primary bootstraps support
                   flag values; a mechanism which permits the system
                   manager to perform specific customizations or site-
                   specific debugging of the OpenVMS system bootstrap.
                   While very similar, there are differences among
                   the boot flag implementations for the various

  What are the I64 IPB boot flag values?

                   The OpenVMS I64 primary bootstrap flags are processed
                   within the IA-64 primary bootstrap image IPB.EXE;
                   within the SYS$EFI.SYS structures. The primary
                   bootstrap boot flags are largely parallel to those
                   of OpenVMS Alpha (see Section, though the
                   console and the console mechanisms used to specify the
                   boot command, the boot flags, and boot command options
                   do differ markedly.

                   You can specify the boot flags via an EFI environment
                   variable VMS_FLAGS , or via the boot alias boot options
                   mechanism, or by appending the requested boot flags
                   onto the specification of VMS_LOADER.EFI.

                   To set the bootstrap flags environment variable at the
                   EFI shell prompt, use:

                   Shell> SET VMS_FLAGS "0,1"

                   When you register an EFI boot alias (please see
                   Section 14.4.5 for Intel Itanium terminology), you
                   will be asked if you want to enter boot options, and
                   what type. To add boot flags to a boot alias, select
                   Unicode as the boot options type, and enter an SRM-like
                   options string, such as the conversational bootstrap
                   selected by the following example:

                   -flages 0,1

                   For related information on managing EFI boot aliases
                   from OpenVMS I64, please see Section 14.3.10.


                   Hardware Information

                   When using VMS_LOADER.EFI to request boot flags, you
                   will want to specify the invocation as follows:

                   fsn:\efi\vms\vms_loader -flags 0,1

                   The above shows a conversational bootstrap request.

                   Typical boot flags are listed in Table 14-1.

          Table 14-1  I64 Conversational Bootstrap Flags


                   0         0,1     CONV              Conversational

                   1         0,2     DEBUG             Load SYSTEM_
                                                       DEBUG.EXE (XDELTA)

                   2         0,4     INIBPT            Stop at initial
                                                       system breakpoints

                   16        0,10000 DBG_INIT          Enable verbose
                                                       bootstrap messages

                   17        0,20000 USER_MSGS         Enable additional
                                                       bootstrap messages

                   17        0,200000?                 Request for a
                                                       bootstrap from

                   For a conversational bootstrap of the OpenVMS I64 root
                   SYS4 associated with the fs2: EFI file system device
                   with full bootstrap messaging enabled, specify:

                   fs2:\efi\vms\vms_loader -flags 4,30001

  What are the Alpha APB boot flag values?

                   The flags listed in Table 14-2 are passed (via register
                   R5) to the OpenVMS Alpha primary bootstrap image
                   APB.EXE. These flags control the particular behaviour
                   of the bootstrap.

                   BOOT -FL root,flags


 ---------------------------- #include <rtfaq.h> -----------------------------
    For additional, please see the OpenVMS FAQ --
 --------------------------- pure personal opinion ---------------------------
        Hoff (Stephen) Hoffman   OpenVMS Engineering   hoff[at]

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