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The FAQ (part 3 of 6)

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Archive-name: cultures/new-zealand-faq/part3
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Subject: B3.1 The Political Scene Would anyone care to write a brief summary of the main political parties and post them to the net for comment? -------------------- B3.1.1 Why 'New Zealand' It is simply "New Zealand" - not the "People's Republic of" or "Commonwealth of" or "Kingdom of" or anything like that. It used to be "The Dominion of New Zealand" pursuant to a long-forgotten dream of a kind of federal British empire that one of our early prime ministers (Bill Massey) was keen on, but the "Dominion of" bit was dropped several years ago. Robin Klitscher gives us: "The Royal Charter effecting the separation of NZ from the Colony of NSW in 1840 said "the principal Islands, heretofore known as, or commonly called, the 'Northern Island', the 'Middle Island' and Stewart's (sic) Island' shall henceforward be designated and known respectively as 'New Ulster', 'New Munster' and 'New Leinster'". "In 1846 a further Royal Charter changed this into two Provinces only, New Ulster and New Munster, with New Munster incorporating New Leinster and the North Island up to the latitude at the mouth of the Patea River. Each of the two was to have a Governor and Legislative and Executive Council under the Governor-in-Chief and Executive Council for the whole colony. Limited elections were held in 1851 but before they were completed the New Zealand Constitution Act 1852 unravelled all that and substituted the six Provinces Auckland, New Plymouth, Wellington, Nelson, Canterbury and Otago, each with limited elective Councils. "In 1858 the province of New Plymouth was renamed Taranaki; and between 1858 and 1873 Hawke's Bay, Marlborough, Southland and Westland were created. "The whole provincial arrangement was undone (in the sense of political mapmaking) by the Abolition of the Provinces Act of 1975. "(Source - McLintock's Encyclopaedia of New Zealand Vol 2 pp 880, 881)" [I have a long debate about the origins of the names for NZ which I'm still editing into shape. It will probably go in here.] -------------------- B3.1.2 Constitution New Zealand shares with Britain and Israel the distinction of being one of the three developed countries that does not have a codified Constitution on the U.S. model. When the country was annexed by Britain in 1840, the British parliament enacted that all applicable law of England as at 1840 became the law of New Zealand. In 1856, the New Zealand parliament was given the power to enact its own law and nothing changed when full independence was achieved (26-9-1907) except that the British parliament lost its overriding authority. We have, thus, never had the problem that Australia and Canada have had of "repatriating" a constitution that was really an Act of the British parliament. Our constitution, like the British, consists of parliament's own conventions and rules of conduct, some legislation such as the New Zealand Constitution Act (1986, not enacted), and fundamental rules applied by the Courts which go back into English history. It evolves rather than is amended. The flag of NZ is blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant with four red five-pointed stars edged in white centered in the outer half of the flag; the stars represent the Southern Cross constellation. You can view it from the following pages: -------------------- B3.1.3 Form Of Government Paul Gillingwater wrote: "Constitutional monarchy, with a single-chamber parliament. "The monarch is said to `reign but not rule': except for a residual power to actually govern in the event of some complete breakdown of the parliamentary system, the monarch has merely ceremonial duties and advisory powers. When the monarch is absent from the country, which is most of the time, those duties and powers are delegated to the Governor-General who is appointed by the monarch for a limited term after approval by the government. "Parliament is the consitutional `sovereign' - there is no theoretical limit on what it can validly do, and the validity of the laws which it enacts cannot be challenged in the courts (although the courts do have and use wide-ranging powers to control administrative acts of the government). A new parliament is elected every three years (universal suffrage at age 18). The leader of the party which commands majority support in parliament is appointed prime minister and he or she nominates the other Ministers of the Crown. The ministers (and sometimes the whole majority party in parliament) are collectively called `the government'. Our system almost entirely lacks formal checks and balances - the majority party can virtually legislate as it likes subject only to its desire to be re-elected every three years. "Until now, members of parliament have been elected on a single-member constituency, winner takes all, system similar to those of Britain and the U.S.A. As a result of referenda conducted in 1993, future parliaments will be elected on a mixed-member proportional system modelled on that of Germany. "The administration is highly centralised. The country is divided into `districts' (the urban ones called `cities') each with a District (or City) Council and Mayor, but their powers are limited to providing public facilities (not housing) and enforcement of by-laws (local regulations) such as parking regulations. The Police are a single force controlled by the central government. "The draft of the new electorate Boundaries under MMP is available from There are 3 files: nth_isle.gif --> north island electorates sth_isle.gif --> South island electorates auckland.gif --> Auckland electorates" ----- Ross Stewart (WWG IT recruiters, Akld, NZ) writes: For interest, we've put up (as best we can) details as to how seats will be allocated under MMP. Have a look at: Colin Jackson adds: Announcing the NZ Elections Home Page on the government web server: Material on the server includes: - A Guide to the MMP voting system - How to Enrol, with an Internet form - Maps of all the new electorates - A text search tool to establish which electorate(s) a given place is in - Results of the last election It will carry the results of the 1996 election as these become available. The address of the elections home page is: -------------------- B3.1.4 The Justice System There is a four-level hearings and appeals system: Top level Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (London) | Court of Appeal (Wellington) | High Court (in all cities) | Bottom level District Courts (most towns) There is also the Small Claims Court which handles smaller personal disputes. Civil and criminal cases start in the District or High Court, depending on their seriousness and appeals go up the chain. Certain rare cases can start in the Court of Appeal. District and High Court judges sit alone or with juries. The Court of Appeal (and on certain rare occasions the High Court) consists of three or five judges sitting "en banc". The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council consists mainly of British Law Lords with New Zealand judges also sitting in New Zealand cases; in theory its decisions merely "opinions" for the benefit of the monarch as the fount of all justice, but in practice its rulings have the force of ultimate appeal. All judges are appointed by the government - High Court judges are nominated by the Law Society, but District Court judges apply for the job like any other. Various special-purpose courts (Industrial Court, Maori Land Court, Family Court, etc.) exist and have the same status as either a District Court or the High Court. For the NZ Statutes: and there's a pointer to it from -------------------- B3.1.5 Organisation Membership New Zealand is a member of the following organisations: ANZUS (US suspended security obligations to NZ on 11 August 1986), APEC, AsDB, Australia Group, C, CCC, CP, COCOM, (cooperating country), EBRD, ESCAP, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LORCS, MTCR, OECD, PCA, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIIMOG, UNTSO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Subject: B3.2 Economy Since 1984 the government has been reorienting an agrarian economy dependent on a guaranteed British market to an open free market economy that can compete on the global scene. The government had hoped that dynamic growth would boost real incomes, reduce inflationary pressures, and permit the expansion of welfare benefits. The results have been mixed: inflation is down from double-digit levels, but growth has been sluggish and unemployment, always a highly sensitive issue, has exceeded 10% since May 1991. In 1988, GDP fell by 1%, in 1989 grew by a moderate 2.4%, and was flat in 1990-91. Current (1994) growth is around 2-4% and rising. The economy is based on agriculture (particularly dairy products, meat, and wool (68 m sheep, 2 m dairy cows)), food processing, wood and paper products, textiles, machinery, transportation equipment, banking and insurance, tourism, mining. Fish catch reached a record 0.5 m tonnes in 1988. Highly dependent on external trade, NZ is currently trying to move from being a primary to a secondary producer. -------------------- B3.2.1 Defence Against Silly Questions Lyndon Watson wrote: "Look in on sci.economics and sci.econ.research. In response to yet another request from abroad about NZ's supposedly interesting economic past and present structure, Lyndon Watson composed the following. What is it with these idiots from Canada? This garbage seems to come round three or four times a year - is some fool teaching it to students there? Some notes for these twits (and their teachers) - 1. New Zealand was not subsidized from England, or anywhere else. 2. The nation did not at any time go bankrupt (or default on its debts, or become subject to IMF or World Bank or any other outside economic direction). 3. Our terms of trade worsened catastrophically in the early 1970s (not the 1980s) as a result of (a) the oil shock that also affected our trading partners and (b) the erection of tariff and quota barriers against our trade by the U.K. 4. The Labour government of 1972-75 and the National government that followed it tried to deal with adverse terms of trade by borrowing in foreign markets, with the result that by the early 1980s we had (and we still have) a debt ratio that looked bad even by Third World standards. 5. The Labour government of 1984-90 and the current National government have restructured the economy by abruptly stopping all state subsidies, removing nearly all tariff and quota barriers against imports, greatly reducing income tax and substituting the Goods and Services Tax on the sale of goods and services, greatly reducing the the state's involvement in trading activities and social services, and the reform of labour laws to promote individual workplace agreements. 6. The removal of subsidies and import barriers saw many incompetent and uneconomic businesses, many of which were reliant on subsidies, fail and the official unemployment rate exceed 10% of the workforce. 7. After a decade of restructuring, our net terms of trade are in our favour and the official unemployment rate is the fourth lowest in the OECD (currently just over 7% for the country as a whole, 5.9% in most of the South Island). A major current problem is the shortage of skilled workers in many industries." ----- Kindly submitted by Paul Walker. These were published in the Christchruch Press on September 13th and 14th, 1995. Anyone prepared to archive these and the following references for ftp and such? BRINGING HOME THE CUP Michael Carter Senior Lecturer in Economics University of Canterbury When Australia wrested the America's Cup from the New York yacht club in 1983, Tom Schnackenberg was a member of the shore team (a sail designer). When New Zealand won the cup in San Diego, Tom was head of the design team and navigator on NZL 32. His progression from shore to ship was far less imposing than that in his native country. In 1983, a New Zealand challenge for the America's Cup would have been inconceivable. The domestic boat building industry was struggling. It had been decimated by the imposition of an ill-conceived sales tax in 1979, which cut turnover from $57 million to $8 million in two years. Like Schnackenberg, many of New Zealand's best talents lived and worked overseas, driven away by high tax rates and the lack of opportunity. Innovation was discouraged by regulations, import controls and selective taxes. The idea of a New Zealand team taking on the might of corporate America was laughable. At the end of 1984, I left Australia to return to New Zealand. Some of my Australian colleagues laughed. They saw New Zealand as a basket case, a joke, small isolated islands drowning in a sea of debt. My Australian friends wondered when, not if, Australia would have to come reluctantly to the rescue. Ten years later, how things have changed. Our triumph in San Diego is due in no small measure to the changes which have be wrought in the New Zealand economy over the last 10 years. Moreover, bringing home the Cup was only the most visible sign of the new vigour, confidence and strength in New Zealand and its people. New Zealanders are justifiably proud of the performance of Team NZ in San Diego. They could be even more proud of the performance of home team, of the radical transformation of their economy over the last ten years. Domestic critics talk of the "New Zealand experiment" as though New Zealand has pursued a lone path in recent years. Nothing could be further from the truth. Massive economic change has occurred throughout the world over the last fifteen years. Deregulation and privatization are universal trends. No country remains untouched, from Britain and the US to the former constituents of the Soviet block to Latin America, Africa and Asia. Around the world, there is a feeling that New Zealand has done it better than most. The Australians are now looking cautiously over their shoulder, as their economy is consistently eclipsed by their Tasman rival. The Economist regularly cites New Zealand as exemplifying the benefits of economic reform. Monetary economists pay significant attention to the Reserve Bank Act. Experts on telecommunications watch with interest New Zealand's system of light regulation. New Zealanders are employed as consultants advising on economic reform all round the world. >From the laggard of the OECD, New Zealand has emerged to one of the strongest economies in the world. It is an achievement to be proud of, an accomplishment which surpasses even the yacht races in San Diego. That is not to say that we have got everything perfect. Mistakes have been made, implementation of some policies was less than perfect, and there is still much to be done. But, from an international perspective, New Zealand's transformation in a single decade has been remarkable. At a time when some politicians are promoting a return to the past, it is sobering to recall the changes which have been made and to reflect on the way we were ten years ago. It is also interesting to remark how the opponents of change have often become its most vocal advocates, as exemplified by Federated Farmers and recently the Manufacturers Federation. Much of the current political debate on economic policy is futile and distracting, driven by poor memories and wishful thinking. If only New Zealanders could achieve some consensus that we have been moving in the right direction, debate could turn to the more constructive issues of how to secure continued growth and equitable distribution. Prospective voters could do their part by signalling more clearly to aspiring politicians that they want to build on the present rather than return to the past. Tomorrow, we look back to the way we were in 1984 and review some of the changes which have been made in our economic lives. LOOKING BACK TO 1984 Michael Carter Senior Lecturer in Economics University of Canterbury Eleven years ago, the Fourth Labour Government came to power in a snap election. They inherited control of country whose economy had been devastated by years of mismanagement. Aided by a willing and able bureaucracy, they set about implementing an ambitious programme of economic reform. As New Zealand approaches its first MMP election, it is instructive to look back over these reforms, and to recall the way we were in 1984. One of the first changes was the freeing of the financial system from obstructive regulation and the floating of the New Zealand dollar. This has promoted a healthy, competitive and innovative financial system. People may rue market interest rates, but at least it possible to borrow when required. Remember the old days when obtaining a mortgage required appropriate obsequiousness before the bank manager, who exercised a patronizing and crucial power over investment decisions. Since it was floated, the Kiwi dollar has shown a remarkable stability in a world of stormy change. So stable has it been, that international bankers use it has a short term safe haven, and temporary resting place for funds. Why should we be alarmed at that vote of confidence? A strong currency is a manifestation of a strong economy. No country has every got rich by debasing its currency. One consequence of a floating currency is that New Zealander's are enabled to convert their currency at will. Remember the days when foreign exchange had to be squirreled away, carefully collected to finance meagre purchases. Funds for overseas travel were limited. Obtaining funds for small purchases such as magazine subscriptions required hoarding post office money orders. Similarly, ten years ago, there were an enormous range of import controls and prohibitive tariffs. Overseas trips where often shopping trips. Travelers would return laden with booty which was too expensive to purchase in New Zealand. The main beneficiaries were foreign distributors and retailers. It was a very inefficient way of restricting consumption of luxury goods to the rich. Exchange and import controls spawned a variety of ingenious rackets. Under one scheme, those with access to foreign currency could go to the top of the queue for a new car, while ordinary people had to spend three or four years on a waiting list. Consequently, the favoured few were enabled to buy a new car every year, and then sell it to the less fortunate for more than they paid for it. Such rorts are almost inevitable under a system of controls. The most spectacular result of the abolition of import controls was the flood of second-hand Japanese cars. The quality of the New Zealand vehicle fleet improved dramatically, and the cost of transportation declined. Of course, there has been a down side. Traffic congestion has also increased dramatically. But at least congestion is egalitarian. Vehicle ownership is widespread and not restricted to the rich and powerful. The relaxation of import controls and tariffs has also had a dramatic impact on clothing, footwear and consumer goods. The range of clothing readily available in New Zealand has increased dramatically, and prices have fallen. Since families spend a higher proportion of their budgets on clothing and transport, freer trade has been especially valuable to the less well off. This makes the Alliance's wish to reverse this change all the more imponderable. In 1984, New Zealand's production was guided by a system of subsidies, through which New Zealand taxpayers funded the lifestyles of those with political clout. Most pernicious were the agricultural subsidies such as SMPs. Naturally, farmers produced were the subsidies were highest, which tended to be were demand was lowest. The subsidies became capitalized in land values, another windfall gain for those of means. When the government abolished subsidies in 1984, land prices halved. For many individual farmers, this was devastating. But farmers as a whole soon recognised that the subsidy system was untenable. They soon became the most vocal advocates of deregulation, and New Zealand could mount a credible campaign against protection in world agricultural markets. Much political flak was attracted by the privatization of public owned businesses. Yet, this was part of world-wide trend. A recent book on privatization which I reviewed for the Press cited 120 countries. Privatization in New Zealand seems to have been handled more sensibly than in some other countries. This is because serious thought was given to post-sale market structure, which it is more important than ownership. For example, Ansett was permitted to fly in New Zealand before Air New Zealand was floated. Similarly, competition was permitted in telecommunications before Telecom was sold. The benefits in these cases are clear. New Zealand enjoys one of the best and cheapest telephone systems in the world. Competition in transport has certainly improved the quality of service. It is plausible to argue that current impasse between Telecom and Clear stems primarily from the Kiwi share obligation imposed on Telecom, which was explicitly designed to impede the consequences of competition in the residential market. The Kiwi share may have been one of the less fortunate ideas. A keystone of economic reform has been the Reserve Bank Act, which has succeeded in controlling inflation in New Zealand. Inflation adds to the uncertainty of investment decisions, and leads to arbitrary redistributions of wealth. Admittedly, the rapid reduction in inflation was achieved at considerable cost. However, nothing would be gained now by loosening the controls on inflation embodied in the Reserve Bank Act. Reform of the tax system was also important. In 1984, the top marginal tax rate was 66%, which left little incentive for additional effort. It provided ample incentive for avoidance and evasion which were widespread. The imposition of GST had two major advantages: avoidance was almost impossible and the tax fell on consumption and not saving. By cutting the rates but broadening the base, tax receipts have actually increased, which is why New Zealand is now repaying debt rather than accumulating it. The reformed system is also much fairer, since the opportunities for avoidance under the former system were very unevenly distributed. Reform reached beyond market institutions. "Tomorrow's Schools" revolutionized the ways our schools are run. There have been some hiccups, but by and large this seems to have been a successful and welcome reform. A recent review in the Press could find no one who wanted to return to the former system of centralized Ministry control. Similar decentralization in the health system has provoked more debate. However, it is notable that a recent careful survey by Consumer magazine detected widespread satisfaction with the health system. Much of the criticism comes from those working in the system, with a vested interest in protecting their working conditions. As in similar countries, the process of immigration was changed, from a system of regional quotas to a points system. Points are awarded to prospective immigrants for various criteria, and those with the highest points are admitted. The advantage of this system is its openness and transparency. On the whole, it is much fairer to immigrants. Other changes which come to mind include deregulation of shopping hours, the huge change in planning process embodied in the Environmental Protection Act, the auctioning of property rights in spectrum and fisheries and of course the Employment Contracts Acts. The changes which have been wrought have been massive. They have been guided by the desire to introduce openness, accountability and rationality into public decision making. It would be silly to pretend that all the changes and their implementation have been beyond criticism. We live in an uncertain world characterized by imperfect information and human frailty. Mistakes have been made and improvements are available. Inevitably, there have been winners and losers from change. Nevertheless, we need to look at the larger picture. Those with nostalgia for a lost past need to colour their memories with a degree of realism. Do we really want to return to the days of import and exchange controls, inefficient state monopolies, old broken-down cars, a gray, dull uniformity of relative poverty and quaint backwardness. That is the direction in which some politicians wish to lead. ----- Following are a collection of references on the changes from Paul Walker who added: "The one problem they all have is that they were out of date by the time they were published. For a quick overview of the last 10 years or so check out": Australian Economic Review; 0(104), Oct.-Dec. 1993 Len Bayliss Prosperity Mislaid: Economic Failure in New Zealand and What Should be Done About it. GP Publications, Wellington NZ, 1994 A. Bollard New Zealand Economic Reforms: 1984-91, Country Study No. 10. International Center for Economic Growth, 1992 Alan Bollard The Political Economy of Liberalisation in New Zealand. New Zealand Institute of Economic Research Working Paper WP93/2 Alan Bollard and Robert Buckle (eds) Economic Liberalisation in New Zealand. Allen and Unwin, 1987 Alan Bollard and David Mayes Corporatization and Privatization in New Zealand in The Political Economy of Privatization. Thomas Clarke and Christos Pitelis (eds) Routledge, London, 1993 Jonathan Boston Reshaping Social Policy in New Zealand. Fiscal Studies; 14(3), August 1993, pages 44-85. Jonathan Boston and Paul Dalziel (eds) The Decent Society?: Essays in Response to National's Economic and Social Policies. Oxford University Press, Auckland, N.Z., 1992 Jonathan Boston and Martin Holland (eds) The Fourth Labour Government: Radical Politics in New Zealand. Oxford University Press, Auckland, N.Z., 1987 Jonathan Boston and Martin Holland (eds) The Fourth Labour Government: Politics and Policy in New Zealand 2nd Ed. Oxford University Press, Auckland, N.Z., 1990 Pat Colgate and Joselyn Stroombergen A Promise to Pay: New Zealand's Overseas Debt and Country Risk. New Zealand Institute of Economic Research Research Monograph 58 Ajit Dasgupta Is New Zealand Slipping up? Some Borda Condorcet Measures of Relative Performance. Economics discussion Papers No.9311 Uinversity of Otago. Ian Duncan and Alan Bollard Corporatization and Privatization. Oxford University Press, 1992 Stephen Gale The New Zealand Experience of Liberalisation and Deregulation. New Zealand Institute of Economic Research Working Paper WP 90/13 G. Hawke (ed) A Modest Safety Net? The Future of the Welfare State. Institute of Policy Studies, 1991 Warren E. Johnston and Gerald A. G. Frengley The Deregulation of New Zealand Agriculture: Market Intervention (1964-84) and Free Market Readjustment (1984-90). Western Journal of Agricultural Economics; 16(1), July 1991, pages 132-43. Susan K. Jones The Road to Privatization; The issues involved and some lessons from New . Zealand's Experience. Finance and Development, March 1991. Tim Maloney Has New Zealand's Employment Contracts Act Increased Employment and Reduced Wages? Working Papers in Economics No.135 July 1994, Department of Economics, University of Auckland. Peter Nicholl New Zealand's Monetary Policy Experiment. University of Western Ontario Papers in Political Economy: 31 October 1993 Susan St John Tax and Welfare Reforms in New Zealand. The Australian Economic Review, 4th Quarter 1993 Robert Stephens Radical Tax Reform in New Zealand. Fiscal Studies; 14(3), August 1993, pages 45-63. The Old New Zealand and the New New Zealand Business Roundtable, Wellington N.Z., 1994 Simon Walker (ed) Rodgernomics: Reshaping New Zealand's Economy. GP Books, Wellington, N.Z., 1989 Graeme Wells Economic Reform and Macroeconomic Policy in New Zealand. Australian Economic Review; 0(92), Oct.-Dec. 1990, pages 45-60 P. C. Dalziel A decade of radical economic reforms in New Zealand British Review of New Zealand Studies 7, forthcoming (it may be out by now). Patrick Massey New Zealand: Market Liberalization in a Developed Economy Macmillan Press, 1995 You could also check out the last 10 years or so of "New Zealand Economic Papers" and the "Reserve Bank of New Zealand Bulletin". Paul -------------------- B3.2.2 Current Status Govt: going into surplus Business confidence: on the up and up Building: both business and residental are doing very well. Unemployed, welfare, students, solo parents feeling hard done by. Business (particular exporters), overseas investors very pleased. GNP 1988 (millions) $25,856 GNP per Capita $7,734 GDP: purchasing power equivalent - $46.2 billion, per capita $14,000; real growth rate - 0.4% (1991 est.) Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.1-1.4% (1993) Unemployment rate: 11% (mid 1994) Budget: revenues $17.6 billion; expenditures $18.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY91 est.) Economic aid: donor - ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $526 million Exports: $9.4 billion (f.o.b., FY91) commodities: wool, lamb, mutton, beef, fruit, fish, cheese, manufactured goods, chemicals, forestry products, beer, wine Imports: $8.4 billion (f.o.b., FY91) commodities: petroleum, consumer goods, motor vehicles, industrial equipment Natural resources: natural gas, oil, iron sand, coal, timber, hydropower, gold, grass Land use: arable land 2%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 53%; forest and woodland 38%; other 7%; includes irrigated 1% --------- For an up-to-date outline on the current state of NZ's economy, look out for one of Brian Harmer's excellent weekly WYSIWYG news reports in s.c.n-z. -------------------- B3.2.3 Currency Decimal system based on New Zealand dollar, with cent denominations. Coins are 5, 10, 20, and 50 cents, 1 and 2 dollars Notes are 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 dollars Major credit cards are accepted widely. -------------------- B3.2.4 Stockmarket Same structure as overseas. Ours tends to fluctuate depending on the state of the world markets. NZ Stock Exchange NZ Futures and Options Exchange -------------------- B3.2.5 Exchange/Interest Rates Information on exchange rates is available from many daily papers, or you can get the information through www on: It's updated weekly, so it's usually a little out of date, but it's a good guide mostly. Current figures for main currencies: NZ$ (10/6/95) NZ$ (14/7/97) Aust$ 93.63c . Pounds 42.56p . US$ 67.65c . Yen 57.78 . Interest rates are fluctuating between 6 and 10% depending on overseas markets. Fixed interest (1/4/95): % call rates 9.00 % 90-day bank bills 9.04 % July 1998 Govt Stock 8.21 -------------------- B3.2.6 Taxes Inland Revenue Department Home Page New Zealand operates a Goods and Services Tax of 12.5% on ALL goods and services sold and this is usually included in the display price. The exceptions are purchases at duty free shops. Visitors cannot claim refunds on this tax however when a supplier agrees to export a major item to a visitors home address then GST will not be charged on the goods or the freight. Income tax (as at May 96): $1 - $9,500 - 15% (allowing for the low income rebate) $9,501 - $30,875 - 28% $30,876 + - 33% changing to: $1 - $9,500 - 15% (allowing for the low income rebate) $9,501 - $34,200 - 24% (up to $38,000 and down to 21% on July 1st 1997) $30,876 + - 33% on the July 1st 1996. Apparently family support will also increase with a guaranteed minimum family income, and a new independent family tax credit. For wage and salary earners virtually nothing is tax-deductible except the first $1500 of donations to churches, schools, and other charities, and then only at a 33% rate (ie max $500). There are various rebates for things like low incomes, children, donations, Housekeeper, Home/Farm/Vessel Ownership, and others. Government Revenue Source(1990) How it was expected to be spent(1990) Income Tax $16,950 Education $3,912.5 Goods and Service Tax $5,500 Health $3,791.1 Other Direct Taxes $360 Transport $711.6 Excise Duties $1,670 Administration $2,769.0 Highway tax $670 Development of Industry $1,231.3 Other Indirect Tax $790 Government Borrowing $575.1 Foreign Relations $1,733.7 Social Services $10,292.1 Total $25,940 Total $25,016.4 On a regional scale, all local authorities fund their activities (with some limited back-up from central government) from 'rates'. These are taxes on land owners, assessed annually as a fraction of the 'unimproved' (i.e. land only) value of the land. Each local authority sets its own rates and they can be challenged as unreasonable in court - some Wellington City rates for the current year have just been thrown out by the High Court. Note that we do not have overlapping local authorities as in the U.S. Any given place is controlled by one, and one only, local authority - either a "city" or a "district" - and so the only taxes that people pay are local authority rates and central government taxes. There are still some anomalous levies and taxes on certain goods - a high excise duty on wine, for example - that should not really exist in the GST environment. -------------------- B3.2.7 Miscellaneous Prices litre of petrol; $0.90 - 0.96 loaf of bread (700gm/1.5 pound loaf); $1.70 - 2.10 butter (500gms); $1.60 (on special) milk (1 litre carton); $1.35 eggs (dozen) $3.20 apples (1kg/2lb); $0.60 - 1.20 depending on season fresh fruit/veges - much cheaper than US city and much nicer/fresher frozen chicken (2 kg/4 pounds); $6 (good special price) sausages (3 kg/6 pounds); $10 steak; $10/kg often much more. coffee (kg, beans) $22 ice cream (2 litres); $3 cheapest hamburger at McDonalds; $0.95 (a LOT more for a big mac) 12 cans of beer; $13. restaurant prices; can be much less than the US clothes/shoes; can be much more expensive than the US 60-100 watt light bulbs; $1 each university textbooks; $80+/- queen size mattress (without base, reasonable quality); $500 Sony G14 34cmv TV 14 inch; $439 top-loading automatic washing machine (5 kg loads); $919 cars: used Holden Commodore VL automatic 1987 (i.e. 8 years old); $12,700 new Honda Civic (fairly typical for NZ size cars); $33,170 auto insurance for that car; $250/annum (depending on policy, age of owner) [the bottom has dropped out of the used car market due to cheap imports] electrician charges; $30 per hour doctor - standard consultation; adult $35, child $10-20 treatment in public hospital (eg maternity unit, 3 days); free. The trick is to have something so urgent that they let you in. That's not so easy unless you're pregnant. Waiting lists can be months long. For housing rental - see under 'B3.3.3 Cost Of Living'. ----- House prices. The following table is taken from the New Zealand Herald, December, 1996. Median price ($) by district of real estate for November 1995[??]. Dwelling, previous Novembers District Dwelling Section 1996 1995 1994 1993 Northland 125,000 64,500 110,000 108,000 97,500 96,250 Auckland 225,000 90,000 212,000 200,000 178,000 150,000 ( Auck City 262,000 98,500 ? ( Rodney Dist. 215,000 89,500 ? ( North Shore 255,000 129,000 ? ( Waitakere C. 190,000 52,000 ? ( Manukau City 205,000 152,500 ? Waikato/ 140,000 52,000 128,000 127,000 120,000 110,000 Bay of Plenty/Gisborne Hawkes Bay ? ? 118,000 118,000 118,000 118,000 Manawatu/Wanganui ? ? 102,500 101,000 102,750 96,750 Taranaki ? ? 94,000 93,750 95,000 90,000 Wellington 153,000 41,500 145,000 140,000 140,000 132,500 Nelson/Marlborough ? ? 130,000 130,000 135,000 120,000 Canterbury/ ? ? 129,000 128,000 125,000 115,000 Westland/SouthCant'y Otago ? ? 91,500 91,500 101,000 90,750 Southland ? ? 79,500 84,000 84,000 74,250 Average for NZ 156,000 59,500 143,000 146,000 118,000 107,600 ----- For more info, try: for info from agents, or Follow the "New Zealand" link on the home page or try the New Zealand Official Yearbook ISSN 0078-0170. It is put out by the Statistics New Zealand. Ewan McKissock wrote: "It's interesting what items they list (and what they don't). This is either very revealing about life in NZ, or about life in Statistics New Zealand, I'm not sure which. Odd that they quote annual Tennis club subscription, but no mention of other sports." Russell Turner wrote: "You could try looking at New Zealand newspapers. The dominion or evening post would be a could source of adverts for household gizmos and houses, rent, cars etc. Try phoning (04) 474 0100 to speak to the newspaper publisher." to which Charles Eggen added: "The Weekly Wellington - City Voice is on-line at (watch those Caps in the above address). It will give you some current info and you can subscribe to the fully paper at a reasonable cost." Lin Nah adds: "On observing real-estate property around various parts of North Island this weekend (2 Dec 1996), I found you can buy a very comfortable 3 bedroom house in certain parts of the north island with substantially less money than needed in Auckland. "For example at $70,000 gets you a nice 3 bedroom on a full section in Dannevirke and other outlying places like the outskirts of Napier. In Auckland for that amount will barely get you an outhouse 8)))"
Subject: B3.3 Life In General -------------------- B3.3.1 Business Hours Banks 9:00am to 4:30pm - can vary slightly. Otherwise, Monday to Friday 9:00am to 5:30pm. Late night for shopping is either Thursday or Friday. Changes to the Shop Trading Hours Act means that most shops are open for longer hours than this. Almost all are open Saturday morning, many are open on Sunday with some shops and markets remaining open later during the week. Automatic teller machines are widely available including a system in many supermarkets and petrol stations called EFTPOS where you can buy goods with your card and a PIN number and/or obtain cash. Many Atm's will accept Cirrus cards. All international credit cards are accepted in NZ. Travellers cheques can be changed in banks, hotels, stores, etc. Mike Gill said; "I used MC and carried some Travellers cheques for emergencies. This worked out great". There is no restriction on the amount of foreign currency which may be brought into or taken from New Zealand. Funds may be in the form of bank notes, coins, travellers cheques or any other instrument of payment. Visitors may convert surplus NZ currency at any outlet authorised to deal in foreign exchange. -------------------- B3.3.2 Tipping Tipping is not expected in New Zealand, but is not unheard of. Employed people don't depend on tips for their income and service charges are not [usually] added to hotel and restaurant bills. Tip for service if you think it's really deserved, but don't be surprised by the response. Some (many?) consider tipping to be an undesirable practise. -------------------- B3.3.3 Cost Of Living B3.3.3.1 Rent A moderately decent house/week (VERY approx!): Dunedin $130 - $180 Christchurch $140 - $200 Wellington $160 - $300 Auckland $200 - $350 The average house price is hovering around $140K, mortgage rates are fluctuating around 11% currently. Mortgage rates include inflation adjustment. Lin Nah adds (2 Dec 1996): "Auckland: Nice comfortable 3 bedroom house around $250 - $350 per week but you won't be very close to the central city. Broken down 3 bedroom house close to the city for around $240 per week. A room in a flat for around $100 per week. An inner city appartment (depending on location) anywhere from around $200 per week for a studio." Normally 2 weeks bond and two weeks rent are required in advance. Talk to the local Tenants Protection Association about your rights. ---------- B3.3.3.2 Wages The govt would have us believe an 'average' income is around $26K, people with an income over $30K are considered well off. That was in 1994-5. Superannuation is sorted out with the employer. It's no longer compulsory. No doubt some will regret this later. ---------- B3.3.3.3 Transport Petrol is $0.93 per litre (+/- $0.05), insurance on a small car (eg. 85 toyota starlet 1.3l) is a mere $240 per year, registration is another $200 per year. There are lots of cheap Japanese used imports over here, so you can get a good car for as little as $5K, and a cheap car for less than $2k. Repairs are the worst cost - especially parts for late model cars, so getting something reliable is a good idea. ---------- B3.3.3.4 Food Pretty cheap depending on how much you eat of what. It'd be easy to eat your way through a lot of money, but it is possible to live on less than $40/wk and probably quite a lot less depending on how keen you were... ---------- B3.3.3.5 Consumer Goods Most import duties have been abolished, and instead we have a flat 12.5% goods and services tax (GST). Beware of advertised prices which exclude this. This means that imported goods (electrical appliances, clothing etc.) are pretty reasonably priced. -------------------- B3.3.4 Crime Yes, we have crime. While it may be 'safe' compared to most other countries, serious crime does exist here and visitors should take sensible precautions. Always lock your vehicle, and don't leave it in isolated locations for extended periods. Avoid leaving valuables visible in the car. Avoid areas/situations which appear unwholesome. The emergency phone number (police, ambulance, fire) is 111, and ask the operator for the service required (this can be used from payphones without paying). ----- John Davis wrote: "The crime rate isn't overly high, there was some information in the paper today (1/95) showing the average number of reported crimes per 10,000 people for Chch is 1877. The NZ average is 1457, Chch came second (Auckland had 2130). The safest place is rural Canterbury at 568. This may sound rather high, but this _all_ reported crimes, from shoplifting up. If you break it down into crime types, the NZ average for violent crimes per 10,000 is 124, sexual crimes is 14, drugs and 'anti-social' crimes (presumably things like being drunk and disorderly) is 150, property damage is 98 and property abuse is 74. As you can see from this, the serious crime rate here is therefore very low, things like murder and rape are fairly rare (rare enough to make the national TV news), armed offences are virtually un-heard of (again, and armed hold-up will make the national news). You're most at risk from petty crime (opportunist car theft, break-ins etc. - as opposed to 'professional' thieves who are fairly rare). Your chances of being assaulted, held up, or murdered are virtually nil. Probably the most dangerous part of day to day life here is the way people drive :-) On the other hand, do silly things like leave a nice expensive camera sitting in your car whilst it's parked in a dark street in the middle of town at night, and you'll probably find someone's nicked it (lots of tourists find this out the hard way - wish people would stop telling them NZ is totally safe)." ----- Murder Statistics for 1991 Brian Dooley wrote: "Notes (1) All data taken from NZ Year Books and adjusted to include only males aged 15+ years. (2) Numbers marked "*" are taken from Year Books where murders and manslaughter (not incl. deaths by careless driving) were aggregated. (3) Numbers 1967-82 are taken directly from tables which give deaths/million. (4) Numbers 1974-94 refer specifically to murder only. (5) These numbers are approximations but good enough to allow reasonable conclusions. You will observe that my value of 3.3/100,000 for 1991 accords pretty well with the value of 3.4/100,000 quoted before from the Economist. MURDERS/100,000 of Total Population: 1967 1.4* 1970 1.2* 1980 1.3 1990 1.6 1968 0.7* 1971 0.9* 1981 1.3 1991 1.5 1969 1.1* 1972 1.0* 1982 1.3 1992 2.1 1973 0.8* 1983 --- 1993 1.1 1974 1.4 1984 1.2 1975 1.0 1985 --- 1976 1.1 1986 1.8 1977 1.8 1987 1.7 1978 1.9 1988 --- 1979 1.6 1989 2.0 MURDERS/100,000 MEN for NZ (men=age 15+): 1967 3.2* 1970 2.7* 1980 3.0 1990 3.8 1968 1.6* 1971 2.0* 1981 3.0 1991 3.3 1969 2.5* 1972 2.3* 1982 3.0 1992 4.9 1973 1.8* 1983 --- 1993 2.6 1974 3.2 1984 2.7 1975 2.3 1985 --- 1976 2.5 1986 4.2 1977 4.1 1987 4.1 1978 4.3 1988 --- 1979 3.6 1989 4.8 The thing which strikes me about the table is that it does have a consistency, which implies that if the Economist's conclusions are true then not only is NZ comparatively violent now - it has been for a long time. However I am not persuaded that a simple ratio is applicable to all situations, particularly where small numbers are involved. The table has a volatility which I don't think it would have if a population of 50 million were involved." ----- I had a debate with myself about where to put this stuff. After the murder stats seemed as good as any... Frank van der Hulst offers: "Whilst doing a spot of research in Massey's library, I took the time to look for road traffic accident stats. Like all stats, take them with a grain of salt. Your mileage may vary :-) "What I found is somewhat dated, but FWIW here are comparisons of injury accidents/100mill km for various countries. Illuminating perhaps for those who claim NZer's are the worst drivers in the world (possibly excepting Romans). Finland 62 Norway 70 USA 72 Niger 79 Denmark 79 NZ 88 * Canada 88 Turkey 88 Italy 91 Australia 92 Spain 120 France 127 Germany 129 Great Britain 130 Peru 131 Netherlands 157 Hungary 193 Israel 229 India 242 Syria 264 Morocco 279 Belgium 285 Japan 320 Ivory Coast 539 "These data are for 1970/71. As usual, I ask anyone with more recent stats to email them to me or post them. "Don't go driving in Ivory Coast!" Steffan Berridge has added the following. Here's some authoritative info which I found in "Motor Accidents in New Zealand" published by the LTSA, originally entered in the OECD International Road and Traffic Accident Database held by Bundesanstalt fur Strassenwesen, Germany. The data are all 1993 except the ones with *s which are 1992 and the countries are ordered in decreasing vehicles per capita. Country Deaths per Deaths per 100,000 pop 10,000 vehicles USA 15.6 2.1* NZ 17.0 2.7 Italy 12.6 2.0 Luxembourg 19.2 3.1 Canada 12.5 2.0 Australia 11.1 1.9 Switzerland 10.5 1.8 Germany 12.3 2.2 Japan 10.6 1.9 UK 6.8 1.3 Austria 16.2 3.1 Norway 7.6 1.3* Iceland 6.4 1.3 Sweden 7.3 1.5 Belgium 16.5 3.4 France 16.6 3.4 Spain 16.3 3.6 Finland 9.6 2.1 Netherlands 8.2 1.9 Denmark 10.8 2.7 Ireland 12.1 3.7 Greece 20.3 6.6 Turkey 14.3 - Portugal 32.9* - Kind of makes you wonder what they get up to in Portugal... NZ roads are safe after all! It looks like the figures for 1994 should have been published by now, and the 1995 due shortly. ----- Hantie Braybrook wrote: "all reported crimes per 100 000 of the entire 1994 population: South Africa 5651 Norway 5563 USA 5820 <lots of countries deleted> UK 8986 Canada 11443 NZ 13247 Sweden 14188 Why are the figures for NZ almost 3 times those of SA ?" The following suggestions are in response. John Mee: "According to Statistics New Zealand, Distinct Cases Resulting in Conviction: 1991 1992 1993 Against the person 7,603 8,454 10,681 Property 20,669 21,166 21,459 Drug 6,930 6,652 7,949 Other 16,115 16,661 20,759 Total convictions, exclusive of traffic: 60,848 And the population: Census at 31 March 1993 1994 1995 Total Population 3,435.0 3,541.6 3592.4 Since the only overlap is 1993, only consider that year, therefore there are 34.35 (100,000) divided into 60,848 gives a rate of 1771.412/100,000 CONVICTIONS (not crimes). Since I can't lay my hands on a conviction rate, or total of crimes committed, this will have to do. I suspect somebody fouled up, or there are vast differences in reporting methodologies from country to country, making any statistic meaningless." Bruce Hoult: "I'd take a wild stab in the dark and guess that these numbers include everything down to and including speeding tickets, and that the majority are in fact exactly that." Paul Dansted: "Because of changing attitudes towards domestic violence in NZ assaults in the home are now more likely to be reported as crimes. I think domestic violence accounts for something like 80% of violence in NZ! Policy changes have encouraged police to treat these incidents as crimes rather than 'just domestics'." Hantie Braybrook "There was a follow-up article the next day which is summarised below. Anyone interested can search the articles at the Independent Newspapers WWW site viz. "Essentially, the crime and murder rates could be double estimates due to the 50% rate of under-reporting. According to Nedcor researcher Simon Lee, the project used current SAPS (SA Police Service) crime statistics and statistics obtained through its own study to calculate an overall crime rate of 5,651 per 100,000 people. "Lee said that the crime rate could be doubled to at least 11,500 if the under-reporting rate were taken into consideration. This would also apply to the murder rate of 45 per 100,000 people which could in fact be 90. "Commenting on the high overall crime rate in countries such as Sweden, New Zealand and Canada, Lee said it could be attributed to the fact that these countries had a reporting rate of at least 95%. "The international rates had been obtained through Britannica World Data, which publish reliable forms of comparative crime statistics." -------------------- B3.3.5 Finding A Job Employment Resources NZ Employment Service NZ Government Jobs Online IT Placement Agencies Professional Engineers The Ministry of Health has started a new web site for health related work: Those interested in teaching in NZ should refer to section B3.3.6 and B3.3.6.7, especially B3.3.6.1 Online resources for Education There is an outfit called Willing Workers On Organic Farms (WWOOF) which costs $15 to join. For that you get a booklet containing a list of addresses and phone contacts for hundreds of organic farms. It is up to you to make the contact and arrangements with the specific farm where you would exchange work for food and lodging. Contact: Janet & Andrew Strange PO Box 1172 Nelson, NZ. phone 025-345-711 (mobile) The NZ Employment Service appears to be a final resort. It is far better to have a job lined up before you arrive (from overseas) or before you're out of school... Labour force: 1,603,500 (June 1991) services 67.4% manufacturing 19.8% primary production 9.3% (1987) -------------------- B3.3.6 Schools And Education Compulsory from age 7 to 15, but almost all children start kindergarten at age 4 and then school at 5. Primary schools: J or Primer (pron. 'primmer') 1 and 2: approx age 5-6 Standards 1-4: approx age 7-11 Intermediate schools: Form 1-2: approx age 11-13 (these are sometimes included in primary schools or in secondary schools) Secondary schools: Form 3-7: approx age 13-18 NZ schools have a high international reputation, especially for their reading and remedial reading programmes. A growing number of schools have special programmes for children whose first language is not English. Most schools require school uniforms except some primary schools. Some schools do not require 6th and 7th formers (last 2 years of school before entering university) to wear uniform. National exams/qualifications: Form 5: School Certificate Form 6: Sixth Form Certificate Form 7: Bursary (entrance to university is mostly based on this) School term and holiday dates: The term dates for state primary and secondary schools can be found at the URLs below. The private schools have approximately the same dates. Usually the difference is only by about a week or 2 only. 1998 : 1999 - 2000 : -------------------- B3.3.6.1 Online resources for Education NZ Education Although this web page is set up to inform and attract International students to study in NZ, it provides the following information: - a description of the education system in NZ - Information and contact details of all secondary, tertiary and other private and public post primary educational institutes (includes English languate schools) Ministry of Education With links to various papers by the ministry regarding education in NZ. Education links You'll find pointers to pages with links to web pages of various schools in the country. Links to home pages of Universities in NZ For those looking for a teaching job in NZ: Teach NZ - has adverts and other information for overseas teachers wishing to teach in nz. Learning Media (Includes the Education Gazette) NZQA (New Zealand Qualifications Authority) -------------------- B3.3.7 Universities Otago is the oldest, Waikato is the newest, Auckland is the largest, and Lincoln is the smallest. Apart from Lincoln which is essentially a technical university offering a very limited range of courses (but is expanding fast), all are full-scale universities. Try: This will send you to home pages (and all sorts of info including snail mail) of universities in NZ. As an indication, deadline for enrolment in 1996 closed on 12 Dec for returning students, 7 Dec for new students and for overseas students it closed much earlier. The first semester starts at the end of February. ----- Lin Nah wrote (edited somewhat): "In New Zealand, it does not matter as much which university you attended, at least not like in the US where the Ivy League graduates are very much in demand compared to the lesser known schools. Within NZ they are more equal although the culture and way things are done within each university is different. "Academic Considerations: For many (most?) degrees, there is nothing stopping you from moving to a different campus if you do not like the uni you choose (assuming they also offer the course(s)). Of course it would be nice if you pick a good one in the first place. "Things you should look for when choosing a university include: types of papers offered structure of degree research interests of staff publications of staff "There are certain strengths within each department in NZ, even though at a BSc level they probably all teach the basics. It is very important to consider these strengths as they may influence post-grad work. "Financial considerations: Cost of living in Auckland is certainly much higher than that in most other Universities (except perhaps Wellington). While it may be possible to get a room in Dunedin for $40 a week (yes, I did see at least 2 adverts at this rate), the cheapest room in Auckland (per week) is probably around $70. And that does not include expenses like food, transport, phone and electricity. "Fees vary from university to university for the same course, so do not be surprised if your total bill at one uni is higher than another could have been. Some universities set a rate for each type of degree, so, for example, an arts degree would be cheaper than dentistry. Other universities set a flat rate throughout the whole campus, not differentiating between arts and science degrees. There are probably variations inbetween. "If you are a NZ permanent resident or a NZ citizen, you pay what other NZers pay. If you are entering as an overseas students, there is a separate schedule for fees which differ from institution to institution. "Culture: Campus life is very different at each university. Auckland University is right in the middle of the city. It is therefore a very cosmopolitan campus and does not have much of a campus life as known by Waikato or Canterbury students. It also happens to be the biggest University in NZ. "Check the webpages as they do say a little bit about life on campus." ---------- B3.3.7.1 Teaching Focus Most Universities have a core of basic subjects common to all; Chemistry, Physics, Biology, Maths, Stats, Economics, English, Psychology, etc. etc. University of Auckland (Auckland and Tamaki) fine art, architecture, engineering, law, medicine, optometry, fine arts, architecture, engineering, zoology, languages,computer science, music, maori and pacific island studies, women's studies, commerce, accounting, finance, economics, management, science and information systems, international business, management and employee relations and commercial law, BTech in optoelectronics, Sports Science, Environmental Management, and BTech (Information Technology) University of Waikato (Hamilton) Law, Maori, Computing, Psychology Massey University (Albany - Auckland's North Shore) Business Studies, Information and Mathematical Sciences, Social Sciences, Food Science. Massey University (Palmerston North) Agriculture & Horticulture, Business Studies, Information and Mathematical Sciences, Science, Social Sciences, Technology, Veterinary Science, Aviation, Education. There is also an arts faculty... * Many of the Massey programmes are available by distance education (Centre for University Extramural Studies) Victoria University of Wellington (Wellington) arts, law, computing, commerce/economics, geology, meteorology Canterbury University (Christchurch) fine art, all sciences, computing, engineering, commerce, law, forestry, music Lincoln University (Christchurch) agriculture, economics, landscape architecture, cultural studies Otago University (Dunedin) medicine, law, phys. ed., computing, consumer sciences, surveying, dentistry, commerce Marty Burr wrote: "Aviation has been around since 1990, when the Massey University School of Aviation was established. It offers degrees in Aviation (BAv) with majors in flight crew development (probably one of the most expensive degrees in NZ!), Aviation Systems, and Air Traffic Systems Management (ATSM This major trains Air Traffic Controllers in association with the Singapore Aviation Academy, and the Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore) It also offers Masters in Aviation (MAv), and Doctorates in aviation. "Education is offered as a degree in conjunction with the Palmerston North College of Education. Next year (1996) the Palmerston North College of Education is to become part of Massey, and come under the Faculty of Education at Massey. I'm not sure what the name will be. It also offers several postgrad degrees in Education." Michelle Elleray wrote: "I think you'll find Massey, Auckland, Victoria, Canterbury, Otago and Waikato Universities all offer Maori Studies. "As for PI studies - Auckland has a PI Studies Centre and teaches Samoan, Victoria used to teach Samoan and Cook Island Maori. There's sure to be more at both these universities, and possibly at other universities around the country - check the web pages." ---------- B3.3.7.2 Addresses University of Auckland (Auckland) Private Bag 92 019 or Auckland ph (09) 373-7999 University of Waikato Private bag 3105 Hamilton Massey University Private Bag Palmerston North Victoria University of Wellington PO Box 600 Wellington University of Canterbury Christchurch ph (03) 366-7001 Lincoln University Christchurch ph (03) 325-2811 University of Otago PO Box 56 Dunedin Email to postmaster@university.of.choice for someone who can help. You can try sending email to for details. There is a NZ Universities page at: will send you to home pages (and all sorts of info including snail mail) of universities in NZ. A fair chunk of VUW information is on line. The starting point is For Victoria's English Department, have a look at: Computer Science departments at various universities: You can view the University of Canterbury Dept of Civil Engineering home page at: ---------- B3.3.7.3 The University Hierarchy Basically, it goes something like this: Professor(s) Associate Professors/Readers (depends on department) Senior Lecturers Lecturers There are also Head of Departments, Deans, etc., which may or may not be professors, although they are usually pretty senior. In NZ universities, a Professorship is a *very* prestigious title. There may be a rough equivalence between a US associate professor and a NZ lecturer, and a US professor and NZ senior lecturer. There is likely to be some overlap. Per department there is about 1 professor per approx 10 'lower' positions. For example, in Electrical Engineering at Canterbury there are currently 2 professors, 3 associate professors, 9 senior lecturers, and 5 lecturers (from the 1994 calendar). ---------- B3.3.7.4 Postgrad Study ??? I'd appreciate some information on ease of obtaining positions in post-grad study, what positions are increasing/decreasing, etc. Please. -------------------- B3.3.8 Health NZ operates a no-fault accident compensation scheme which covers residents and visitors. Personal injury through accident entitles the injured party to compensation for reasonable expenses related to the accident. Due to abuse, this has been reworked recently and compensation is far harder to obtain. The official line (on the health care reform) can be obtained from The Ministry of Health at: For general comment and opinion, consult the NZ Doctor magazine online at: Here's a link to some NZ health sites including the NZ GP organisation: Life Expectancy (M) 71.0 years Life Expectancy (F) 77.0 years Crude Birth Rate 16.3 /1000 Crude Death Rate 8.3 /1000 Infant Mortality 10.8 /1000 Total fertility rate 2.1 children born/woman (1992) No. of Hospitals 318 No. of Hospital Beds 23,052 No. of Physicians 5,210 No. of Dentists 1,160 No. of Pharmacists 2,300 Nursing Personnel 22,000 ---------- B3.3.8.1 Water Supply NZ cities and towns have good public water. Water is safe to drink out of the tap. The water in Christchurch *is* totally untreated and is supposed to be the purist domestic water supply in the world... In bush walking areas giardia has been found so its advisable to check before drinking from rivers or streams. Boiling water for five minutes or more is advised where advice is not available. -------------------- B3.3.9 Communications Telephone Country Code 64 National Directory 018 International Directory 0172 National Tolls 010 International Tolls 0170 Telex Access Code 791 Ham Radio Prefix ZL For information about NZ broadcasting, particularly locally produced material, have a look the New Zealand On Air site: which has info on broadcasting fees, programme funding news, weekly updates of funded programmes, contact information, etc. -------------------- B3.3.10 Misc Air Craft Registration PreFix ZK Yatch Registration PreFix KZ X.25 Country Code 05301 ------------------------------

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