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The soc.culture.new-zealand FAQ (part 2 of 6)

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Archive-name: cultures/new-zealand-faq/part2
Posting-frequency: monthly, and a pointer is posted to s.c.n-z on Mondays.

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Subject: A2  INFORMATION FOR NZers OVERSEAS


Subject: A2.1 NZ Consulates/Embassies Overseas Links to Information on NZ Consulates and Empassies Overseas: http://www.mft.govt.nz/Overseas/index.htm Alternatively look up a phone book. In countries where there are no New Zealand representatives, the UK representatives usually look after the interests of NZ nationals by agreement. NZ Passport Office http://inform.dia.govt.nz/internal_affairs/businesses/doni_pro/pports_home.html For callers in the U.S. the New Zealand Tourism Board has a 24 hour number; 1-800-388-5494. Leave your name, address and particular interests and lots of free information on New Zealand will be mailed to you. During regular California business hours it might even be possible to get a real person on the line. TRADENZ NZ Consulate General NZ Tourist Board 780 Third Avenue, Suite 1904 New York, NY 10017-2024 Phone: (212) 832 4038 Fax: (212) 832 7602 They opened a couple of months ago. The NZ Tourism Board office at the same address has been open for business (to travel agents only) for several years. The office hopes to have full consular capacity "shortly". Currently it gives advice, dispenses forms and "aids distressed travelling Kiwis". The East Coast Manager is Anna Synolt and Peter MacDonald (pmac@pipeline.com.us) heads the office. There's a new e-mail address for the New York NZ Consulate/TRADENZ et al.: tradenz@pipeline.com It should be noted that the NY NZ Consulate only answers questions and distributes forms. All processing - issuing visas, renewing passports etc. - is performed at the Washington DC High Commission. The NY NZ Tourist Board deals only with travel agents etc. and will not answer questions from individuals.
Subject: A2.2 How Do I Get News From Home? Check the notes on ftp sites; some current news may be archived there. Read soc.culture.new-zealand, and nz.general if you can get it. A weekly summary of NZ News - the WYSIWYG News - is compiled and posted to soc.culture.new-zealand by the generous Brian Harmer (usually on Sundays). These postings are all archived on the WWW at http://nz.com/nz/NZNewsArchive/. To get a personal e-mail copy of the postings, send mail to: majordomo@nz.com with the line: subscribe nznews <email-addr> in the *BODY* of the message. To check the details of this, read the end of a copy of the WYSIWYG news! Online NZ Newspapers, Magazines and Publications The Press (Christchurch) http://www.press.co.nz WYSIWYG News http://nz.com/NZ/News/WYSIWYG/ 7am News http://www.7am.co.nz/ http://www.7am.com/ One Network News http://www.tvone.co.nz/ Xtra News http://www.xtra.co.nz/xworld/news/ Radio New Zealand http://www.rnz.co.nz/ Waikato Times http://www.wave.co.nz/times/ The Evening Post http://www.evpost.co.nz/ (empty page still?) Otago Daily Times http://www.odt.co.nz/ Wairarapa Times Age http://www.times-age.co.nz NewsRoom Online http://www.newsroom.co.nz/ NZ Rugby News http://www.rugby.co.nz/ New Zealand News UK http://www.nznewsuk.co.uk/ City Voice http://www.cityvoice.co.nz/ INL Website http://www.inl.co.nz QNA - Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender News http://nz.com/NZ/Queer/QNA/ Queer News Links http://nz.com/NZ/Queer/QNA/LinksGalore.html NZ Computer/Internet News Infotech Weekly http://www.infotech.co.nz/current/ IDG/Computerworld http://www.idg.co.nz/ Aardvark http://www.aardvark.co.nz/ Political News and Commentaries Hard News http://nz.com/NZ/News/HardNews/ Ministerial Press Releases http://www.executive.govt.nz Above and beyond all this, apparently you can read newspapers all over the world at: http://www.worldaccess.nl/~brien "The New Zealander " is a new full colour weekly tabloid available in Australia for A$2.95. Like other publications we know of, the Dominion, and the Evening Post are among the sources of its articles, although it can presumably print articles verbatim. (I'll be interested to hear what Australian WYSIWYG readers think - BH) NewZgram There is a thing called a NewZgram. It's like an aerogram but is printed with excerpts of news about NZ, including sections about sport, health, business, etc. It's 4 sides of a page long, sent fortnightly). Subscription Prices: 24 issues (12 months) NZ address surface NZ$36 Australia/Sth Pacific - air NZ$55 Rest of world - air NZ$67 The address is: Peak Communications Ltd PO Box 54046 Mana Wellington New Zealand Phone/Fax 64/4/2399123 and/or??? Newzgram PO Box 3882 Christchurch, NZ Phone (+64 3) 3559222 Fax (+64 3) 3559337 New Zealand News UK New Zealand News UK is an Independent Weekly newspaper, covering NZ news/current events, United Kingdom jobs, NZ jobs, travel, migrating to NZ, shipping and accommodation/entertainment in London. There is apparently also a version called 'Overseas' with lots of info about visa requirements, etc. for Brits wishing to travel. Try calling NZ News on 0171 930 6451. NZ news is available free in London and by subscription elsewhere. It does contain a fair bit of London specific news, but has some quite good features on Emigrating and NZ lifestyles for people thinking of making a move to NZ. Prices in Pounds Sterling. 3 Mths 6 Mths 1 Year UK 15 28 52 Europe 25 45 80 World 350 65 120 Make your cheque payable to New Zealand News UK and send it to The Circulation Manager New Zealand News UK Direct, 3rd Floor, 80 Haymarket, London. SW1 4TE Distribution: Louisa Sinclair - Ph: 0171 930 6451 Subscriptions: Wendy Pattison - Ph: 01289 306677 Fax: 01289 307377 Alternatively, there's a copy online which apparently has no pictures, but a good selection of sports news. http://www.nznewsuk.co.uk/
Subject: A2.3 Expatriate Organisations There's an organisation in HK called the New Zealand Society. Point of contact is either the NZ Consulate in Central HK (Jardine House) or Grant Baird at a restaurant called Landaus. They meet regularly and it's fairly social. Check Jon Clarke's site: http://air.com.hk/~jonc There's a Kiwi Club of New York for those interested in such things. Kiwi Club of New York c/o TRADENZ 780 Third Avenue, Suite 1904 New York, NY 10017-2024 Phone (212) 832-4038 x222 (Brenda Henderson) The club's secretary is/was Beatrice Cheer at bcheer@panix.com who used to post occasionally in s.c.n-z. Jeff Freeburg's site set up specifically for expatriates: http://www.expatforum.com
Subject: A3 INTERNET ACCESS WITHIN NZ Public internet access is available from a growing number of sources throughout New Zealand, particularly around the main centres. Access for university staff and students (sometimes only post-grads) is usually available. For more detailed information, read Simon Lyall's monthly faq on the subject; newsgroups: (news.answers, nz.net.announce, nz.general, s.c.n-z) archive-name: internet-access/new-zealand ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/nz.general/ and also; http://actrix.gen.nz/general/internet.faq although: ftp://ftp.dosli.govt.nz/pub/lists/ is slightly better and has a few other FAQs. =========================================================================== PART B
Subject: B1 THE COUNTRY
Subject: B1.1 Where Is New Zealand? B1.1.1 General New Zealand is in the south-west \_ Pacific and has two large islands, \} one smaller island, and numerous \9 much smaller islands. It is usual North )`-'7 to refer to the main islands as 'the Island ( c` North Island' and 'the South Island'. ) / F,% n_/ For a larger map of the main islands South J / see section B6. For a map showing Island / 6 the dependencies, see an atlas... / / {_, /` Ascii maps are copyright, Stewart Island @ ~ please do not repost. New Zealand = Aotearoa, Niu Tireni (uncommon, adulteration of 'New Zealand'), Land of the Long White Cloud, 'Godzone' North Island = Aotearoa (original name(?) referring to the NI only?), Te Ika-a-Maui[-Tikitiki-A-Taranga] (The Fish of Maui), Nga Ahi o Maui (verification and definition anyone?) South Island = Te Waka-a-Maui (The Canoe of Maui), Te Wa[h]ipounamu (Greenstone waters or Place of Greenstone) Stewart Island = Rakiura (The Land of Glowing Skies) or Te punga o te waka a Maui (The anchor of Maui's canoe) "Kiwiland" is slang for "New Zealand" and not very common. "Down Under" tends to mean Australia but may also include NZ. Australia is occasionally known as 'the West Island'. -------------------- B1.1.2 Statistics For the main three: Latitude: 34 S to 47 S Longitude: 167 E to 178 E AREAS sq kms sq mi North Island 114,453 44,191 South Island 150,718 58,193 Stewart Island 1,746 674 The Rest ? TOTAL 268,700 103,745 COASTLINE: 15,134 km LAND BOUNDARIES: 0 km MARITIME CLAIMS: Continental shelf; edge of continental margin or 200 nm Exclusive economic zone; 200 nm Territorial sea; 12 nm For more info, take a look at: http://www.odci.gov/cia/publications/95fact/nz.html and http://www.govt.nz/stats or http://www.govt.nz/ps/min/stats And Steve Israel (israel@spheroid.otago.ac.nz) invites people to look at his remote sensing page: http://spheroid.otago.ac.nz:808/courses/remote.sense/RemoteSense.html -------------------- B1.1.3 Dependencies Antarctica (Ross Dependency): between 160 degrees east and 150 degrees west longitude together with the islands lying between those degrees and south of latitude 60 segrees south. The land is estimated to be between 400,000 and 450,000 sq km, with a further 330,000 sq km of permanent ice shelf. The main NZ station is Scott Base at approx 78 degrees south. The next two are part of NZ territory, and apart from the Chatham Islands, they are uninhabited except by research personnel. Antipodes Islands: a small group of outlying islands off the east coast of the South Island, latitude 49 degrees 41' South and longitude 178 degrees 43' east. Total area about 62 sq km. Auckland Islands, Bounty Islands, Campbell Island, Kermadec Islands, Snares Islands. The sub-Antarctic islands are integral parts of NZ. Actually, with the exception of the Kermadecs (to the NE of NZ) all those island groups are in the sub-antarctic, as are the Antipodes Islands. The Anres and Bounty Islands are marginal for being classed as sub-Antarctic. The Chatham Islands are well east of New Zealand (850kms) and have their own 'Time Zone' in as much as their clocks are always 45 mins ahead of the rest of NZ and I guess they keep in step with changes to and from NZDT. Lyndon Watson wrote: "The Cook Islands were originally under sole British administration and later under sole New Zealand administration. There was no condominium. The Cook Islands have been independent since the 1970s. "The Cook Islands are an independent state. At *their* request (not surprising in view of their small population and resources) they are represented in most overseas countries by New Zealand diplomats and New Zealand undertakes their military defence. They can change that at any time simply by notifying New Zealand, one government to another. "Not only could Cook Islanders vote in New Zealand elections before they became independent, but the can still do so even now under special dual nationality arrangements which *they* requested on independence. New Zealanders, of course, cannot vote in Cook Islands elections. "New Zealand has never colonised Niue or Tokelau. Rather the Niueans and Tokelauans have colonised New Zealand. In the case of Tokelau, especially, the population of Tokelauan descendants in New Zealand is now far larger than the atolls could possibly support. "Niue is internally self-governing but not fully independent. Their problem, like that of other tiny Pacific nations, is a lack of population and resources. They are so totally dependent on New Zealand subsidies that no one has been able to devise a viable scheme for full independence. Tokelau has the same problem in even greater form. Like Kiribati, they even stand to lose their home islands (atolls) altogether if the sea level keeps on rising they way that it has been lately. Most of the people who identify as Tokelauans are resident in New Zealand. Tokelau is talking about some form of autonomy or independence right now. "New Zealand has no strategic interest in these islands and has never settled them; they are a financial burden to us which we undertake because they are our friends and neighbours and have important links with our own population. In our own narrow self-interest, we should either give them full independence and cast them adrift, or simply incorporate them seamlessly into New Zealand, but the decision is theirs, not ours." -------------------- B1.1.4 Time Zones New Zealand is 12 hours ahead of Greenwich mean time making it one of the first places in the world to see the new day. Summer time (or Daylight Saving Time we call it here) is an advance of one hour at 2am in the morning on the first Sunday in October and back to NZST at 3am in the morning on the third Sunday morning of March. NZST (GMT+12) or NZDT (GMT+13) October - March A couple of pages showing current NZ time http://www.wibble.net/time.shtml http://www.air.com.hk/~jonc/time.html
Subject: B1.2 The Landscape B1.2.1 General NZ is a long narrow country lying roughly North/South with mountain ranges running much of its length. It is predominately mountainous with some large coastal plains and is a little larger than Britain, slightly smaller than Italy, and almost exactly the size of Colorado. The only 'geographical feature' New Zealand doesn't have is live coral reef. We have all the rest: rainforest, desert, fiords, flooded valleys, gorges, plains, mountains, glaciers, volcanoes, geothermics, swamps, lakes, braided rivers, peneplains, badlands, and our very own continental plate junction... As a result of the latter, earthquakes are common, though usually not severe (patience... :-) For more information, go to sci.geo.geology, and download the earthquake maps for this week. The little black line snaking through New Zealand is the plate boundary. A good URL for this is: http://quake.wr.usgs.gov/QUAKES/WEEKREPS/LATEST/world.gif Also try http://www.gphs.vuw.ac.nz/geophysics/geophysics.html http://www.civeng.carleton.ca/cgi-bin/quakes and http://www.geo.ed.ac.uk/quakexe/quakes which lists the strong earthquakes worldwide during the last few days. You can get almost instant info about larger quakes from the US Geological Survey at: http://www.usgs.gov/research/environment/hazards/earthquake/ Or try gopher://gldfs.cr.usgs.gov:79/0quake for a simple record of any quake. [not at all sure how this works. help?] -------------------- B1.2.2 Miscellaneous Figures Mt Cook: highest point in NZ. A landslide in December 1991 lowered the 3764m summit by about 10 metres. NZ has 28 peaks over 3000 metres. The lowest (Mount Aspiring) is the only one outside Mount Cook National Park. Also within the park is the Tasman Glacier, which is about 20 kms long. The North Island's main mountains are all volcanoes: Ruapehu (2797m/9175'), Ngauruhoe (2291m), and Tongariro (1968m) in the centre, and Taranaki (2518m) to the west. Lake Taupo; 40.2 km long, 27.4 km wide, 606 sq km, depth 159m Lake Waikaremoana; 19.3 long, 9.7 km wide, 54 sq km, depth 256m The artificial lakes in the North Island deeper than both are Lake Ohakuri (287m) and Lake Whakamarino (274m). Lake Wakitipu 77.2 by 4.8 km, 293 sq km is 310m deep. It's noo but a puddle compared to Lake Hauroko (443m deep). Both are glacial in origin. -------------------- B1.2.3 Flora And Fauna It is still hotly debated whether or not New Zealand was *completely* submerged between 60 - 30 mya. There are now two competing views as to NZ's biogeographic history: (1) the traditional view, that our biology - especially the vegetation - is a living example of a 'Gondwanan' fragment that has a lineage directly traceable back to when NZ split off from Gondwana (maybe as early as 90 mya or as late as 75 mya, depending on who you believe). (2) a more recent view, that actually almost none of our current plants and animals can be traced in a continuous lineage back to Gondwana, and instead have all arrived via long-distance dispersal from Australia and SE Asia, maybe even as recently as 20 - 10 mya. There is some compelling fossil evidence for this view. For those interested in this, an excellent though clearly biased account of this second view is given by Mike Pole in a recent review (The Journal of Biogeography, Vol. 21 pp 625, 1994). In any case during its time of isolation, birds have continued to arrive and develop in NZ without large predators, making them vulnerable to recent arrivals. The predators that have really been widely destructive were the mustelids, cats and European rat species. The most important impact of pre-Europeans was the widespread burning used in moa-hunting especially in the drier areas of the South Island. We have the worlds largest (and probably only flightless) parrot (kakapo), the only truly alpine parrot (kea), the oldest reptile (tuatara), the biggest earthworms, the heaviest insect (also the largest weta), the smallest bats, some of the oldest trees, and many of the rarest birds, insects, and plants in the world.... NZ is home to the world famous Tuatara, a lizard-like reptile which dates back to the dinosaurs and perhaps before (260 mill years?). The only member of its order (Rhynchocephalia) it is now restricted to protected offshore islands which you have to have special permission to visit. Specimens are kept at some zoos. The only native land mammals are two rare species of bat. NZ's many endemic birds include the flightless kiwi, takahe, kakapo and weka. Far too many species of bird have become extinct since humans arrived on NZ included the various species of Dinornis (moa) the largest of which stood up to 2.5 metres high. While the rare takahe (Notornis australis) can be seen in semi-wild conditions at Te Anau, the Kakapo is too endangered to be on display anywhere (see quote below). For those who are interested, the following NZ CD is available: New Zealand birds: Information on more than 300 bird species, plus over 500 photos, video clips of NZ attractions and birds, and 20 windows bmps. Available from: Protech International PO Box 324 Nelson New Zealand Ph/fax 64-3-5451799 There is also some unique insect life such as the Giant Weta and glow worms. Other than two spiders, there is a lack of any deadly poisonous things (snakes, spiders, etc.) which is why NZ Agricultural Regulations are so strict. The great kauri trees in the few remaining kauri forests in Northland are very old with some believed to be up to 2000 years old. Much of the South Island is still forested, particularly the West Coast. ----- cakes@io.org (cakes) has provided the following article (advice on legality requested!): Reprinted without permission. RACE AGAINST TIME TO SAVE ANCIENT PARROTS Reuters, 19.01.96 WELLINGTON, New Zealand. After a peaceful existence spanning millions of years, the survival odds seem stacked against New Zealand's native parrot, a fat, flightless bird called the kakapo. With only 50 kakapo left in New Zealand, Britain's World Conservation Monitoring Center (WCMC) recently placed the bird on its list of the world's 20 most-endangered species predicted to become extinct during 1996. "That bird has so much stacked against it," said Kevin Smith, president of the Royal Forest and Bird Protection Society of New Zealand. Only one kakapo chick has survived into adulthood since 1990, although three more are almost there. "At the moment the clock is just ticking. Unless there are some chicks fledged in the next five years the kakapo's prospects are very bleak," Smith said. Fully grown kakapo weigh up to eight pounds, heavier than most other parrots, and are bright green in color. Scientists say the bird existed without significant threat for millions of years. Their decline began 1,000 years ago when humans arrived in New Zealand, bringing predatory mammals such as cats, dogs, rats and stoats. Flightless native birds, including the kiwi, moa and kakapo, had not developed defenses against predation. "Some were literally eaten alive. The kakapo's only defense was to sit very still, and predators basically had meals on wheels," said Janet Owen, Department of Conservation (DOC) Director of Protected Species. She said kakapo populations were plundered as a food source by Maori and European settlers alike, and their natural habitat was largely destroyed by the clearance of rich forests. Hope seemed lost in the late 1960s when it was found all kakapo known to exist were male. Then the discovery of a single feather on Stewart Island, at the foot of the South Island, led to a hitherto unknown population of about 200 birds, including females. But cats discovered this kakapo haven at the same time. "By the time we could do anything about the cats, the population had plummeted to around 50 or 60 birds," said Paul Jansen, head of DOC's Kakapo Recovery Program. The kakapo were moved in the 1980s to the relative safety of Codfish, Little Barrier and Maud islands, dotted around New Zealand's coastline. The nests need video monitoring as they come under constant attack from rats, and Maud Island is occasionally invaded by stoats swimming over from the mainland. The male kakapo abandons the female after mating, forcing her to leave the nest dangerously unattended while she feeds. What is more, kakapo are reluctant breeders mating only once every four or five years. They also have a history of laying infertile eggs. Despite the hurdles facing the kakapo, the WCMC's prediction of imminent extinction is overly dire, DOC says. While the kakapo is critically endangered, it is a national treasure which can be dragged back from the brink of oblivion. "Results will take a while because they're long-lived birds. We think they live around 60-80 years, so they won't be wiped out this year," DOC Director-General Murray Hosking said. Over the next 10 years the recovery program aims to establish a younger breeding population, although numbers will probably remain similar as older birds die. "Conceivably we will be giving help to the kakapo for at least the next five decades, if not longer," Jansen said. Smith is sharply critical of the amount of funding the government provides for endangered species research. DOC has a $660,000 budget for kakapo research in 1996. "We've become too insulated in New Zealand we don't realize just how special our native plants and animals are. There's a niggardly, pathetically small amount of money going into conservation, and we reap what we sow," he said. Smith said predation was causing the decline of New Zealand's bird populations in general, and forest habitats were gradually being destroyed by possums, deer and goats. "New Zealand's wealth has been generated out of the 75 percent of the country we've cleared. Unfortunately we're not using any of that wealth to save those species that are trying to survive in the little remnants we left them," Smith said. "The dawn chorus in our forests, which used to be a real feature of New Zealand, is in many places becoming more of a solo." Reuters I found this article on a bird-related web site - I can't recall which one as I've scanned many over the last few weeks. Recently I saw a television program on the Discovery channel, which highlighted the plight of the kakapo in much the same manner as this story. -------------------- B1.2.4 Climate The NZ climate is temperate with no real extremes; the north tends to be warm temperate. Being an island nation, the yearly range of temperatures is quite small, around 10 degrees Celsius variation between winter and summer. NZ enjoys long hours of sunshine throughout the year making it an ideal year round destination. In winter the South Island mountain and central North Island do have heavy snowfalls providing great skiing. Summer: December - February Winter: June - August sunshine Temperature (C) rainfall rain hours mean max min daily av. (mm) days sum win Kaitaia 2113 15.6 29 0 1429 138 Auckland 1904 15.7 28 3 23 14 1289 140 Tauranga 2217 14.3 29 -2 1363 118 Hamilton 1981 13.5 29 -5 1236 131 Rotorua 1872 12.7 30 -4 23 12 1509 123 Gisborne 2173 14.1 33 -2 1079 113 New Plymouth 2157 13.4 26 -1 1514 142 Napier 2187 14.3 32 -2 830 92 Palmerston North 1764 13.2 28 -3 991 127 Wellington 2008 12.7 27 1 20 11 1305 124 Nelson 2372 12.2 28 -4 22 12 1005 96 Blenheim 2449 12.9 32 -4 671 84 Hokitika 1889 11.6 25 -2 2809 168 Christchurch 1992 11.9 34 -5 22 10 668 85 Timaru 1828 11.4 32 -4 586 81 Milford Sound 1828 10.5 25 -3 6213 183 Queenstown 1865 10.4 30 -5 21 8 832 93 Dunedin 1645 11.1 29 -2 19 10 802 119 Gore 1665 9.7 31 -5 894 137 Invercargill 1595 9.7 28 -5 1040 157 (some of the table above was pirated and I seriously doubt it's accuracy... Anyone care to confirm it?) From: blair@mullara.met.unimelb.EDU.AU (Blair Trewin) Climate Group, Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre Melbourne, Australia Date: 12 Sep 1997 01:16:03 GMT It looks OK although the info is open to misinterpretation. From the numbers, I would expect that the 'maximum' and 'minimum' temperatures quoted are the highest and lowest temperatures which would be expected in a normal year. They aren't the record high and low (Christchurch, for example, has had 42), nor are they the mean daily maximum and minimum temps for any month. The highest temperature on record in NZ is 42.4 C at Rangiora in February 1973, and the lowest -21.6 C at Ophir in July 1995 (although lower temperatures would have certainly occurred on the higher summits of the Southern Alps where there are no instruments). I could be a couple of tenths out on either of these (I'm going from memory). The Rangiora mark, which broke the previous NZ record by more than 4 degrees, is arguably one of the most exceptional extreme temperature events ever recorded anywhere in the world. Christchurch reached 41.8 on the same day, and there was also a North Island record at Gisborne (38.3, IIRC). I don't expect these records to be broken in a hurry. Is it wet in New Zealand? Charles Eggen gives us: "The greatest amount I have heard of was at the hut on Whitcombe river at Frew creek which is just south of the Hokitika river in Westland. That was 1967 and amounted to 10670 mm or about 420 inches. From 14/3/67 to 13/3/68 the 10670 mm that fell is the highest in NZ for a 12 month period. Over an exact calendar year the highest is 10210 mm (same place) within NZ and 22990 mm for the World (Cherrapunji, India in 1861)." The highest rainfall in NZ for a 24 hour period was 582 mm on 7/9/1969 at Rapid Creek, Hokitika although this record may have been broken on 22 January 1994; a similar locality and ~647mm of rain. From: blair@mullara.met.unimelb.EDU.AU (Blair Trewin) Date: 12 Sep 1997 01:16:03 GMT >: Is it wet in New Zealand? Charles Eggen gives us: >: <rest of comments from Charles snipped> I seem to recall reading somewhere about an experimental site in this region having a mean annual rainfall up around 11000-12000mm, although this may have been an estimate based on a few months' data. Given that there are few gauges in the area where I would expect the highest precipitation, around 800-1200 metres elevation, it would not surprise me if there are pockets of 10000+ mm mean annual rainfall (which implies a highest total in the vicinity of 15000) in uninstrumented areas. In marked contrast, central Otago is very dry in places - Alexandra has about 350mm per year, and I'd expect that there would be local pockets below 300. Air of maritime origins loses much of its moisture as it rises over mountains (the prevailing airstreams in NZ are from the west, which explains why the western slopes of the Southern Alps and Fiordland are so wet) and the lee slopes are in 'rainshadow': central Otago is largely sheltered from all directions. >: The highest rainfall in NZ for a 24 hour period was 582 mm on 7/9/1969 at >: Rapid Creek, Hokitika although this record may have been broken on 22 >: January 1994; a similar locality and ~647mm of rain. It was. I was attempting to visit the West Coast on this day - meteorologically interesting but touristically miserable. I'm still waiting to see the glaciers :-( Ross Levis kindly offered: All the weather links you should ever need are located on my ISP page at: http://www.enternet.co.nz/weather.html which links to VUW and shows some other Antarctic pictures. Frank van der Hulst and Tony Wilkes provided (combined and mildly amended): NZ Metservice forecasts, including TV-style maps showing forecasts: http://web.co.nz/weather/ Satellite weather pictures from VUW: http://www.rses.vuw.ac.nz/meteorology/pictures/ [ see also ...meteorology/maps.html and ...pictures/ir1/latest.jpg ] These are in mono. For similar maps in colour: http://rs560.cl.msu.edu/weather/ Weather of the whole region, including NZ. Up to 3-day forecasts, including satellite pictures and maps showing isobars & sea surface winds over the Tasman & NZ: gopher://gilgamesh.ho.BoM.GOV.AU/1/1/Australian%20Weather%20Information gopher://gilgamesh.ho.BoM.GOV:70/11/Australian%20Weather%Information/Weatrts [ not sure if the second one is correct ] Latest (3-hourly) weather satellite images: http://geog.canterbury.ac.nz/weather/index.html The NZ sites seem to be somewhat intermittent, and often their latest images are 3 or 4 days old. The Aussie site is probably the most useful. Airways Corp also has a Web site http://www.airways.co.nz/index.html which contains articles from their latest magazine. Snspot details and solar activity, of interest to radio hams, at: http://www.sel.bldroc.gov/today.html Hugh Grierson suggests to point your browser at gopher://gilgamesh.ho.bom.gov.au:70/ and follow the links "Australian weather information ..." -> "Weather Charts". Other links http://homepages.ihug.co.nz/~stormy http://www.xtra.co.nz/metservice/index.shtml but the latter requires a Java capable reader.
Subject: B2 THE PEOPLE
Subject: B2.1 A Short History 900 AD (+/-) Maori arrived from Pacific. 1740's Europeans started to bumble around the area. 1800's Exploiters arrived (whalers, sealers, traders). 1830's Settlers started arriving. 1840's The 'Maori' Land Wars There were actually four separate wars (though some tribes fought in more than one): NgaPuhi, Northland (1840s) Taranaki,(1860s) Kingites, Waikato (1860s) Te Kooti etc (1860s) John Hopkins offers the following 'gratuitous comments ;-)' (sic): "The term "Maori Wars" has not been used for some considerable time, as it suggests that Maori were responsible for the wars - another example of "the winner" rewriting history to suit their own purposes. Recognised descriptions now are "the New Zealand Wars", or the "Land Wars" - the latter is preferable in some ways because it reveals what the wars were about. In particular, the invasion of the Waikato by English led troops as a pretext to force Maori to defend themselves and then confiscate their land for being "in rebellion" against the English Crown. A good reference is the Waitangi Tribunal report on the Tainui claim." 1893? Universal Suffrage. The 1945-50 Baby Boom There was a baby boom in 1945-50 after the survivors returned from the Second World War. The reasons should be obvious. (I think that it has been mentioned here that New Zealand lost a larger fraction of its population in the Second World War than any other Allied country except the USSR, nearly all of them young men). There was a lesser peak 20 to 30 years later as the products of the first boom had their own children. 1985 Internet gets going... :-) May 1994 The soc.culture.new-zealand faq gets posted!
Subject: B2.2 Maoritanga Maoritanga is Maori culture; a way of life and view of the world. It is a growing and changing part of life in NZ. The ancestors and all living things are descended from the gods, who are often embodied in specific mountains, rivers and lakes, which is why kinship and links with the land are so important. Maui was one of the earliest descendants and was responsible for slowing the sun to make the days longer, taming fire, and fishing the North Island (Te Ika a Maui) from the sea from his brothers' canoe (the South Island - Te Waka a Maui). Most Maori can trace descent from the chiefs of Hawaiki who sailed to Aotearoa in voyaging canoes from about 1200 years ago. The marae (particular area of land and buildings, containing the Whare or meeting house) is the focus of traditional Maori community life. The Treaty of Waitangi was signed in 1840, after Maori had petitioned Queen Victoria about the damage being done to their land and culture by uncontrolled land speculators and resource exploiters. Another influence was the wish of the British to prevent the French or Americans from gaining a hold on the new colony (Hone Heke flew the Stars and Stripes on his war canoe). The first article ceded to the Queen of England the right to make laws in exchange for the retention of full control of their lands, forests, fishing and prized posessions. The second article promised the Maori full rights to their lands, forests and treasured possessions (and fisheries in the English version). The third article gave the Maori all the rights and privileges of British subjects. Despite the egalitarian language, in practice the principles of the Treaty were often ignored. Dissatisfaction over the control of land in the North Island led to war in the 1860's with the result that much Maori land was confiscated. It was 100 years before the Maori protest movement had enough strength to come into the public eye, although certain key personalities have been supporting a Maori renaissance since the early years of this century. All environmental and planning legislation passed since 1986 contains provisions for the support of the principles of the Treaty of Waitangi. Recent claims to the Waitangi Tribunal have resulted in some land being returned to Maori control. In other cases the resource implications are so complex and potentially vast that decisions on reparation have been delayed for some years. This is the case, for example, with the claim of Ngai Tahu, the largest and most powerful South Island tribe. The claim has been accepted in principle, but settlement appears to be some way away. Maori is now an official language of NZ, although outside the Maori community it is rare to hear it spoken except on ceremonial occasions. Maori have established various programmes for the revival of their language, particularly in pre-school and primary schools. Most Maori are now town and city dwellers, and many have lost touch with their original marae base. However there is a groundswell of regeneration of interest in the marae, and some people are returning to their tribal homes. In the cities, urban marae, sometimes catering for people of many tribes, have been established. Maori culture was transmitted orally, through the telling of stories, song (waiata) and the reciting of whakapapa (genealogies). It was also represented in stylised form in carvings and woven panels that adorned whare (meeting houses). There is a revitalisation of these traditional arts, especially as the marae movement gains more strength, and also because new marae, for example on school and university campuses, are being built. Maori traditional music was very effectively suppressed by the nineteenth century missionaries. Traditional instruments are now rarely seen but the Maori love of music survives in waiata, which today are a blend of remembered traditional waiata plus adaptations from western music. One of the most difficult things for any dominant culture to handle is the acceptance of real partnership with another group, especially one that for many years was regarded as inferior. The pretty or quaint sides of Maori culture, long exploited by the tourist industry, are not the whole thing. The real thing involves power and resource sharing, and this process of reallocation will cause debate and some strife within New Zealand for years to come. ----- Brian Harmer: "To give an indication of how complex the Maori situation is, here are the names of some of the tribes. This section is evolving... Maori Tribes (this is not exhaustive), listed in approximate North to South geographic distribution (paraphrased from The Revised Dictionary of Modern Maori by P.M. Ryan, 1989 Heinemann Education) Te Aupouri Ngati Kahu Te Rarawa Ngapuhi Ngati Whatua Ngati Tai Ngati Paoa Ngati Tamatera Ngati Whanaunga Ngati Maru Ngai te Rangi Ngati Haua Ngati Mahuta Waikato Te Arawa Ngati Ranginui Whanau-a-Apanui Whakatohea Ngati Awa Ngati Maniapoto Ngati Porou Ngati Tuwharetoa Tuhoe Rongo Whakataa Ngati Tama Taranaki Te Aitanga-a-Makahi Ngati Raukawa Ngati Ruanui Ngarauru Ngati Apa Ngati Hau Rangitane Ngati Kahungunu Ngati Toa then to the South Island Rangitane Ngai Tahu Poutini Ngati Mamoe I believe most tribes had sub-tribes, and there was much ebbing and flowing as various groups conquered, or were in turn conquered and enslaved." ----- Lyndon Watson wrote: "There are more in the Marlborough Sounds-Nelson region, e.g. Ngati Koata who broke off from Ngati Toa in the last century and sided with local tribes and who have just been in the news for getting Stephens Island back and promptly giving it to the Crown as a nature reserve. The question of tribal affiliation in the lower three-quarters of the South Island is a vexed one because some descendants of the tribes who lived there before the Ngati Mamoe and Ngai Tahu invasions from the North Island (e.g. Te Waitaha of South Canterbury-North Otago who claim to be the original 'Moa Hunters') claim to be members still of those tribes while Ngai Tahu consider that they (and, indeed, the Ngati Mamoe) are now at the most subtribes of Ngai Tahu. Tempers can get very heated round here over this matter. And it should also be mentioned that some do not like 'iwi' being translated as 'tribe', and 'hapu' as 'subtribe'." ----- For more info on Maori culture and history, try: http://www.lonelyplanet.com.au/dest/aust/maori.htm Links to Maori resources http://www.rmmb.co.nz/links/lmaori.html http://maori.com/links/ Maori Organisations in NZ http://www.maori.org.nz/ Ross Himona's Maori Website http://www.maori.org/ Aotearoa Traditional Maori Performing Arts Festival http://www.maori.org.nz/kapahaka/ampac/index.html The art of Moko http://tattoos.com/moko.htm For info on Maori history and lists several Maori writers: http://www.lonelyplanet.com.au/dest/aust/maori.htm Maori Language Online Dictionaries The H.M. Ngata English - Maori dictionary online http://www.learningmedia.co.nz/nz/nd/ndindex.htm KimiKupup hou lexical database http://www.nzcer.org.nz/kimikupu/ Tuition Demo http://homepages.ihug.co.nz/~educator Software Products http://navigator.co.nz/matapihi.html And the Auckland City Art Gallery collection of Maori portraits by Charles Fredrick Goldie: http://www.well.com/user/wldtrvlr/auckgal.html Adam Gifford (for whom I have no net address) invites people to visit: http://nz.com/webnz/tekorero/ Once Were Warriors homepage: http://www.flf.com/warriors/ -------------------- B2.2.1 The Moriori Question Simon O'Rorke provides the following quotes and opinions: In her book "The Prehistory of New Zealand" (Longman Paul, Auckland, 1987) Janet Davidson wrote: "...[during the 1890s]... many spurious traditions about [Maori] origins began to gain wide acceptance. Some of these still hinder the study of New Zealand prehistory today. One theory was the so-called 'Maruiwi myth', which suggested that the first inhabitants of new Zealand had been a different and probably inferior race to the later Maori. The resumption of intensive archeological work in the South Island during the 1920s and 1930s was partly in response to this theory. "[this] archeological work....demonstrated the Polynesian nature of moa-hunter assemblages and disproved the idea that the moa-hunters were an earlier and different race from the Maori. Yet the idea of the inferior and defeated Maruiwi or Moriori still lives on in the minds of modern New Zealanders, confused with the Moriori of the Chatham Islands who were in fact an isolated group of Polynesians, although very closely related to the New Zealand Maori." The Maruiwi was a Maori tribe (iwi) whose name is known from oral tradition but which did not survive to the time of the settlement of New Zealand by Europeans. Contrary to the assertions of the 19th century European mythologizers of Maori origins, they were not a pre-Maori people. They were probably wiped out in inter-tribal warfare during the 14th century or later, i.e. hundreds of years after Polynesians settled what is now New Zealand in the 9th century. The European mythologizers of Maori origins, in particular S. Percy Smith, who in 1892 founded the Polynesian society, noticed the similarity between the word "Maruiwi" and the word "Moriori", the name of the indigenous people of the Chatham Islands, which are located in the Pacific Ocean about 400 km East of New Zealand. They jumped to the conclusion that the Moriori were the descendants of (supposedly pre-Maori) Maruiwi survivors who had fled to the Chathams to New Zealand when Polynesians (Maori) first settled New Zealand. Until recently, New Zealand school children were taught this story as historical fact. Davidson has this to say about the Moriori: "Despite widespread popular belief that the Moriori were a vanquished group who fled to the Chathams from New Zealand, Moriori and Maori were unaware of each others' existence before the rediscovery of the Chathams by Europeans in the late 18th century. Sutton has recently strongly argued that the Chathams were settled from New Zealand between A.D. 1000 and 1200 and became completely isolated after about A.D. 1400. No archeological sites of this early period have yet been excavated in the Chathams, however, and the possibility of settlement from elsewhere in East Polynesia cannot be entirely excluded." Why did the European myth of a people in New Zealand before the Maori arise? And why has it persisted despite clear contrary evidence? In his book on the struggles of the Maori since the European settlement of New Zealand, "Ka Whatwhai Tonu Matou: Struggle Without End", (Penguin, Auckland, 1990) Ranginui Walker put it very well: "The myth of the Moriori is essentially ideological in the sense of being a false consciousness as a solution in the mind to conflict generated by the colonisers' expropriation of Maori land. According to the myth, the Maori, as a superior and more warlike people, expropriated the land from the Moriori. Therefore Pakeha [Maori term for European settlers and their descendants] expropriation of the same land on the basis of their superior civilisation was in accordance with the principle of the survival of the fittest. For this reason the false myth of the Moriori has been one of New Zealand's most enduring myths. Pakeha need the myth for the endorsement of colonisation and Pakeha dominance." I can back up Walker's argument from personal experience. I have frequently heard (usually right-wing) European New Zealanders using the Maoris' alleged extermination of the Moriori in New Zealand as justification of European mistreatment of Maori. I would note however, that these days the justification tends to be in terms of a rather guilty "The Maori were just as bad as the Europeans" rather than the more self-confident social-Darwinist survival-of-the-fittest justification that was prevalent at the beginning of this century. -------------------- B2.2.2 Guide to Maori pronunciation The five vowels; a, e, i, o and u, are pronounced in two ways: short long a as u in but a as a in father e as e in pen e as ai in pair i as i in bit i as ee in feet o as o in fort o as o in store u as u in put u as oo in boot Where two vowels are together: both are sounded but they are run together smoothly. The ten consonants in Maori: h, k, m, n, p, r, t, w, ng, wh. The first eight are pronounced as in English. The last two are digraphs, 'ng' being pronounced as the ng in 'singer', and 'wh' as wh in 'whale', or as a 'f'. From The Revised Dictionary of Modern Maori: The consonants: 'r' is not rolled. 'p' is soft. 'wh' is usually pronounced 'f', sometimes as 'h', 'w', of 'wh'. 'ng' has a softish 'g' and is pronounced/spelled 'ng' or 'k' depending on the area; usually 'k' in the South Island. In the book "He Whakamarama - A new course in Maori" the following describes 'ng' and 'wh': "When we say 'na', the tip of the tongue touches the roof of the mouth somewhere behind the top of the upper teeth. When we say 'nga', the tongue stays down with the tip touching the back of the lower teeth. "'Wh' differs from 'f' in this way. When we say 'f', the upper teeth firmly touch the bottom lip, but with 'wh' there is little or no pressure of the upper teeth on the bottom lip. (The online dictionary listed in the links section just before the start of section B2.2.1 may help with the preceding.) ----- Lachy Paterson wrote: "Te Reo Maaori will exist only if it is taught (and learnt) as a spoken language. This means that students should have a tutor of some sort who can actually talk to them (analog not digital!). While this would be difficult in another country, it should not be difficult in NZ. However, if people wanted to teach themselves the rudiments of Maaori/Maori grammar, then I would recommend He Whakamarama A new Course in Maori by John Foster (Heinemann) or Te Kakano (Stage 1 University text) Te Pihinga (Stage 2) by John C. Moorfield (Longman Paul). Kia manawanui." Lyndon Watson adds: "Yes, and to complicate matters there are some dialectical variations. Some East Coast speakers tend to replace 'ng' with the simple 'n'. And some South Island speakers replace it with 'k', but then it is spelled accordingly so there is no problem for the outsider. The 'wh' sound also seems to vary from place to place. I have heard elderly speakers in Northland say something very like the (proper) English 'wh' sound - 'h' followed by 'w' - and again some Eastern speakers use a plain 'w'. Pakehas tend to give up and fall back on a plain 'f'. Judy Shorten adds: "Say it in Maori" by Alan Armstrong is a really good little book with a limited English-Maori and Maori-English dictionary as well as a wide variety of phrases that cover many situations. There is also a page on pronounciation. I would recommend this little book for anyone wanting to have a very basic knowledge of the Maori language, but on the other hand most tourists travelling around NZ on tours don't have the time or the inclination to read even a little book about correct pronounciation and therefore make some rather hilarious attempts at trying to pronounce even the simplest names. References: The Concise Maori Dictionary, A.H. & A.W. Reed The Revised Dictionary of Modern Maori, P. M. Ryan's, reprint 1989, Heinemann, ISBN 0 86863 564 2 Say it in Maori, Alan Armstrong -------------------- B2.2.3 The Haka Non-Kiwis are often baffled by the 'dance' performed by [predominately sports] groups before matches or events. The following outline is a reply from Mac Lynch to such a question. "What you most likely saw was a haka - a preliminary to a fight between Maori tribes, the painted faces represent the original tattoos. The haka was a challenge to the opposing tribe who may have responded in a similar way. The words are chanted loudly (shouted) in a menacing way accompanied by arm actions and foot stamping. The All Black rugby team and subsequently other touring sports teams have adopted a haka that was originally used by Te Rauparaha (a particularly notorious warlike chief of the Ngati Toa tribe) and is only one of many hakas which exist throughout New Zealand. Te Rauparaha, originally from Taranaki, raided various parts of NZ in the early 19th Century settling eventually on Kapiti Island near Wellington. There is currently some controversy about the appropriateness of the use of this haka in the South Island where the Maoris suffered particularly under Te Rauparaha. Here are the words and a translation of Te Rauparaha's haka. The Maori pronunciation is basically one vowel per syllable, with the vowels having the European rather than English sound (see section B2.2.2 for more on pronunciation). Ka mate, ka mate It is death, it is death Ka ora, ka ora It is life, it is life Ka mate, ka mate It is death, it is death Ka ora, ka ora It is life, it is life Tenei te tangata puhuruhuru This is the hairy man Nana i tiki mai whakawhiti te ra Who caused the sun to shine again for me Upane, upane Up the ladder, up the ladder Upane kaupane Up to the top Whiti te ra The sun shines! As for what it all means, about 140 years ago, Te Rauparaha was being chased by his enemies. He hid in a kumara pit (the local sweet potato) and waited in the dark for his pursuers to find him. He heard sounds above and thought he was done for when the top of the pit was opened up and sunshine flooded in. He was blinded and struggled to see those about to slay him, when his sight cleared and he instead saw the hairy legs of the local chief (reputed to have been exceptionally hirsute) who had hid him. Te Rauparaha is said to have jumped from the pit and performed this haka on the spot, he was so happy to have escaped. Undoubtedly, he also had in his mind to do a little pursuing of his own - being that way inclined." People may also wish to look at: http://www-leland.stanford.edu/~jmgeorge/nzsongs.html#now
Subject: B2.3 Demography B2.3.1 General Total population is about 3.5 million. Over 70% of the population are in the North Island, largest centre is Auckland (over 1 million), capital is Wellington. 1975 3,071,000 1988 3,343,000 1990 3,402,000 1992 (July) 3,347,369 1994 3,541,000 2000 3,714,000 Population Growth 0.88 % Population Density 32/sq mi Population Doubling Time 79 years Net migration rate: -2 migrants/1,000 population (1992) -------------------- B2.3.2 Major Cities Population Lat Long Wellington 360,000 41.17S 174.47E Auckland 890,000 36.52S 174.46E Christchurch 335,000 43.33S 172.40E Hamilton 100,000 37.46S 175.18E Dunedin 110,000 45.52S 170.30E -------------------- B2.3.3 Age Distribution Age range Male % Female % 0-9 8.0 7.6 10-19 9.4 9.0 20-29 8.6 8.4 30-39 7.4 7.5 40-49 5.4 5.3 50-59 4.5 4.4 60-69 3.6 4.1 70+ 2.7 4.1 Total 49.6 50.4 Literacy Rate 99 % Urbanization 83.5 % -------------------- B2.3.4 Ethnicity Data from the "1991 Census of Population and Dwellings" publications. Ethnic Group, for Population Resident in New Zealand Single Ethnic Group Total Percent European (1) 2,658,738 79.5 NZ Maori 323,493 9.7 Samoan 68,565 2.0 Cook Island Maori 26,925 0.8 Tongan 18,264 0.5 Niuean 9,429 0.3 Tokelauan 2,802 0.1 Fijian 2,760 0.1 Other Pacific 1,413 -- Total, Single Pacific Group 130,158 3.9 Chinese 37,689 1.1 Indian 26,979 0.8 Other Single Ethnic Groups (2) 25,926 0.8 Total, Single Ethnic Groups 3,202,980 95.7 (1) May include combinations of European groups e.g. NZ European and/or British and/or Dutch etc. (2) All Groups not included above. May include combinations of Other Groups, eg. Japanese and/or Korean and/or Middle Eastern Groups. There is a very good (not *too* technical) book on Maori Demography for further reference of those interested: Pool, Ian. 1991. _Te Iwi Maori: A New Zealand Population Past, Present and Projected_ Auckland University Press (dist. by Oxford Univ. Press outside of New Zealand) -------------------- B2.3.5 Official Languages English, Maori. Pacific Island and Asian languages may be heard in cities. -------------------- B2.3.6 Religions A Massey research project reveals that 28 percent of Kiwis pray, at frequencies varying between several times a day, to weekly. About 21 percent of the population are regular churchgoers. The radio report on the topic said that over 60 percent of NZers believe in a God. And/or... 1991 census: (%) Anglican 22.1 Presbyterian 16.3 Catholic 15.0 Methodist 4.2 Agnostic 0.1 Atheist <0.05 No religion 20.1 Object to state 7.6 In 1981 (and I presume earlier censuses) there was simply a blank where you wrote your religion. In 1986 and 1991, there were half a dozen or so boxes you could tick, including "No Religion" and "Other" (with a blank space to fill in if you ticked "Other"). In 1981, Agnostic and Atheist accounted for 0.8 and 0.7%, so clearly many people who would write "Atheist" when confronted with a blank space would tick "No Religion" when such a box was an option. (I did this myself in 1986.) In 1986, "No Religion" got 16.7%, so this is growing fast, and is the second largest group. (It was less than 1% in the 1950s.) -------------------- B2.3.6.1 Russian or Greek orthodox church in NZ Is Russian or Greek orthodox church present in New Zealand? (Question by Alex Tretyakov on 04 Jan 1998) Patrick Dunford writes: According to the 1996 census there were just under 7000 "Orthodox Christians", an increase of about 2700 since the 1991 census. There is and has been a Russian Orthodox church in Brougham St, Christchurch for many years. Charles Eggen writes: Orthodox Christians represent less than 10,000 in New Zealand. Over half of them are Greek Orthodox residing in the Wellington area. The Church of the Annunciation of the Virgin Mary has the only full-time Orthodox priest in New Zealand. The Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople sent New Zealand's only Orthodox Bishop - Metropolitan Dionysios Psiachas who resides in Welllington. There are small parishes in Auckland, Christchurch, Petone, Palmerston North and Masterton. You can contact the Wellington church at: Church of the Greek Orthodox Community of Wellington PO Box 1311, Wellington, New Zealand Phone: 64-4-385-1076 The Russian Orthodox church exists due to the services of Father Ambrose, a Serbian priest. Christchurch has the only Russian Orthodox Church in New Zealand although there are small congregations in Wellington and Auckland. A website is under construction at: http://www.roxy.co.nz/church.htm Miche Campbell writes: There are two Antiochian Orthodox Churches in New Zealand, one in Ashley, near Rangiora (outside Christchurch) and one in Dunedin. Lyndon Watson writes: Moscow, Constantinople and Antioch all have churches in New Zealand. There is a large Greek Orthodox community in Wellington. The Anthiochian Orthodox Church in Ashley is actually an Anglican church which allows the Orthodox priest to hold services there. -------------------- B2.3.6.2 URLs related to religion in NZ Buddhism http://www.earthlight.co.nz/users/sonamt/index.html Religious Organisations for Tamils of NZ http://homepages.ihug.co.nz/~tamil/religion.htm Canterbury links to Religion and Spirituality http://www.canterbury.net.nz/community/religion-spirituality/ ------------------------------

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