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COMP.EMULATORS.CBM: Emulation FAQ for Commodore 8bit Computers (3/4)

( Part1 - Part2 - Part3 - Part4 )
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Archive-name: 8bit-emulation-faq/part3
Comp-answers-archive-name: commodore/8bit-emulation-faq/part3
News-answers-archive-name: commodore/8bit-emulation-faq/part3
Comp-emulators-cbm-archive-name: 8bit-emulation-faq/part3
Posting-Frequency: twice a month (monthly to news.answers)
Version: 3.5

See reader questions & answers on this topic! - Help others by sharing your knowledge
  CBM EMULATION FAQ - (Version 3.5, 4 November 1996)

  This FAQ is usually posted twice a month on the 4th and 19th to 
  comp.emulators.cbm.  Since comp.emulators.cbm was set up to remove the
  emulator discussion from comp.sys.cbm, this FAQ will not be posted there.

  Lines preceeded by a '+' have been added or modified since the last version
  was posted.

  The FAQ is in four parts due to its size.
  Part 1 is general information and a list of available emulators.
  Part 2 is questions and answers.
  Part 3 is mostly data.
  Part 4 is basically reviews of various emulators.


  3.5 How-to... (moved from Appendix B).

     1. Playing multi-disk-image games with C64S 1.0C
     2. Using VIC-EMU.
     3. Running certain games.
     4. Converting between different file formats.


     1. Playing multi-disk-image games with C64S 1.0C

  [Note that v1.1b of C64S allows multi-disk games without hassle.  I 
  include this since some people may not like the time limit in the
  shareware version of C64S 1.1b/c.  -tsr]

  J. Kevin Wells - writes:

  There is a method of playing multi-disk-image games with C64S 1.0C shareware.
  The method is a bit cumbersome and works best with games that involve
  infrequent disk changes.

  1. Copy the first disk-image file as TESTDISK.D64.
  2. Start C64S.
  3. Load and play the game until you are prompted for a new disk.
  4. Press F9 to bring up the utility options. Press Alt-T to enter the 
     tape-image section and press enter on TESTTAPE.T64.
  5. Press F to select the Freeze option and type in a file name. Your game 
     will be saved to the tape drive. If the tape drive is full, delete a file 
     you do not need. 
  6. Press ESC to exit to the C64 emulator.
  7. Press CTRL-BREAK to quit C64S and exit to DOS.
  8. If the game has altered the disk-image in any way (saved your game to the 
     disk, for example), copy TESTDISK.D64 back to its original file name from 
     step 1.
  9. Copy the requested disk-image file (usually Disk 2) to TESTDISK.D64
  10. Start C64S again.
  11. Press F9. Press Alt-T to enter the tape-image section and press enter on 
  12. Select the file you froze in step 5. Press ESC to exit to the emulator.
  13. Press Shift-TAB to load and run the frozen program. The game should be 
      at the point where it is requesting the disk change. Follow the program's 
      instruction for signaling that you've changed the disk.
  14. When prompted for another disk, repeat the process at Step 4.

  One thing to keep in mind is that the Frozen program is kept on the tape 
  drive until you delete it. You might want to delete the frozen file when 
  you're finished playing the game, or between disk swaps. Remember that you 
  can use this frozen file to restore your game at the point it was frozen 
  again and again. The Freeze option is a very powerful feature, similar to 
  the Snapshot cartridge on the original C64. You can use it to save virtually 
  any program at any point - even games that don't have a save function.

  I haven't tested this method of using multiple disks with every game out 
  there, but the ones I did try seemed to work. Try the method out with a 
  particular game, if possible, before getting into any heavy gaming sessions.

  [note, again, that none of this stuff needs to be done with C64S 1.1b, 
  since it allows multi-disk games without hassle.  The information is
  included just in case you find the ten-minute timer on C64S 1.1b annoying.]


     3. Using VIC-EMU.

   Hi, I'm currently trying to use Peiter van Leuven's VIC-EMU to run some 
   VIC-20 software on my AMIGA.  I have some VIC files on Amiga Formatted 
   floppy's as well, but the documentation doesn't say how to run it with the 
   emulator!  It does suggest that you have to use memory addresses, but how 
   do us non-programmers know what memory addresses to use for a binary file 
   or a BASIC file?  I've had no success.  The command structure is like this;

   vic-00 $???? filename

   What is the proper address for ???? in order to get a program to run?


   Answer 1:
   Well, you might be asking about at what position Basic starts on the VIC.
   On an unexpanded machine, it starts at $1000 (and load file at $1001).
   On a +3k machine (as the emulator default), it starts at $0400 ($0401)
   On a +8k machine and more, Basic starts at $1200. (load at $1201)

   Binary files normally load with LOAD "name",device,1 and you have to
   find out where to load it yourself. (I know there's a method by looking
   at the first bytes of the file, but I don't know how).

   BTW: The version of VIC-EMU doesn't seem to load files inside the emulator
        very well (e.g the load-command hangs, and there's no RESTORE key).


   Answer 2:
   Well, Pieter sent me a message letting me know how to load a BASIC or 
   disk image file into the VIC-EMU.  There is a way to find out what position 
   a file starts at, you look at the first four bytes of the file and then 
   switch them around, or something to that effect.  Once you have done that you
   use that number as the memory address:

   vic-20 $1000 filename

   Then from the VIC emulator screen you type LOAD "filename",8 and it will 
   load it.  However, my problem is that from the CLI command, I'm not clear 
   on what filename I'm supposed to include!  The filename for the program I 
   want to load or what?  The emulator won't activate unless you include a 
   filename in the CLI command, but putting the filename for the disk-image 
   file you want doesn't seem to do anything, you still have to load it the 
   old fashioned way (LOAD "",8) to get it to show up.  I guess my question 
   is; how do I just make the emulator activate (i.e. just like a vic after 
   power up) without having it run a program, etc


   4. Getting certain games to work.

   a. Racing Destruction Set

      Oh, I bet I know what your Racing Destruction Set problem is.  It's the
      one that the game tells you to flip to side two, but it never tells you
      to flip to side one.  It's understood that you flip back to side one at
      every significant pause in disk acess.  In particular, if you modify a
      car, then flip the disk back to side one before you leave the car
      modification menu.  After loading a track from side two, when you want to
      return to the menu, flip back to side one BEFORE telling it to go back,
      because it will hapilly try and load the menu from side two and crash.
      From: Chuck Cochems (

   b. Mail Order Monsters

      This is a hint that works wonders on the 64 version of the game:
      Copy your original disk (obviously not necessary for the emulators) and
      change the disk name and ID (with a disk editor or utility program) to
      "ownerdisk,ea"  This makes your master disk an owner disk (there's ~100
      blocks free on the original, each owner takes ~1 block of Commie disk
      space, so you'll probably not have to worry about running out of 
      disk space.)
      I have about 9 owners on a copy of the disk, and we have a lot of fun with
      this game.  Just keep hitting RETURN when it wants a disk.  Enjoy. 
      From: Michael Miller (

   c. Bruce Lee

      Actually, I have yet to find a version of this game which doesn't crash
      on a real C64 (NTSC or PAL).  So, my advice is to reset and try again
      if the game crashes on you.

  4. Converting between different file formats.
   Q: How can I convert the ZipCode files (1!..,2!..etc.) found on various
      ftp-sites to a format usable by the emulators?
   A: Grab the file zip2d64.arj on any of the emulator ftp-sites.  The
      syntax for conversion is:
      zip2d64 zip.gam zipgame.d64
      to convert the files 1!zip.gam
      to the file zipgame.d64.

      Alternatively, several C64 transfer utilities (64Copy and Star
      Commander) have built-in utils for ZipCode conversion.

   Q: OK, but what about Lynx files (*.lnx)?
   A: On the emulator ftp-sites there is also a DOS executable that
      extracts files from a Lynx archive.  Alternatively, you can down-
      load the C64 utility "Omega-Q" from the /utils directory at frodo
      etc.  Put the .lnx file into a .d64 file, run Omega-Q and unlynx
      the files directly to a .d64 quickly and easily. 

      The C64 transfer utilities 64Copy and Star Commander also are able
      to convert Lynx files to a usable format.

   4. A list of ftp sites where emulation programs can be obtained.

  Some of the emulation programs are duplicated at other sites. I have not
  listed every site that has a certain emulator, although I may have listed
  more than one site that has that emulator.

  If you would like to more about other cbm ftp sites then read the ftp list
  which is posted to comp.sys.cbm regularly by Howard Herman

  Any site maintainer who wishes their site listed here only needs to send
  me mail advising me of that fact!

  Format for listing:

  Site.Name              /Directory
   MACHINE - program name

   4.0.1 Site Maintainers.

   If you have any questions about specific emulator sites, then please
   contact the person named below.

   ----- (Derek Smith) (Guenther Bauer)

   4.0.2 Site IP addresses.


   4.0.3 WWW Info.

   With the rapid proliferation of Web sites having CBM info., it seems
   fitting that they have their own section. <Marko Makela (Fi) C64 Homepage <U. Maryland 
                C64 Homepage <Adam Lorentzon, (Se) C64 files Homepage <Roberto's Homepage <Adrian Forte's
          (Emulator FAQ Homepage) <Anders Carlsson, (Se) Vic 20 files
          Homepage <Daniel Dallmann, Stuttgart, (De),
          aka "Poldi", C64 files Homepage 
          Jouko Valta (fi) - C128 technical docs, VICE emulation project <Paul Gardner-Stephen, Flinders U. (AU)
          C64 files Homepage <C64S Emulator @ SeattleLab.Com
   HTTP://WWW.ENGR.WISC.EDU/~conover/c64.html <Joel Conover
         This is the SID homepage, dedicated to music and stuff on the C64.
         Star Commander homepage - always get the latest version here

   4.1 C64 Emulators.

         appears to be mirroring frodo's /c64/emulator directory,
         and they're therefore listed together.

   4.1.1 C64 Emulators for the Amiga.
                         /mounts/epix/public/pub/pc/msdos/emulators/c64           /pub/cbm/c64/emulation
   AMIGA - TheA64Package.lha     /pub/cbm/emulation
   AMIGA - thea64package.lha       /packages/aminet/misc/emu
   AMIGA - C64Emulator.lha          /systems/amiga/boing/utilities/emulators/c64
   AMIGA - a64v2d1.lzh & a64v2d2.lzh  (TheA64Package.lha)
   AMIGA - sys.lha and sys.readme
+  AMIGA - FrodoV2_3.lha

   4.1.2 C64 Emulators for the PC.

  * Note that frodo is an official mirror site of seattlelabs ftp site
    It is legal for him (and others) to continue to distribute the old
    versions of C64S (v0.9a(b,c)).

   IBM PC -
          -           /pub/cbm/c64/emulation
   IBM PC -
            c64s09b.arj          /pub/pc/dos/misc
            c64s09b.arj     /pub/cbm/emulation
   IBM PC -    /pub/emulators/c64
   IBM PC -      /pub/ibmpc/msdos/emulator
   IBM PC - C64S09B.ZIP
          -     /pub/incoming/pc
   IBM PC - c64s09b.arj
   IBM PC -

  CompuServe             Magna forum, Library 4 (DOS programs)
   IBM PC -

   4.1.3 C64 Emulators for the Atari.
                         /mounts/epix/public/pub/pc/msdos/emulators/c64          /pub/c64/utils
   ATARI ST - c64-st.lzh
   ATARI ST - c64.lha           /pub/cbm/c64/emulation
   ATARI ST - c64.lzh

   4.1.4 C64 Emulators for the Macintosh.
                         /mounts/epix/public/pub/pc/msdos/emulators/c64          /pub/c64/utils
   APPLE MAC - MAC64-04.HQX           /pub/cbm/c64/emulation
   APPLE MAC - mac64-04.hqx

+  APPLE MACINTOSH (PowerMac only!) - Power64-11.sit

   4.1.5 C64 Emulators for Unix.
                         /mounts/epix/public/pub/pc/msdos/emulators/c64          /pub/c64/utils
   UNIX/X - x64-0.2.2.tar.gz           /pub/cbm/c64/emulation
   UNIX/X - x64-0.2.2.tar.gz
   UNIX/X - FrodoV3_0.tar.gz     /pub/cbm/emulation
   UNIX/X - x64-0.2.2.tar.gz    /pub/emulators/c64
   UNIX/X - x64-0.2.2.tar.gz

   x64 emulator documents and links to distribution sites.

   4.1.6 C64 Emulators for BeBox.           /pub/CBM/emulation
   BEBOX - FrodoV3_0.tar.gz

   4.2 VIC20 Emulators.  /pub/machines/vic-20/vic-emulator
   AMIGA - vic-emu.lha       /packages/aminet/misc/emu
   AMIGA - vic-emu.lha     /pub/cbm/util64
   C64 - vic-emulatorC64.lnx

   4.3 C128 Emulators.

  See section 4.1.5.  X128 comes with the X64 emulator.

   4.4 PET Emulators.

  No sites known.

   4.5 SID Emulators.      /pub/c64/sidmusic
   IBM PC - sidpl???.zip
   AMIGA  - playsid3.lha
   ATARI ST - mmm226.lzh           /pub/Amiga/mus/play
   AMIGA - PlaySID2.2.lha     /pub/comp/amiga/music
   AMIGA - PlaySID2.1.dms     /pub/dos/incoming
   IBM PC - sidpl???.zip           /pub/amiga/audio/apps/playback
   AMIGA - PlaySID-2.0.lha  /pub/pc-demos/music/programs/players
   IBM PC - sidpl???.zip

   4.7 Other utilities & files.

   4.7.1 Utilities         /pub/c64/utils
   IBM PC - disk64e.arj
            and many, many others..
   AMIGA - maketape.arj
           unt.lzh          /pub/msdos/utilities/diskutil
   IBM PC - copy2d64.arj
            zip2d64.arj          /pub/cbm/emulation
   AMIGA - d64.lha
   IBM PC -          /pub2/Amiga/emu
   AMIGA - d64.lha
   IBM PC -

   4.7.2 Data files.

  If you are searching for games, then I would recommend two places:, and The files in the latter site are
  in the original C64 format, and will require some conversion to use in
  an emulator.

  The site is down permanently due to excess load on the
  FTP machine.          /pub/amiga/audio/misc/sid-tunes
   AMIGA - C64MusicShow-1.lha  (for use with PlaySID/sidplay)
           Addition.lha           /pub2/Amiga/mods/PlaySid
   AMIGA - C64MusicShow-1.lha  (for use with PlaySID/sidplay)
           Addition.lha   /pub/amiga/audio/mods-c64
   AMIGA - C64Sounds.lha  (for use with PlaySid/sidplay)
   AMIGA - NemeSIDs-*  (collection of C64 music)
   - note: these at just some of the aminet sites where the files should be
           available.         /pub/c64/sidmusic
    AMIGA or
    IBM PC - NemeSIDs*.lha      (The biggest collection so far)
          (New tunes not included anywhere else)
             demo_new.lha       -"-
             game_new.lha       -"-

  Also take a look at the SIDPLAY FAQ covering a list of Ami-Net FTP servers
  and sidtunes related information.


   5. Emulator File Formats.

      As there are several emulators for different platforms, they all
      cannot be made directly usable by other emulators, unless the author
      has provided that facility.  Utilities to convert back into CBM
      binary generally exist fortunately.

   5.1 C64 Emulators standard files - overview.

     This section shows the "normal" files used by each emulator.

  Program       File type      Identification   Contents
                               (name or method) (PC)  disk image       VC1541.000     683 pcs 256-byte sectors
                tape image       -              not used

  C64S   (PC)   basic rom     }                 contains binary data for:
                kernel rom    }- romcode.c64    VC1541 (16384 bytes), chargen 
                chargen rom   }                 (4096),basic (8192) and kernel
                disk drive rom}                 (8192) = total 36864 bytes
                program          -              not used
                disk image 09c   *.d64          683 pcs 256-byte sectors
                           09a,b testdisk.d64
                tape image       *.t64          ?

                 Note: the kernel part is modified.  basic rom        A000BFFF.64F   8194 bytes of binary data (1)
   (PC)         kernel rom       D000DFFF.64P   8194 bytes of binary data (1)
                chargen rom      E000FFFF.64P   4098 bytes of binary data (1)
                disk drive rom   -              not used
                program          *.64P          C64 program with load address
                                                also SEQ files via *.64S
                disk image       -              not used
                tape image       -              not used

  Frodo (Amiga/  basic rom       Basic ROM      8192 bytes of binary data
    BeBox/Unix)  kernel rom      Kernal ROM     8192 bytes of binary data
                 chargen rom     Char ROM       4096 bytes of binary data
                 disk drive rom  1541 ROM       16384 bytes of binary data
                 program         -              C64 program with load address
                 disk image      -              683 pcs 256-byte sectors
                 disk image      magic header   64 byte magic header and
                                                683 pcs 256-byte sectors

  pc64*.zip     basic rom        *.64B          8192 bytes of binary data
   (PC)         kernel rom       *.64K          8192 bytes of binary data
                chargen rom      *.64C          4096 bytes of binary data
                module at $8000  *.64M          8192 or 16384 bytes of binary
                                                data (8K at $A000 = *.64B)
                disk drive rom   VC1541.64D     16384 bytes of binary data
                program          *.P00          C64 program with load address
                                                preceded by 24 byte header.
                SEQ data file    *.S00          same as *.P00 with different
                USR data file    *.U00          | extensions. The 00 can be
                DEL data file    *.D00          | any numbers if the 16-to-8
                REL data file    *.R00          | mapping leads to duplicates.
                disk image       *.D64          683 pcs 256-byte sectors, plus
                                                optionally 683 bytes error info
                tape image       -              not used

  c64.lzh (ST)  basic rom        c64/_basic     8192 bytes of binary data
                kernel rom       c64/_kernal    8192 bytes of binary data
                chargen rom      c64/_font      4096 bytes of binary data
                disk drive rom   -              not used
                program          -              C64 program with load address
                disk image       -              not used
                tape image       -              not used

  x64 (UNIX)    basic rom        basic          8192 bytes of binary data (2)
                kernel rom       kernel         8192 bytes of binary data (2)
                chargen rom      -              not used
                disk drive rom   -              not used
                program          -              C64 program with load address
                disk image       magic header   64 byte magic header and
                                                683 pcs 256-byte sectors
                tape image       -              not used
                 rom module       filename       8192 or 16384 byte cartridge,
                                                 stored in binary format
                ram image        ram            RAMSIZE + 4103
                   (x64 will load a ram image, eg. "the contents of RAM as
                    in warm start" at startup, if one exists)
                   Only the RAM is loaded at startup. CPU registers and I/O
                   are loaded only via 'undump' in the monitor. (That way it
                   won't keep crashing all the time.)

                (1) Includes load address.
                (2) Default load address allowed.

   5.2 Table of supported file formats.

     This section shows which emulators and utilities can access which file
     formats. This is now a little more complete, thanks to Jouko Valta
     (again :> ).

     Legend used in table:

       x = yes, fully supported, c = convertor provided, r = read-only, 
       - = no, and empty = unknown.

     1. Emulators
                     x64dsk   d64   t64   p00   CBM
       x64 0.3.1        x      c     c     c     x
       PC64 1.10        -      x     c     x     c
       C64S 1.1A        -      x     x     c     c
       C64Alive 0.9ah   -      -     -     -     x
       MagiC64          -      x     x     x     x
       Frodo V2.x       r      r     -     -     x
       Frodo V3.x       x      x     -     -     x
       VICE             x      c     c     x     x
+      Power64 0.8      x      x     x     x     x

     2. Transfer utils

                     x64dsk   d64   t64   p00   CBM   Transfer type
       Star Commander   -      x     x     -     x    normal/fast
       Trans64          x      x     x           x    normal
       x1541 (old)      -      -     -     -     x    normal
       x1541 (new)      -      -     -     -     x    normal
       64Copy           x      x     x     x     x    n/a
       UnD64            -      x     -     -     x    n/a

     3. Other utils

                     x64dsk   d64   t64   p00   CBM   ascii
       fvcbm            x      x     x     x     x    -
       c1541            x      c     c     x     x    -
       petcat           -      -     -     x     x    x
       TOK64            -      -     -     -     x    x

   5.3 Standard data files - internal formats.

     This section shows the internal format used by each filetype.  Most of
     it was taken from the compatibility section of the x64 manual, and was
     provided by Jouko 'Jopi' Valta.  That section is based on the information
     acquired from news articles written by: (Guntram Blohm)      (Kevin Brisley)

       File:  ram (x64)         Total Size: RAMSIZE + 4013
       Offset   Bytes      Description
       0        RAMSIZE    contents of the RAM

     The following data is not included yet:
       RAMSIZE   4096      I/O area with shadows
       7                  CPU Registers: PC (LO/HI), AC, XR, YR, PS, SP

        File:  x64 Disk File      Total Size: 174912
       Offset   Bytes      Description
        0          4         Magic header: 'C',0x15, 0x41, 0x64

        4          4         Header Version:
                         C1541 Version Major
                         C1541 Version Minor
                         Device Type:   0 = 1541
                         Max Tracks:   35  (from disks v1.2 upwards)

       64      256 byte sectors

       File:  *.d64 disk image   Total Size: 174878

      D64 file contains all sectors as they appear on the 1541 formatted disk.
      Each sector is 256 bytes long. Error information (1 byte per sector)
      can be added in the end of file.

      File types currently supported

      174848 bytes = 35 tracks
      175531 bytes = 35 tracks + 683 bytes error information
      196608 bytes = 40 tracks
      197376 bytes = 40 tracks + 768 bytes error information

      Track sizes

      Tracks, size
        1-17   21 sectors * 256 bytes
       18-24   19 sectors * 256 bytes
       25-30   18 sectors * 256 bytes
       31-35   17 sectors * 256 bytes
      *36-40*  17 sectors * 256 bytes

      Tracks 36-40 are non-standard.

      Actual layout for 35 track image

       Offset, size, description
        0*256, 256   track 1, sector 0
        1*256, 256   track 1, sector 1
       20*256, 256   track 1, sector 20
       21*256, 256   track 2, sector 0
      682*256, 256   track 35, sector 16
      683*256, 683   error info (byte per sector in the same order)

Sectors are 256 bytes. Sector 0 is at offset $00000 in the .d64 file.
Sector 1 is at offset $00100 in the .d64 file, and so on.

A normal 1541-format disk is divided into 4 'zones' -
zone 1 = tracks 1-17 with 21 sectors (numbered 0-20)
zone 2 = tracks 18-24 with 19 sectors (numbered 0-18)
zone 3 = tracks 25-30 with 18 sectors (numbered 0-17)
zone 4 = tracks 31-35 with 17 sectors (numbered 0-16)

  The directory lies on track 18.  The following info is for
  track 18 -
  sector 0 =      Block Availability Map (bytes 00-8f, bitmapped)
                  bytes 90-9f = disk name (16 chars, space padded)
                  The first 2 bytes are track and sector to the
                  first directory block. Usually the first directory
                  block is the very next block on the disk
  directory blocks:
                  byte 0 = track of next directory block
                  byte 1 = sector of next directory block
                  bytes 2-31 = file entry #1
                  bytes 32-33 = unused (should be 0)
                  bytes 34-63 = file entry #2
                  bytes 64-65 = unused,  etc etc
  The first byte of a file entry is the type of file ($82 = PRG,
  $81 = SEQ, $83 = USR, $80 = DEL, $84 = REL).  The next two bytes
  point to the track & sector of the first sector of the file.
  The next 16 bytes is the filename (padded).  The last two bytes
  (i.e. bytes 30 & 31) gives the block count of the file (in low
  byte/high byte format).

  Each file block has 254 bytes of data, unless it is the last block. The
  first 2 bytes of each block are the track and sector of the next block.
  If the track is zero then this is the last block, and the sector # really
  tells the number of bytes used out of the 254 possible. The use count is
  the number of bytes used plus 1--so if the sector # has a $05, then really
  only $04 bytes were used out of the last block.

  The directory is at offset $16500 in the .d64 files. Tracks references
  start at 1. Sector references start at 0. So if the first 2 bytes of a
  block are $06 04, the absolute location is at
      5 * $1500 + 4 * $100.
  (5 because that's $06 minus 1. $1500 because at track $06 there are 21
  sectors per track, or $1500 bytes. 4 because that is the sector number,
  and $100 because that's the number of bytes in a sector.)

  The disk has a total of 35 tracks. There are 17 trachs with 21 sectors (357
  sectors total), 7 tracks with 19 sectors (133 sectors total), 6 tracks
  with 18 sectors (108 sectors total), and 5 tracks with 17 sectors (85
  sectors total). So total sectors per disk (or .d64 image) is
    357+133+108+85 = 683 total, or 174,848 bytes total, which is the exact
  size of the .d64 files.

       File:  *.t64 tape image Total Size: Varies
       Offset   Bytes      Description
        0         64          Tape Record:
        0         32            Tape description + EOF (for type)
       32          2            Tape version: $0100
       34          2            Max number of files, in LO/HI
       36          2            Number of existing files, in LO/HI
       38          2             -
       40         24            User description, as displayed in file menu

       64         32*n       File Record(s) for each of n files:
        +0       1            Slot allocation flag:
                              00 = free entry
                              01 = normal tape file
                              03 = memory snapshot v0.9, uncompressed
                              02..FF = reserved for memory snapshots
        +1       1            File type
        +2       2            Start address in C64 memory, in LO/HI
        +4       2            End address in C64 memory, in LO/HI
        +6       2             -
        +8       4            File start address on the image, in LO/HI
       +12       4             -
       +16      16            C64 filename

      64+32*n   ???      File contents.

   Wolfgang Lorenz (author of PC64) posted the following in an open letter
   to Miha Peternel (author of C64S).  AFAIK there's been no reply.

   There is some ambiguity in the T64 file format. Could you please make a
   statement if the following assumptions are correct?

   Tape Record

   Offset, size, description
        0, 32    DOS tape description, ASCII charset, contains either
                 "C64S tape file",13,10,"Demo tape",26,"......" (no 0!) or
                 "C64S tape image file",0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 or
                 "C64 tape image file",13,10,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0
                 To identify a T64 file, search for the sub-strings "C64" and
       32, 2     tape version, currently $0100 or $0101
       34, 2     number of directory entries, mostly $001E
       36, 2     number of used entries (0 for unknown)
       38, 2     free
       40, 24    user description as displayed in tape menu, CBM charset,
                 padded with space

   File Record

   Offset, size, description
        0, 1     entry type
                 0 = free entry
                 1 = normal tape file
                 3 = memory snapshot v0.9, uncompressed
                 2..255 reserved (for memory snapshots...)
        1, 1     C64 secondary address, mostly 1
        2, 2     start address
        4, 2     end address
        6, 2     free
        8, 4     offset of file contents start within T64 file
       12, 4     free
       16, 16    C64 file name, CBM charset, padded with space

   Example Structure Definitions for C and C++

   struct {
     char acTag[32];
     word wVersion;
     word wEntries;
     word wUsedEntries;
     word wReserved;
     byte abName[24];
   } T64Header;

   struct {
     byte bType;
     byte bSecAdr;
     word wStartAdr;
     word wEndAdr;
     word wReserved;
     long lOffset;
     long lReserved;
     byte abName[16];
   } T64Entry;

       File:  CBM Files      Total Size: Varies
       Offset   Bytes      Description
        0          2          Load address in LO/HI format.

       File:  *.p00 file image Total Size: Varies
       Offset   Bytes      Description
        0          8         String "C64File" terminated by 00.
+       9         17         Original C64 Filename.
+      25          1         Record size for REL files.
       26                  Original file

  5.4 Converting between file formats.

  Instructions on how to interconvert between all of the formats used
  by the various C64 emulators.
  One thing to keep in mind is that there are some 'all in one' conversion
  programs which convert from any format to another; 64Copy is an example.


  1) .d64 - Disk image used by C64s 
  2) .t64 - Tape image used by C64s
  3) .p00 - image format used by PC64


  1) .p00 to .t64
   a) Start PC64
   b) First get a "Manager" window up
   c) Place the cursor on the *.P00 file you want converted
   d) Then use "Manager/Export" (ALT-M-E). This will save it as a *.PRG.
   e) Then use MAKETAPE.EXE to make a *.t64 file.

  2) .t64 to .p00
   Use t64top00.exe, which comes with PC64 and creates p00 copies of all the
   t64 files in a directory tree.

   6. How to extract the Rom images required by the emulators.

  Type in the following files on your C64 and run them to get the rom image
  files. Then transfer those files onto the machine that you require.
  See the comp.sys.cbm FAQ section 7 for some details on transfers.

  Alternatively, You could get TheA64Package.lha and extract the file called
  TheA64Package/64Prgs/SaveROMs. This will extract the basic and kernal roms
  from a C64.

  Note that this stuff is only required if your emulator doesn't come with
  ROMs.  Both C64S and PC64 come with ROMS, so don't worry about that.

   6.1 C64 roms - Basic, Kernal & Charset.

  C64 BASIC ROM extractor:

   10 OPEN 5,8,2,"64BASIC,P,W"
   20 FOR X=40960 TO 49151:PRINT#2,CHR$(PEEK(X));:NEXT
   30 CLOSE 5

  C64 KERNEL ROM extractor:

   10 OPEN 5,8,2,"64KERNEL,P,W"
   20 FOR X=57344 TO 65535:PRINT#2,CHR$(PEEK(X));:NEXT
   30 CLOSE 5

  C64 BASIC and Kernal ROM extractor:

   10 OPEN5,8,5,"0:C64ROM,S,W"
   20 FOR X=40960 TO 49151
   30 A$=CHR$(PEEK(X))
   40 PRINT#5,A$;:NEXT
   50 FOR X=57344 TO 65535
   60 A$=CHR$(PEEK(X))
   70 PRINT#5,A$;:NEXT
   90 CLOSE5

  C64 Character ROM extractor:

   10 POKE 56334,0:POKE 1,51
   20 FOR X=16384 TO 20479:POKE X,PEEK(X+36864):NEXT
   30 POKE 1,55:POKE 56334,1
   40 OPEN 5,8,5,"64CHARGEN,P,W"
   50 FOR X=16384 TO 20479
   70 CLOSE 5

   6.2 VIC20 roms - Basic, Kernel & Charset.

  VIC20 BASIC ROM extractor:

   10 OPEN 5,8,2,"V20BASIC,P,W"
   20 FOR X=49152 TO 57343:PRINT#5,CHR$(PEEK(X));:NEXT
   30 CLOSE 5

  VIC20 KERNEL ROM extractor:

   10 OPEN 5,8,2,"V20KERNEL,P,W"
   20 FOR X=57344 TO 65535:PRINT#5,CHR$(PEEK(X));:NEXT
   30 CLOSE 5

  VIC20 Character ROM extractor:

   10 OPEN 5,8,2,"V20CHARGEN,P,W"
   20 FOR X=32768 TO 36863:PRINT#5,CHR$(PEEK(X));:NEXT
   30 CLOSE 5

   6.3 1541 rom.

  C1541 ROM extractor:

  Extract area $C000-$FFFF

   100 B=16384:I=B
   110 OPEN 15,8,15
   120 FOR H=192 TO 255:PRINT H;
   130 FOR L=0 TO 255
   140 PRINT#15,"M-R";CHR$(L);CHR$(H)
   150 GET#15,A$
   160 Z=FRE(0)
   170 POKE I,ASC(A$+CHR$(0))
   180 I=I+1:NEXT L
   190 NEXT H
   200 CLOSE 15
   210 OPEN 5,8,5,"0:C1541ROM,P,W"
   230 CLOSE 5

   7. Other information.

   7.1 Newsgroups worth reading.

  If you want to ask a question about an emulator or read what other
  people are saying, then I recommend that you read comp.emulators.cbm :)
  Another good group to read for general info about Commodore 8bit machines
  is comp.sys.cbm.

   7.2 Emulator benchmarks.

  Some people are interested in the relative speed of the emulators with
  respect to the actual machine it's emulating.  So far, only the following
  simple test program has been used in benchmarking emulators.  More tests
  and more machines are needed!

  Benchmark test #1.

  10 a = ti
  20 print "[clr/home]"
  30 for i = 1 to 1000
  40 print "[up][up]"; i ; i * i
  50 next
  60 print "[down][down] time = "; ti -a


  "Machine"               "Config"     "Software"   "Score"

  C64                     PAL          CBM BASIC     1508
  C128                    64 mode      CBM BASIC     1590
  C128                    40 col       CBM BASIC     2226
  C128                    40 col fast  CBM BASIC     1071 (1)
  C128                    80 col       CBM BASIC     4072
  C128                    80 col fast  CBM BASIC     2062
  Sun SPARC IPC           8Mb RAM      x64-0.2.2     1452 (2)
  Osborne 486 DX2/50      16Mb RAM     c64hercules    286
  Osborne 486 DX2/50      16Mb RAM     c64sally       234
  Osborne 486 DX2/50      16Mb RAM     c64s10cd      1486
  Osborne 486 DX2/50      16Mb RAM     c64neu        2985
  Osborne 486 DX2/50      16Mb RAM     c64alive       --- (3)
  Amiga 3000/25           6Mb RAM      A64v2          788
  Amiga 4000/060-50       20Mb RAM     Frodo V2.3    1463
  Amiga 4000/060-50       20Mb RAM     Frodo SC V2.3 1508
  Atari 1040 STfm         Hi-res       c64.tos       3567 (58 s real)
  Atari 1040 STfm         Low-res      c64.tos       3624 (58 s real)
+ Power Macintosh         6100/60      Power64       1510 (4)

  (1) Screen automatically blanked during test.
  (2) "ti" clock doesn't necessarilly keep real time in x64.  In x64 the ti
      clock is relative to the virtual speed, not the wall clock time.
  (3) c64alive wouldn't run on the test machine. Doh.
+ (4) Emulator speed set to 100%; Other speeds selectable

   7.3 Emulator detection.

  Writers of software on the C64 or emulators may wish to know whether the
  "machine" their code is executing on is a real C64, or not.  A small
  BASIC program was written by Wolfgang Lorenz, and posted by Paul David
  Doherty, which tests this.

  Critical addresses for the PIA expansion
  The critical addresses of the device are 57216--57343 ($DF80--$DFFF).
  There is the PIA chip to which you POKE the values to switch memory
  blocks. The PIA does not have 128 registers, as one might think. There
  are sixteen copies of its 4 addresses in that memory area. For instance,
  the addresses 57216, 57284, 57288 and 57340 are equivalent to each

   Here's a small CBM-BASIC program by Wolfgang Lorenz which tests 
   whether it is running on a real C-64 or on an emulator.  It also
   contains a suggested method for emulators to allow other programs
   to detect them.  This detection method is already implemented 
   in the PC64 and C64S emulators; it would be nice if other emulators
   (A64, MAC64, C64ALIVE, X64) would adhere to it too.

100 rem ********* where am i? *********
110 rem -------------------------------
120 rem this is the recommended method
130 rem how to detect a c64 emulator,
140 rem e.g. for disabling fast loaders
150 rem
160 rem - the byte at $dfff changes
170 rem   between $55 and $aa
180 rem - the byte at $dffe contains
190 rem   the manufacturer code letter:
200 rem   a = c64alive
210 rem   f = frodo
220 rem   p = personal c64
230 rem   s = c64 software emulator
240 rem   x = x64
250 rem   / = power64
260 rem - the word at $dffc contains
270 rem   the emulator version number,
280 rem   e.g. $0120 for version 1.2
290 rem - the bytes from $dfa0 contain
300 rem   a copyright string with
310 rem   emulator name and version,
320 rem   $0d, copyright and $00.
330 rem -------------------------------
340 :
500 print
510 x=57343: rem $dfff
520 if peek(x)<>85 then if peek(x)<>85 then 1000
530 if peek(x)<>170 then 1000
540 if peek(x)<>85  then 1000
550 if peek(x)<>170 then 1000
560 m$=chr$(peek(57342)): rem $dffe
570 print "manufacturer = '"; m$; "' ";
580 if m$="a" then print "(c64alive)";
590 if m$="f" then print "(frodo)";
600 if m$="p" then print "(pc64)";
610 if m$="s" then print "(c64s)";
620 if m$="x" then print "(x64)";
630 if m$="/" then print "(power64)";
640 print
650 :
700 v=peek(57341)*256 + peek(57340): rem $dffd/$dffc
710 h$="0123456789abcdef"
720 for i=0 to 3
730 v$=mid$(h$,1+(v and 15),1)+v$
740 v=int(v/16)
750 next
760 print "version = $";v$
770 print
780 :
800 i=57248: rem $dfa0
810 x=peek(i)
820 if x=0 then print: end
830 print chr$(x);
840 i=i+1
850 goto 810
860 :
900 rem -------------------------------
910 rem these are manufacturer-specific
920 rem workarounds, which should be
930 rem replaced with the official
940 rem emulator detection method
950 :
1000 if peek(60682)<>0 then 1100: rem $ed0a
1010 print "c64 software emulator"
1020 print "(c)1991-94 miha peternel"
1030 end
1040 :
1100 if peek(60736)<>0 then 1200: rem $ed40
1110 print "x64 (version 1 or 2)"
1120 print "(c)1993-94 j.sonninen/t.rantanen/j.valta"
1130 end
1140 :
1200 x=57087: rem $deff
1210 if peek(x)+peek(x)+peek(x)<>0 then 2000
1220 print "c64alive"
1230 print "(c)1993-94 f.littmann developments"
1240 end
1250 :
2000 print "this is an original c64 or c128"

  You can distinquish a real C128 from C64 by testing the VDC status register
  at $D600/$D601: If the value written to $D601 remains intact, its a C128 in
  either mode, otherwise a real C64.  There is no way (or need) to tell C64
  from C64c though.

   7.4 Other sources of information.

   There are a number of WWW addresses that may be of interest...

  - The Commodore 64 WWW Server.
    (Has a few c64s and x64 documents)

  - WWW Personal Computing and Emulation Homepage
    (General emulator pages, not just Commodore)

  - Commodore emulation
    (The Commodore section from the link above)

  - X64 Emulator / Simulator For Unix
    (Offical site for x64)

  - Commodore 64 computing
    (Home of the comp.sys.cbm FAQ)

  - Seattle Labs
    (Marketers of C64S)

  - Frodo and ShapeShifter Homepage
    (Official site for the Frodo emulator)

  - The Official PC64 Homepage

+ - The Power64 Homepage


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