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Rec.Bicycles Frequently Asked Questions Posting Part 4/5
Section - 9.5 Terminology

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      Charles Tryon  <bilbo@bisco.kodak.com>

Ashtabula Crank
	A one-piece crank -- the crank arm starts on one side of the
	bike, bends to go through the bottom bracket, and bends
	again on the other side to go down to the other pedal.
	Typically heavy, cheap, and robust.  See ``cottered crank''
	and ``cotterless crank''.  Ashtabula is the name of the
	original manufacturer, I think.

Biopace Chainring

	Chainrings that are more oval rather than round.  The idea was
	to redistribute the forces of pedaling to different points as your 
	feet go around, due to the fact that there are "dead spots" in the
	stroke.  The concensus is pretty much that they work ok for
	novices, but get in the way for more experienced riders.

Cassette Freewheel

	A cassette freewheel is used with a freehub.  The part of
	a normal freewheel that contains the pawls that transfer
	chain motion to the wheel (or allows the wheel to spin
	while the chain doesn't move) is part of the wheel hub.
	The cassette is the cogs, usually held together with small
	screws.
	
Cleat

	A cleat attaches to the bottom of a cycling shoe.  Older style
	cleats have a slot that fits over the back of the pedal,
	and in conjunction with toe clips and straps, hold your foot
	on the pedal.  New "clipless" pedals have a specially designed
	cleat that locks into the pedal, sometimes with some ability
	to move side-to-side so as not to stress knees.

Cottered Crank
	A three-piece crank with two arms and an axle.  The arms
	each have a hole that fits over the end of the axle and a
	second hole that runs tangential to the first.  The crank
	axle has a tangential notch at each end.  A *cotter* is a
	tapered and rounded bar of metal that is inserted in the
	tangential hole in the crank arm and presses against the
	tangential notch in the crank axle.  The cotter is held in
	place by a nut screwed on at the thin end of the cotter.
	Ideally, the cotter is removed with a special tool.  Often,
	however, it is removed by banging on it with a hammer.  If
	you do the latter (gads!) be sure (a) to unscrew the nut
	until the end of the cotter is nearly flush, but leave it on
	so that it will straighten the threads when you unscrew it
	farther and (b) brace the other side of the crank with
	something very solid (the weight of the bike should be
	resting on that `something') so that the force of the
	banging is not transmitted through the bottom bracket
	bearings.

Cotterless Crank
	A three-piece crank with two arms and an axle.  Currently
	(1991) the most common kind of crank.  The crank axle has
	tapered square ends, the crank arms have mating tapered
	square ends.  The crank arm is pressed on and the taper
	ensures a snug fit.  The crank arm is drawn on and held in
	place with either nuts (low cost, ``nutted'' cotterless
	cranks) or with bolts.  A special tool is required to remove
	a cotterless crank.

Crank Axle
	The axle about which the crank arms and pedals revolve.  May
	be integrated with the cranks (Ashtabula) or a separate
	piece (cottered and cotterless).

Fender
	Also called a ``mudguard''.  Looked down upon by tweak
	cyclists, but used widely in the Pacific Northwest and many
	non-US parts of the world.  Helps keep the rider cleaner and
	drier.  Compare to ``rooster tail''.

Frame Table
	A big strong table that Will Not Flex and which has anchors
	at critical places -- dropouts, bottom bracket, seat, head.
	It also has places to attach accurate measuring instruments
	like dial gauges, scratch needles, etc.  The frame is clamped
	to the table and out-of-line parts are yielded into alignment.

High-Wheeler
	A bicycle with one large wheel and one small wheel.  The
	commonest are large front/small rear.  A small number are
	small front/large rear.  See ``ordinary'' or
	``penny-farthing'' and contrast to ``safety''.

Hyperglide Freewheel

	Freewheel cogs with small "ramps" cut into the sides of the cogs
	which tend to pull the chain more quickly to the next larger cog
	when shifting.

Ordinary
	See ``penny-farthing''.

Penny-Farthing
	An old-fashioned ``high wheeler'' bicycle with a large
	(60", 150cm) front wheel and a much smaller rear wheel, the
	rider sits astride the front wheel and the pedals are
	connected directly to the front wheel like on many
	children's tricycles.  Also called ``ordinary'', and
	distinguished from either a small front/large rear high
	wheeler or a ``safety'' bicycle.

Rooster Tail
	A spray of water flung off the back wheel as the bicycle
	rolls through water.  Particularly pronounced on bikes
	without fenders.  See also ``fender''.

Safety
	Named after the ``Rover Safety'' bicycle, the contemporary
	layout of equal-sized wheels with rear chain drive.  Compare
	to ``ordinary''.

Spindle
	See ``crank axle''.

Three-Piece Crank
	A cottered or cotterless crank; compare to Ashtabula.

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