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Rec.Bicycles Frequently Asked Questions Posting Part 4/5
Section - 9.5 Terminology

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      Charles Tryon  <>

Ashtabula Crank
	A one-piece crank -- the crank arm starts on one side of the
	bike, bends to go through the bottom bracket, and bends
	again on the other side to go down to the other pedal.
	Typically heavy, cheap, and robust.  See ``cottered crank''
	and ``cotterless crank''.  Ashtabula is the name of the
	original manufacturer, I think.

Biopace Chainring

	Chainrings that are more oval rather than round.  The idea was
	to redistribute the forces of pedaling to different points as your 
	feet go around, due to the fact that there are "dead spots" in the
	stroke.  The concensus is pretty much that they work ok for
	novices, but get in the way for more experienced riders.

Cassette Freewheel

	A cassette freewheel is used with a freehub.  The part of
	a normal freewheel that contains the pawls that transfer
	chain motion to the wheel (or allows the wheel to spin
	while the chain doesn't move) is part of the wheel hub.
	The cassette is the cogs, usually held together with small

	A cleat attaches to the bottom of a cycling shoe.  Older style
	cleats have a slot that fits over the back of the pedal,
	and in conjunction with toe clips and straps, hold your foot
	on the pedal.  New "clipless" pedals have a specially designed
	cleat that locks into the pedal, sometimes with some ability
	to move side-to-side so as not to stress knees.

Cottered Crank
	A three-piece crank with two arms and an axle.  The arms
	each have a hole that fits over the end of the axle and a
	second hole that runs tangential to the first.  The crank
	axle has a tangential notch at each end.  A *cotter* is a
	tapered and rounded bar of metal that is inserted in the
	tangential hole in the crank arm and presses against the
	tangential notch in the crank axle.  The cotter is held in
	place by a nut screwed on at the thin end of the cotter.
	Ideally, the cotter is removed with a special tool.  Often,
	however, it is removed by banging on it with a hammer.  If
	you do the latter (gads!) be sure (a) to unscrew the nut
	until the end of the cotter is nearly flush, but leave it on
	so that it will straighten the threads when you unscrew it
	farther and (b) brace the other side of the crank with
	something very solid (the weight of the bike should be
	resting on that `something') so that the force of the
	banging is not transmitted through the bottom bracket

Cotterless Crank
	A three-piece crank with two arms and an axle.  Currently
	(1991) the most common kind of crank.  The crank axle has
	tapered square ends, the crank arms have mating tapered
	square ends.  The crank arm is pressed on and the taper
	ensures a snug fit.  The crank arm is drawn on and held in
	place with either nuts (low cost, ``nutted'' cotterless
	cranks) or with bolts.  A special tool is required to remove
	a cotterless crank.

Crank Axle
	The axle about which the crank arms and pedals revolve.  May
	be integrated with the cranks (Ashtabula) or a separate
	piece (cottered and cotterless).

	Also called a ``mudguard''.  Looked down upon by tweak
	cyclists, but used widely in the Pacific Northwest and many
	non-US parts of the world.  Helps keep the rider cleaner and
	drier.  Compare to ``rooster tail''.

Frame Table
	A big strong table that Will Not Flex and which has anchors
	at critical places -- dropouts, bottom bracket, seat, head.
	It also has places to attach accurate measuring instruments
	like dial gauges, scratch needles, etc.  The frame is clamped
	to the table and out-of-line parts are yielded into alignment.

	A bicycle with one large wheel and one small wheel.  The
	commonest are large front/small rear.  A small number are
	small front/large rear.  See ``ordinary'' or
	``penny-farthing'' and contrast to ``safety''.

Hyperglide Freewheel

	Freewheel cogs with small "ramps" cut into the sides of the cogs
	which tend to pull the chain more quickly to the next larger cog
	when shifting.

	See ``penny-farthing''.

	An old-fashioned ``high wheeler'' bicycle with a large
	(60", 150cm) front wheel and a much smaller rear wheel, the
	rider sits astride the front wheel and the pedals are
	connected directly to the front wheel like on many
	children's tricycles.  Also called ``ordinary'', and
	distinguished from either a small front/large rear high
	wheeler or a ``safety'' bicycle.

Rooster Tail
	A spray of water flung off the back wheel as the bicycle
	rolls through water.  Particularly pronounced on bikes
	without fenders.  See also ``fender''.

	Named after the ``Rover Safety'' bicycle, the contemporary
	layout of equal-sized wheels with rear chain drive.  Compare
	to ``ordinary''.

	See ``crank axle''.

Three-Piece Crank
	A cottered or cotterless crank; compare to Ashtabula.

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Marr viewers back 'outstanding' Nigel Farage over fiery BBC interview

Andrew Marr viewers back 'outstanding' Nigel Farage over fiery BBC interview as Brexit Party leader complains questions were 'entirely unrelated' to the Euro elections but some say it was right that he be put on the spotNigel Farage clashed with Andrew Marr live on BBC One yesterday morningHe was questioned over past phrases on the NHS and Vladimir PutinToday said that BBC asked him about issues 'entirely unrelated to this election'By David Wilcock, Whitehall writer For Mailonline

published: 17:29 BST, 13 May 2019 kept up to date: 18:03 BST, 13 nicely 2019

Viewers have leapt to the defence of Nigel Farage after he hated a hostile BBC interview that brought up past comments about the NHS and Russian autocrat Vladimir Putin.

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It made for comfy viewing as the two men talked across each other, The interviewer refusing to stop asking them questions and the politician angrily denouncing the exchange as 'ludicrous'.

Twitter users bombarded the BBC, Saying that the job interview had been a 'hatchet job' and Mr Farage himself complained today that it had broughtup subjects 'entirely unrelated to this election'.

Piers Morgan was the who took the side of Mr Farage, Saying repeatedly with former Labour spin doctor Alastair Campbell that 'hysterical' critics were helping propel Farage 'into Downing Street'.

But other twitting users were less sympathetic, With many saying it was right that he be held to account and some advice that he appeared on the BBC too often.

Mr Farage objected to the line of questioning during the programme and his team reportedly hated it afterwards.

Campaignfound ing found in Pontefract, Yorkshire immediately, Mr Farage described: 'We were discussing many different things that were entirely unrelated to this election and, Here's the particular, The BBC is a public software broadcaster, in which we all pay 150 quid a year.

'Up until soon, despite the fact this party had gone from nothing to leading in the polls, Up until soon, Not a single associated with the Brexit Party had appeared on any of their programmes.

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Nigel Farage says its his 'duty to face as MP at the next. Theresa May is ready to let MPs decide on how to break.

'We had little or no of that. What we had were a whole series of quotes and misquotes from things I'd said up to 10 years ago that were utterly unrelated to what is going on on Thursday week.

'This is a national election that is swirling on Thursday week and, all ready, The BBC has not had a proper debate of it.

'I think that an outrage.'

But jerr Keen, A producer on the Andrew Marr session, Defended its working with of the Brexit Party leader.

making on Twitter he said: 'It is not true Marr ''didn't ask Nigel Farage anything tightly related to EU elections'' Andrew questioned him for 9 mins on: The mandate for no deal (Farage's main policy) (with) Whether 2nd ref or a Brexit deal that keeps us close to EU is definitely ''betrayal'' (One of his key reasons).or,--

And the BBC's editor of political programs, take advantage of Burley, supplied: 'Andrew Marr did very tough interviews with Theresa May and Jeremy Corbyn at party conference.

'Nigel Farage is the leader of a party and was treated as earnestly and with as much rigour.'

Mr Marr insisted it was reasonable to ask Mr Farage about previ (...)

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