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REEFKEEPERS FAQ: Catalogs, Q&A, Books, Tables, Credits (3/3)

( Part1 - Part2 - Part3 )
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Archive-name: aquaria/reefkeeper-faq/part3
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See reader questions & answers on this topic! - Help others by sharing your knowledge
Reef Keepers Frequently Asked Questions (Part 3 of 3)

Note: This header is copied into all three parts

(Well, more or less.  Actually, this is a composite document written
by many folks.  It contains information each participant felt was
basic information required for anyone considering maintaining a reef
tank.  In reality, it's turned into a bit of a reference document.
Some of the information has been taken from public forums like the
Internet UseNet *.aquaria groups.  Credit to the authors of such
information is given next to their contribution.)

Note that starting with 1.12, new and/or changed items are marked with
an "*" in the far left column.

*Release 1.12 - 17 Aug, 1994 (more corrections and minor area expansions)
Release 1.11 - 18 Apr, 1994 (some corrections and minor area expansions)
Release 1.10 - 9 Sep, 1993 (Significant additions to test kit and protein
                            skimming sections. Many spelling and grammar
                            corrections, some style and format alterations.)
Release 1.02 - September 1st, 1993    (Reorganized, split into 3 pieces)
Release 1.01 - July 1st, 1993     (First Public Release)
Release 1.00 - May 12th, 1993  
*Copyright 1993, 1994, ReefKeepers, All Rights Reserved

ReefKeepers, for purposes of the copyright, is the group of authors
listed at the end of this 3-part document.  Permission is granted for
it to be copied (unmodified) in either electronic or hardcopy form by
nonprofit organizations if it is copied in its entirety and used in
stand-alone form.  This document may not otherwise be published,
posted, uploaded, replicated or copied by any method, electronic or
physical, without the explicit permission of ALL of the listed
contributors.

The authors of this document have kindly spent the time to bring you
their opinions.  They are not liable in any form or fashion, nor are
their employers, for how you use this information.  Their opinions
should not be construed as fact; don't blame them if your tank has
problems.

You may get a copy of this FAQ via FTP from the following sites:

percula.acs.uci.edu (128.200.34.15)     /reefkeepers/faq
*ftp.cco.caltech.edu (131.215.48.151)    /pub/aquaria/FAQfiles/Reefkeepers

/---------------------------------------------------------------------------/

Table of Contents

Basic Sections:

Part 1)

1.0	Water (Filters/Additives/Test Kits)
	1.1 Source Water -  City Mains Water Is Not Good Enough
		1.1.1 Background
		1.1.2 DI Filters
		1.1.3 RO Filters
		1.1.4 Further Comments About Water
	1.2 Additives
	1.3 Testable Parameters
		1.3.1 Alkalinity
		1.3.2 Calcium
		1.3.3 pH
		1.3.4 Nitrate (NO3)
		1.3.5 Phosphate (PO4)
		1.3.6 Specific Gravity
	1.4 Water Changes
2.0  	Filtration and Equipment
	2.1 Live Rock
	2.2 Protein Skimmers
                2.2.1 Counter Current Air Driven Protein Skimmers
                2.2.2 Venturi Protein Skimmers
                2.2.3 Protein Skimmer Considerations
	2.3 Granular Activated Carbon (GAC)
	2.4 Other Chemical Filter Media (X-Whatever)
	2.5 Mechanical Filtration
	2.6 Under Gravel Filters (UGF)
	2.7 Reverse Flow UGFs (RUGF)
	2.8 Trickle Filters
	2.9 Algae Scrubbers (somewhat long)
	2.10 Live Sand
3.0	Lights
*	3.1 General Discussion
*	3.2 Detail Discussion
*	3.3 Lighting Data
4.0	Cost Estimates

Part 2)

5.0	Stock 
	5.1 Common to Scientific Name Cross Reference
	5.2 Coral Aggression Chart
	5.3 Corals [Cnidaria (Anthozoa)]
	5.4 Shelled Things
	5.5 Algae
	5.6 Possible Problems
*	5.7 Hermit Crabs

Part 3) 

6.0     General Catalogs
7.0     Questions and Answers
8.0     Book Review
9.0     Useful Tables
10.0    Credits

=============================================================================

6.0	General Catalogs

Here is a list of non-aquarium related catalogs that have items
that may be of use to the serious aquarist and DIYer.

Ayn Plastic 1-800-431-2451
  A nationwide plastic supplier.  They have about a dozen outlets
  and also ship orders.  The catalog contains info and specs on many 
  types of plastics that are useful for DIY aquarium projects.  They have 
  a $50 minimum order.

C.F. Bowman & Co.
38 Addington Court
East Brunswick, NJ  08816

PH (908) 390-6436
FX (908) 390-6438

C.F. Bowman & Co. I heard of by e-mail, but I later noticed their ad in
FAMA.  Their prices on acrylic tubing look very good, at least; a 60"
long 6" od 1/8" wall clear cast acrylic tube is $35.75, which is about
60% of what I paid.  I didn't find extruded tube, but they do say to call
for items not listed.  They are ostensibly wholesale only, so you may
need to give a company name.  They also have a $50 minimum order.

C and H Sales Company
P.O. Box 5356                   2176 E. Colorado Blvd.
Pasadena, CA   91117-9988       Pasadena, CA    91107

(213) 681-4925  (LA)
(818) 796-2628  (Pasadena)
(800) 325-9465

C & H sells a wide collection of surplus and used equipment, ranging from
fans, blowers, pumps (water, air, and otherwise), electronic components,
motors (ac, dc, gearhead, stepper), solenoids, laboratory glassware, chart
recorders, and tools through stranger things like gyrocompasses and a bit
of defense electronics.  Prices vary but are often quite good.  For those
in Southern California, their store has lots of odd items in quantities too
small to include in the catalog.

Cole-Palmer 1-800-323-4340 or 708 647-7600
  A huge catalog of test equipment and related industrial hardware.
  Like Markson, much is beyond the need and budget of a hobbiest
  but much is not.

Grainger Industrial 1-800-323-0620
  A nationwide chain of wholesalers of industrial needs.  They have
  many stores in most states.  There is probably one near you.  They
  have a huge catalog of all sorts of things for DIYers, float-switches,
  ballasts, tools, you name it.  They are a wholesaler so they 
  technically won't sell to individuals.  If you walk in (they have
  a counter just like any retail hardware store) and pay cash and give
  the name of a local company, they will sell to you.  They just need
  to have the name of a company to put on the invoice because legal,
  they are a wholesaler.  You don't need a tax number when you are 
  paying cash.  You can just go in and give them the name of the
  company where you work.  It is probably a good idea to call ahead and
  see if the item you want is in stock.

Hach - Products for Analysis 1-800-227-4224
  A catalog of testing items.  This is the next step if you want
  better test kits than best kits normally available to hobbiest 
  (like Lamotte).  Many of their products are not beyond the budget
  of a serious hobbiest.  The also carry chemistry hardware like
  glassware.

Herbach and Rademan 1-800-848-8001
  A miscellaneous junk catalog with all sorts of electronic, mechanical,
  and pumping widgets and other gadgets.  Also, surplus junk like
  power supplies.

  A catalog of a variety of scientific equipment, mostly chemistry related.  
  Many of their items are well beyond the need and budget of hobbiest but
  much of it is not.

The Surplus Center 1-???-???-????
  Another miscellaneous junk catalog with much the same stuff as H&R.

United States Plastic Corp.
1390 Neubrecht Rd.
Lima, Ohio  45801
1-800-537-9724

US Plastics sells a large selection of basic materials, plus an equally
large assortment of various manufactured items made of plastic and some
related items like fluid pumps.  A few of the less common items which
come to mind are clear pvc, plastic tanks up to a few thousand gallons,
ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene stock, flexible impeller pumps,
and plastic welders.  Of special interest to the diy'er would be items
like the thickened acrylic cement (IMHO required for the best and
strongest watertight acrylic joints), their rod, pipe, tube, and sheet
stock in pvc and acrylic (where else do you find clear sheet pvc, or
90 degree sweep fittings for lower backpressure?), and the large food-
quality drums for storing RO/DI water and mixed saltwater.  The fun of
finding stuff you didn't know existed shouldn't be under-rated, either.

7.0	Some Questions and Answers

Q: Can I do this cheaply?
A: No, relative to a similar size fish-only tank. (See cost estimate 
   section)

Q: What if all I want to keep is Anemones?
A: Water quality requirements drop some (Nitrates should remain under 
   20ppm NO3-).

Q: What are good test kits?
A: Tetra Hardness
   Hach Nitrate, Calcium, Iron, Phosphate - (303) 669-3050
   LaMotte Phosphate

   Hach Test kit details:

   Calcium:  Cat. No. 1457-01, Model HA-4P, $47.50, 100 test
             Dilute your sample 2:1 (Distilled:Saltwater).  
             Each drop of titrant will equal 24mg/l of Ca++.
	     Dilution saves titrant, and yields clearer results
	     with sufficient accuracy.

   Iron:     Cat. No. 22993-00, Model IR-21, $57.50, 100 test
             Very important if Macro Algae growth of primary interest.

   Nitrate:  Cat. No. 14161-00, Model NI-14, $42.50, 50 test
	     Suggest ordering Saltwater reagent, Cat. No. 20761-99, $18.50
	     for 100 test.

   Phosphate: Cat. No. 2248-00, Model PO-19, $54.50, 100 test
	     This test is 2.5 times more sensitive than the LaMotte
	     test.  The Hach is rated down to 0.02ppm, the LaMotte 0.05ppm.

   Silica:   Cat. No. 22550-00, Model SI-7, $72.50, 100 test
	     Not tested by any of the authors of this FAQ.  Mentioned
	     due to its availability and track record of Hach kits.

Q: What about cheaper kits?
A: Kordon Ammonia, Nitrite, low-end Nitrate not bad for gross measurement,
   will need Hach Nitrate after water is in proper pollution range.

Q: Which Salt Mix is best?
A: Instant Ocean works for many.
   Reef Crystal has had reported problems.
   Tropic Marin recommended by some.
   Coralife dissolves fast, can sometimes be found cheap.

   Note that all 50 gallon bags of salt are not the same.  Instant
   Ocean bags weigh in at 16lbs each, Coralife at 14.5lbs each.  There
   is no magic here, at a given temperature, a bag of IO will make a 
   solution of higher specific gravity (or more gallons at the same 
   specific gravity) than a bag of Coralife will. 

Q: How do I get rid of algae in my reef tank?

A: There are three types of undesirable "algae" that commonly grow in
   reef tanks: long green strands of hair algae, short fuzzy green turf
   algae, and brown or red slime algae.  Some people also consider fleshy
   macro algaes, such as Caulerpa, to be a pest as they can overgrow and
   choke out soft corals.  Desirable algaes are the calcarious ones, both
   encrusting coralline algae in pink, purple, white, yellow, maroon and
   brown, and larger calcarious algae such as halimeda.  Some believe that
   any Macroalgae (Caulerpa, Halimeda, etc.) do not belong in Reef tanks.

   "Slime" algae is actually cyanobacteria, not an algae.  While its
   growth is often a sign of poor water quality, it grows in some tanks
   with fairly good water quality.  Too much iodine and too little
   current are known to encourage its growth.  Nothing is known to eat
   it.  The best thing to do is to siphon this out as soon as it appears.
   If it threatens to overgrow everything, it can be treated chemically
   with a light dose of Maracyn, which has not been seen to harm the
   biofilter or hardy inverts.  Treat once with one 200mg table per 15-20
   gallons, leaving your skimmer off for 24 hours.  When you turn the
   skimmer back on, it will foam like crazy and remove the remaining
   medication very quickly.  This will clear the tank, although if water
   conditions are not otherwise improved, it may return in a few weeks.

   Others have found cyanobacteria surviving, and sometimes blooming,
   in tanks that have excellent water quality.  They used a somewhat
   different schedule of Maracyn treatment to eradicate the infestation:
   One 200 mg tablet per 50 gallons total water capacity (don't forget
   the sump and skimmers) dosed daily for 5 days.  Their experience is
   that this will permanently cure the problem, without any return.  Of
   course, if the bacteria is re-introduced to the tank, all bets are off. 
   They also disable the skimmer during the treatment, and siphon off all
   dead and dying material after day 3.

   The best way to deal with hair and turf algae is not to let it grow to
   begin with.  Keep the tank dark while it is initially cycling.  Keep
   nitrates and phosphates as low as possible, and siphon out detritus.
   Keep herbivores in the tank.  Snails (as many as 1 for every 2-3
   gallons) will eat turf algae, and hair algae before it gets long.
   Tangs (especially Kole, Sailfin, and Yellow) and many small blennies
   will eat many forms of algae.  If the tank does become overgrown, pull
   as much as possible out by hand.  Reduce the light cycle, or if there
   is nothing light sensitive in the tank, leave it in darkness for a
   couple of weeks.  Get more herbivores.  Be sure to siphon out their
   droppings, which if left in the tank make great algae fertilizer.  I
   have found that urchins can help recover an overgrown tank, although
   they will knock things over and eat any kind of algae, including
   desirable calcarious algaes.

8.0	Book Review and Comments:

"The Marine Aquarium Handbook, Beginner to Breeder"
by Martin A. Moe, Jr.
1982.  Norns Publishing Company
ISBN 0-939960-02-08

                           Best way to learn the very basics, and an excellent
                           first reference on many topics afterwards.  Not
                           reef oriented.  A must buy for the beginner.

"The Marine Aquarium Reference, Systems and Invertebrates"
by Martin A. Moe, Jr.
1989. Green Turtle Publications, Florida
ISBN 0-939960-05-2

                           The place to begin looking for almost every topic.
                           Discussion of filtration is exhaustive, though
                           a bit spare on modern Berlin practice (is this
                           still true in the new edition?).  A must buy for
                           every reefkeeper.


"Advanced Reef Keeping I, A Comprehensive Guide to Setting up Your
Reef Tank."
by Albert J. Thiel
1989. Aardvark Press
ISBN 0-945777-01-9

"Small Reef Aquarium Basics, The Optimum Aquarium for the Reef Hobbyist"
by Albert J. Thiel
1989.  Aardvark Press
ISBN - 0945777-02-7

                           Some good information buried among dubious advice
                           and the most wretched editing ever conceived.  His
                           filtration ideas are rather old-fashioned.  This
                           guy sold the expensive equipment that he
                           recommends, so Caveat Emptor should be your motto.

Thiel advocates one particular way of maintaining reef aquaria.  It's
not the only way, and it may not be the best way, but it does work.  
The usual advise is for people to read his books, but to do so skeptically.

"Corals of the World, Biology and Field Guide"
by Dr. Elizabeth M. Wood
1983. T.F.H. Publications
ISBN 0-87666-809-0
TFH# H-1049
                           A good reference for anyone who intends to keep
                           stony corals.  Like other books not specifically
                           written for the hobbyist, it does not discuss the
                           care of corals.  May be out of print.


Adey and Loveland
    Dynamic Aquaria        An attempt at designing reef (and other) aquaria
                           on sound ecological principles.  The hobby remains
                           very sceptical of the use of algal scrubbers with
                           stony corals; see the scrubber section of this FAQ.
			   However, much of the book is devoted to a
                           discussion of ecology that any dedicated aquarist
                           will benefit from, if read warily.  Again, Caveat
			   Emptor.

"The Reef Tank Owner's Manual"
by John H. Tullock 
October 10, 1990.  Aardvark Press
ISBN 0-945777-06-x

                           Discussion of filtration is old-fashioned, similar
                           to Thiel's books but somewhat more grammatical.
                           Good discussions of individual animals and animal
                           choices aimed at the beginning and intermediate
                           reefkeeper.

"Invertebrates: Tube-, Soft-, and Branching Corals"
by Peter Wilkens / Johannes Birkholz
1986, Engelbert Pfriem Verlag, Wuppertal
ISBN 3-921677-14-9

"Invertebrates: Stone and False Corals, Colonial Anemones"
by Peter Wilkens
1990, Engelbert Pfriem Verlag, Wuppertal
ISBN 3-921677-15-7
                           The only books available which discusses the care
                           of individual species of corals.  The authors'
                           experience and reputation is vast.  Unfortunately
                           the production quality of the English translation
                           is poor, but there is no other comparable
                           reference.  A must buy for anyone intending to
                           keep corals.  These may be out of print, so finding
                           them may be very difficult.


"Fishes for the Invertebrate Aquarium, 3rd ed."
by Helmut Debelius
1989. Aquarium Systems

"Armored Knights of the Sea"
                           Absolutely fantastic shrimp book.  Out of
			   print, gold if you can get your hand on it.

Helmut Debelius.  (An absolutely fascinating speaker, BTW.  If you
ever get a chance to hear him speak, do so!)  Quite a lot of good
information on reef-compatible fishes.

Veron
    Corals of Australia and   The definitive reference book for
    the Indo-Pacific          stony corals.  The original is out of print
			      and very difficult to find.  A reprint
			      run has recently been done.

"Living Corals"
by Douglas Faulkner & Richard Chesher
1979, Crown Publishers, Inc.
ISBN 0-517-53854-7
                              This is one of those big picture
			      books of corals, but it's the best
			      one I've ever seen.  The photos are
			      all top-notch, most show large groupings
			      of a single species.  The descriptions
			      are not with the pictures, which can be
			      disconcerting until you get used to it.

			      I believe this book is out-of-print,
			      though I often find used copies (fairly
			      cheap!) at a local bookstore.

"Marine Plants of the Caribbean, A Field Guide from Florida to Brazil"
by Diane Scullion Littler, Mark M. Littler, Katina E. Bucher,& James N. Norris
1989. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C.
ISBN 0-87474-607-8

                              Quite a good reference book describing
                              various species of algae that are found
			      in the waters of the Caribbean.

"Seaweeds of Hawaii, A photographic Identification Guide"
by William H. Magruder and Jeffrey W. Hunt
1979.  The Oriental Publishing Company
ISBN 0-932596-12-6

                              Another excellent reference identifying
			      algae found around Hawaii.  Out of print.

"The Manual of Marine Invertebrates"
by Martyn Haywood and Sue Wells
1989. Salamander Books Ltd., London
ISBN 0-86101-474-X
                              I'd recommend the Manual of Marine
			      Invertebrates by Hayward.  While this
			      does not go into a great deal of detail
			      on anything, it covers every class of
			      inverts and is good for learning about
			      what's on your live rock and the basics
			      of care for different kinds of creatures.  

                              Yes!  I'd forgotten about this one.  It
			      contains quite a few mistakes, but is a
			      good reference book nonetheless. 

Walls, Jerry, "Encyclopedia of Marine Inverts",
(TFH, Neptune, NJ: 1988) ISBN 0-86622-141-7.

<Compared to Manual of Marine Invertebrates by Hayward> and found that the
later (Wall's book) appeared to have a lot more info.  It isn't a great
book from the aquarium point of view but does cover the basics of all the
Phyla.  It has a lot of color plates.  I was able to identify a number of 
Live-Rock ReefCritters(tm) with it.

"Dr. Burgess's Atlas of Marine Aquarium Fishes"
by Dr. Warren E. Burgess, Dr. Herbert R. Axelrod, & Raymond E. Hunziker III
1988. T.F.H. Publications
TFH# H-1100
                              "The big picture book of fishes."
			      Considered the first book to look marine
			      fish up in.  Second edition has been
			      published. 
----------------------------------------------------------------------

9.0	Useful Tables

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Temperature
  C      F  
20.00  68.00
20.20  68.36
20.40  68.72
20.60  69.08
20.80  69.44
21.00  69.80
21.20  70.16
21.40  70.52
21.60  70.88
21.80  71.24
22.00  71.60
22.20  71.96
22.40  72.32
22.60  72.68
22.80  73.04
23.00  73.40
23.20  73.76
23.40  74.12
23.60  74.48
23.80  74.84
24.00  75.20
24.20  75.56
24.40  75.92
24.60  76.28
24.80  76.64
25.00  77.00
25.20  77.36
25.40  77.72
25.60  78.08
25.80  78.44
26.00  78.80
26.20  79.16
26.40  79.52
26.60  79.88
26.80  80.24
27.00  80.60
27.20  80.96
27.40  81.32
27.60  81.68
27.80  82.04
28.00  82.40
28.20  82.76
28.40  83.12
28.60  83.48
28.80  83.84
29.00  84.20
29.20  84.56
29.40  84.92
29.60  85.28
29.80  85.64
30.00  86.00
    Alkalinity    
meq/l   ppm     KH 
       CaCO3       
0.00    0.00   0.00
0.05    2.50   0.14
0.10    5.00   0.28
0.15    7.50   0.42
0.20   10.00   0.56
0.25   12.50   0.70
0.30   15.00   0.84
0.35   17.50   0.98
0.40   20.00   1.12
0.45   22.50   1.26
0.50   25.00   1.40
0.55   27.50   1.54
0.60   30.00   1.68
0.65   32.50   1.82
0.70   35.00   1.96
0.75   37.50   2.10
0.80   40.00   2.24
0.85   42.50   2.38
0.90   45.00   2.52
0.95   47.50   2.66
1.00   50.00   2.80
1.10   55.00   3.08
1.20   60.00   3.36
1.30   65.00   3.64
1.40   70.00   3.92
1.50   75.00   4.20
1.60   80.00   4.48
1.70   85.00   4.76
1.80   90.00   5.04
1.90   95.00   5.32
2.00  100.00   5.60
2.10  105.00   5.88
2.20  110.00   6.16
2.30  115.00   6.44
2.40  120.00   6.72
2.50  125.00   7.00
2.60  130.00   7.28
2.70  135.00   7.56
2.80  140.00   7.84
2.90  145.00   8.12
3.00  150.00   8.40
3.10  155.00   8.68
3.20  160.00   8.96
3.30  165.00   9.24
3.40  170.00   9.52
3.50  175.00   9.80
3.60  180.00  10.08
3.70  185.00  10.36
3.80  190.00  10.64
3.90  195.00  10.92
4.00  200.00  11.20
4.20  210.00  11.76
4.40  220.00  12.32
4.60  230.00  12.88
4.80  240.00  13.44
5.00  250.00  14.00
 (1)   (50)   (2.8)  
Nitrogen as Ammonia, Nitrite, Nitrate
  N       N     NH3    NO2    NO3  
 ppm    uM/l    mg/l   mg/l   mg/l 
 0.000   0.000  0.000  0.000  0.000
 0.005   0.357  0.006  0.016  0.022
 0.010   0.714  0.012  0.033  0.044
 0.015   1.071  0.018  0.049  0.066
 0.020   1.429  0.024  0.066  0.089
 0.025   1.786  0.030  0.082  0.111
 0.030   2.143  0.036  0.099  0.133
 0.035   2.500  0.043  0.115  0.155
 0.040   2.857  0.049  0.131  0.177
 0.045   3.214  0.055  0.148  0.199
 0.050   3.571  0.061  0.164  0.221
 0.055   3.929  0.067  0.181  0.244
 0.060   4.286  0.073  0.197  0.266
 0.065   4.643  0.079  0.214  0.288
 0.070   5.000  0.085  0.230  0.310
 0.075   5.357  0.091  0.246  0.332
 0.080   5.714  0.097  0.263  0.354
 0.085   6.071  0.103  0.279  0.376
 0.090   6.429  0.109  0.296  0.399
 0.095   6.786  0.115  0.312  0.421
 0.100   7.143  0.121  0.329  0.443
 0.15   10.71   0.18   0.49   0.66
 0.20   14.29   0.24   0.66   0.89
 0.25   17.86   0.30   0.82   1.11
 0.30   21.43   0.36   0.99   1.33
 0.35   25.00   0.42   1.15   1.55
 0.40   28.57   0.49   1.31   1.77
 0.45   32.14   0.55   1.48   1.99
 0.50   35.71   0.61   1.64   2.21
 0.55   39.29   0.67   1.81   2.44
 0.60   42.86   0.73   1.97   2.66
 0.65   46.43   0.79   2.14   2.88
 0.70   50.00   0.85   2.30   3.10
 0.75   53.57   0.91   2.46   3.32
 0.80   57.14   0.97   2.63   3.54
 0.85   60.71   1.03   2.79   3.76
 0.90   64.29   1.09   2.96   3.99
 0.95   67.86   1.15   3.12   4.21
 1.00   71.43   1.21   3.29   4.43
 1.50  107.14   1.82   4.93   6.64
 2.00  142.86   2.43   6.57   8.86
 2.50  178.57   3.04   8.21  11.07
 3.00  214.29   3.64   9.86  13.29
 3.50  250.00   4.25  11.50  15.50
 4.00  285.71   4.86  13.14  17.71
 4.50  321.43   5.46  14.79  19.93
 5.00  357.14   6.07  16.43  22.14
 5.50  392.86   6.68  18.07  24.36
 6.00  428.57   7.29  19.71  26.57
 6.50  464.29   7.89  21.36  28.79
 7.00  500.00   8.50  23.00  31.00
 7.50  535.71   9.11  24.64  33.21
 8.00  571.43   9.71  26.29  35.43
 8.50  607.14  10.32  27.93  37.64
 9.00  642.86  10.93  29.57  39.86
 9.50  678.57  11.54  31.21  42.07
10.00  714.29  12.14  32.86  44.29
 (1) (1000/14)(17/14)(46/14)(62/14) 
       Calcium         
  Ca     CaCO3     dH  
 mg/l     ppm          
  0.00     0.00   0.00
  5.00    12.50   0.70
 10.00    25.00   1.40
 15.00    37.50   2.10
 20.00    50.00   2.80
 25.00    62.50   3.50
 30.00    75.00   4.20
 35.00    87.50   4.90
 40.00   100.00   5.60
 45.00   112.50   6.30
 50.00   125.00   7.00
 55.00   137.50   7.70
 60.00   150.00   8.40
 65.00   162.50   9.10
 70.00   175.00   9.80
 75.00   187.50  10.50
 80.00   200.00  11.20
 85.00   212.50  11.90
 90.00   225.00  12.60
 95.00   237.50  13.30
100.00   250.00  14.00
110.00   275.00  15.40
120.00   300.00  16.80
130.00   325.00  18.20
140.00   350.00  19.60
150.00   375.00  21.00
160.00   400.00  22.40
170.00   425.00  23.80
180.00   450.00  25.20
190.00   475.00  26.60
200.00   500.00  28.00
210.00   525.00  29.40
220.00   550.00  30.80
230.00   575.00  32.20
240.00   600.00  33.60
250.00   625.00  35.00
260.00   650.00  36.40
270.00   675.00  37.80
280.00   700.00  39.20
290.00   725.00  40.60
300.00   750.00  42.00
320.00   800.00  44.80
340.00   850.00  47.60
360.00   900.00  50.40
380.00   950.00  53.20
400.00  1000.00  56.00
420.00  1050.00  58.80
440.00  1100.00  61.60
460.00  1150.00  64.40
480.00  1200.00  67.20
500.00  1250.00  70.00
 (1)   (100/40)(56/400) 

10.0	Credits:

The original document was created by the joint effort of many individual
people, sharing a common interest in "Reef Keeping".  Those who allowed  
their names published were:

Patti Beadles
Craig Bingman
*Kevin Carpenter (editor)
Gary Dudley
Frank M. Greco
Ken Koellner
*Dustin Laurence (FTP site sponser)
Teresa Moore
David O'Brien
Paul Prior
Keith Rogers
Mark Rosenstein
Greg Smith
Spass Stoiantschewsky
Anthony Tse
Steve Tyree
*John Ward (FTP site sponser) 

=============  End of ReefKeepers FAQ Part 3 of 3 =================

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Last Update March 27 2014 @ 02:11 PM