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REEFKEEPERS FAQ: Organisms (2/3)

( Part1 - Part2 - Part3 )
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Archive-name: aquaria/reefkeeper-faq/part2
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See reader questions & answers on this topic! - Help others by sharing your knowledge
Reef Keepers Frequently Asked Questions (part 2 of 3)

Note: This header is copied into all three parts

(Well, more or less.  Actually, this is a composite document written
by many folks.  It contains information each participant felt was
basic information required for anyone considering maintaining a reef
tank.  In reality, it's turned into a bit of a reference document.
Some of the information has been taken from public forums like the
Internet UseNet *.aquaria groups.  Credit to the authors of such
information is given next to their contribution.)

Note that starting with 1.12, new and/or changed items are marked with
an "*" in the far left column.

*Release 1.12 - 17 Aug, 1994 (more corrections and minor area expansions)
Release 1.11 - 18 Apr, 1994 (some corrections and minor area expansions)
Release 1.10 - 9 Sep, 1993 (Significant additions to test kit and protein
                            skimming sections. Many spelling and grammar
                            corrections, some style and format alterations.)
Release 1.02 - September 1st, 1993    (Reorganized, split into 3 pieces)
Release 1.01 - July 1st, 1993     (First Public Release)
Release 1.00 - May 12th, 1993  
*Copyright 1993, 1994, ReefKeepers, All Rights Reserved

ReefKeepers, for purposes of the copyright, is the group of authors
listed at the end of this 3-part document.  Permission is granted for
it to be copied (unmodified) in either electronic or hardcopy form by
nonprofit organizations if it is copied in its entirety and used in
stand-alone form.  This document may not otherwise be published,
posted, uploaded, replicated or copied by any method, electronic or
physical, without the explicit permission of ALL of the listed
contributors.

The authors of this document have kindly spent the time to bring you
their opinions.  They are not liable in any form or fashion, nor are
their employers, for how you use this information.  Their opinions
should not be construed as fact; don't blame them if your tank has
problems.

You may get a copy of this FAQ via FTP from the following sites:

percula.acs.uci.edu (128.200.34.15)     /reefkeepers/faq
*ftp.cco.caltech.edu (131.215.48.151)    /pub/aquaria/FAQfiles/Reefkeepers

/---------------------------------------------------------------------------/

Table of Contents

Basic Sections:

Part 1)

1.0	Water (Filters/Additives/Test Kits)
	1.1 Source Water -  City Mains Water Is Not Good Enough
		1.1.1 Background
		1.1.2 DI Filters
		1.1.3 RO Filters
		1.1.4 Further Comments About Water
	1.2 Additives
	1.3 Testable Parameters
		1.3.1 Alkalinity
		1.3.2 Calcium
		1.3.3 pH
		1.3.4 Nitrate (NO3)
		1.3.5 Phosphate (PO4)
		1.3.6 Specific Gravity
	1.4 Water Changes
2.0  	Filtration and Equipment
	2.1 Live Rock
	2.2 Protein Skimmers
                2.2.1 Counter Current Air Driven Protein Skimmers
                2.2.2 Venturi Protein Skimmers
                2.2.3 Protein Skimmer Considerations
	2.3 Granular Activated Carbon (GAC)
	2.4 Other Chemical Filter Media (X-Whatever)
	2.5 Mechanical Filtration
	2.6 Under Gravel Filters (UGF)
	2.7 Reverse Flow UGFs (RUGF)
	2.8 Trickle Filters
	2.9 Algae Scrubbers (somewhat long)
	2.10 Live Sand
3.0	Lights
*	3.1 General Discussion
*	3.2 Detail Discussion
*	3.3 Lighting Data
4.0	Cost Estimates

Part 2)

5.0	Stock 
	5.1 Common to Scientific Name Cross Reference
	5.2 Coral Aggression Chart
	5.3 Corals [Cnidaria (Anthozoa)]
	5.4 Shelled Things
	5.5 Algae
	5.6 Possible Problems
*	5.7 Hermit Crabs

Part 3) 

6.0     General Catalogs
7.0     Questions and Answers
8.0     Book Review
9.0     Useful Tables
10.0    Credits

============================================================================

5.0	Stock

5.1	Common to Scientific Name Cross Reference

The following cross reference was originally provided by Steve Rader:

Bubble coral                  	 Plerogyra sinuosa            
Closed Brain coral            	 Favia sp, sometimes Diploria sp.
Clubbed Finger coral          	 Porites porites              
Colony anemonies              	 Telia sp                     
Common Star coral             	 Montastrea annularis         
Cup coral                     	 Turbinaria peltata           
Dead brain coral              	 Favia sp                     
Elegance coral                	 Catalaphyllia jardinei (was plicata)        
Elephant Ear coral            	 Rhodactius sp                
Elkhorn coral                 	 Acropora palmata             
Fire coral                    	 Millepora alcicornis         
Fire coral                    	 Sinalaris sp                 
Flower Pot coral              	 Goniopora sp                 
Flower coral                  	 Eusmilia fastigiata          
Frog's Spawn coral            	 Euphyllia cristata, E. glabrescens
                              	 Euphyllia divisa (Veron)
Giant Mushroom polyps         	 Rhodactius sp                
Gorgonians                    	 Gorgonacea sp                
Grape coral                   	 Physogyra lichensteini       
Hammer coral                  	 Euphyllia ancora, E. fimbriata
Knobbed Brain coral           	 Diploria clivosa, D. strigosa
Labyrinthine Brain coral      	 Diploria labyrinthiformis    
Large Flower coral            	 Mussa angulosa               
Large Star coral              	 Montastrea cavernosa         
Leather coral                 	 Sarcophyton sp               
Lettuce coral                 	 Agaricia agaricites, Turbinaria sp          
Mat anemonies                 	 Zoanthus pulchellus, other Z. sp          
Moon coral                    	 Galaxea fascicalaris         
Mushroom anemonies            	 Actinodiscus sp              
Mushroom coral                	 Fungia actinoformis          
Mushroom polyps               	 Actinodiscus sp, Rhodactius sp, Sarcophyton sp
Open Brain coral              	 Trachyphyllia geofroyi       
Orange cup coral              	 Balanophyllia elegans, Turbinaria sp        
Pilar coral                   	 Dendrogyra cylindrus         
Porous coral                  	 Porites astreoides           
Rose coral                    	 Manicina areolata            
Sea Mat anemonies             	 Ricordia sp                  
Small Bubble coral            	 Physosyra lichensteini       
Staghorn coral                	 Acropora cervicornis         
Star polyps                   	 Clavularia sp                
Strawberry anemonies          	 Telia sp                     
Tooth coral                   	 Catalaphyllia jardinei (was plicata)        
Torch coral                   	 Euphyllia ancora, E. glabrescens (Veron)
Tree coral                    	 Sinularis sp                 
Waving Hand coral             	 Anthelia sp                  
Xenia coral                   	 Xenia sp                     

And going the other way...

 Acropora cervicornis         	Staghorn coral                
 Acropora palmata             	Elkhorn coral                 
 Actinodiscus sp              	Mushroom anemonies            
 Actinodiscus sp              	Mushroom polyps               
 Agaricia agaricites          	Lettuce coral                 
 Anthelia sp                  	Waving Hand coral             
 Balanophyllia elegans        	Orange cup coral              
 Catalaphyllia jardinei        	Elegance coral, Tooth coral
 Clavularia sp                	Star polyps                   
 Dendrogyra cylindrus         	Pilar coral                   
 Diploria clivosa             	Knobbed Brain coral           
 Diploria labyrinthiformis    	Labyrinthine Brain coral      
 Diploria strigosa            	Knobbed Brain coral           
 Euphyllia ancora             	Hammer coral, Torch coral                  
 Euphyllia cristata           	Frog's Spawn coral            
 Euphyllia divisa		Frog's Spawn coral (Veron)
 Euphyllia fimbriata          	Hammer coral                  
 Euphyllia glabrescens        	Torch coral (Veron), Frog's Spawn coral
 Eusmilia fastigiata          	Flower coral                  
 Favia sp                     	Closed Brain coral, Dead brain coral           
 
 Fungia actinoformis          	Mushroom coral                
 Galaxea fascicalaris         	Moon coral                    
 Goniopora sp                 	Flower Pot coral              
 Gorgonacea sp                	Gorgonians                    
 Manicina areolata            	Rose coral                    
 Millepora alcicornis         	Fire coral                    
 Montastrea annularis         	Common Star coral             
 Montastrea cavernosa         	Large Star coral              
 Mussa angulosa               	Large Flower coral            
 Physogyra lichensteini       	Grape coral, Small Bubble coral
 Plerogyra sinuosa            	Bubble coral                  
 Porites astreoides           	Porous coral                  
 Porites porites              	Clubbed Finger coral          
 Rhodactius sp                	Elephant Ear coral, Giant Mushroom polyps
 Ricordia sp                  	Sea Mat anemonies             
 Sarcophyton sp               	Leather coral, Mushroom polyps
 Sinularis sp                 	Fire coral, Tree coral
 Tubastrea sp			Orange Cup coral
 Turbinaria peltata           	Cup coral                     
 Telia sp                     	Colony anemonies, Strawberry anemonies
 Trachyphyllia geofroyi       	Open Brain coral              
 Xenia sp                     	Xenia coral                   
 Zoanthus pulchellus          	Mat anemonies                 
 Zoanthus sp                  	Mat anemonies                 

5.2   Coral Agression chart

Also provided by Steve Rader:

I've typed in a useful table from SeaScope (winter, '92) in which 
Michael Paletta discusses coral aggression in reef aquaria.  It
describes the two major aggressive mechanisms of corals: the release of
terpenoid compounds and the use of sweeper tentacles or mesenteric
filaments.  I found it useful because it includes a majority of 
imported live corals.

The entries marked with a tilde are my additions--Telia anemonies are
placed above open brain coral because I've observed them burn my red
open brain coral.  Both types of colonial zooanthid anemonies listed seem
to release terpenoids that keep mushroom polyps at bay somewhat.  Also,
I've included other common names I know of in quotes.

          Relative Aggressiveness of Commonly Kept Reef Invertebrates          
          
MOST AGGRESSIVE...

1)	Elegance Coral	(Catalaphyllia jardinei, "Tooth coral")
2)	Hammer Coral	(Euphyllia ancora, E. fimbriata, "Torch coral")
3)	Other Euphyllia (E. glabrescens, E. cristala., "Frog's spawn coral")
4)	Bubble Coral	(Plerogyra sinuosa)
5)	Grape Coral	(Physosyra lichensteini, "Small bubble coral")
6)	Mushroom Coral	(Fungia actinoformis)	
7)	Flower Pot Coral (Goniopora sp.)
~)	Telia Anemonies (Telia sp, "Strawberry anemonies; Colony anemonies")
	
8)	Open Brain Coral (Trachyphyllia geofroyi)
9)	Cup Coral	(Taxbinaria peltata)
10)	Moon Coral	(Galaxea fascicalaris, )
11)	Closed Brain Coral (Favia sp, "Dead brain coral")
12)	Star Polyps	(Clavalaria sp.)	
13)	Leather Coral	(Sarccphyton sp.)
14)	Tree Coral	(Sinalaris sp., "Fire coral")
15)	Gorgoniana	(Gorgonacea sp.)	
16)	Waving Hand	(Anthelia sp.)
17)	Xenia		(Xenia sp.)
18)	Giant Mushrooms (Rhodactius sp., "Elephant ear coral")
~)	Sea Mat Anemonies (Zooanthus sp., "Sea mat rock")
~)	Ricordia Anemonies (Ricordia sp. "Sea mat rock")
19)	Mushroom Anemonies (Actinodiscus sp., "Mushroom polyps")

...LEAST AGGRESSIVE

5.3   Key to Stock detail
    Key    sp.  - generic species description.
           cdf  - captive difficulty
                   0-9   0=beginner,  5=experienced,  9=advanced
           fll  - florescent lighting (50% tri-color white and 50% actinic) 
                   0-9   0=1.5 watts/gal, 5=4.5 watts/gal, 9=7.5 watts/gal
                     Multiply [fll] values with applicable inefficient factors.
*                          non-48" tubes  ((watts/gal) * 1.3)
*                          HO tubes ((watts/gal) * 1.3)
*                          VHO tubes ((watts/gal) * 1.7)
*                          non-tricolor tubes ((watts/gal) * 1.3)
           dff  - distance from florescent   0-36 inches
           mhl  - metal halide lighting
                   0-9   0=1 watt/gal, 5=3 watts/gal, 9=5 watts/gal
           dfm  - distance from metal halide   0-36 inches
           wcu  - water current level
                   0-9   0=stagnant, 5=medium, 9=turbulent
           hac  - hair algae comptatability.
                   0-9   0=none, 5=some algae, 9=heavy algae
           fod  - food source
                      sym - symbiotic algae nutrients
                      mpl  - microplankton
                      zpl  -  zooplankton (baby artemia)
                      lfd  -  liquid coral foods
                      chf  - chunk frozen foods
           add  - additives required
                      str - strontium        iod  - iodine
                      cal - calcium          irn  - iron
                      vit - vitamins         mlb  - molybendium
                      ptm - potassium     
    note - This is not a listing of all known corals. Just those for which
              some data is known concerning captive requirements.

   Cnidaria [Anthozoa] 
    a SubClass Zoantharia [Hexacorillia]
       Order Scleractinia [Madreporaria] (true stony corals) ~2,000 species.
         Family  Poritidae
          Porites (pore)
              sp. - (xmas rocks) Encrusting growths. Extremelly small polyp.
                       Most are brown but can be green, blue, pink and purple.
                       Massive, branched or encrusting. 
                        cdf=6, fll=5-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-5, dfm= >10
                        wcu=1-6, hac=0, fod=sym, add=cal/str
          Goniopora (flowerpot or daisy)
	       Goniopora are similar to Alveopora, except that Goniopora
	       have 24 tentacles on each polyp, and Alveopora have 12.
               lobata - (flowerpot)  Medium-polyp. Skeleton shapes are varied. 
                       Very difficult and rarely kept more then two years. 
                       Flower-like polyps extend out from base.
                        cdf=9, fll=5-9, dff= <20, mhl=1-7, dfm= <30
                        wcu=2-6, fod=sym
               stokesi - (flowerpot) Medium-polyp. Longer polyps than lobata 
                       (10-15cm). Polyps extend out very far. Brown, gray, 
                       green or blue. Skeleton is spherical or half spherical
                       in shape.
                        cdf=9, fll=5-9, dff= <20, mhl=1-7, dfm= <30
                        wcu=2-6, fod=sym
          Alveopora (flower)
               sp. -  Medium-polyp. Very similar to goniopora but polyp ten-
                       tacles are shorter. Brown or bluish. Stung by Euphyllia
                       and Plerogyra.  Alveopora has 12 tentacles on each
		       polyp while Gonipora have 24.
                        cdf=7, fll=5-9, dff= <20, mhl=1-7, dfm= <30
                        wcu=2-6, fod=sym/zpl

         Family Pocilloporidae
          Pocillopora (cauliflower stony)
               sp. -  Very small polyp. UV pigments green, turquoise or pink.
                       Most are arborescent, ocassionally massive or encrust-
                       ing. Branched ecomorphs have rounded tips.
                        cdf=9, mhl=5-9, dfm= <15, wcu=3-7, hac=0,
                        fod=sym/zpl, add=cal/str
          Seriatopora (bush)
               sp. -  Small polyp. Pink, white, brown or green. Long, slender
                       and tapered btanches. Stung by Actinodiscus and 
                       Cladiella. Can be propagated by fragmentation.
                        cdf=5, mhl=4-9, dfm= <15, wcu=3-7, hac=0, 
                        fod=sym/zpl, add=cal/str

         Family Acroporidae
          Acropora (finger and branch)
               sp. -  Small-polyp. Most have branching ecomorphs. Rare
                       massive and encrusting growths occur. Branching forms
                       include staghorns, clusters, plates and tables. Colors
                       include blue, green, purple, pink, cream, yellow, brown
                       or red. Well over 100 species exist. Can be propagated 
                       by fragmentation. Stung by Actinodiscus
                        cdf=8, mhl=4-9, dfm= <15, wcu=4-9, hac=0, 
                        fod=sym/zpl, add=cal/str
               palmata - (elkhorn)  Atlantic. Stout thick branches or encrust-
                       ing. Flattened horizontally. Can be fragmented.
                        cdf=8, mhl=4-9, dfm= <15, wcu=4-9, hac=0, 
                        fod=sym/zpl, add=cal/str
               cervicornis - (staghorn) Atlantic. Long thin branches. Very
                       rapid growth rate.
                        cdf=8, mhl=4-9, dfm= <15, wcu=4-9, hac=0, 
                        fod=sym/zpl, add=cal/str

         Family Faviidae
          Favia (moon or star)
               sp. -  Medium-polyp. Leaf, flat or half-sphere forms. Polyps in 
                       large cups. Tentacles unfold at night. Brown, white or 
                       yellow. UV pigments green. Can sting other corals with 
                       tentacles or secretions.
                        cdf=4, fll=4-9, dff= <20, mhl=0-6, dfm= <24, wcu=3-7,
                        hac=2, fod=sym/zpl, add=cal/str
          Favites (moon or star)
               sp. -  Medium-polyps. Leaf, flat or half-sphere forms. Polyps in
 
                       large cups. Tentacles unfold at night. Brown, pink or 
                       red. UV pigments green. Can sting other corals with ten-
                       tacles or secretions.
                        cdf=4, fll=4-9, dff= <20, mhl=0-6, dfm= <24, wcu=3-7,
                        hac=2, fod=sym/zpl, add=cal/str
          Leptoria (closed brain)
               phrygia -  Small polyps. Massive growths. Tentacles retracted 
                       during day. Brown or green. Patterned valleys.
                        cdf=5, fll=5-9, dff= <20, mhl=0-3 dfm= <36, wcu=2-7,
                        hac=0, fod=sym/zpl, add=cal/str
          Diploria (closed brain)
               sp. -  Massive and rounded. Can be flattened or encrusted.
                       Yellow, brown, greenish or gray-brown. Tentacles ex-
                       pand out at night. 
                        cdf=5, fll=5-9, dff= <20, mhl=0-3, dfm= <36, wcu=2-7,
                        hac=0, fod=sym/zpl, add=cal/str
          Manicina (folded)
               areolata - Large-polyps. Very similar to Trachyphyllia geofroyi.
 
                       Tentacles extend at night. 
                        cdf=3, fll=3-9, dff= <20, mhl=0-3, dfm= <36, wcu=4-8,
                        hac=0, fod=sym/zpl/chf, add=cal/str
          Caulastrea (tooth)
               sp. -  Large-polyp. Branching coral. Each branch end has a 
                       large rounded polyp. Tentacles extend out a night. 
                       Green, brown, gray and blue. Similar to some Euphyllia 
                       species.
                        cdf=5, fll=3-9, dff= <20, mhl=0-3, dfm= <36, wcu=4-8,
                        hac=0, fod=sym/zpl, add=cal/str

         Family Oculinidae
          Galaxea (crystal or scapel)
               fascicularis - (crystal or galaxy) Medium-polyps. Small rounded
                       heads. UV pigments green. Tentacles extended during 
                       the day.
                        cdf=7, mhl=0-6, dfm= <36, wcu=4-8,
                        hac=0, fod=sym/zpl, add=cal/str     

         Family Agariciidae
          Pachyseris (phonograph-record)
               speciosa - Large-Polyp. Valleys form grooves. Green or red 
                       natural pigment.
                        cdf=4, fll=4-9, dff= <24, mhl=0-3, dfm= <36, wcu=4-8,
                        hac=0, fod=sym/mpl, add=cal/str     

         Family Caryophylliidae
          Euphyllia (bouquet)
               fimbriata - (hammer or anchor or ridge) Large-polyp. Straight 
                       tentacles with u-shaped or hammer shaped tips. Can 
                       extend tentacles out very far and sting other corals.
                        cdf=6, fll=4-9, dff= <24, mhl=0-7, dfm= <36, wcu=3-7,
                        hac=1, fod=sym/zpl/chf, add=cal/str   
               crista - (bubble-tentacled) Large-polyp. Beige or light brown. 
                       Some are green. Tentacles branch into 3 or more twigs
                       at end. Rounded tips are white. Can extend tentacles
                       out very far and sting other corals.
                        cdf=5, fll=4-9, dff= <24, mhl=0-7, dfm= <36, wcu=3-7,
                        hac=1, fod=sym/zpl/chf, add=cal/str    
               glabrescens - (torch) Large-polyp. Straight tentacles with 
                       white tips. Can extend tentacles out very far and 
                       sting other corals.
                        cdf=7, fll=4-9, dff= <24, mhl=0-7, dfm= <36, wcu=3-7,
                        hac=1, fod=sym/zpl/chf, add=cal/str 
               divisa - (frogspawn or wall or vase) Large-polyp. Green or 
                       light brown.Tentacles sub-branch with numerous rounded 
                       bumps. These are white or yellow. Can extend tentacles 
                       out very far .
                        cdf=5, fll=4-9, dff= <24, mhl=0-6, dfm= <36, wcu=3-7,
                        hac=1, fod=sym/zpl/chf, add=cal/str    
          Catalaphyllia (wonder or scalloped)
               jardinei - (elegance, meat, wonder) Large-polyp. Tentacles alway
s
                       extended. Have white or red tips. UV pigment green. Can 
                       sting very strongly.
                        cdf=2, fll=4-9, dff= <24, mhl=0-7, dfm= <36, wcu=2-7,
                        hac=0, fod=sym/zpl/chf, add=cal/str   
          Plerogyra (bladder)
               sinuosa - (bubble or bladder) Large-polyp. Expand to bubble 
                       polyps in day and tentacles at night. Natural pigment 
                       white. Can be green or pink.Very strong sting. 
                        cdf=1, fll=3-9, dff= <24, mhl=0-5, dfm= <36, wcu=2-7,
                        hac=1, fod=sym/zpl/chf, add=cal/str   

         Family Mussidae
          Lobophyllia (umbel)
               sp. - Large-polyp. Fleshy mantle. Olive to dark green. Some-
                       times pinkish or red.
                        cdf=3, fll=4-9, dff= <20, mhl=0-2, dfm= <36, wcu=4-8,
                        hac=0, fod=sym/zpl/chf, add=cal/str
          Isophyllia (atlantic folded)
               sp. - Large-polyp. Deep red natural pigment for deep specimens.
                       Green, beige or turquoise for shallow water.
                        cdf=3, fll=4-9, dff= <20, mhl=0-2, dfm= <36, wcu=3-7,
                        hac=0, fod=sym/zpl/chf, add=cal/str
          Scolymia (caribbean goblet)
               vitiensis - Large one polyp coral. Fleshy mantle. Tentacles out 
                       at night. UV pigments green.
                        cdf=1, fll=4-9, dff= <20, mhl=0-3, dfm= <36, wcu=2-5,
                        hac=0, fod=sym/zpl/chf, add=cal/str
          Cynarina [Acanthophyllia] (goblet)
               lacrymalis - Large one polyp coral. Fleshy mantle. Tentacles out
 
                       at night. UV pigments green.
                        cdf=1, fll=4-9, dff= <20, mhl=0-3, dfm= <36, wcu=2-5,
                        hac=0, fod=sym/zpl/chf, add=cal/str

         Family Dendrophylliidae
          Tubastrea (red or yellow cup)
               aurea - (red or yellow cup) Natural pigment yellow to shiny 
                       orange. Medium large polyp. Tentacles partially extend-
                       ed during day and fully at night.
                        cdf=1, fll=0-4, dff= <30, wcu=4-8,
                        hac=0, fod=zpl/chf, add=cal/str
          Turbinaria (dish or crater)
               sp. -  Large-polyp. Vase shaped, leaf, fans or folds. Brownish,
                       yellow, white or green. Tentacles partially or fully 
                       extended during the day. 
                        cdf=5, fll=3-9, dff= <20, mhl=0-3, dfm= <36, wcu=2-7,
                        hac=0, fod=sym/zpl, add=cal/str

         Family Trachyphylliidae
          Trachyphyllia (large polyp or open brain)
               geofroyi - (open-brain or crater or puff) Large-polyps. Natural
                       pigment color gray-green, beige-brown, rust brown to
                       deep red. UV pigment green, torquoise or blue. Ten-
                       tacles extend at night. 
                        cdf=3, fll=3-9, dff= <20, mhl=0-3, dfm= <36, wcu=2-6,
                        hac=3, fod=sym/zpl/chf, add=cal/str

         Family Fungiidae
          Fungia (mushroom stony corals)
               sp. -  Single large-polyp. Pale-brown, pink, purple, blue and 
                       green. Short tentacles are usually retracted during 
                       the day. Usually round but can take on different eco-
                       morphs. Elongated forms have groved mouth.
                        cdf=8, fll=3-9, dff= <20, mhl=0-5, dfm= <36, wcu=3-8,
                        hac=0, fod=sym/zpl, add=cal/str
          Heliofungia (plate)
               actiniformis - Single large polyp. Gray, blue or green long 
                       tentacles always extended during the day. Paler tips.
                       Prefers sandy substrate.
                        cdf=7, fll=3-9, dff= <20, mhl=0-4, dfm= <36, wcu=2-7,
                        hac=0, fod=sym/zpl/chf, add=cal/str
          Polyphllia (boomerang)
               talpina - Large-polyp. Extremelly elongated. Tentacles extend-
                       ed during the day and short Has central groove. Brown
                       or paler in color.
                        cdf=4, fll=3-9, dff= <20, mhl=0-5, dfm= <36, wcu=3-7,
                        hac=0, fod=sym/zpl/chf, add=cal/str
          Herpolitha (hedgehog)
               limax - Large-polyp. Extremelly elongated. Tentacles extended 
                       during the day and short Has central groove. Brown or 
                       paler in color. Very similar to Polyphyllia talpina.
                        cdf=4, fll=3-9, dff= <20, mhl=0-5, dfm= <36, wcu=3-7,
                        hac=0, fod=sym/zpl/chf, add=cal/str
 
       - Order Corallimorpharia (mushroom or false corals)
          Family Actinodiscidae
           Actinodiscus (disk anemones or mushroom coral)
               malaccensis - (brown or fuzzy) Surface covered with small bush 
                       like forms. Light or beige brown and gray green. Brown 
                       specimens found in deeper water. Gray green will fade
                       if light to low.
                        cdf=1, fll=5-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-4, dfm= <36
                        wcu=1-4, hac=1, fod=sym/lfd, add=iod/vit
               mutabilis - (color changing) Light to dusty brown. They are
                       often speckled with green and with irridescent edges. 
                       Can change some color. Smooth surface with wide bumps. 
                       In nature, below 10 meters. 
                        cdf=1, fll=3-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-2, dfm= <36
                        wcu=1-4, hac=1, fod=sym/lfd, add=iod/vit
               ferrugatus - (red-brown) Color is from red-brown to rust-brown. 
                       Smooth surface with wide bumps. Do not like direct metal
 
                       halide. In nature exist at around 10 meters. 
                        cdf=1, fll=3-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-2, dfm= <36
                        wcu=1-4, hac=1, fod=sym/lfd, add=iod/vit
               ruber - (reddish-fluorescent or mettalic red mushrooms) Pink to 
                       bright fluorescent red due to UV pigments. Do not like 
                       direct metal halide light. Radial groves and very small
                       bumps on smooth surface.
                        cdf=1, fll=3-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-2, dfm= <36
                        wcu=1-4, hac=1, fod=sym/lfd, add=iod/vit
               nummiferus - (burled) From light pink through reddish brown to 
                       a dusty violet. Darker ones occur in shallow waters. 
                       Slightly fluorescent. Small bumps on smooth surface.
                        cdf=1, fll=4-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-2, dfm= <36
                        wcu=1-4, hac=1, fod=sym/lfd, add=iod/vit
               cardinalis - (shiny red) Deep red. Darker red bumps over smooth
                       surface. Expensive and rare. Like actinic light but not
                       direct metal halide. 
                        cdf=1, fll=4-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-2, dfm= <36
                        wcu=1-4, hac=1, fod=sym/lfd, add=iod/vit
               marmoratus - (marbled or green marble mushrooms) Found in less 
                       than 5 meters. Slightly rough surface with numerous
                       bumps of different color. Do not like direct metal 
                       halide light.
                        cdf=1, fll=4-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-2, dfm= <36
                        wcu=1-3, hac=1, fod=sym/lfd, add=iod/vit
               coeruleus - (shiny blue or metallic blue mushrooms) Smooth blue
                       surface with faint radial lines. Very small bumps can 
                       occur. Very deep dwelling > 20 meters. Never tolerates 
                       direct metal halide light. Can expand very large.
                        cdf=1, fll=4-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-2, dfm= <36
                        wcu=1-4, hac=1, fod=sym/lfd, add=iod/vit
               striatus - (striped) Many different color patterns. Beige-green 
                       ones have symbiotic algae pigment dominate the uv pig-
                       ment and assimilation pigment. Can have perfectly smooth
                       disk or contain small bumps. All have radial brightly 
                       colored stripes.          
                        cdf=1, fll=4-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-2, dfm= <36
                        wcu=1-4, hac=2, fod=sym/lfd, add=iod/vit
               punctatus - (dotted) Main surface body smooth and brown. Have
                       very large colorful bumps with uv pigment. Direct metal
                       halide light could be fatal.
                        cdf=1, fll=4-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-2, dfm= <36
                        wcu=1-4, hac=0, fod=sym/lfd, add=iod/vit
           Ricordia (caribbean disk anemones) 
               florida - (caribbean or flower anemones) Colors range from light
                       green to a very beautiful dark green to blue and orange.
                       Surface is covered with short tentacles which can in-
                       flate to become bubble-like. Usually found between 10 
                       and 40 feet in the ocean. When tentacles on rim of disk 
                       extended will accept small peices of brine shrimp, etc.
                        cdf=1, fll=4-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-5, dfm= <36
                        wcu=1-4, hac=1, fod=sym/lfd/chf, add=iod/vit
           Rhodactis [Discosoma] (elephant ear) 
               viridis - (green elephant ear) Luminescent turquoise-green ten-
                       tacle disk. Like a giant fuzzy mushroom.
                        cdf=1, fll=4-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-4, dfm= <36
                        wcu=2-6, hac=1, fod=sym/lfd/chf, add=iod/vit
               neglecta - (caribbean elephant ear) Green with some surface. 
                       Radial lines and bumps along with sharp points on edge. 
                       Can become ballon shaped greedy eaters. Do not like 
                       direct metal halide light. 
                        cdf=1, fll=4-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-2, dfm= <36
                        wcu=1-5, hac=1, fod=sym/lfd/chf, add=iod/vit
               maeandrinea - (large or folded elephant ear) Very large with a 
                       diameter greater than 15 cm. Can grow to 40 cm in cap-
                       tivity. Sandy to dark brown or gray green. Smooth disk
                       with vertical smooth tenatcles. Do not like strong 
                       current or direct metal halide light. Can catch fish or
                       shrimps in ballon-like trap.
                        cdf=1, fll=4-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-2, dfm= <36
                        wcu=1-5, hac=1, fod=sym/lfd/chf, add=iod/vit
               plumosa - (carpet elephant ear or carpet mushrooms) Large fuzzy
                       coral with bushy tentacles. Will eat some chunk food. 
                       Can form bubble trap. 
                        cdf=1, fll=4-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-2, dfm= <36
                        wcu=2-5, hac=1, fod=sym/lfd/chf, add=iod/vit

       - Order Zoanthiniaria [Zoantharia][Zoanthidea] ~300 species
                       (Encrusting anemones)
          Family Epizoanthidae
           Parazoanthus (yellow polyps)
              sp. - Small polyps with very long thin tentacles. Bright yel-
                       low to dark yellow. Polyps not connected.
                        cdf=1, fll=4-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-7, dfm= <24
                        wcu=4-7, hac=0, fod=sym/lfd/zpl, add=iod/vit
           Epizoanthus
              sp. - Medium sized small colonial polyp disks with medium sized 
                       tentacles. Fedd mostly on zooplankton. Brown to cinna-
                       mon colored.
                        cdf=1, fll=4-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-7, dfm= <24
                        wcu=4-7, hac=0, fod=sym/lfd/zpl, add=iod/vit
          Family Zoanthidae
           Zoanthus (encrusting anemones)
              sp. - Small circular colonial polyps which have a ring of short
                       tentacles around the rim. Shallow water species have
                       UV pigmentation from red, green, turquoise, lemon yel-
                       low to orange. The mouth, disk and tentacles can be of
                       different coloration. Polyps connected at base. 
                        cdf=1, fll=4-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-7, dfm= <24
                        wcu=3-7, hac=0, fod=sym/lfd, add=iod/vit
              sociatus - Small circular colonial polyps which have a ring of 
                       short tentacles around the rim. Turquoise to yellow-
                       green. UV coloration will remain under metal halide or
                       actinic lighting. Polyps connected at base.
                        cdf=1, fll=4-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-7, dfm= <24
                        wcu=3-7, hac=0, fod=sym/lfd/zpl, add=iod/vit
           Palythoa
              sp. - Larger polyp disk than Zoanthus with long pointy tentacles
                       around the rim. Beige-brown, cinnamon to dar "milk cof-
                       fee" brown, graygreen or shiny green. Might not tole-
                       rate direct metal halide. Polyps connected at base.
                        cdf=1, fll=4-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-4, dfm= <36
                        wcu=3-7, hac=0, fod=sym/lfd/zpl, add=iod/vit

  SubClass Alcyonria [Octocorallia]
   Order Alcyonacea (leather and soft corals)
     Family Alcyonidae
      Alcyonium
       fulvum - (yellow encrusting leather) Encrusting beige-yellow to 
               ivory-colored leather coral often many millimetres thick. 
               Finger-like projections develop which have 2 to 5 cm long 
               polyps with 8 flower tentacles. Polyps resemble Sarcophyton
               species polyps.
                    cdf=2, fll=7-9, dff= >5, mhl=3-9, dfm= >10
                    wcu=3-6, hac=0, fod=sym/lfd/mpl, add=iod
      Sarcophyton
       sp. - (mushroom leather) Mushroom shaped leather coral. Grow better
               in fluorescent lighting. Need adaption time to tolerate long
               photoperiods of metal halide lighting. Can be propagated via
               cuttings. Long polyp stems with small flower-like tentacles.
                    cdf=2, fll=5-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-5, dfm= >12
                    wcu=4-7, hac=2, fod=sym/lfd/mpl, add=iod
       trocheliophorum - (trough leather) Very attractive. Folding lobes 
               of leather coral with short polyps. Can double size in one 
               year. May not tolerate extended metal halide photoperiods and 
               need adaption time. Will shed skin regularly. Can be propagted 
               via cutting from edge lobe. Lives primarily in reef pools and 
               can reach a diameter of more than one meter.
                    cdf=2, fll=5-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-5, dfm= >12
                    wcu=4-7, hac=2, fod=sym/lfd/mpl, add=iod
       lobulatum - (leather) Flat, mushroomed-shaped leather. Medium brown 
               base. Similar to mushroom leather coral with very small polyps 
               and larger overall size. Can be propagated via cuttings of 
               base. Will become lighter under adequate lighting. 
                    cdf=2, fll=5-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-5, dfm= >12
                    wcu=4-7, hac=2, fod=sym/lfd/mpl, add=iod
       latum -  Dish-like with thick, lobate projections. Polyps are beige-
               yellow to shiny green. Shallow water coral. Can be propagated 
               via cuttings. Also similar to trocheliophorum in morphology. 
               Will grow fast under metal halides. 
                    cdf=2, fll=5-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-8, dfm= >12
                    wcu=5-8, hac=2, fod=sym/lfd/mpl, add=iod
       glaucum - Common mushroom shaped leather coral. Beige to sandy color-
               ed or olive to bottle-green. May need to be slowly acclimated
               to bright metal halides. Can be reproduced by cutting of
               entire mushroom cap.
                    cdf=2, fll=5-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-5, dfm= >12
                    wcu=5-8, hac=2, fod=sym/lfd/mpl, add=iod
       sp. - Mushroom based leather coral with high, upward-arching lobate 
               edges. Long pure-white polyps. Mushroom from light beige to 
               sandy grey or light yellow in color. Need lots of light for 
               polyps to extend. When acclimated to metal halides, polyps will
               extend to 5 cm and have star shaped tentacles. Can be cultivat-
               ed with cuttings.
                    cdf=3, fll=5-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-8, dfm= >12
                    wcu=3-6, hac=2, fod=sym/lfd/zpl, add=iod
       ehrenbergi - Similar to glaucum. Mostly pure white, occasionally 
               yellowish or greenish gray secondary polyps. Tentacles of 
               polyps easily distinguished. Skin shed less often. Needs slow 
               acclimation to metal halide lighting. Can be fragmented via 
               cuttings bu is more sensitive.
                    cdf=2, fll=5-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-5, dfm= >12
                    wcu=4-7, hac=2, fod=sym/lfd/mpl, add=iod
      Carotalcyon
        sagamianum - Carrot-like leather coral. Deep water orange to crim-
               son red. Has a carrot like body appearance with large polyps 
               which extend out from the body.
                    cdf=2, fll=5-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-5, dfm= >12
                    wcu=5-8, hac=1, fod=lfd/zpl, add=iod
      Sphaerella
        krempfi - (christmas tree) Resemble evergreen tree and lack symbio-
               tic algae. Brown color. Like strong current and do best on 
               substrate.
                    cdf=3, fll=2-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-2, dfm= >15
                    wcu=5-9, hac=1, fod=lfd/zpl, add=iod
      Lobophytum
        pauciflorum - Encrusting leather with lobed, finger-shaped and occa-
               sionally bushy projections or folds. Can be propagated via cut-
               tings. Grow well under flouorescent lights. Have calcareous 
               needle growths.
                    cdf=2, fll=4-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-3, dfm= >12
                    wcu=4-7, hac=1, fod=sym/lfd/mpl, add=iod/cal/str
        crassum - An encrusting leather coral similar to pauciflorum. Thick-
               er polyps. Very robust coral. Can also be propagated via cut-
               tings.
                    cdf=2, fll=4-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-3, dfm= >12
                    wcu=4-7, hac=1, fod=sym/lfd/mpl, add=iod/cal/str
      Sinularia
        sp - Branching soft coral with a flat body on a thick column 3-4 cm
               tall. Finger-like appendages extend from body and have polyps. 
               Prefer to grow out horizontally. Color is ivory to light gray
               but under intense light will become symbiotic brown. Occasion-
               ally sheds skin.
                    cdf=3, fll=2-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-2, dfm= >15
                    wcu=5-9, hac=1, fod=sym/lfd/zpl/vit, add=iod/cal/str
        macropodia - Branching soft coral with thick-fleshed foot and base.
               Thick branches rise from this base and branch into finger like 
               projections. These are densly covered with polyps. Color is 
               light-beige or grayish white to light brown. Shed skin once a 
               week. Do not like direct halide lite. Can be propagated via 
               cuttings. Contain calcareous needles.
                    cdf=3, fll=2-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-2, dfm= >15
                    wcu=5-9, hac=1, fod=sym/lfd/zpl/vit, add=iod/cal/str
        notanda - This corals morphology lies between the above generic 
               species and macropodia. Grows well but introduce to halides 
               slowly. See sp. for info.
        hirta -(dark brown sea hand) Similar to generic species with stubby
               fingers and fat nobbed appendages. From shallow water. Grow 
               rapidly under metal halides. Color is ivory to cream white when
               retracted, turn milk coffee brown when extended. 
                    cdf=3, fll=2-9, dff= >5, mhl=3-9, dfm= >8
                    wcu=5-9, hac=1, fod=sym/lfd/zpl/vit, add=iod/cal/str
        prodigiosa - Similar to macropodia but fingerlobes branch out twice
               into secondary branches. These are thickly set with polyps. See 
               macropodia for info.
        frondosa - Flat crusts with nobbed extensions. Will produce finger
               like appendages in low current areas. Under intense light will
               grow long fingers with large polyps. Like metal halide.
                    cdf=3, fll=2-9, dff= >5, mhl=3-9, dfm= >8
                    wcu=5-9, hac=1, fod=sym/lfd/zpl/vit, add=iod/cal/str
        dura - Solid cushion like bodies with burled to stubby finger pro-
               jections. See sp. for info.
        brassica - Colonies resemble cauliflower heads. Dark brown polyps
               on short stalks. Branches and base are creamy white to light
               beige.
                    cdf=2, fll=2-9, dff= >5, mhl=3-9, dfm= >8
                    wcu=1-4, hac=1, fod=sym/lfd/zpl/vit, add=iod/cal/str
        asterolobata - Morphology that resembles macropodia. Strong polyp-
               less base column splits itself into two or more secondary co-
               lumns from which long finger like branches protrude. These 
               branches can divide again. Branches are round and thickly
               covered with delicate polyps. Will shed skin. Base color from
               ivory, light grey or light olive. Will develop uv protection
               matter under halides which is yellowish to greenish and slight-
               ly luminescent.
                    cdf=2, fll=2-9, dff= >5, mhl=3-9, dfm= >8
                    wcu=5-9, hac=1, fod=sym/lfd/zpl/vit, add=iod/cal/str
        polydactyla - (many fingered) Squat column from 20 to 50 mm tall 
               is polypless. On upper side of column is a flat polyparywith
               40-50 mm long fingers which are thickly polyped. Base color is
               gray-white to creamy-yellow. Polyps are light to dark brown.
               Under halides polyps will become darker and then symbiotic
               algae are released which lightens the color. Grows well under
               fluorescent lighting.
                    cdf=2, fll=2-9, dff= >5, mhl=3-9, dfm= >8
                    wcu=5-9, hac=1, fod=sym/lfd/zpl/vit, add=iod/cal/str
   Cladiella
        sp - Squat column from which many branches extend and divide fur-
               thur upward. Base column lacks polyps while they become more
               dense closer to the ends of branches. Polyps are 3 to 4 cm 
               large. Can be propagated via branch "pinching". Can be acclimat-
               ed to halides. Will grow very fast toward surface of captive 
               reef. Do not shed skin but will release mucus. Not very com-
               patable with hexacorillia.
                    cdf=4, fll=2-9, dff= >5, mhl=3-9, dfm= >8
                    wcu=5-9, hac=1, fod=sym/lfd/zpl/vit, add=iod/cal/str
    Alcyonium 
        sp. - Bushy or crusty short tree like soft coral. Color is bright 
               yellow, orange or red. Shady locations. Reach 40 to 50 mm tall.
                    cdf=3, fll=2-7, dff= >5, mhl=1-2, dfm= >15
                    wcu=5-9, hac=1, fod=lfd/zpl, add=iod/cal/str
        sp. - Encrusting orange colored bushy soft coral. Very small orange
               polyps on bushy orange base. Can be propagated via cuttings. 
                    cdf=3, fll=2-7, dff= >5, mhl=1-2, dfm= >15
                    wcu=5-9, hac=4, fod=lfd/zpl, add=iod/cal/str

    Family Xeniidae
     Xenia (also Cespitularia)
         sp. - Large polyps with thin stems connected at the base. Polyps
               do not fully retract. Very tiny calcareous needles or complete-
               ly lack skeleton. Polyps can be up to 15 mm long under intense
               lighting. Tentacles are pinnated. Some will move polyps in 
               rhythmic motion to help exchange gases. Color is beige, cream
               or light brown. Will develope uv protection matter under ha-
               lides and color will be red, green, blue or irridescent. Can
               be acclimated to halides well. Can do well under fluorescent
               if high levels used. Can overgrow stony corals. Propagated 
               via cuttings.
                    cdf=5, fll=6-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-7, dfm= >10
                    wcu=5-9, hac=4, fod=sym/lfd, add=iod/cal/str
         umbellata - Mushroom shaped with seperate polyped branches up to
               50 mm long. Polyps will open and close in rhythmic fashion.
               Tentacles are short and wide and form little cups on thin
               branches. Branches radiate out from base. 
                    cdf=5, fll=6-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-7, dfm= >10
                    wcu=5-9, hac=4, fod=sym/lfd, add=iod/cal/str
            elongata - Similar to Xenia sp.. Has a more branched form. See 
               sp. for info.
     Anthelia
         glauca - Very similar to Xenia sp.. Has large polyps. Colonies
               grow very fast.
                    cdf=5, fll=6-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-7, dfm= >10
                    wcu=5-9, hac=4, fod=sym/lfd, add=iod/cal/str

    Family Nephteidae
     Litophyton
         arboreum - Standard bushy and tree shaped soft coral. Must be 
               acclimated to halides slowly. Will do well under fluorescents.
               Can be propagated via cuttings. Pale colors with symbiotic 
               algae. May not be compatable with hexacorillia.
                    cdf=3, fll=6-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-6, dfm= >10
                    wcu=5-9, hac=2, fod=sym/lfd/zpl, add=iod/cal/str
     Nephthea
         sp. - Tall bushy like soft coral. Smooth thick base with numerous 
               small thickly polyped smaller branches extending from main
               trunks. May not be compatable with hexacorillia.
                    cdf=6, fll=6-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-6, dfm= >10
                    wcu=5-9, hac=2, fod=sym/lfd/zpl, add=iod/cal/str
     Lemnalia
         sp. -  Tall tree-like soft corals. Polyps are not as dense as
               Nephthea. Long finger branches extend out from main clolumn.
               Must be slowly acclimated to halides. Might not be too com-
               patable with hexacorillia.
                    cdf=7, fll=6-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-6, dfm= >10
                    wcu=5-9, hac=2, fod=sym/lfd/zpl, add=iod/cal/str
     Dendronephythya
         sp. - Very colorful tree-like corals. Deep water or cave corals
               which require low lighting and frequent feedings of zooplank-
               ton. Will collapse occasionally. Calcareous needles are visi-
               ble in branches. Thin secondary branches extend from main stem.
                    cdf=9, fll=3-7, dff= >10, mhl=1-2, dfm= >20
                    wcu=5-9, hac=2, fod=sym/lfd/zpl, add=iod/cal/str
         rubeola - Ployps are very thick on short secondary branches which
               protrude from main column. Prefer sand or silt substrates.
               Need frequent feedings and will open polyps if substrate 
               stirred up. Brightly colored coral from low light areas.
                    cdf=9, fll=3-7, dff= >10, mhl=1-2, dfm= >20
                    wcu=5-9, hac=2, fod=lfd/zpl, add=iod/cal/str
         mirabilis - Snowy white polyps exist in thick groups protruding
               from short secondary branches. Form similar to rubeola. 
               No symbiotic algae. Need very low light.
                    cdf=9, fll=3-7, dff= >10, mhl=1-2, dfm= >20
                    wcu=5-9, hac=2, fod=lfd/zpl, add=iod/cal/str

   Order Gorgonacea (gorgonians)
     Family Plexauridae 
      Anthoplexaura (also Euplexaura)
          sp. - Flexible thin branched tree-like skeleton. Composed of
               horny or calcareous skeletal elements. Polyps embedded in 
               crusty layer of living material which surronds skeleton. This
               gorgonian species has few branches and are thickly polyped.
               Some species from caribbean sea contain symbiotic algae. Will
               shed skin. Polyps are up to 5 mm long. Only feed zooplankton
               when polyps are open. Can stir up sediment to entice polyps
               to open.
                    cdf=6, fll=3-7, dff= >10, mhl=1-2, dfm= >20
                    wcu=4-8, hac=0, fod=lfd/zpl, add=iod/cal/str

     Family Gorgonidae
      Eugorgia
          sp. - Very similar to Plexauridae. Branches are thicker.
                    cdf=5, fll=3-7, dff= >10, mhl=1-2, dfm= >20
                    wcu=4-8, hac=0, fod=lfd/zpl, add=iod/cal/str

   Order Stolonifera (pipe corals)
     Family Tubiporidae (organ pipe corals)
      Tubipora  
          musica - (red organ pipe) Flower polyps in red tube-like calcareous
               systems. Will do well under metal halides. Colonies should be 
               whole and not broken off (statement questioned by some).
                    cdf=2, fll=7-9, dff= >5, mhl=3-9, dfm= >10
                    wcu=3-6, hac=0, fod=sym/lfd, add=cal/str

     Family Clavulariidae
      Clavularia
          viridis - (green pipe, green star polyps) Encrusting colonies of
               small pipe shaped flower polyps. The tentacles are very bright
               green and a calcareous webbing connects the polyp stems. Coral
               is found in fist sized colonies existing in shallow water. 
               Will maintain bright green color under metal halide lighting.
                    cdf=2, fll=5-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-9, dfm= >10
                    wcu=4-8, hac=0, fod=sym/lfd, add=cal/str

     Family Cornulariidae
       Cornularia
          sp. - (brown pipe) Encrusting colonies of small pipe shaped flower
               polyps. The tentacles are brown and lack the calcareous web-
               bing found in Clavularia viridis. A horny protective shell is
               built around stolon. 
                    cdf=2, fll=5-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-9, dfm= >10
                    wcu=4-8, hac=0, fod=sym/lfd, add=cal/str

   Order Telestacea (branched pipe corals)
     Family Telestidae
       Coelogorgia 
          palmosa - (branched pipe) Appears like branching gorgonian corals.
               Branches have short stems from which polyps extend.
                    cdf=2, fll=5-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-9, dfm= >10
                    wcu=5-9, hac=0, fod=sym/zpl, add=cal/str

   Order Pennatulacea (sea pens)
     Family Veretillidae 
        Cavernularia
           obesa - (sea pen)Cylinder shaped coral from which large tentacles 
               extend. Color can be orange, yellow, buff or white. These 
               animals are not very compatable to reef tanks due to half-
               sessile existence. Require thick substrate.
                    cdf=3, fll=3-8, dff= >5, mhl=1-3, dfm= >20
                    wcu=2-5, hac=0, fod=zpl, add=iod/cal/str

   Order Coenothecalia 
      Family Helioporidae (blue coral)
         Heliopora
            coerulea - (blue coral) Beige to olive colored coral. Smooth sur-
               face with small calices. Polyps are hair-thin tubes about 1 mm
               long. Very small tentacles. Sheds skin. Grows very well under
               metal halides. Shapes can consist of nobs, columns, fingers or
               thick lobes. Dead corals are blue colored.
                    cdf=4, fll=5-9, dff= >5, mhl=1-9, dfm= >10
                    wcu=3-7, hac=0, fod=sym/mpl, add=cal/str
    d Anemones

5.4	Shelled things
    a Clams

          Tridacna Maxima (expensive)
                       Purple, blue, green, pink, or combination.
                       cdf=3, fll=5-9, dff <18, mhl=1-7, dfm= >8
                       wcu=1-5, hac=5, fod=sym, add=cal/str
          Tridacna crocea
                       Purple, blue, green, or combination.
                       cdf=5, fll=5-9, dff <6 mhl=1-7, dfm= >5
                       wcu=1-5, hac=5, fod=sym, add=cal/str
          Tridacna squamosa
                       brown, yellow, usually with green rim, black and red??.
                       cdf=3, fll=5-9, dff <18, mhl=1-7, dfm= >5
                       wcu=1-5, hac=5, fod=sym, add=cal/str
          Tridacna derasa
                       brown, sometimes with green strips.
                       cdf=1, fll=5-9, dff <18, mhl=1-7, dfm= >5
                       wcu=1-5, hac=5, fod=sym, add=cal/str
          Tridacna gigas 
                       almost always brown with tiny blue dots,
                       very rarely green, blue or combination.
                       cdf=3, fll=5-9, dff <18, mhl=1-7, dfm= >5
                       wcu=1-5, hac=5, fod=sym, add=cal/str
	  Hippopus hippopus
		Very light cream-color mantle with many short tan
		lines.  Shell is lighter in color and much smoother
		than Tridacna clams.  I believe the H.h clams are
                at least as hardy has the hardy T. clams.  They are also 
		supposed to be tank-raised.  They are certainly the 
		cheapest costing at most 1/3 to 1/2 that of a similiar-sized 
		Tridacna (excepting derasa which are almost as cheap).
		The mantle of Hippopus sp clams does not extend beyond
		the shell as it does in Tridacna sp (Delbeek).

    b Snails
    c Crustaceans

5.5	A LISTING OF THE MORE COMMON coralline ALGAE (Rhodophyta)
 
FAMILY:  Chaetangiaceae
 
GenSpec: _Galaxaura marginata_ (Lamouroux)
Des.     Small, mounded seaweed of loosly compressed blades.
         Dichotomous branches often show faint cross banding
         near the tip. Lightly calcified .
Range:   Caribbean
 
GenSpec: _Galaxaura oblongata_ (Lamouroux)
Des.     Bushy, creamy red plant having cylindrical smooth
         dichotomous branches with flexible joints. Well
         calcified.
Range:   Caribbean
 
 
GenSpec: _Galaxaura subverticillata_ (Kjellman)
Des.     Cylindircal, dark red dichotomous branches ringed by
         minute hairlike filaments, giving the algae a fuzzy
         appearance. Moderatly calcified.
Range:   Caribbean
 
 
FAMILY:  Corallinaceae
 
GenSpec: _Jania adherens_ (Lamouroux)
Des:     Fine, cylindrical, pink segments connected by flexible
        joints. Dichotomous branching. Forms small tangled
        clumps. Highly calcified.
Range:  Caribbean
 
GenSpec: _Jania rubens_ (Lamouroux)
Des:     Rose red somewhat straight segments tightly connected by
         flexible joints. Branching is dichotomous with narrow
         angles (branches almost parallel). Highly calcified.
Range:   Caribbean
 
GenSpec: _Haliptilon subulatum_ (Johansen)
Des:     Small, compressed plants, feather-like in appearance.
         Composed of brittle, chalky segments connected by
         flexible joints. Segments appear ringed. Heavily
         calcified.
Range:   Caribbean
 
GenSpec: _Amphiroa fragilissima_ (Lamouroux)
Des:     Dense clumps of entangled, fragile, thin jointed
         branches. Generally yellowish pink in color. The
         dichotomous branches form very wide angles (broad
         "Y"'s) at each joint. Highly calcified.
Range:   Caribbean
 
GenSpec: _Amphiroa rigida var. antillana_
Des:     Open, brittle species with thin, narrow cylindrical
         branches. Light, off white clumps. Branches dichotomous.
         Highly calcified.
Range:   Caribbean
 
GenSpec: _Amphiroa brasiliana_ (Decaisne)
Des:     Pink, joited, dichotomus, somewhat flattened branches.
         Highly calcified
Range:   Caribbean
 
GenSpec: _Amphiroa tribulus_ (Lamouroux)
Des:     Thin, brittle, flattened, sparse branches, forming
         pinkish red bushy clumps. Edges of branches are often
         flattened. Highly calcified.
Range:   Caribbean
 
GenSpec: _Amphiroa hancockii_ (W. Taylor)
Des:     Irregualr to dichotomous branching. Colour is pinkish
         purple. Branches composed of thick, flattened segements.
         Heavily calcified.
Range:   Caribbean
 
GenSpec: _Neogoniolithon spectabile_ (Setchell and Mason)
Des:     Hard, stony pink plant forming knobby hemispherical
         clumps tighly attached to rocks. Branching is irregular
         to dichotomous, and segments are thick. Heavily
         calcified.
Range:   Caribbean
 
GenSpec: _Neogoniolithon strictum_ (Setchell and Mason)
Des:     Hard, brittle pinkish red plant with blunt branching
         and no joints. Branches thick, and tend to grow
         upright. Heavily calcified.
Range:   Caribbean
 
GenSpec: _Lithophyllum congestum_ (Foslie)
Des:     Pink to purplish branched, headlike plants that look
         similar to coral. Branches are crowded, stout,
         projections, and are wafer-like. Heavily calcifed.
Range:   Caribbean
 
GenSpec: _Mesophyllum mesomorphum_ (Adey)
Des:     An encrusting coralline algae. Dark red to pink over-
         lapping shelves or lobes. Fragil. Heavily calcified.
Range:   Caribbean, Indo-Pacific
 
GenSpec: _Titanoderma_ sp. (Chamberlain)
Des:     An encrusting coralline algae found growing epiphytically
         on many species of algae. Forms thin, pinkish crusts.
         Heavily calcified.
Range:   Caribbean
 
GenSpec: _Fosliella farinosa f. callithamnoides (Chamberlain)
Des:     An articualted coralline algae found growing
         epiphytically on many species of algae. Forms thin,
         dichotomously branched colonies. Heavily calcified.
Range:   Caribbean
 
GenSpec: _Titanoderma prototypum_ (Woelkerling)
Des:     Cream coloured to red encrusting algae, often with
         a circular pattern present. Heavily calcified.
Range:   Caribbean
 
GenSpec: _Titanoderma bermudense_ (Foslie and Howe)
Des:     A grayish to pale red encrusting algae consisting of
         overlapping layers. Often with striations or greyish
         lines present on the surface. Heavily calcified.
Range:   Caribbean
 
GenSpec: _Porolithon pachydermum_ (Weber-van Bosse & Foslie)
Des:     Pinkish grey encrusting algae often containing holes
         (caused by a chiton). An important reef builder. Heavily
         calcifed.
Range:   Caribbean
 
GenSpec: _Sporolithon episporum_ (Dawson)
Des:     A reddish brown encrusting algae, often growing in
         layers that overlap each other. When broken, exposed
         surface is white. Heavily calcifed.
Range:   Caribbean
 
GenSpec: _Hydrolithon boergesenii_ (Foslie)
Des:     A purple/lavender knobby encrusting algae. Highly
         calcified.
Range:   Caribbean
 
FAMILY:  Squamariaceae
 
GenSpec: _Peyssonnelia_ sp.
Des:     A dark red to maroon encrusting algae. Edges sometimes
         raised above substrate.
Range:   Caribbean

5.6 	Possible Problems
    	a Mantis Shrimp
    	b bristle worms

*5.7	Hermit Crabs

************BY Gregory Schiemer*************************
The hermit crabs I'm listing are the ones that I know are safe inhabitants for 
a
reef aquarium.  They are all relatively small (less than one inch), eat algae,
will not bother other invertebrates or fish (although they occasionally
each other during molts), are mostly active at night, are generally
long-lived, and definitely fun to watch. All have been offered for sale at one
time or another, but never regularly.  So, here they are:

>From the Caribbean and Tropical Atlantic:

-Red Hermit Crab (Paguristes cadenati)- A bright red body and legs with yellow
eye stalks.  Very pretty, but active usually after the lights go out. Found onl
y
on the reef as solitary individuals, never in aggregations.  My personal
favorite.  They gently remove micro-algae from in and around corals and polyps.
Gr  Usually stays on the rocks, but will sift through the
substrate.

-Orange-Claw Hermit (Calcinus tibicen)-Has a dark red or orange body with one
slightly enlarged claw. Found both on coral reefs and rocky substrates, never i
n
large numbers.  Very good at eating micro-algae and some macro-algae. Bolder
than the Red Hermit, as it will be active during the day. Grows to one inch.
Spends almost all of it's time on the rocks.

-Polkadotted Hermit (Phimochirus operculatus)-Has a distinctive polkadot red an
d
white, greatly enlarged claw, and blue eyes.  Found on coral reefs. This is
probably the most aggressive and active of the small hermits. Also eats algae
and sifts through the substrate. Grows to about one inch.

-Red-Stripe Hermit (Phimochirus holthuisi)-Similar to the Polkadotted Hermit.
Found on coral reefs.  Active and bold.  Will eat algae and anything else it ca
n
gets it's claws on, but doesn't seem to bother corals. Grows to about one inch.

-Red, White and Blue Hermit (Paguristes sp.?)-Blue legs with a touch of red,
white and black.  Found in large aggregations in the sand along the shore line.
This is the crab that is being sold in quantity from Florida dealers. They are
active all day, but more so at night. They will feed on detritus and
micro-algae.  Bolder and m not as
much as the Polkadotted Hermit. They will occasionally climb on corals, but
apparently cause no harm. It's strange that although they are collecin the
sand, mine have spent the majority of their time on the rocks in the aquarium.
Grows to about three-quarters of an inch.

>From the Pacific (including Mexico):

-Red-Leg Hermit (Calcinus californiensis)-Has rrange legs and a greenish
black body.  Found on rocky inshore substrates in large aggregations.  Will eat
micro-algae and other bits of food missed by the fish.  More active at night,
but will forage when the lights are on.  Relatively bold and aggressive.  Grows
to about three-quarters of an inch.

-Blue-Eye Hermit (Paguristes sanguinimanus)-Orange body with bright blue eyes.
Found on sand flats and patch reefs in aggregations.  Good micro-algae eater.
Grows to about one-half inch.

-Blue-Spotted Hermit (Clibanarius digueti)-Reddish-brown legs with bluish spots
.
Found on rocky inshore substrates where it feeds on algae.  Grows to only
one-half inch.

***************************************************************

================== End of ReefKeepers FAQ Part 2 of 3 ==================

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Last Update March 27 2014 @ 02:11 PM