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Anime Music FAQ for REC.ARTS.ANIME.* 3/3

( Part1 - Part2 - Part3 )
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Archive-name: anime/music/part3
Posting-Frequency: every 4 weeks
Last-modified: 26 July, 2009
Copyright: (c) 2001-2004,2006,2008-2009 Ru Igarashi
Disclaimer: Approval for *.answers is based on form, not content.
Maintainer: Ru Igarashi <>

See reader questions & answers on this topic! - Help others by sharing your knowledge
		           Anime Music FAQ
		       for REC.ARTS.ANIME.*
		                Part 3

Edited by Ru Igarashi
Based on the work of Steve Pearl

This article can be freely distributed for non-commercial use, 
as long as all credits and notices remain intact.  If this is to be
used in any publication, including CD-ROM collections, please
contact the maintainer for permission at

Please e-mail all additions/corrections/comments to:

Changes since last posting:
- none

FAQ Entries needed (submissions welcome):
- need glossary entry for streaming Windows Media

This FAQ is posted in two parts.

Part 1
1. General Questions
2. Legality Issues with Anime Music
3. Artists

Part 2
1. Electronic Anime Music Resources
2. Anime Mail Order Businesses

Part 3

A. Contributors
B. Disclaimer



The following are short descriptions of terms and abbreviations common
in this newsgroup.  For a comprehensive list of acronyms used in the
rec.arts.anime.* news groups, see Rob Kelk's "Anime Acronym List",
posted monthly, or found at

.au/.aiff/.snd/.voc/.wav:  Suffices for different types of audio files.
        Most of them do not use any compression.  Are now mainly 
	used for computer system sounds (which is what they originally 
	started out for).

.avi:	AVI video files.  AVI is not actually a compression format, 
        rather a wrapper for a wide variety of video compression formats.

.gz:    Suffix for unix "gzip" compressed file.
        See Compressed File.

.lha/.lzh: Suffix for Lempel-Ziv-Haruyasu algorithm compressed file.
        See Compressed File.

.m3u:   Suffix for "MPEG1 Layer 3 URL" file. 
	See M3U and MP1/MP2/MP3 files below.

.mov/.qt:  Suffices for QuickTime video files.  Like AVI, this is a 
	wrapper for a wide variety of video compression formats.

.mp1/.mp2/.mp3: see MP1/MP2/MP3 Files below

.mpg:   MPEG1 video file.  Not to be confused with MP1/MP2/MP3.  See
        MPEG below.

.ogg:	Ogg Vorbis audio file.  See Ogg Vorbis file below.

.pls:   Suffix for Shoutcast PlayLiSt file.  See PLS Files below

.ra/.rm/.ram/.rpm: "Real" audio/visual files, a proprietary format by the 
        company that produces the RealPlayer line of software.  These
	are usually used as a source file for streaming AV content
	over the net rather than download-then-play.  Some of these
	(.ram, .rpm) are actually contain pointers to the actual file.

.tgz/.tar.gz:   Suffix for gzipped GNU tar compressed archive file.

.Z:     Suffix for standard unix "compress" compressed files.  
        See Compressed File.  [SP]

.zip:   Suffix for the MSDOS zip compressed archive file.
        See Compressed File.

Anime:  Japanese word for animation, pronounced "ah-nee-meh". In North
        America (and probably everywhere outside of Japan), "anime"
	is used only in reference to Japanses animation (whereas, in
	Japan it refers to all animation). The term "anime" is preferred 
	in this newsgroup over "japanimation" (a term used by North 
	Americans to refer to Japanese animation), as the latter seems 
	to be offensive to some people. [SP,RI]

Anison:	Japanese word for "anime song".  Detailed definitions vary, but
	basically these are songs made for and used in anime.  Often these
	are OP or ED, and sometimes instrumental OP or ED are considered
	anisons.  Technically speaking a "song" is sung, i.e. has a singer,
	so it might be argued that instrumentals don't count.  Purists
	also stipulate that anison are sung by career anime artists, 
	singers who don't have (much of) a singing career outside of 
	anime songs.

Anonymous FTP:  A type of FTP to log into a remote machine without 
        needing an account, and extracting files from it (see FTP).  
	Web browsers make use of this "automatically", so you don't 
	really need to know how.  If you want to use anonymous FTP 
	manually but don't know how, ask your local System 
	Administrator. [SP,RI]

BGM:    Background music

bitrate: In the audio context (also in video), the bitrate cited
	 is usually the maximum volume of digital data (number
	 of "bits") available at a time (e.g. per second) for
	 compressed audio data.  It is often used synonymously with
	 compression factor and audio quality (more compression
	 results in poorer quality) because the raw audio data
	 usually starts out with much higher digital size and must
	 be squeezed down the the assigned bitrate.  For example,
	 CD audio runs at more than 1 million bits per second,
	 and MP3s typically reduce that to the order of 100,000
	 bits per second (100 kbps).

bootleg:  Copies of a work (e.g. CD) made and distributed illegally, 
        especially with respect to copyright laws, which usually 
	stipulate that copying and distribution require permission 
	(and usually licensing) from the original producer of the 
	work.  Frequently used synonymously with the term "pirated".

Browser:  An application for accessing the web, like Netscape.  [SP]

CCCD: Copy-Control CDs.  As the name implies, these are CDs with 
      a form of copy control, particularly to try to block copying of
      music on computers.  Introduced to the market by Avex, it is
      my understanding that the CCCD is actually a multi-session CDROM 
      with data (plus some black magic) and audio tracks.  The audio
      tracks contain the usual CD format music, but the data track is
      what computers see, and that typically contains compressed 
      audio files along with a M$ Windows "private player" (it looks 
      like some companies use their own encoding, one company uses
      K2 enc and Sony uses their minidisc ATRAC).

      If you want to identify CCCDs, the standard logo can be seen 
      in this Recording Industry Association of Japan (RIAJ) news: 

      There are currently 5 Japanese companies using some variant of
      the CCCD format (you'll have to use a translation service to
      read their web pages):
         Avex (
	 Toshiba-EMI (
	 Japan Victor (JVC) (
	 King Records (
	 Pony Canyon (
	 Sony (
	 Teichiku Entertainment
	 Universal Music Japan
	 Warner Music Japan
      Avex, King, Universal Pony Canyon and JVC use Cactus Data Shield 
      protection scheme.  Sony CCCDs use Labelgate protection scheme.

      It should be noted that Phillips, the originator of the CD format
      refuses to allow the CD trademark to be used on these CDs (because
      they simply aren't audio CDs).

CD:     Compact Disc.  These are 5 inch optical storage disks 
	capable of holding up to 650 megabytes of data or 74 minutes
	of audio (well, they can squeeze in more, but that's the
	standard specification).  
	There are a few types of anime audio CDs:
           soundtrack or original soundtrack or OST - Contains the 
	        musical score for the anime.  An exception is the 
		soundtrack for Akira, which includes the voices and
		sound effects!  If you just want the music, get the
		Akira Symphonic Suite instead.
           symphonic - A full-symphony rendition of the music in
	        the anime.
           image - Contains music that "evokes the memory (or mood)
	        of the film".  This includes new versions of music on
		the anime, music written for the film but not included
		in it, and other (maybe new) music somehow related to
		the film.
	   drama - Much like a radio play, but on CD.  The story
	        can be from the video, but often is not.
           high-tech - A synthetizer rendition of the music in
	        the anime. 

CDROM:  CDs used for computer data storage.  They can, of course, hold
        audio files, but they can't be played in an audio CD player.
	Playback is via computer, or portable audio file playback
	device (similar to the Rio).

CD-R:   Write once, read many times CD.  Can be used to make audio
	CDs and computer data CDs.  Compatible with most CD-only
	players (home audio and computer alike), however, some
	DVD decks cannot read these since the laser frequency is
	mismatched to the disc dyes used.  Once written, it can't
	be written over and more audio tracks cannot be added.
	Data versions can have additional data written in a special
	"multi-session" format, which aren't readable on older CDROMs.

CD-RW:  Rewritable CD.  Can be used to make audio CDs and computer
	data CDs.  Can be written over many times (though there is
	a limit), or written incrementally. Not all CD-only players 
	can play these, but DVD decks should because the dyes used 
	are coincidentally closer matched to the DVD laser 
	frequency than CD-Rs.

CD-Single: A 3 inch version of the normal (5 1/4 inch) CD.  There's
	no difference in the data structure, but because it is
	physically smaller, it holds less music.  Usually used
	for music "singles" (the term "single" is loosely applied
	as often there are a couple to a few songs on one).  These
	can be played in most normal CD players (if you see a 
	smaller diameter depresssion in your tray and have 
	wondered about it, this is what it's for).

CD-V:   CD-Video.  A CD that has one track of audio-and-video, and 
	three or four additional tracks of audio-only.  Not to be 
	confused with VCD (see VCD below). [SP,RI]

Compressed File:  Files compressed by programs like Unix compress(1), 
        gzip(1), or MSDOS zip.  This is done to long files (like long
	FAQs) to save disk storage space and reduce download time.  In 
	order to view such a file, you usually first run a decompression 
	program like gunzip(1), or unzip, in order to convert it back 
	to its original form. There are some programs that allow you
	to view compressed files without manually decompressing the
	files first.  Also, in the case of tar or zip, the content 
	is usually more than one file (even whole directory structures).

DMCA:  Digital Millenium Copyright Act - a US Bill that amended US
       Code 17 (Copyright Law) (e.g. Chapter 12).  Acquired some 
       infamy with one of its intents which was to update Title 17 
       to deal with computer technology's effect on intellectual
       property.  In particular, the DMCA deals with two issues:
       measures that prevent unauthorized ACCESS and measures that
       prevent unauthorized COPYING (defined as the exclusive rights
       of an author). BUT it explicitly does not affect the other
       aspects of USC 17, including the various exclusions and
       limitations of copyright.  
       And then came the uproar.  The DMCA says that "No person shall
       circumvent a technological measure that effectively controls
       access to a work...".  Unfortunately, some people have taken 
       this to mean that anyone that does something like a screen 
       capture of a DVD for a term paper is breaking the law because
       piping the DVD player's analog signal into a capture card is 
       "circumventing" the DVD's encryption.  That isn't the case, 
       because a) term papers are fair use which the DMCA allows, and
       more importantly, b) the DVD deck is a permitted way to play 
       back the DVD, c) "circumvent protection..." is defined as "means
       avoiding, bypassing, removing, deactivating, or otherwise
       impairing... a measure".  b)&c) indicates ACCESS has clearly 
       not been circumvented since the data went RIGHT THROUGH the 
       protection.  As long as you use standard (authorized) equipment 
       to play back digital media, DMCA is a far smaller issue than 
       alarmists make it out to be.

       Check Chapter 12 of USC 17, for more details on the actual law.

       If you are into lawmaking, you can find the text of the act at 
       the Library of Congress site:

       Like most amendments, it's a bit messy, so the US Copyright 
       Office has an enlightening Summary at

Dolby Digital: Used to be called AC-3, a digital audio specfication
        for sound recordings used mostly with video.  It is not 
	limited to surround sound, as the specfication allows for 
	monaural (1.0), stereo (2.0), and surround (5.1) sound.  It
	has since been extended to 6.1 and 7.1 in DD Surround EX
	for more precise rear or back surround sound placement.  This
	is still technically 5.1 because the extra surround speaker 
	info is encoded in the left and right surround tracks then 
	decoded for the extra speakers by the EX-enabled sound system.  
	This means a DD 7.1 recording can still be played back on a
	5.1 sound system.
	This is not MPEG, which is ironic because the video it
	usually accompanies is MPEG.

Drama track:  Some CDs have radio-play style skits between music
	tracks.  They can be comedy or drama, but are still 
	refered to as "Drama tracks".

DVD:    The next generation of optical storage medium after CDs.
	Introduced as a video medium, the specifications for the
	audio variant was only finalized in early 1999.  The audio
	DVD can hold a vastly larger volume of music data, some
	of which is directed towards a higher audio quality than CD
	and some of which can be used for surround audio, thanks to 
	MPEG compression (see MP1/2/3 and MPEG below).  However, 
	audio DVDs are rare, and it isn't clear that older players 
	will be compatible with DVD-audio software.  For more 
	information, check Jim Taylor's DVD FAQ at

ED:     Ending credits.  Also used in reference to the music playing
        during the ending credits.

FAQ:    Frequently Asked Question.  A question which is frequently
	asked by new (or casual) users of a newsgroup.	In order to
	increase the Signal-to-Noise ratio, some newsgroups have
	a person in charge of posting a monthly list of FAQs and
	the correct answers.  [SP]
FTP:    "File Transfer Protocol".  A method of moving files from one
        computer to another that involves logging into the other 
	machine and issuing commands to get and put files onto
	either machine.  Logging in essentially opens a data pipeline
	between the two machines that are normally closed off from
	each other.  Most of us will use it as Anonymous FTP 
	(see Anonymous FTP) for getting a file from someone, but 
	the folks providing that file probably used straight FTP to 
	put the file where we can get it.  If you want to use FTP 
	manually but don't know how, ask your local System 
	Administrator (it's pretty simple most of the time).

HD:	"High Definition" video.  The allowed picture dimensions are 
	1280x720 and 1920x1080, with a 16:9 ratio.  Compared to
	"standard" video, that's a lot better resolution.

IM:     Image Song (see Image Song below)

Image Album:  See CD above.

Image Song:  A song on an anime-related CD that isn't actually used
	in the anime show.  It usually has some aspect that is tied
	to the show, like the atmosphere or imagery, or the singer 
	sings in character.

IMHO:   In My [Humble|Honest] Opinion.

J-Pop:  Japanese Pop.  A term used to refer to, well, pop music 
        originating in Japan.  Some anime music fall under this
	category, and some VAs have some sort of J-Pop career.

Karaoke version:  Some CDs have tracks from what were originally
	vocal music, but without the vocals.  This is for folks
	that want to sing their rendition of the vocals. That is,
	this is for Karaoke.  Some companies call these "off vocal

kbps: kilobits per second.  Unit of measure for bitrates.  See "bitrates".

M3U files:  "MPEG1 Layer 3 URL", a file containing a list of pointers
	(originally URLs) of MP3 files for streaming audio.  Used 
	by some MP3 players as a playlist file, which contain a 
	list of files, or the location of off-site files, to play 
	back.  Some streaming audio sites use these, but the 
	actual audio is MP3 format.  See also PLS files.

MD:	MiniDisc.  An optical music storage format, using a 2.5 inch
	disc in a cassette from Sony.  These make use of Sony's 
	proprietary ATRAC (Adaptive Transform Acoustic Coding) 
	compression format to fit data onto the smaller form factor.  
	This compression uses the same principles as MP3 
	(see MP1/MP2/MP3) but is a different implementation, and 
	thus incompatible.  This format has occasionally been used 
	in .wav files.  Discs can be rewritable and those can be 
	written and deleted on the fly.  There are home stereo units 
	that can record and play the discs, as well as portable 
	playback units.  Never caught on as well outside of Japan 
	as CD did, despite the recordability, though Sony started 
	a push in the late 1990's.  Note, this is not the same thing
	as CD-Singles (see CD-Single).  For more information,

MDLP:	MiniDisc Long Play.  A newer MiniDisc encoding format that
	allows the disc to hold 160 and 320 minutes of data.  The
	bitrate is actually lower than half and 1/4 of the standard
	(SP) due to the inclusion of space for dummy data to make this
	format compatible with SP.  Players that can play MDLP can
	play SP, but machines made before MDLP or without it cannot
	play MDLP formatted discs.

MIDI files: As noted above, MIDI files are intrinsically like MOD 
	files, deriving sound from individual samples rather than
	one continuous waveform. However, MIDI files use a more
	standard sample set, and with the proper hardware you
	can play a piece on a keyboard/synthesizer and have your
	computer record it as a MIDI file.  More information can
	be found on the alt.binaries.sounds.midi,,
	and newsgroups. [SP]

Mini-Disc: See MD.

MOD files:  MOD files use discrete instrumental samples plus other
        information (frequency of the note, volume, etc) to play
        sounds, as opposed to WAV and AU formats which just play
        back a single continuous waveform.  Any sample, generally
        up to a size limit (in number of bytes), can be taken,
        unlike MIDI which has a specific, though growing, standard
        set of samples.  The MOD format started on the Amiga and was
        subsequently ported to PCs, Macs, etc.  The original format
        has also been improved from its original four channels
        and somewhat limited effects to more than 30 channels
        and a multitude of effects (volume and tonal slides,
        vibrato, etc).  Probably the most popular "advanced"
        MOD format is the ScreamTracker Module, or .S3M file.
        More information can be found on the alt.binaries.sounds.mod
        and a.b.s.mod.d newsgroups.  [SP]

MP1/MP2/MP3 files: Sound files which use a "lossy" compression 
	algorithm to reduce the size of the sound file an order
	of magnitude from the raw size.  It takes advantage of the
	human ear's inability to perceive variations beyond certain
	levels (e.g. frequency).  It can be adjusted to throw more
	or less information away at the cost of audio quality.
	The actual formal denotation is MPEG1-layer1/2/3, so that
	the acronyms result from truncating the "version 1" index.
	That is, MP2 is NOT MPEG2, it is a subset of MPEG1.
	There are other MPEG audio codecs, but relative to the
	efficiency of MPEG1-layer3, the returns are so poor they
	are not broadly used, except possibly MPEG2 in DVD.
	There are now portable hardware that can input and play
	back MP3 files.

MPEG:	"Moving Picture Experts Group", a series of specifications
	for compressing digital video and audio data.  They use a
	"lossy" compression philosophy, which takes advantage of
	our senses' inability to percieve variations beyond certain
	levels.  It relies on playback devices to have code that
	does a decent job of approximating the original information
	based on the reduced information from the compressor.  There
	are actually 4 "phases" of MPEG, with varying degrees of
	public recognition.  MPEG1 is commonly used for video CDs
	(see VCD below), movie files, and MP1/MP2/MP3 audio files 
	(see MP1/MP2/MP3 above). MPEG2 is what DVDs use for video 
	(and Dolby Digital or MPEG2 for audio).  MPEG3 was found to 
	be redundant with MPEG2.  MPEG4 is for extreme compression 
	situations, like telephony and internet movies.  MPEG1 was
	used a lot for transmission of programming to local broadcast
	stations, but the Digital TV age will guarantee MPEG2
	dominance for that purpose.
	For more information, check the FAQs at

Off Vocal Version: see "Karaoke version"

Ogg Vorbis file:  An audio file using an open software compression
	algorithm.  The aim is to be an alternative to MP3 because 
	of licensing issues for MP3 players.  Algorithm uses a
	similar lossy compression philosophy (see MP1/MP2/MP3), but 
	implements it differently so that intellectual property 
	rights are not violated.  Most major audio players should 
	be able to play this format.

OP:     Opening credits.  Also used in reference to the music 
	playing during the opening credits.

OS:     Operating System (computers).  After all, computers are used
        to play music, too. :)

OST:	Original Soundtrack (see "soundtrack").  Usually in reference
        to a soundtrack as a body of work (e.g. CD, LP).  Sometimes
	used synonymously with ST.

outro:  The ending sequence or credits, or in the context of music, 
        the ending theme.  see also ED

Overseas version:  These seem to be CDs destined for foreign (outside
        of Japan) markets.  They are either produced in Japan for
	export, or produced by a foreign branch of a Japanese
	company, or licensed by a foreign company.  Beware!  Sometimes
	this tag is used for bootlegs.
	[editor's note: Which overseas-version producing companies are 
	legit?  Which aren't, or which make lousy CDs?]

PCM:	Pulse Coded Modulation audio format.  This is what the
	uncompressed or raw data data on CDs is called.  You'll 
	see the technical sections of your CD and DVD players 
	refer to this.  This is also the required format for
	audio on DVD-Audio (i.e. compressed MPEG audio formats
	are optional).

PLS files:  Shoutcast PlayLiSt file used by some MP3 Players, which 
	contain a list of files, or the location of off-site files, 
	to play back.  Some streaming audio sites use these, but the 
	actual audio is MP3 format.  The main difference with M3U
	files is extra information (e.g. title) and syntax, but 
	otherwise serves the same function.

SACD: "Super Audio CD".  These are CDs that are encoded with a
	special format to highly increase the bitrate, thus
	increase audio fidelity.  They require a special player
	for the high quality playback, but can be played on
	standard CDs with standard CD quality sound (by virtue
	of a standard CD layer).  The increased bitrate also
	allows for surround sound playback (again, only on
	SACD compatible players).

seiyuu:  Japanese word for voice actor.

soundtrack: the music that plays during a show, or the score.  
        Sometimes used synonymously with OST CD.

SHM-CD: "Super High Material CD".  These are CDs made with a high
	transparency plastic that reduces read errors, thus apparently
	improving sound quality.  Some reports suggest nearly as
	good improvement at SACDs.  Regardless, these are totally
	compatible with standard CD players and the improvement
	should apply to any CD player (possibly moreso with poorer
	quality CD players).

ST:	Soundtrack (see "soundtrack").  Sometimes used synonymously
        with OST.

URL:    An URL is used by programs (usually browsers) to find a
	specific file or location anywhere on the internet.  URL is
	short for "Uniform Resource Locator".

        For example, two sites may have the same file called 
	priss01.gif, but the URL's will be different, such as

        For the technically minded, a URL is made like this:
           ^1   ^2 ^3        ^4 ^5           ^6

          1:  The type of service (such as FTP, Telnet, etc.).
          2:  The separator to the actual address.
          3:  The address (or site) on the internet where the
	      information can be accessed.
          4:  The seperator to the local directory/folder of the
          5:  The folder/directory structure to locate the item.
          6:  The actual file itself.  This isn't always there, and 
	      when it isn't the computer pointed to by #3 will send
	      over a default file, the directory listing, or other

Usenet: Technically, the proper name for "news groups".  It is a 
	messaging system in which each message is broadcast to, and 
	stored at any site that wishes to provide access to the 
	message to its users, by category, or "news group".  That 
	means there is no central server, and no one controls or 
	rules usenet.  Many news groups are grouped under 
	"hierarchies" which have different policies.  Usenet has 
	been around longer than the internet, but now mostly uses 
	the internet to transmit messages (it doesn't have to).  
	Note, "news groups are not the internet", and vice versa, 
	and "news groups are not web boards", etc.

VA:	Voice Actor

VBR:	Variable Bit Rate.  For some digital audio (and video) 
	compression schemes, the Bitrate (see "bitrate") can be
	continuously changed to suit more or less complex changes
	in sound (or picture).  This helps to optimize the storage
	space (e.g. on a DVD) and reproduction quality.  This is 
	done at the authoring phase and is out of the user's 

VCD:	Video CD.  Video is compressed using MPEG1 lossy algorithm.
	The specification (White book) is fairly strict, allowing
	for only a fairly limited bitrate and only 352x240 (NTSC) or
	352x288 (PAL) resolution.  Can hold up to just over one hour 
	of video, as well as menu driven access and still images, 
	and computer files.  Not really an audio format, though not 
	out of the question.  Not to be confused with DVD.

WWW:    World Wide Web. A global, interactive, dynamic, cross-
	platform, distributed, graphical, hypermedia information 
	system that runs over the Internet.  Note, "the web is not
	the internet", and vice versa. [SP,RI]

A. Contributors

As with most FAQs, the information documented in the 
this FAQ comes from many people (yes, anime fans
are people, too).  Our thanks should go to these people.

Steve Pearl (who started this FAQ)
Clinton Moulds
Daniel (a.k.a. vanfanel)
Joshua Kaufman
K.E. Bosco
Mike Quin
Nobutoshi Ito
Rob Kelk
Rob Maxwell
Ru Igarashi
Simon Palko
Thomas Chan
Tom Norrill
Wayne C. Morris
Terrence Huey
Michael Hayden
Joe Curzon
Glenn Shaw
Nunya Biznes
Kaijyuu Miyuki-chan
Josh Berry
Eric VanHeest
Zoe (of
James Mccawley
Phil Lee
Dave Watson
Sean O'Connor
John Lee Baird
Skeleton Man
Mark Weiss
Wesley Kwong
Tomoe (smency20)


B. Disclaimer

This document is provided without any warrantees, implied or
expressed.  The editor assumes no responsibility for damages 
resulting from the use of the information the document contains
or the lack thereof.

Edited by Ru Igarashi.
E-mail submissions and questions about the newsgroup to 

User Contributions:

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