Posting-Frequency: every 4 weeks
Last-modified: 12 August, 2009
Copyright: (c) 2001-2009 Ru Igarashi
Disclaimer: Approval for *.answers is based on form, not content.
Maintainer: Ru Igarashi <firstname.lastname@example.org>
See reader questions & answers on this topic! - Help others by sharing your knowledge
Anime Music FAQ for REC.ARTS.ANIME.* Part 1 Edited by Ru Igarashi Based on the work of Steve Pearl This article can be freely distributed for non-commercial use, as long as all credits and notices remain intact. If this is to be used in any publication, including CD-ROM collections, please contact the maintainer for permission at e-mail:email@example.com. Please e-mail all additions/corrections/comments to: ru.igarashi[at]usask.ca Changes since last posting: - changed list of newsgroups for posting, and the "About this FAQ" section, due to removal of rec.arts.anime.music - change URL for Canadian copyright law - added catalog prefices for Happinet, Lantis, and Flying Dog - updated some links or noted dead links FAQ Entries needed (submissions welcome): - I really need to sift through the last few years of videos for more classical composer usages - Need ADV Music CD prefix - Does Bandai have a separate CD web site/page? - there is a bunch of artists with non-Japanese SOUNDING names in the non-Japanese artists list. Please let me know if any of the names don't belong on that list. ---------------------------------------------------------------------- This FAQ is posted in three parts. Contents: Part 1 1. General Questions o WHY DO IMPORT ANIME CDS COST SO MUCH? o WHAT IS THE 2 YEAR LIMIT? o WHY ARE 2 PRICES SHOWN ON THE BACK OF MY CD? o HOW DO I PLAY STREAMING AUDIO? o WHAT'S THE RECOMMENDED WAY OF PRESENTING MUSIC SAMPLERS ON MY WEB SITE? o WHAT'S THE SONG THAT PLAYS DURING THAT SCENE...? o WHAT ARE SOME GOOD ORCHESTRAL, SYMPHONIC, OR CLASSICAL STYLE OST? o WHAT SOUNDTRACKS INCLUDE COMPOSITIONS BY CLASSICAL COMPOSERS? o WHAT SOUNDTRACKS USE SONGS OR MUSIC FROM OTHER NON-ANIME SOURCES? o WHAT SOUNDTRACKS FEATURED NON-JAPANESE ARTISTS? 2. Artists o WHO WROTE THE SOUNDTRACK FOR THIS SHOW? o IS GABRIELLE ROBIN ACTUALLY YOKO KANNO? o WHAT LANGUAGE DOES GABRIELLA ROBIN SING IN? o WHICH VOICE ACTORS ALSO HAVE A SINGING CAREER? 3. Legality Issues with Anime Music o LEGALITY OF COPYING ANIME MUSIC o IF NO PROFIT IS MADE, IT ISN'T ILLEGAL, IS IT? o BUT I CAN'T AFFORD THE ORIGINALS, DOESN'T THAT COUNT? o BUT THE CD I WANT IS OUT OF PRINT o IS MY INTERNET RADIO OR STREAMING AUDIO SITE ILLEGAL? o HOW DOES ONE GET AN INTERNET BROADCAST LICENSE? o WHAT IS ASCAP AND JASRAC, AND WHAT DO THEY DO? o WHAT IS THE ACTUAL COPYRIGHT LAW? o WHAT IS THE "BERNE CONVENTION"? o ARE SON MAY/EVER ANIME CDS BOOTLEGS? o HOW CAN I TELL IF AN ANIME CD IS A BOOTLEG CD? o WHAT ARE THE PREFIXES FOR JAPANESE ANIME CDS? o WHAT ARE THE PREFIXES FOR NON-JAPANESE ANIME CDS? o ARE THERE PREFIXES FOR BOOTLEGGED CDS? o ISN'T IT ILLEGAL FOR STORES TO SELL SM/EA CDS? o BUT WHY ISN'T COPYRIGHT ACTUALLY ENFORCED? o IF THE RIGHTS HOLDERS DON'T ACT, DON'T THEY LOSE THEIR RIGHTS? o WHAT IS THIS RUMOR ABOUT LICENSING MP3 SOFTWARE? A. About this FAQ o WHAT IS THIS FAQ FOR? o WHAT IS THE HISTORY OF THIS FAQ? o WHERE CAN I FIND THE LATEST VERSION OF THIS FAQ? B. Contributors C. Disclaimer Part 2 1. Online Anime Music Resources 2. Anime Mail Order Businesses Part 3 1. GLOSSARY ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 1. General Questions o WHY DO IMPORT ANIME CDS COST SO MUCH? Because that is what they cost in Japan. This is true of anime videos, too. Most CDs in Japan cost about 3000 Yen. The currency exchange ranges roughly 1 US dollar for 100-150 Yen. That means imported anime CDs should cost about $30 US at $1:Y100 and $20 US at $1:Y150. If you find an anime CD for under $20 US, then it is either a domestic (outside of Japan) release, a used CD, or a bootleg. The reason the Japanese price is so high is usually attributed to their higher cost of living. o WHAT IS THE 2 YEAR LIMIT? The so-called 2 year limit refers to the regulation period that the first release price lasts (for "price protection"). After that period expires, retailers can reduce the price. Some people are under the impression this period refers to when the CDs are forced out of print. They are totally wrong. Anime CDs have a limited market viability, so by coincidence, some anime CDs go out of print in 2 years. But some remain in print longer than that. o WHY ARE 2 PRICES SHOWN ON THE BACK OF MY CD? The smaller of the two is the base price of the CD. The larger is includes a "value added tax" (VAT) which is what must actually be initially charged for the CD (as per "2 year limit"). o HOW DO I PLAY STREAMING AUDIO? First you need software. Some of the more popular ones are listed. RealMedia/RealAudio OS: Unix/Linux,Mac,Windows RealPlayer - http://www.real.com Streaming MPEG (including M3U and PLS) OS: Unix/Linux XMMS - http://www.xmms.org Zinf (was FreeAmp) - http://www.zinf.org [note: for those who want software that also plays CDs, this uses MusicBrainz instead of freedb.org for CD database] RealPlayer - http://www.real.com OS: Mac iTunes - http://www.apple.com/itunes/ Musicmatch Jukebox - http://www.musicmatch.com/home/ MacAmp - http://www.macamp.com RealPlayer - http://www.real.com Player365 - http://www.live365.com (tuned for live365) [see http://www.mp3-mac.com/Pages/MP3_Players-Mac.html for more] OS: Windows Winamp - http://www.winamp.com Musicmatch Jukebox - http://www.musicmatch.com/home/ FreeAmp - http://www.freeamp.org [note: for those who want software that also plays CDs, this uses MusicBrainz instead of freedb.org for CD database] Player365 - http://www.live365.com (tuned for live365) iTunes - http://www.apple.com/itunes Then you need some broadcasters, some of which are listed later in this document. Some will allow you to connect directly to a broadcast (i.e. you can start up the player without the browser and drop the address right in), others work through a service like Live365.com (i.e. it might be more convenient or necessary to access it via browser). If you need a browser, you need to set it up to use the audio software. In your browser's applications/helper list you need to add entries for m3u (audio/x-mpegurl and audio/mpegurl) and pls (audio/x-scpls), if they aren't already there. Keep in mind that internet radio broadcasters technically are supposed to be licensed (for copyright), so if you are fussy about that sort of thing, look for stations that have paid the copyright fee (i.e. through ASCAP, JASRAC, or similar). o WHAT'S THE RECOMMENDED WAY OF PRESENTING MUSIC SAMPLERS ON MY WEB SITE? OK, setting aside the legality issues discussed elsewhere (shakey ground here), you want to put up music on your web site so that other folks can get an idea of what is on a CD. You figure this is doing your part to increase the profile of anime or at least anime music. Of course, we do get into the copyright issues. One idea, which is not recommendable, is to use an extreme compression factor so that the sound quality deters folks that want a freebie. But how much is that? Certainly, anything above 128 kbps is very-good to CD quality, so that is out. The fact that 64 kbps is considered bearable by portable MP3 device users indicates that even 64 kbps is still too high. Then the recommendation is something more along the lines of 32-48 kbps. There is another problem with this idea besides trying to find a bitrate that is low enough to deter copiers, if you are trying to show how good a CD is, lousy quality sound detracts from your efforts. Ok, if detering copying is the issue, then how about streaming formats, like streaming MP3, Realaudio, and Windows Media Format? That does deter many copiers, but there are ways to rip that data. It also means users are limited to bitrates that their connection allows (e.g. dialups either require low bitrates or the user gets choppy music). You may also need to invest in extra conversion software and learn how to host the music, or find a host (e.g. Live365, Shoutcast). And back in legality territory, a license may even be required (e.g. streaming MP3 technically requires a license from the MP3 technology rights holders). Also, keep in mind that some streaming formats are not playable by certain operating systems (e.g. Linux vs Mac vs Windows) because the owner of the format may not have released a version for that OS. But one aspect of copyrights is that it is considered reasonable to present parts of a work for criticism or commentary. So taking that as a cue, if you want folks to hear the music, present them with clips of highlights from the CDs. You can increase the sound quality and still deter the pirates. And by using short samples, the transfer volume is small and you can put clips from more songs than if you used full songs. So how long should the clips be? The recommendation seems to be 20-45 seconds, and the clips should be selected from parts you think folks will like. There's no point in using the first 30 sec of a song if all that time is spent on an intro (unless that's the best part, of course). The idea here is that you are creating your own advertisement or review for the CD. Indicate the source of the clips and the fact they are copyrighted by the CD company or whoever is indicated as the copyright holder on the CD case. Presenting a review or critique of the CD is also a good idea (which you probably intended to do anyways, or you wouldn't be considering samplers in the first place). Keep in mind that the legality issues still should be considered. In the ideal case, getting permission is best. o WHAT'S THE SONG THAT PLAYS DURING THAT SCENE...? - Omoide Poro Poro: The end theme. song: "The Rose" note: This is a Japanese adaptation of the song most commonly associated with Bette Midler. - Macross Plus Ep. 4: During YF-19 Earth re-entry. song: Information High CD: Sharon Apple - Cream P.U.F. Cat: VICL-15037 - Ghost in the Shell: OP, ED, during the "ride" through the city. song: Basically "utai" 1,3, and 2, respectively. They are subtitled, "Making of a Cyborg", "Reincarnation", and "Ghost City". "utai" literally translates to "noh chant", which is a chant from a form of Japanese theatre. Cat: BVCR-729 - Cowboy Bebop Ep. 5: As Spike approaches the Cathedral. song: Rain note: the version on CD OST 1 (VICL-60201) is not the version from the show. However, it is on the "Future Blues" movie soundtrack (VICL-60756) as a hidden bonus. - Cowboy Bebop Ep. 5: In the fight between Spike and Vicious in the cathedral, when Spike goes through the window. song: Green Bird CD: "No Disc" OST 2 Cat: VICL-60202 - Detonator Orgun OAV 1, ending theme song: "Bandiria Ryokodan (Bandiria Travelers)" by Susumu Hirasawa note: There is another version of this song on Hirasawa's solo album "Virtual Rabbit", but it lacks the booming chorals that make the Orgun ending theme so memorable. Cat: POCH-2025 [Michael Hayden] - Koko wa Greenwood movie (OAV 5+6), final scene / end theme song: "Kimi wo Suki de Yokatta" by Asami Hayashi note: It's worth mentioning because it is NOT included on the regular Greenwood Vocal Collection (domestic reprint: JNA-1513-2). Instead it is included only on the extremely out-of-print Vocal Best Collection (VICL-40078). Cat: VICL-40078 [Michael Hayden] - Video Girl Ai OST 6, as Youta climbs the glass staircase song: "Frozen Flower" by Nav Katze note: Available on JNA-1512-2. Its appearance in the show is very brief and almost drowned out by Christmas bells, but it still catches everyone's attention. Gut-wrenchingly beautiful. Cat: JNA-1512.02 [Michael Hayden] o WHAT ARE SOME GOOD ORCHESTRAL, SYMPHONIC, OR CLASSICAL STYLE OST? As with any music, the recommendations depend on taste. Some of these original soundtracks are done with real orchestras, others are synthesized orchestras, and the styles vary widely (say, from baroque to modern). In some situations, the types of music are concentrated on specific CDs, so they are identified as such. The following OSTs are predominantly orchestral in a classical style. ["or" in the catalog number list indicates a Domestic release.] Arc the Lad - SVWC 1304, SVWC 1306 Cardcaptor Sakura - VICL-60263 Crest of the Stars (Monshou no Seikai) - VPCG-84670 Full Metal Alchemist - SVWC 7191, 7226, & 7251 Gasaraki - VICL 60295, VICL 60296 Giant Robo - BCCM-18, APCM-5007, APCM-5008, COCC-11447 [confirmation needed] - reprints: TKCA-72240, 72241, 72242 Jin-Roh - VICL-60569 Key The Metal Idol BGM Data Discs - PCCG-00350, 00394, 00045 Macross Plus OST 1 - VICL-570 or JVC-1004-2 or AT9303 Night on the Galactic Railroad - KICG-5030 Planetes - VICL-61235 & 61236 Plastic Little - SRCL 2823 Princess Mononoke - TKCA-71168 or FEB002244, TKCA-71395 or 73138-35944-2 Princess Nine - COCC-15261, COCX-30059 Pumpkin Scissors 1 - GNCA-1112 Record of the Lodoss War - VICL-51 or JNA-1502-2, VICL-114 or JNA-1515-2, VICL-267 or JNA-1516-2 Risky Safety - PCCG-00527 Rurouni Kenshin OVA - SVWC 1006 & 1010 Scrapped Princess - LACA-5188 & 5204 Silent Moebius - VICL-178 or JNA-1518-2, VICL-304 or JAN-1519-2 Super Atragon (Shin Kaitei Gunkan) - KICA 308 Turn A Gundam OST 1 & 3 - KICA-473 & 508 Vision of Escaflowne OST 1 & 3 - VICL-769 & 773 Zipang - MJCD-20025 The following has some orchestral pieces in a classical style, or uses predominantly orchestral instrumentation (or imitation) not in a classical style. Devil Hunter Yohko (Mamono Hunter Yohko) - KICA 149 Ghost in the Shell - BVCR-729 Gunbuster: Aim for the Top! (Top o Nerae!) - VICL-2178 Gundam 0083: Stardust Memory - VICL-113 and VICL-40038/40039 Iria: Zeiram the Animation - VICL 530 Nadia: The Secret of Blue Water - TYCY-5136 or 5573 Neon Genesis Evangelion - KICA-286, 290, 300 Patlabor Movie 2 - VPCG-84206 Patlabor Movie 3 "WXIII" - VICL-60851 Revolutionary Girl Utena - KICA-354 & 374 & 387 Robotech Perfect Collection - SDF-CD1 Rozen Maiden - LHCA-5003 Sailor Moon - too many CDs to list here (try: http://sailormusic.net/tracks/index.html) Tenchi Muyo - PICA 1003 & 1011 & 1043 Wings of Honneamise (Aile de Honneamise) - MDCZ-1168~1171 o WHAT SOUNDTRACKS INCLUDE COMPOSITIONS BY CLASSICAL COMPOSERS? Cowboy Bebop - Tchaikovsky (Waltz of the Flowers)? End of Summer - Chopin (Prelude in F-major) Debussy (A little black man, Dream, Dream Variation) Faure (Dolly Suite, Romance without words - OP.17-No.3,) Mendehlsson (Silent Collection OP.53-No.1) Ravel (Sonatine - 2nd movement) Evangelion - Handel (Halleluja Chorus from Messiah) Handel (Blessed are the Lamb, Amen from Messiah) Beethoven (Symphony #9 - choral) Pachebel (Kanon D-Dur) Bach (Cello Suite #1 - Prelude) Bach (Jesus, Joy of Man's Desiring) Bach (II Air) [is that "II" for real?] Excel Saga - L. v. Beethoven (short sections of 4th movement from 9th Symph) FLCL - Kabalevsky (The Comedians - Gallop) Gakkou no Kaidan - Beethoven (Fur Elise) Geobreeders 2 - L. v. Beethoven (short sections of 4th movement of 9th Symph) Giant Robo - Donizetti (aria from L'Elisir d'Amore) Gunbuster - Mascagni (intermezzo from Cavalleria Rusticana) Handel (Messiah)? Dvorak (New World Symphony) Hana Yori Dango - Mahler (which Symphony?) Harlock Saga - Wagner (Ring of the Neibulung) [based on or actual use?] His and Her Circumstances (KareKano) - L.v. Beethoven (Symphony #?) Irresponsible Captain Tylor - Rossini (William Tell Overture) Kaleido Star - Richard Strauss (Also Sprach Zarathustra [best known as the "2001" theme], in episode 20) Legend of the Galactic Heroes movie - Ravel (Bolero) Love Hina - Erik Satie (several bars from Gymnopedie No. 1 in Episode 12) Stravinski (Night on Bald Mountain) Magnetic Rose - Puccini (aria from Madame Butterfly) Mahormatic: Something More Beautiful - Strauss ("Radetski March") (episode 4 "Mahoro Goes to School") Nazca - J.S. Bach (?) Patlabor III - Beethoven (adagio from Pathetique sonata) Princess Nine - Schubert (Andante con moto from Piano Trio in E Flat) Princess Tutu - Are you kidding? What composer isn't represented in this show? For a partial list, see (beware, there are potential spoilers): http://members.shaw.ca/ru.igarashi/FAQS/raa_music/princess_tutu_composers.txt Rahxephon - A. Borodin (Polovtsian Dance No. 17 from "Prince Igor") Read or Die - Beethoven (Symphony #9, 4th movment) - ? (Greensleeves - music box version) Sailor Moon - A. Vivaldi (4 Seasons "Summer") - J.S. Bach (Toccata and Fugue in D minor) - L. v. Beethoven (Symphony #5 & #9) - F. Chopin (Sonata #2) - Franz Lehar ("Merry Widow") - Johann Strauss Jr. ("Blue Danube") Utena - Berlioz (2nd movement of Symphonie Fantastique) Violinist of Hamelin - Rossini (William Tell Overture) - Bizet (Carmen Overture) - Beethoven (Violin Concerto) - much much more common wedding song - Wagner (Lohengrinn) o WHAT SOUNDTRACKS USE SONGS OR MUSIC FROM OTHER NON-ANIME SOURCES? These are shows that used songs or music that were not originally written for the show (e.g. were written before). Many are pieces written by non-Japanese artists. Evangelion - "Fly Me to the Moon" by Bart Howard (1954), most notable version sung by Frank Sinatra FLCL - many songs by The Pillows [needs confirmation of prior release] Ghost in the Shell 2: Innocence - "Follow Me" by Kretzmer, Shapey,Rodrigo G.T.O. - "S.O.S." by Pink Lady Gunslinger Girl - "The Light Before We Land" by The Delgados Hanada Shounen Shi - "The One" and "Drowning," performed by the Backstreet Boys His and Her Circumstances - "S.O.S." by Pink Lady. Maison Ikkoku - "Alone Again (Naturally)", "Get Down" by Gilbert O'Sullivan Metropolis - "I Can't Stop Loving You" by Don Gibson, sung by Ray Charles. Nana 7 of 7 (Shichinin no Nana) - "The Maple Leaf Rag" by Scott Joplin Night Walker - "Gessekai" by Buck-Tick Noir - "Copperia no Hitsugi" by Ali Project Serial Experiments Lain - "Duvet" by Boa. "HimuraLain" recommends checking http://www.boaweb.co.uk in the biography section to explain the circumstances around that particular acquisition by Pioneer. Teki wa Kaizoku (Enemy's the Pirate) - "It's Only Love", "Danger on the Street" and "Big Beat, No Heart", by Lea Heart, Paul Dianno, Biff Byford. [need confirmation of prior release] Texhnolyze - "Guardian Angel" by Juno Reactor Urusei Yatsura - 'almost every piece of the Beatles' "Magical Mystery Tour" album... (Along with the occasional disco-ized "When You Wish Upon a Star"' - Derek Janseen Black Heaven - "Cautionary Warning" by John Sykes. ""Cautionary Warning" first appeard on John's album "20th Century" (Mercury Japan PHCR-1590, released in 1997), two years before "Black Heaven" was released in Japan (1999)." - Glenn Shaw Speed Grapher - "Girls on Film" by Duran Duran Paradise Kiss - "Do You Want To" by Franz Ferdinand Ergo Proxy - "Paranoid Android" by Radiohead o WHAT SOUNDTRACKS FEATURED NON-JAPANESE ARTISTS? These are STs that featured singers or lyricists that collaborated in, or contributed to, the music production and were not Japanese. [maintainer's note: I added a bunch of names without confirming nationality. Please point out errors where you can. - 2005-02-27] Cowboy Bebop - featured singers Carla Vallet, Emily Bindiger, Hassan Bohmide, Steve Conte, Tulivu-Donna Cumberbatch, Jerzy Knetig - lyrics by Tim Jensen, Brian Richy, Chris Mosdell Full Metal Alchemist - VERA Gankutsuou (The Count of Monte Cristo) - Jean Jacques Burnel (better known as JJBurnel from the band The Stranglers Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex - featured singers Ilaria Graziano, Scott Matthew, Origa, Emily Curtis, Shanti Snyder - lyrics by Tim Jenson, Troy, Origa, Shanti Snyder, Chris Mosdell, Ilaria Graziano Ghost in the Shell Movie - Fang Ka Wing Harmageddon - soundtrack supervised by Keith Emerson L/R (Licensed by Royalty) - Billy Preston Last Exile - lyrics by Damian Broomhead Maison Ikkoku - Mark Goldenberg wrote some of the instrumentals Monster - ED theme "For the Love of Life" performed by David Sylvian Project A-ko - Joey Carbone and Richie Zito RG Veda - music by Nick Wood Sol Bianca: The Legacy - featured singer Stella Furst; lyrics by Marie Cochrane Tenchi Muyo in Love - music by Christopher Franke - ED sung by Nina Hagen and Rick Jude Wolf's Rain - featured singers Steve Conte, Joyce, Raj Ramaya, Ilaria Graziano, Franco Sansalone (need confirmation for J, RR, and FS) - lyrics by Tim Jensen, Joyce, Raj Ramayya, Ilaria Graziano, Chris Mosdell, Troy, Franco Sansalone ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 2. Artists o WHO WROTE THE SOUNDTRACK FOR THIS SHOW? Here is a short and far from complete list of soundtrack writers, and, in some cases, their web site. Names are listed surname first. Amano Masamichi - Super Atragon, Princess Nine Arisawa Takinori - Sailor Moon Hisaishi Joe - Nausicaa of the Valley of Wind, Laputa: Castle in the Sky, Kiki's Delivery Service, Porco Rosso, Princess Mononoke, My Neighbor Totoro, Spirited Away http://www.joehisaishi.com Hogari Hisaaki - My Dear Marie, Gasaraki Iwasaki Taku - Rurouni Kenshin OVAs, Witch Hunter Robin, Read or Die Kanno Yoko - Macross Plus, Vision of Escaflowne (not the North American TV version, though a little was left in), Cowboy Bebop, Brain Powerd, Magnetic Rose segment of Memories, Turn A Gundam, Chikyuu Shoujo Arjuna (Earth Girl Arjuna), Ghost in the Shell: Standalone Complex Kawai Kenji - Patlabor (TV, OAVs, movies), Mermaid's Forest, Blue Seed, Irresponsible Captain Tylor, Vampire Princess Miyu (OAV and TV), Ghost in the Shell, Devilman, Maison Ikkoku TV, Ranma 1/2: Big Trouble in Nekonron, Starship Operators, Higurashi no Naku no Koro ni Kai, You're Under Arrest: The Motion Picture, Death Note: L change the WorLd http://www.kenjikawai.com/ Mitsumune Shinkichi - Revolutionary Girl Utena, Nurse Angel Rarika SOS Mizoguchi Hajime - Please Save My Earth, Jin-Roh, ~1/3 Escaflowne http://www.archcello.com/ Nagaoka Seiko - Tenchi Muyo, El Hazard, Sol Bianca: The Legacy, Stellvia Oshima Michiru - Arc the Lad, Full Metal Alchemist http://www.michiru-oshima.com/ Otani Kou - You're Under Arrest, Haibane Renmei, Daphne in the Brilliant Blue Reichi Nakaido ("Chabo") - Serial Experiments Lain Sakamoto Ryuichi - Wings of Honneamise http://www.sitesakamoto.com/ Tanaka Kohei - Sakura Taisen Terashima Tamiya - Key the Metal Idol, Plastic Little http://www.dd.iij4u.or.jp/~tamiya/index.shtml Tsuru Nohihiro - Mermaid's Scar Vink - All Purpose Cultural Cat Girl, Slayers Yasuda Takeshi - Oh My Goddess OVA Wood, Nick - RG Veda o IS GABRIELLE ROBIN ACTUALLY YOKO KANNO? There is evidence that suggests this. See the "Tenkuu no Kanno Yoko" site: http://www.geocities.com/helixcat_2000/main.html (click on "PROFILE", scroll down to the end of the section about Yoko Kanno) However, she has yet to 'fess up. o WHAT LANGUAGE DOES GABRIELLA ROBIN SING IN? As one rec.arts.anime poster once wrote, it's LizFraserese (i.e. Elizabeth Fraser of the Cocteau Twins is well known for her "screwing up the lyrics" experiments in phoenetics). In Robin's case, often, it's gibberish that sounds kind of French. o WHICH VOICE ACTORS ALSO HAVE A SINGING CAREER? Some VAs seem to be committed to a singing career in addition to (or vice versa) voice acting, either in regularly performing live or releasing CDs. Others either make appearances or produce CDs in support of a show, and may do so infrequently. It's hard to say what constitutes a career, but there are quite a number of VAs that have at some point sang in addition to voice acting. The list is long enough that it shouldn't really be included here. Check Seiyuu databases, listed in the "Online Anime Music Resources" section. For example, Hitoshi Doi's Seiyuu Database is searchable and also broken down by different categories. You can also try the online CD stores (e.g. CDJapan) for specific actresses that you know (e.g. by looking it up in Hitoshi's Seiyuu database :) . ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 3. Legality Issues with Anime Music o LEGALITY OF COPYING ANIME MUSIC From Avatar's (a.k.a. Andy Kent) Japanese Animation Legality FAQ (http://member.newsguy.com/~memoirs/legal.html - note this is not being maintained at the moment, just archived), No, you can't copy a CD full of anime songs either. @_@ Unless you're making a personal copy onto tape for use in your car or such, and even that's touchy from a legal perspective. As some folks have pointed out, if you pay the copyright fee or whatever given stipulated terms, of course you can. Many music related clubs do this, and in some countries there is a levy on recordable CDs to accomodate the recording industry. Time shifting (e.g. making a temporary copy of a TV show while you are away from home so that you can see it when you get home), and space shifting (e.g. making a tape or MP3 of songs you paid for so you can listen to them in your CD-less car) have been allowed, but the allowances are quite restrictive. Copying MP3s from Napster, for example, when you don't own a legal copy of the CD they came from was ruled definitely illegal. One key issue of legality is that you have to own a legitimate copy (produced by rights holder, sold legally to you, or to an individual who then gave it to you) BEFORE you make any copies, or generate any other form of copy. If you can't prove that, you can assume your copy is illegal. Otherwise, the Fair Use clause of any nation's copyright laws tend to be difficult to gauge, such that it is better to assume a copy is illegal. Keep in mind, that Fair Use clauses tend to be oriented more towards "purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, or research" (US Code Title 17, Chapter 1, Section 107). At the very least, it's handled case-by-case. o IF NO PROFIT IS MADE, IT ISN'T ILLEGAL, IS IT? Not true. There have been quite a few cases in the US where a finding of violation was made even if no profit was made, or no money exchanged. As long as some party benefits to the exclusion of the rights holder, there is a good chance of a finding of violation. That means even trading CDR or MP3 of songs is most probably illegal if the original CD does not accompany them. o BUT I CAN'T AFFORD THE ORIGINALS, DOESN'T THAT COUNT? Now we are getting into moral issues. The law says that getting copies without permission or license is illegal (sometimes even criminal), so regardless of moral issues, your financial standing doesn't matter. That is, as far as the law is concerned, getting or making a copy without permission or license is not much different than grabbing the orignal CD off the shelf and walking out of the store without paying for it (except that doing so is always criminal, I think, a matter of degree), so you shouldn't do it. There is also the issue of supporting the market. Until now, we have had little choice but to import our favourite anime STs (with limited exceptions). As such, we may be a small part of the anime CD market, but there's nothing saying we aren't an unoticeable part. Bootlegs reduce our visibility, and would present a bigger obstacle than bootlegs of videos because music is a more universally accessible medium (no need to translate). But anime, and anime CDs, are a niche market. As such, we should worry about the effects on attempts to market non-Japanese releases of our favourite STs. Remember, these folks not only have to pay a license in addition to the usual overhead, but they have to convince the Japanese companies that it's worth giving the licence in the first place. Someone out there is keeping track of how much anime CD exporting there is, and bootlegs detract from that. I mention the above because ADV and TRSI have started a joint venture to bring at least 100 anime CDs to North America in 2002, and we should think about supporting that. Now if you allow me this digression, really, getting anime CDs isn't a right, it's a luxury. As such, we shouldn't really expect prices to oblige us to that extent (after all, that's what capitalism is about). That is, if you are concerned about moral issues, it's like any item we can survive without, if we can't afford it we should do without until we can afford it. We have to live with that on stuff we consider more essential than anime CDs, so it should apply with anime CDs, too. Then it's just a question of what you are morally and legally willing to live with. If these considerations aren't a concern, your financial standing is the main consideration. If they are a concern, then your financial standing doesn't count. It's up to you. Just be aware that rec.arts.anime.music has a few vocal objectors to bootlegs. o BUT THE CD I WANT IS OUT OF PRINT Ok, another moral territory issue. Setting the moral issue aside for the moment, there are other means of getting the CD. You can check out used CD stores, both brick-and-mortar (if you are so lucky as to have one nearby) and online (some are listed in this FAQ). You can check out the online auction sites, being careful to check catalog numbers, and the usual precautions against fraud. You can inquire in the rec.arts.anime.marketplace newsgroup. As far as the moral issues are concerned, one argument against bootleg CDs, similar to the affordability perspective, is that acquiring CDs is a luxury and not a right. The notion that "you can live without it, do without", applies similarly here, especially considering you do without with more important stuff. Concerns regarding the domestic market for non-Japanese re-releases also apply here as with the affordability perspective. In some sense, moreso because the domestic prices tend to be comparable to the bootleggers' (outrageous) prices. That can also lead to some confusion as to what is a legitimate low priced CD. Finally, not all CDs remain out of print. Some CDs get a new pressing after only a couple years, which helps us folks on the other side of the planet that only get a chance to see the anime a couple years after the Japanese showing. Some CDs, like the Nadia and Patlabor CDs, enjoyed a re-release many years after. o IS MY INTERNET RADIO OR STREAMING AUDIO SITE ILLEGAL? You may be avoiding direct copying of works, but you still have to worry about broadcasting rights. If you or your service have paid the license or gotten authorization from the rights holder, you're legal. If you haven't, your site may well be in violation. Keep in mind, if you are running as a member of a licensed broadcast service like Live365.com, you may be ok; it depends on if their licensor covers the foreign works you are broadcasting. As usual, your programs have to be made from legitimate copies (e.g. not from CDR or MP3 you got in a trade). o HOW DOES ONE GET AN INTERNET BROADCAST LICENSE? It varies from country to country, but most countries have an organization like ASCAP (see below) that you can contact. They usually handle a variety of licensing packages to suit the scale of the licensee. o WHAT IS ASCAP AND JASRAC, AND WHAT DO THEY DO? [this needs confirmation and should not be considered reliable information] These organizations look after copyright management for their members. They give out licenses, collect royalties, and distribute the money from licensing and royalties. Their members are the rights holders of the work they license. These organizations are limited to a country, but there may be more than one in a country. Many of these organizations are members of international cooperatives through respective agreements. This allows works covered by one organization to get royalties from performances in another country. ASCAP is a North American licensing organization, and JASRAC is a Japanese one. If someone wanted to use an anime CD in a broadcast fundraiser in Houston, Texas, that person would pay the licensing fee perhaps to ASCAP, and then ASCAP would pass money along to JASRAC, who then gives the money to the writers, the studios, etc, in Japan. Here's a sample list of organizations in some countries. USA American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers (ASCAP) http://www.ascap.com/ Broadcast Music, Inc (BMI) http://bmi.com/ Canada Society of Composers, Authors, and Music Publishers of Canada http://www.socan.ca/ UK Performing Right Society (PRS) http://www.prs.co.uk/ Japan Japanese Society for Rights of Authors, Composers, and Publishers (JASRAC) http://www.jasrac.or.jp/ejhp/index.htm o WHAT IS THE ACTUAL COPYRIGHT LAW? There is no one copyright law for all nations. The Berne Treaty (see below) tries to make copyright laws of signing nations consistent and to add just enough glue to protect international works. Copyright laws of various nations can be found at these sites. Japan http://www.cric.or.jp/ (Japanese) http://www.cric.or.jp/cric_e/index.html (English) USA http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/17/ Canada http://laws.justice.gc.ca/en/showtdm/cs/C-42 (English) http://laws.justice.gc.ca/fr/showtdm/cs/C-42 (French) Australia http://scaleplus.law.gov.au/html/pasteact/0/244/top.htm UK http://www.legislation.hmso.gov.uk/acts/acts1988/Ukpga_19880048_en_1.htm o WHAT IS THE "BERNE CONVENTION"? The Berne treaty is an international treaty that outlines the basic copyrights that all signatory nations will abide by. The main points are: - works created in a foreign nation will be treated as if created domestically. - all artists have the exclusive right to authorize translations, reproduction, performance, and adaptation of their works. - all artists have the right of integrity and attribution - signatory nations can have even more and stronger copyright rules than the treaty stipulates. The number of signatory nations that have NOT signed the treaty is a small minority of all nations. An HTML version of the Berne Treaty can be found at: http://www.wipo.int/clea/docs/en/wo/wo001en.htm or at http://www.law.cornell.edu/treaties/berne/overview.html Other international treaties can be found at the World Intellectual Property Organization web site (http://www.wipo.org/): http://www.wipo.org/treaties/ip/index.html A list of signatory nations can be found at: http://www.wipo.org/treaties/documents/english/pdf/e-berne.pdf o ARE SON MAY/EVER ANIME CDS BOOTLEGS? In all Berne convention signatory nations, yes, they are. These are made by Taiwanese companies that did not get permission, or pay licenses, to reproduce and distribute most (if not all) of their anime CDs. As far as the CD data for a given song is concerned they are identical to the original. They are also getting difficult to identify by package quality, as their print copying is getting pretty good. Other common bootleg companies seem to be: Smile Face Alion Miya Records It is up to the you to decide if buying a bootleg is acceptable to you. Similarly, it is up to you how you should react to a store that sells bootlegs. Note: As of 1 January, 2002, Taiwan joined the World Trade Organization, and thus became obliged to enforce international copyright. The current batch of bootleggers (Son May, Ever Anime, Smile Face, Alion) are expected to disappear soon. o HOW CAN I TELL IF AN ANIME CD IS A BOOTLEG CD? If you are buying CDs off the shelf, CDs from these companies are clearly labelled as "Son May", "SM CD", or "Ever Anime", so they aren't difficult to identify. But when online shopping, it is always a good idea to do a little research beforehand. You can get catalog information from CD information sites and online CD stores in Japan. If you forget the actual number, knowing which company released the CD and the prefix they use can help a lot. The more common ones are listed with the next few questions. Joe Curzon's Pirate Anime FAQ is a good site for more general anime bootleg information, at http://www.otakunews.com/piratefaq.php There you can find images of the SM and Ever Anime logos, as well as other anime piracy information. o WHAT ARE THE PREFIXES FOR JAPANESE ANIME CDS? For the legitimate Japanese companies, common catalog prefixes are: AVCA - Avex BVDP - BMG Japan COCC,COCX - Columbia Japan DFCL - DefSTAR GNCA - Geneon Entertainment (formerly Pioneer) HMCH - Happinet JMI - JVC KICA,KIDA,KICS,KICM - King Record (Starchild) KTCR - Kitty LACA,LACM - Lantis LHCA - Mellow Head MJCD - Marvelous Entertainment MMCC - Marine Entertainment PICA,PIDA - Pioneer PCCG - Pony Canyon SVWC,SRCL - Sony (including Aniplex) TKCA,<2digits>ATC - Tokuma Japan TYCY,TYDY - Toshiba-EMI (Futureland) VICL,VIDL - Victor VPCG - Vap VTCL - Flying Dog (JVC) WPCL - Warner Music Japan o WHAT ARE THE PREFIXES FOR NON-JAPANESE ANIME CDS? There are some companies in North America and elsewhere outside of Japan that have, or had, licenses for some anime CDs: AT - Animetrax, a joint ADVFilms and Right Stuf label ? - ADV Music RSCD - Right Stuff International TPCD - Soundtrax, TokyoPop's CD label JMI|JVC|JNA - JVC USM - Central Park Media/US Manga Corps PICD - Geneon/Pioneer ####-# - Geneon Entertainment USA ####-CD - Bandai CD-<2 letters> - Viz Music TOF - Tofu Records DSCD - Demon Soundtracks (UK) 73138-#####-# - Milan For more information on domestically released anime CDs, see Chris Sypal's Domestic Anime CD Guide at http://www.radiks.net/~csypal/cds [link dead] AniMusic: The Ultimate List of American Released Anime CDs http://www.shizukapress.com/Otaking/Animusic/animusic.html [link dead] o ARE THERE PREFIXES FOR BOOTLEGGED CDS? For some, yes. For the most common bootleggers: GGG,GA,GSM,SM,A&G,GAME,CK,SMA - Son May A8 - Ever Anime ALCA - Alion KA,HO - Smile Face MICA - Miya Records o ISN'T IT ILLEGAL FOR STORES TO SELL SM/EA CDS? Yes, it is. However, copyright laws require the copyright holder to submit a complaint, rather than having law enforcement agencies search for infringements. Most anime-related Japanese companies haven't seen fit to pursue the matter, so stores can get away with selling bootleg products. However, doing so does leave them open to prosecution if a CD company suddently decides to clamp down. If you feel strongly enough against a store selling bootlegs, point out the items to the store manager/owner. Sometimes they don't know any better. If they sell them knowingly, and if you feel strongly enough about it, you can tell the manager you will not patronize the store and will tell your friends about it. Just be sure you have another source of anime goods. o BUT WHY ISN'T COPYRIGHT ACTUALLY ENFORCED? Copyright laws are mostly civil laws rather than criminal laws (though there are criminal sections in many copyright laws). Accordingly those kinds of laws are typically pursued by lawsuit rather than actively by some agency like police or customs departments. That means the copyright holder must file a suit in order for action to take place against a violator. The onus is probably also on the plaintiff to somehow show infringement (e.g. some sort of damage) occured. This method of enforcement is probably necessary to protect the general public from degrees of enforcement that were not intended for rights holders against the general public. One should keep in mind that copyright laws are intended to foster scientific and creative progress by giving creators confidence that they can sustain their work (and themselves pursuant to that work). Activities that are restricted to an individual have a much smaller impact on that confidence. Large scale activities will have a larger impact, and at some point a noticeable impact. As such, copyright laws seem geared more towards large scale activities rather than the activities restricted to an individual. Therefore the copyright laws allows for a fair bit of discretion or flexibility when it comes to determining violation. o IF THE RIGHTS HOLDERS DON'T ACT, DON'T THEY LOSE THEIR RIGHTS? No, not at all. Copyright laws protect a work for many decades regardless of whether the rights holder ever acted. The rights holder can in fact take action at just about any time on any of many infractions, though there can be some limits on how long ago a violation can be sued for. The two main ways of losing the rights, or the for the work to enter the "public domain", is a) the passage of time past the duration stipulated by law (many decades), or b) the rights holder explicitly stipulating the the rights have been relinquished into the public domain. o WHAT IS THIS RUMOR ABOUT LICENSING MP3 SOFTWARE? Well, encoding and playback software are also subject to intellectual property rights (patents), and in this case the rights holders of the MP3 format (Fraunhofer IIS-A and Thomson Multimedia) are going around to writers of MP3 software demanding a fee or royalty (of $0.75 US) for every unit of player software sold. That shouldn't impact anyone getting player or encoder software as part of a purchased package. If the playback software is distributed as freeware, it is also royalty free. However, for ALL encoders, a license is needed, and thus royalties must be paid (starting at $2.50 per encoder sold or given for free). You also need a license to provide REVENUE GENERATING MP3 content on the internet. Fee's are based on gross income (including advertising and subscription), so with no income the license is free. This is on top of a copyright license for the music. The 2001 version of the licensing pages at http://www.mp3licensing.com stirred up a bit of a fuss when it seemed to change the long standing freeware policy. It turns out to have been a wording error, and there were actually no changes since 1995. As a result of these code copyrights though, there has been a movement to use the Ogg Vorbis audio file format, which is license- and royalty- free. ---------------------------------------------------------------------- A. About this FAQ o WHAT IS THIS FAQ FOR? This FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) is a set of FAQs for music in anime. It is intended to be a reference of basic or general information on topics that are frequently encountered as a fan progresses from novice to "expert". They are posted once a month in rec.arts.anime.misc and rec.arts.anime.info. They are not by any means comprehensive, and are subject to the changes of the times. Items that could do with more input are tagged with "editor's note" and a note, delimited by '[' and ']'. If you have any suggestions, corrections, or submissions, please send them to me or post them in rec.arts.anime.misc. o WHAT IS THE HISTORY OF THIS FAQ? This rec.arts.anime.* FAQ was originally created and maintained by Steve Pearl, the moderator of rec.arts.anime.info, who saw the need for introductory FAQs for many of the rec.arts.anime news groups as they were being created in 1996. The rec.arts.anime.music FAQ was one of them. He maintained them until the fall of 1998. In January of 2001, maintainance of the rec.arts.anime.music FAQ was assumed by the current maintainer, and after significant revisions and updates, regular posting resumed in March, 2001. Steve's entries are attributed by [SP], or [SP,RI] where I've made significant changes. In May of 2003, the FAQ was split into two documents, one for information about the newsgroup (this one) titled "Welcome to REC.ARTS.ANIME.MUSIC" and one for anime music information titled "Anime Music FAQ for REC.ARTS.ANIME.MUSIC". The latter was split into multiple parts. In April of 2008, rec.arts.anime.music was removed, forcing a few small changes. The FAQ is now posted to rec.arts.anime.misc (as all anime music discussions are supposed to move to that newsgroup), and the title became a tiny bit more inclusive. The current maintainer and these news groups owe a debt of gratitude to Steve Pearl, for his foresight at the birth of the old music news group and the effort he put into this and other rec.arts.anime FAQs. Wherever you are, Steve, Thanks. o WHERE CAN I FIND THE LATEST VERSION OF THIS FAQ? This FAQ is posted every 4 weeks to rec.arts.anime.misc rec.arts.anime.info The latest working copy that contains changes going into the next official posting can be found at http://members.shaw.ca/ru.igarashi/FAQS/raa_music/ ---------------------------------------------------------------------- B. Contributors As with most FAQs, the information documented in the this FAQ comes from many people (yes, anime fans are people, too). Our thanks should go to these people. Steve Pearl (who started this FAQ) Avatar Chika Clinton Moulds Daniel (a.k.a. vanfanel) Joshua Kaufman K.E. Bosco Mike Quin Nikkou Nobutoshi Ito Pipian Rob Kelk Rob Maxwell Ru Igarashi Simon Palko Thomas Chan Tom Norrill Wayne C. Morris Terrence Huey Michael Hayden Joe Curzon Glenn Shaw Nunya Biznes Kaijyuu Miyuki-chan Josh Berry Eric VanHeest Zoe (of zoemi.com) James Mccawley Phil Lee Dave Watson Sean O'Connor John Lee Baird HimuraLain Skeleton Man Mark Weiss Anthony D. Baranyi Anime-niac Jen Stantz Sean Robinson ---------------------------------------------------------------------- C. Disclaimer This document is provided without any warrantees, implied or expressed. The editor assumes no responsibility for damages resulting from the use of the information the document contains or the lack thereof. ---------------------------------------------------------------------- Edited by Ru Igarashi. E-mail submissions and questions about the newsgroup to ru.igarashi[at]usask.ca.