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Amiga Networking Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) Part 1/2

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Archive-name: amiga/networking-faq/part1
Posting-Frequency: monthly
Version: 2.1

See reader questions & answers on this topic! - Help others by sharing your knowledge
Document Amiga Networking FAQ

Author "Richard Norman"

Current version 2.1 (supersedes all previous versions real or imaginary)

Date 12/15/96

The primary purpose of a FAQ is to preserve network bandwidth by answering
Frequently Asked Questions. A FAQ's second purpose is to provide an altruistic
public service to users and vendors. 

The Amiga Guide version of this FAQ is available on   Aminet   in the
/pub/aminet/docs/help  directory.

Due to the method I'm using to write the FAQ, marking the margins to indicate new
material is not feasible. Look for new questions towards the end of each list.
Also look for "!!!!", strings of exclamation points represent new material or news

Table of Contents:

  Copyrightless and Disclaimer  

  Acknowledgments  and  Revisions  

  Generic   -- Networking Concepts and Terms

  General   -- Amiga related questions

  Product Specific Questions  -- Mostly trouble shooting

  Product Availability:

    Software Cat   -- Software list by category

    Hardware Cat   -- Hardware list by category

    Software   -- Descriptions and Specs (listed by program name)

    Hardware   -- Descriptions and Specs (listed by product name)

    Manufacturers   -- Contact info

  Other FAQs and Web pages 


 Copyrightless and Disclaimer 

Lack of Copyright Notice: 


With the exception of Trademarks which are the property of their respective
owners, the material contained in this FAQ is PUBLIC KNOWLEDGE, and therefore is
NOT copyrightable.

Richard Norman is merely serving as moderator and maintainer.   Anyone has
permission to copy any or all  of  this FAQ, but you do not  have the right to
copyright it.

In the event of my demise :-(  or if this FAQ should become dormant  for a period
of 4 (four) months, someone else is free to assume the  role of moderator and
update the FAQ. I'd prefer someone who was  willing to distribute it in as many
formats as possible. Current  distribution includes ASCII, and Amiga guide. They
should also distribute it as wide as possible. News.answers or it's predecessor as
a  minimum.



The FAQ may be freely distributed. Portions can be included in derived works, but
may not be exclusively copyrighted (i.e. You cannot prevent others from using this
information in their derived works.)

The FAQ is a compilation of a number of people's work, and answers provided by
users and vendors.  Therefore it belongs to no one and   to every one (i.e. Public



The information contained in this FAQ is supplied "as is" without  express or
implied warranty.  I make no representations about the  suitability or accuracy of
this document for any purpose.

If you have better information, then please share it. Altruistic submissions are
welcome (see   Feedback   ).

If someone sees errors, let the moderator know,    feedback   and it will be
corrected as time permits.

All information provided here is meant for informational purposes and is not to be
taken as an endorsement for any particular product. (Note:  in most cases only one
company provides any given service anyway).  If anyone knows of additional
relevant products, let the moderator  know,  feedback    and they'll be added to the
list as time permits. Any prices listed are subject to change without notice and
are intended for ball park informational purposes and NOT precise budget planning.

 Acknowledgments  and  Revisions 

Thanks to Richard Gerber ( for being the original

Thanks to Jim Dutton, and Dale Larson for helping review the initial versions.

Thanks to everyone who posts answers not flames (even if I don't  always live up
to the standard myself ;-)

Contributions by:  Lauri Aalto, Karl Auer, Stefan Becker, Alan Berney, Kai Bolay,
Frank Branham, Nick Christie, John Corigliano, Andreas Czerniak, Jim Dutton, Arno
Eigenwillig, Mike Evans, Oliver Fels, Dave Gilinsky, Vernon Graner, Per Espen
Hagen, Matthias Hopf, Juha Koivisto, Rask Lambertsen, Dale Larson, Randall Lasini,
Jukka Marin, Neil McRae, Darren Metcalfe, Michael Meyer, Bill Mills, Alain
Penders, Allan Purtle, Lee Sharp, Michael Smith, Lee Stranahan, Niall Teasdale,
Elad Tsur, Michael Witbrock, and many others.

Special thanks to the vendors who took time to support this effort.

Thanks to Edd Dumbill for Heddley which makes updating a little easier.

And last but not least, Thanks to Stephan Surken for the text2guide utility which
got me started.

  mm/dd/yy    remarks

  12-15-96 -- Put a bow on version 2.1... Merry Christmas!

  11/27/96 -- started 2.1 by rearranging so that the text version
              is a little more readable. It now goes from Generic
              to general, to specific which is probably the correct
              order. Also added Miami, and TermiteTCP, and made
              a new listing for software and hardware which groups
              items together by category which hopefully makes it
              easier to find things. Still more stuff to add.

  02/28/96 -- finished 2.0, but still not caught up

  02/12/96 -- Started 2.0: goal add more software titles
              SAMBA, THOR, Voodoo, Ncomm, new NSDI fax #.

  11/12/95 -- Still working on V1.9. Almost there. Ton of new software
              but couldn't get it all in. Added ISDN, Xwindows, and
              AmiTCP install/operation information among other stuff.
  10/15/95 -- Back from where was I?...oh yeah V1.9

   1/28/95 -- V1.8--patched for Heddley or other format

   1/01/95 -- V1.7-- Added html, http info, and did some format clean up
              in preparation for an HTML version.

  10/14/94 -- V1.6 --  NOT released due to technical difficulties
              added stuff about AmiTCP3.0b2 and SLIP install

   9/06/94 -- Finished V1.5

   6/02/94 -- released V1.4 official news version

   4/29/94 -- news.answers Draft release V1.1 -- Richard Norman

   4/29/92 -- Original release V 1.0 --  Richard Gerber


 Generic  (G) 

 Help with basic terminology, not complete answers.

  G01    What is a network?

                  G01a    Hardware

                  G01b    Protocols

                  G01c    Applications

  G02    What is the Internet and Usenet? 

  G03    How do I connect?

                  G03a    modem to modem 

                  G03b    modem to commercial services

                  G03c    direct to WAN provider

  G04    What is a server?

  G05    What is an archive?

  G06    What is a mirror?

  G07    What are Gopher, WWW, and WAIS?

  G08    What are Mosaic, html, http, and browser? 

  G09    What are Veronica and Archie?

  G10    What is news? 

  G11    What is a Set top?

  G12    What is X-Windows?

  G13    What is TIA and Mlink?

  G14    What is JAVA and VRML?

  G15    What is SAMBA?

  G16    What is IRC?


What is a network?

short answer: Interconnected computers.

A network is two or more computers that can interconnect in a peer to peer or
client to server fashion most often over a shared and often virtual connection.
This is in direct contrast to the old terminal to host hard wired connection. A
network can still support terminal to host connections via terminal emulators or
terminal servers, but provides much greater flexibility in switching connections.

A network  is accomplished using three basic components. Hardware, protocols
(software), and Applications (useful software ;-)  Each of these is actually
comprised of several layers, but we won't worry with the details. There are many
books on the subject as well as  technical specs for the standards. But you will
need some knowledge of the lingo  in order to configure your networking software
correctly. Consulting  with your LAN administrator or WAN service provider is also
highly advisable for checking your network software configuration.

Among the many books on the subject is "Connect your Amiga!" by  Dale Larson of
  IAM  . I mention Dale's book because it explicitly deals  with the Amiga whereas
most of the rest are generic.

The concept of layers is very important to networking and computer designs as
well. Each layer "protects" the layer above from the layer below so that one layer
can change with minimum impact on the upper layers. In some cases this protection
is so good that an application  may not know that it is running on different
hardware. The OSI  network model defines seven layers, but we are going to reduce
it to three broad categories.

  G01a    Hardware

  G01b    Protocols

  G01c    Applications



At the heart of a network is a shared cable often called a Backbone. In the simple
case this is a PARnet cable to connect two Amigas via  the parallel port. Both
machines share the cable.  A more complex  example is an   ethernet cable    which
without special equipment can  be 1000ft in length or more with a hundred or so
computers attached  all interconnecting at once. This is known as a LAN or Local
Area Network.  A cheaper but far more limited LAN Backbone is Localtalk which
Apple unleashed upon the world.

bridges, routers, and gateways   Oh my!

To overcome the distance and node limitation of ethernet wiring you  need at least
a bridge which basically acts as a repeater. A bridge can  also do a limited
amount of filtering so that traffic between the LAN  segments is more efficient.

There are also distance limitations with bridges, so a more complex  piece of
equipment is needed called a router. A router provides many  more tools for
controlling the flow of information between segments,  and can even provide some
level of security. Special security  configurations of routers are know as
firewalls. For really long  distances leased lines or satellite links are used
between the routers thus forming a Wide Area Network or WAN. These links are
usually  provided by common carriers or some   WAN providers  .

This all works great as long as the two machines are the same brand,  but since
there is more than one vendor there is more than one  "language" called a protocol
for communicating. A gateway must be  used to translate between the protocols. As
an alternative to a  gateway, some routers are able to handle multiple protocols
at the same time.  Gateways are also used most heavily for converting  between
electronic mail formats or to go between two different physical  media such as
ethernet and Localtalk or ethernet and SLIP. See the Envoy specific question
section for an example of an ethernet to SLIP gateway.

The gateway provides access to other parts of a network that would  not otherwise
be directly accessible. A router is dedicated to keeping track of routes through
gateways and other routers to various domains.  On large networks your default
gateway will often point to a router.

The distinction between gateways, routers, and bridges is not absolute since many
of the functions of each can be included in a single  product. In fact some
companies call their product a brouter because  it performs both as a bridge and a

Computers use numbers, but  humans use names. Therefore, another device that is
used on large networks is called a  _NAMESERVER_. A nameserver maintains a
database of machine names and their corresponding numeric addresses. The
nameserver allows the computer to look up  the numeric address when you use a
name. In addition to the nameserver you can maintain a HOSTS file locally which is
used first by your computer when trying to translate a name into a number.

The above terminology is slanted towards the TCP/IP protocol  because that is (for
better or worse) what you will most likely  encounter.

 ethernet cable 

While looking through the What's New page of Mosaic, I stumbled  across the
Ethernet Web Page. It references an ethernet FAQ from the comp.dcom.lans.ethernet
news group. So if you don't find your answer  in this crude introduction then try
their FAQ.

the URL for the web page is:

the gopher URL for the FAQ is:


An ethernet cable comes in several flavors. The maximum length of  your LAN
segment is determined by which flavor you choose or  which flavors you intermix.
There is twisted pair, thin coax and thick  coax ethernet cables. Each of these
are rated at 10Mbit per second.

Note that this is the TOTAL capacity (bandwidth) of the cable NOT the speed
between any two nodes. The speed between nodes is  determined by how many nodes
are trying to communicate at any  given time. Even with only two nodes
communicating you will NOT get the entire bandwidth of the cable. The maximum is
usually only around three Mega bits per second. 

The thick coax was the first used. It ran as a backbone through a building with
taps and drop cables for each node (computer). 

Thin coax came into favor because of lower cost and ease of  installation. Thus
thin coax is often called cheaper net. It has a shorter  overall maximum length
than thick. It is routed in a daisy chain style  using tee connectors at each
node. There are adapters to go between  thick and thin, but your overall length
can be reduced to that of thin. There are devices called hubs which may not reduce
the limit and can  provide conversion between one cable type to another.

Twisted pair is the current rage because it can be used for other things as well,
such as voice. You can wire an entire building with twisted pair and decide at the
wiring closet what service will be provided.  Ethernet over twisted pair is called
10BaseT and is most often configured as a star with an ethernet concentrator at
the center usually in a wiring closet. The concentrator allows for the longer
length required for a star configuration. Using a concentrator provides the LAN
administrator a  lot of other benefits and options such as diagnostic tools and
functions  for monitoring the health of the LAN segment.   

Several grades of twisted pair wire exist. The best class can also carry FDDI
which is a fairly new high speed token-ring style network architecture. FDDI can
handle speeds of 100Mbit per second. FDDI is usually carried over fiber optic
cable for long distances. There are also Gigabit per second network architectures
for short distance applications such as a cluster of compute servers. As far as I
know there are NO FDDI or faster adapters for the Amiga at this time.

So the same wire can carry either FDDI or Ethernet so how do they differ? Good
question. It is obviously NOT just the wire.  Ethernet and FDDI are also
specifications for how the electrical signals will be transmitted and interpreted
over the wire. The Ethernet spec was originally developed by Xerox and DEC, and is
now defined by the  IEEE standards committee. IEEE 802.3 is one of the main
ethernet standards in use.  

One reason FDDI came into being is that ethernet performance  degrades rapidly as
you approach the capacity of the bandwidth. This  means you are limited in the
number of nodes that a LAN segment can support.  Depending on the activity level
of the nodes you may  be  able to support as many as 100 nodes on a LAN segment.
Beyond  that and you should consider subdividing into multiple LAN segments with
bridges and routers.

!!!!! new info !!!!

A new wrinkle is FAST ethernet which also runs at 100 Mbs but unlike FDDI it can
coexist on the same wire as regular ethernet. They even make hybrid cards that can
do both 10 and 100 Mbs depending on what the host they are talking to can support.
The catch to FAST ethernet is that it has an even shorter distance limitation than
regular ethernet. Also, FAST ethernet only runs over category 5 twisted pair or
thick coax not the thin. Unfortunately there are no FAST ethernet cards for the
Amiga yet.




A protocol is software that is required to use the physical connection. It is
responsible for establishing the connection and sending and  receiving the data in
packets. Modem software is a crude example. 

The software is called a protocol because there must be cooperating software on
each end, but they don't have to written by the same  vendor. Instead  a
"protocol" for the proper exchange of data is  defined and released as a standard
(such as   TCP-IP  ) or licensed as  proprietary (such as    DECnet  ). As long as the
vendor on each end adheres to the protocol a connection can be sustained which
will support an application.

TCP/IP is in the broadest use for several reasons, but mostly because vendors
could get and use the standard for basically free.  DECnet  was very popular
because of its robustness and the quality of the VAX systems. The low cost,
graphics power, and lure of a standard  operating system drew users to UNIX
systems which used TCP/IP  because of the cost and availability. This has resulted
in DECnet falling way behind in numbers. Other examples of protocols are
Appletalk, IPX, and SNA. They also suffer from being proprietary.

Due to the constant growing of the size of the wide area networks  (WAN), a more
robust protocol is required which will support a large  number of addresses which
is the numeric value assigned to each  computer on a network. Two approaches are
being worked currently.  One is to revamp and extend TCP/IP while maintaining
backwards compatibility.  The other is an international standards effort called
OSI Open Systems Interconnect.  OSI is moving very slowly which is  making it
difficult to gain vendor support. TCP/IP will almost certainly  be enhanced
regardless if OSI is successful or not.  

In addition to these major protocols there are numerous other  proprietary
protocols such as SNA by IBM or IPX by Novell.  Some fill  special niche
requirements, and some of them don't scale well to the  WAN environment. Some are
so proprietary they will not run on but a  single vendor's hardware.

The latest wrinkle in the protocol world are   SLIP   and   PPP   which  allow the
TCP/IP protocol to be used over a modem connection.  Typically a remote machine
such as a laptop is hooked by modem to a  new generation of terminal servers which
can convert between SLIP or PPP and regular TCP/IP. The terminal server is
connected to both the modem and the LAN. This setup gives the remote user full
(although slower) TCP/IP access to the LAN.

DECnet can also be configured to use a serial connection.








TCP-IP is a protocol that has been released as a standard which  means that
vendors can implement it independently and freely and yet  it still works. The
standard is defined and described in   RFC    documents which are available
electronically.  Lots of free source code  and the ability to use it royalty free
make TCP/IP attractive to vendors. It has been implemented by a large number of
different vendors and therefore is popular on the Internet. For more information
on the  Internet and TCP-IP concepts see   ZEN  

TCP/IP as the name implies is more than one layer.  The IP layer takes care of the
lowest layers of the protocol and is responsible for talking to the device drivers
(data link layers).   The TCP is one of two "transport" layer protocols which
handles the packetizing of the data. TCP is a reliable service because it insures
that the packets are put back into the right order and that they are all received.
If you send packets "a", "b", "c", then TCP will make sure they are received as
"abc" and not "bca".

UDP is the other transport protocol and it is unreliable, but has less overhead.
The applications ride on these lower protocol layers. There  are a number of
applications defined in the TCP/IP standards, but  vendors are only required to
supply the lower layers.  See the  applications section for a partial list of
TCP/IP applications. For instructions on using the FTP application see the

TCP/IP standard also provides for programming hooks which can use  ports and
sockets to allow programs to talk to one another over the  network. The World Wide
Web (WWW) and Internet Relay Chat (IRC)  are two examples of how these hooks can
be exploited. Any programmer can use these hooks for their own programs.

See the software by category section for a list of Amiga implementations of


DECnet is a proprietary standard belonging to DEC which is also made  up layers in
a similar manner to TCP/IP.  They break up the job quite a  bit differently. For
instance with DECnet there is no need for a  separate NFS application. You can see
a remote nodes disk drives by  simply including the DECnet node name in the
directory command. DECnet has two ways of handling terminal traffic. For the WAN
you  use the SET host function of DECnet, but it is more efficient for local
traffic to use the LAT protocol.  The older model DEC terminal servers  only
supported LAT or asynchronous DECnet. Newer models also support   SLIP    and   PPP  
(check the manuals) since DEC now makes computers that use TCP/IP as well.

TSSnet   DECnet   is an Amiga implementation of DECnet.


SLIP  Serial Line Internet Protocol   See   RFC   1055 for details. CSLIP adds a
compression technique. For details read RFC 1144.

SLIP allows your computer to run TCP/IP over the serial port. This allows your
computer to have a TCP/IP address. TCP/IP  applications such as FTP can now use
TCP/IP to deliver packets  directly to your address. An analogy would be instead
of having to go  to the post office to get your mail, you now have a mailbox to
which the  postman can deliver your mail. In more technical terms you are no
longer a terminal; you have become a node.

SLIP is a "data link" protocol.  It sits between the serial port and the IP stack.
It pretty much takes the packets from IP, adds a wrapper to them, and sends them
out the serial port. It also takes packets from the serial port, unwraps them, and
passes them up to IP.  SLIP has  several problems, including the fact that it is
designed entirely for  TCP-IP, and is therefore of limited use for other
protocols. Too many people ask for "SLIP" when they really want "TCP/IP" with a
SLIP  driver. You have to have both. Just like a terminal program is of little use
without a serial.device driver.

SLIP is not a full protocol. It fits in one of the layers between hardware and the
TCP/IP protocol. It acts more like a device driver. It also acts like a protocol
because it has to be at both ends of the physical link, but it must have the
TCP/IP protocol in order to talk to the applciations.


    application layer: (AMosaic, telnet, ftp, etc.)


    protocol layer: (TCP/IP)


     *** SLIP or PPP ***


    hardware layer: (serial port)



PPP  Point to Point Protocol    

For more info see:

  RFC   1332, 1333, 1334, 1376, 1377, 1548, 1549,1552, and 1570.

PPP allows your computer to run TCP/IP over the serial port. This allows your
computer to have a TCP/IP address. TCP/IP  applications such as FTP can now use
TCP/IP to deliver packets  directly to your address. An analogy would be instead
of having to go to the post office to get your mail, you now have a mailbox to
which the  postman can deliver your mail. In more technical terms you are no
longer a terminal; you have become a node.

PPP is the committee-designed protocol which is supposed to be a  sort of
"universal" SLIP.  It is intended to replace SLIP, while providing  for all sorts
of conditions, including the ability of use over non TCP/IP protocols. The two
state machines in PPP are a real pain to  implement. UNIX folks love it because a
PPP implementation exists, and they pretty much type "MAKE" and it works.  

PPP's good points:

 - PPP users checksums (FCS) SLIP does not
 - PPP allows more than one protocol at a time, SLIP does not
 - PPP automatically negotiates IP addresses, SLIP does not
 - PPP can be used on non-transparent lines (e.g. when XON/XOFF is
       used by the modems), SLIP cannot

Several Amiga versions of PPP are in the works.

A shareware version called ppp.device by Holger Kruse has been released on
  Aminet   Downloading "HowToUsePPP.lha" from Aminet probably wouldn't hurt either.

PPP is not a full protocol it fits in one of the layers between hardware and the
TCP/IP protocol.  It acts more like a device driver, but it is also a protocol
because it is required at both ends of the physical link. PPP requires TCP/IP or
similar protocol to talk to the applications.


    application layer: (AMosaic, telnet, ftp, etc.)


    protocol layer: (TCP/IP)


     *** SLIP or PPP ***


    hardware layer: (serial port)



SANA was an experimental DATA-link and API paper written by Dale  Luck for a
DevCon several years ago.  Dale suggested two schemes  for creating standard
interfaces for the data-link layer and protocol  stack APIs. After Dale left
Commodore, the work passed to several  other people-- and the "API" part was
removed.  After it had touched  several people's hands, SANA-II was put together.

SANA-II is nothing more than a standard for writing device drivers. Having
something which is SANA-II doesn't help you do networking  unless you have a real
protocol stack communicating through it.  FAR  too many people have seen
"SANA-II", and "Amiga networking  standard", and assumed too much. It is just a
device driver standard whose purpose is to prevent networking packages from hard
coding to specific hardware. This is similar to the reason for packet drivers in
the  PC clone arena.  A side benefit to SANA-II is that it allows multiple
protocols to share the same ethernet card.


UUCP (Unix to Unix CoPy)  is an old protocol used for transferring  files between
un*x boxes.    Versions of UUCP were written for other operating systems and
platforms including the Amiga.

UUCP is not interactive like a terminal  program, but more of a batch process. You
give a list of commands  ahead of time and then at the specified time it calls
another machine,  executes the commands which usually sends some files and
receives what the other machine has for it, and then hangs up. A store and forward
methodology as opposed to a dynamic constantly available method.





The applications are the part of the network that a user is most likely to see,
but are useless without the hardware and protocols.  Applications allow a user to
emulate a terminal,  copy files, send electronic mail, browse and search
databases, and use applications remotely.

Some of the applications are included with the protocol software, but NOT all of
them. Some applications are extremely difficult and complex to write and therefore
are commercial products.

For TCP-IP I also included NNTP, and HTTP which are protocols, but they ride on
top of TCP-IP and therefore constitute a form of a client-server application as
opposed to a full protocol.

 TCP/IP applications:


  telnet ----- terminal access

  telnetd ---- the telnet server which allows incoming telnet
               connections to your machine

  FTP -------- file transfer protocol ( copy files)

  FTPd ------- the FTP server which allows incoming FTP connections
               to your machine
  SMTP ------- Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (email) or
               Send Mail To People as my friend calls it.

  NFS -------- Network File System (remote mount disks)
                 PARnet   provides a similar service on a much
               smaller scale.

  NFSd ------- the NFS server which allows incoming NFS connections
               to your machine

  NSLookup --  find address corresponding to a host name or vice-versa.
               Also provides access to other info in the DNS database

  Finger ----- See who is logged in 
               or access info in an X500 email database

    Xwindows  -- Use graphics programs on a remote system. An attempt at a
               hardware independent terminal emulator. Cost and speed are
               its biggest drawbacks.

    NEWS   ----- A BBS style messaging system global in scale
               also see the   NEWS FAQ  

  NNTP ------- A protocol that supports NEWS

  RN --------- One of many NEWS readers

    HTTP   ----   Mosaic   uses this protocol to talk to  WWW   WWW   servers

  IRC -------- Internet Rely Chat, grapevine on the Amiga uses this

  DECnet applications:


  Set Host --- Terminal Access host to host

  LAT --------- terminal access  terminal to host

  Copy -------- copy files between DEC hosts
                     (emulated on non-DEC hosts)

  VMSmail --- electronic mail (must have gateway to
                reach non-DEC systems

  Dir ----------  Can be used to read remote disks

  DECWindows ------  Same as Xwindows

  task to task --- Hooks which allow user or vendor written
                   applications to communicate between computers

  Ethertalk (Appletalk) applications:


  Appleshare --- Allows remote disk access (file copying)

  Chooser ------ Supports network printing and other services including

Electronic mail and terminal emulation for Ethertalk must be bought  from a third
party, and may require TCP/IP or DECnet drivers as well. This is changing with
System 7.5 and even more in Copeland. Apple is also introducing AOT (Apple Open
Transport) which is API that allows applications to be independent of the network
protocol used.


SMTP --- Simple Mail Transfer Protocol

Or the Send Mail To People protocol as  my friend calls it. SMTP is a defined
standard for email over the TCP/IP protocol and therefore is widely used on the


HTML stands for HyperText Markup Language.

HTML is used to build  WWW pages which can be accessed locally or served to the
world using a WWW server running   http  . HTML files are ASCII text files. The html
commands are included with the text and are interpreted by the browser rather than
shown. HTML commands include page formatting and URL links. Universal Resource
Locators (URL) are the links between this page and other pages throughout the WWW.
Any page you view with a browser can be saved locally as an HTML text file. These
files can be edited locally which allows you to cut and paste interesting links
(URL) into your own HTML page of favorite links.

Although studying how other web pages are built can be helpful, it is not the best
way to learn proper HTML.

There are numerous online documents describing HTML, but for the basics take a
look at "A beginner's Guide to HTML." For other sources of info on HTML check out
the WWWFAQ at

CERN wrote the original HTML and HTTP. NCSA wrote Mosaic and added features to
html. Since HTML is an evolving standard, what works on one browser may not work
on another browser which uses an earlier version of HTML. HTML 2.0 is the current
version, and version 3.0 has been abandoned in favor of version 3.2. The reason
was that the market was changing way to fast for the standards process. There is
now a more formal organization. For the latest info go to:

Another problem is that certain server/browser vendors like to throw their weight
around and add neat new features which are not part of the standard. This leads to
confusion and frustration when someone tries to use a standard browser to access
the non-standard page.

!!!!!!!! WARNING !!!!!!!!!!!!!

Would-be web masters beware: You do NOT make a good impression on a _customer_
when you crash their browser and/or machine!!  Please put experimental and
non-standard features (crap) on _optional_ pages.


Thus web authors who want the customer to be able to access their info will steer
clear of non-standard features on the primary pages, and offer secondary or
alternate pages for advanced features. Burying a link to a text page on a
non-standard page does NOT work when the non-standard page crashes the customer's
browser. So if you want your customer to see your info, you better put the
standard pages FIRST!


http is the protocol that is used between the client (browser) and the server. The
client submits requests to the server and the server satisfies them if it can.
Most often the request is for a file, but it can also be a request to run a script
and return the result. Thus the client is allowed to browse what the server has to

Without an http server no one can see what you have to offer. Servers should be
available at all times so a direct fulltime Internet connection is required.

There are three http servers for the Amiga. There is one based on the NCSA httpd
software and it is freeware. It comes with Amosaic or is available separately at:

Secondly there is AWS which is also freeware and much faster than the NCSA
version. AWS is written by Mike Meyer and is available at:

Thirdly, there is Aserve which is a commercial version of AWS.

Even if you don't have a full time connection you can build and test your pages on
your Amiga. Pages are written in plain text using   HTML  . You can test your pages
using the open local option of the client (Amosaic). When they work it is simply a
matter of finding someone with a server who will serve them for you to the WWW.


MIME -- Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions

MIME allows for attaching binary files to email messages.

You can find out more about the MIME standard by reading   RFC   1521

You can use archie and look for the file /rfc/rfc1521.txt

If your email program does not understand MIME attachments, you can use a separate
program such as   MUNPACK   for the Amiga.

There are also MIME tools on Aminet such as METAMAIL and MetaTool.

Some of the email packages such as   THOR   support MIME, and some of the web
browsers such as Ibrose use mime types for specifying helper applications.


What is the Internet and Usenet? 

Two examples of WAN's which use entirely different techniques, but  whose services
are overlapping.  There are interconnections and  usenet traffic can and does
travel across the internet, but for the most  part they are separate networks.
Also the Internet is actually many  networks which are interconnected on a world
wide scale.

 Usenet utilizes the phone system and temporary links to move  information between
systems. It uses a system of store and forward. It  stores up outgoing messages.
Then on a periodic basis makes a  connection to a specific computer and forwards
the messages, and  downloads any incoming messages then breaks the connection. A
popular usenet protocol is   UUCP   and the most popular application is NEWS which
is also now on the Internet.

 The Internet on the other hand is mostly a shared backbone which is always
available between the primary systems. The usenet does not  use dynamic routers.
An Internet router is always on and always  connected to other routers.  An
internet router immediately determines  an incoming message's next destination and
immediately sends it on  its way. A usenet "router" waits until the next scheduled
connection  time before sending the message on its way. The most common protocol
on the Internet is   TCP-IP   and one of the most popular applications is Mosaic
which relies heavily on FTP and Gopher.


  How do I connect? 

There are three basic ways with more to come hopefully.

  A)   modem to modem

  B)   modem to commercial service

  C)   direct to WAN or ISP provider

Or if the company where you work has a network, you should contact  your local
network administrator about the procedures for getting  network access at your

Other modes of free access are available through schools, universities, libraries,
and government programs. Ask around your local user groups, etc.


modem to modem

This is basically the poor man's network, but it works well.  Usenet uses this
method. Since there is some overlap between usenet and the  internet you can gain
some access to the internet such as mail or news which do not require immediate
response (i.e. messages are usually only sent once a day).

To get on the Usenet you have to either know someone who is already on it and
daisy chain from them. Or you can access a BBS which offers usenet access. User
groups and BBS are also good places to ask for usenet access. Also you can check
the  UUCP FAQ   UUCP FAQ   for information.

If you can get a modem connection to a machine on the internet, then you can use
it as an intermediate host to access most of the internet by using command line
utilities such as ftp or telnet.  Because of this restriction to command line mode
this style of connection is often referred to as a _shell account_. Since your
machine is acting as just a terminal to the intermediate host, this type of
connection requires a two step process to download a file to your machine. First
you must FTP it to the intermediate host, and then you will need a file transfer
program (such as xmodem or kermit) to transfer from the intermediate machine to
your machine.

There are several ways around the two step. For Shell accounts you can ask your
provider about   TIA   or mlink which is on Aminet. Also, two recent protocols have
evolved called   SLIP   and   PPP   which  make the intermediate system  transparent
and provide full TCP/IP connectivity over a modem.  In fact the intermediate
system need be  nothing more than a terminal server which supports SLIP or PPP.
Both SLIP and PPP allow your computer to have an address so that TCP/IP
applications can talk directly to your node. (i.e. your machine becomes a node,
not a terminal).  PPP can support other protocols than TCP/IP.

Some universities and public access programs such as FREEnet offer free dial up
shell accounts. If you can't find one of these or USEnet access, then you will
need to try

option  B   modem to commercial services, or

option  C   direct to WAN or ISP provider.


modem to commercial services

Several commercial services such as Portal, BIX, and Compuserve  now provide
internet access to varying degrees as part of their service. and in essence have
become   ISP providers  , but they offer their own services as well such as stock
quotes  or discussion groups.

If you can reach one of these services via a local call, then you can use them to
gain some access to the internet. If you can only reach them via a toll call, then
you will want to find a local internet service provider. Once on the internet you
can access these commercial services without running up your phone bill.

As mentioned before, if you access the internet through a shell account, file
transfer is a two step process.  However,  more and more commercial services are
providing   SLIP   and   PPP    connections which eliminate the two step  process by
giving your Amiga it's own internet address. SLIP and PPP also provide full
internet access, but some applications require more speed than an analog modem can

Since SLIP and PPP accounts cost more than shell accounts, some providers are
allowing their shell account users to use  TIA or MLINK  which provide access out to
the internet.


direct to WAN or ISP provider

  WAN -- Wide Area Network

  ISP -- Internet Service Provider

The WAN providers  offer many kinds of connectivity from a normal  dial up BBS to
a full blown high speed WAN connection.

  Full Blown WAN  

  ISP the Cheaper WAN  


  WAN and ISP providers  

 Full Blown WAN 

WAN -- Wide Area Network

The full blown WAN connection is the FASTEST, most flexible and the most
expensive. This type of connection is most useful for a group such as a business
with a LAN, since this type of connection provides a router at your site.
Generally connection speeds start at 56 Kbit/sec and go up. Contact a  WAN provider 
for details.

A full blown WAN connection also requires a great deal of expertise to manage. You
must learn security, configuration, and troubleshooting techniques.  Some WAN
providers will provide these services for additional fees. 

The setup of a WAN connection is WELL beyond the scope of an FAQ, but there are
numerous courses and books available if you wish to do  the job yourself. Also the
documentation that comes with the software and hardware is mandatory reading.

 Cheaper WAN 

ISP the Cheaper WAN:

 ISP -- Internet Service Provider

 WAN -- Wide Area Network

With this kind of connection all you have at your end is your Amiga, a modem, and
a phone line. The ISP has all the network equipment at their site. You merely pay
to use it.

Over this connection they provide   SLIP   and   PPP   which require some networking
knowledge on the user's part but not as much as  managing a LAN. SLIP and PPP
offer a full set of internet services,  but at a lower speed. Generally you are
limited to what speeds the  local telco can provide. The fastest is currently
   ISDN   but that can be expensive and has limited availability.  So most ISP's
will also offer standard  analog modem connections of 14.4K or higher. For those
on a budget and who aren't afraid of command line mode you can usually get a shell
account from ISP pretty cheap. They may even let you use   TIA  or a similar utility
at no extra charge. Shop around.

Since these are normal phone lines and used on a part time dial up basis, this is
nothing more than a fancy BBS, and thus the rates are lower. If you want a full
time connection or ISDN speeds most ISPs can accommodate you...for a fee.

The other big difference between an ISP and a WAN provider is that most ISP's do
not own any phone lines. Most ISP's rent them from WAN's and recoup the costs by
selling dial up access. This has lead to a new cottage industry and it pays to
shop around for service.

So how do you find an ISP?  It is kind of ironic. If you have internet access, it
is easy to find internet access. But if you don't have internet access, check the
local papers, local BBS systems, user groups, etc.  Once online you can usually
keep abreast of what ISP's are available via a service called Yahoo which can be
accessed via Mosaic at Once connected look under the
regional section. It goes down to the city level and if your city is listed
chances are real good there will be a list of ISP's for your city.

Got deep pockets and want full time connectivity? go to the
   Full blown WAN  section.


Shopping for the right level of WAN connectivity can be difficult.

Shell accounts are the cheapest, but may not offer all the access you want. SLIP
and PPP offer full two way communication, but at a slightly higher cost than shell
accounts. Commercial accounts, such as AOL, may incur extra phone charges or put
limits on your internet access, but do usually offer additional services not found
on the internet. Direct connections can be fast, and with a full time direct
connection you can host your own web sites and offer services. The down side to
direct connection is that it is expensive.

You have to run the cost comparisons yourself to see what level of access is right
for you.

Books on the subject:

O'Reilly & Associates, Inc publishes book that offers some good ideas for doing
cost comparisons. It is called "Connecting To The INTERNET" an O'Reilly Buyer's

Another book to look for is "Connect your Amiga!" by Dale Larson of   IAM   .

I'm sure there are other books as well. Time to head to the bookstore ;-)

 WAN providers 

ISP and WAN providers.

ISP -- Internet Service Provider

WAN -- Wide Area Network

WAN providers come in a variety of sizes and levels of service. Most of the really
big WAN providers you probably already know such as MCI, Sprint, AT&T, BBN, etc.
Some of the smaller ones came from government networks which have gone commercial.
At least that is the way it is in the USA. Sorry I don't have any details on the
European, Asian, or DownUnder markets.

ISP's are a fairly new breed of WAN provider. ISP's are dependent on WAN providers
for the "infrastructure" i.e. phone lines. ISPs merely sell a service, and provide
the direct support to the customer. Most ISPs are local Ma and Pa shops, and can
keep their costs low. Others are larger and provide more service. Also online
services such as Portal and Compuserve have become ISPs. Since ISP's can be local,
check your paper or local user group for leads.

To get a fairly current list of WAN providers you can check your local bookstore.
Most books on the Internet contain lists of WAN providers and ISPs.

Of course, if you can gain internet access, you have lots of ways to find
providers. With Mosaic you can go to indexes such as Yahoo or NCSA and search.
Also, most of the major providers have URL's which are easy to guess;
for example.

Also, you can use electronic mail to get a copy of Peter Kaminski's PDIAL list.
Send a message with "Send PDIAL" as  the subject line. Send the message to Or you can subscribe by using "Subscribe PDIAL" as the
subject line. You will then automatically get any updates to the list.

PDIAL is also available from the news.answers   FAQ archive . 


ISDN -- Integrated Services Digital Network

ISDN -- Ithaca Swing Dance Network (you never know what you'll learn on the web

Since I don't have ISDN, please forgive any mistakes, and please do check out the
other sources mentioned below.

ISDN offers all digital transfer at much higer data rates than analog lines and
modems. ISDN can also multiplex the line between several devices (you can talk to
someone while you surf the net).

ISDN lines can also handle POTS (plain old telephone service) phones. ISDN is more
expensive than the analog POTS lines. Also, different areas of the USA have
different ISDN rates and installation charges, if ISDN is even available at all.

If you want to use ISDN to connect to an Internet provider, the provider will also
charge a premium because they have to have ISDN connectivity also. Dialup ISDN is
cheaper than dedicated service, of course.

For connecting your computer to ISDN there are several options to consider: ISDN
card, a Terminal Adapter, and a router.

A router is useful for allowing you to connect multiple ethernet nodes to a single
ISDN line. The router has an ISDN port for connecting to the line and an ethernet
port for connecting your LAN segment.  A router not only makes the connection it
also can handle multiple protocols, perform routing decisions, perform security
checks, and other features. There is now a wide range of models to choose from
depending on how many and which of these routing features you really need. As you
might of guessed, there is also a wide range of prices, too. Since ethernet cards
are expensive for the Amiga, and if you have only one or two computers, you might
consider the other options.

A terminal adapter (TA) allows serial lines to be connected as well as POTS
phones. For the Amiga you will need a serial port card, such as the MFC IV, that
can handle the higher ISDN speeds. TA's are cheaper than routers, because they do
not provide as many functions such as ethernet support, but for the Amiga you have
the added expense of a high speed serial card.

An ISDN modem card is another option and is really just a form of TA. It is not as
flexible as a TA or a router because it is made to work with a specific computer
(both hardware and software). For the Amiga there is the   ISDN Master   One problem
for US residents is that the european cards use S interfaces and the US uses U
interfaces. This means US residents will also need a NT-1.

For more authoritative information on ISDN start with ACC's ISDN primer at

which is a short document which explains most of the basic terminology. Then read
the comp.dcom.isdn ISDN FAQ document which is available at the   FAQ Archive  


 Another good ISDN FAQ I just found:


Both documents have pointers to lots of ISDN info. Or you can start like I did
with a web search on ISDN at or similar site.


What is a server?

A server is a computer which acts like a library for files, and programs. It can
also be set up to allow users to change the information as well. Several programs
and protocols exist for creating a server:  Appleshare, NFS, Xwindows, FTP, news,
gopher, WWW,  DCE, SQL, and user written applications.

Appleshare and NFS make remote disks seem like local disks. Thus  allowing a group
of users to share disk space and information if so desired.

Xwindows is a device independent network terminal package which supports a
graphical user interface.  It can be thought of as an display server. The
application can be run on one machine and the display  served to any Xwindow
device on the network. If Excel had a X  window version it could be run on a Mac
or PC and the display could be on any Xwindow device anywhere on the network. It
could even be displayed on an Amiga using   X11R4   .

FTP server software allows you offer a portion or all of your disk drive for
remote access. Unlike Appleshare or X windows you cannot run applications
remotely. FTP stands for File Transfer Protocol and file transfer is all that it
does.  It does provide a binary mode of transfer so that you can copy applications
to your local hard drive or ram and then run them.

News, gopher, and WWW are special servers for information which  require a client
software package to access.  They can be thought of as network databases. These
are explained in other sections.   G07  

Database servers are usually custom written to fit a need such as inventory. SQL
is standard query language and DCE is distributed computing environment. SQL and
DCE can be used in vendor or user written applications to create or access
multiple database servers.  This allows the programmer to distribute the load
across several machines. Also it allows for more seamless integration of data from
several non-similar computer systems in a transparent manner to the user. For
example, very few executives want to FTP to three or four machines to pull
together the information for review. They tend to like to click on a weekly report
button and have the program do all the work. Since SQL and DCE are standards, the
weekly report program is somewhat shielded from hardware specifics or changes.


What is an archive?

A computer site which advertises and stores a large amount of public domain and
share ware software and documentation.


What is a mirror?

Some archives are heavily used and therefore must be supported by multiple sites
which are often located very far apart.  Each site should ideally have identical
information available therefore they are mirrors of each other. When one site gets
a new file it must be mirrored to the other sites usually using FTP.


What are Gopher, WAIS, and WWW?

Three kinds of network information servers. Each more powerful than  the next, but
with some interconnectivity.  Each server requires a client application to allow
the user to access the information.  For Example, a Mosaic client can access all
three servers.  The main purpose of these client/servers  is to help a user
navigate the Internet to find information and files.


Gopher is a menu  utility which simply uses FTP for retrieving files from archive
sites. Gopher also uses a search utility called Veronica for aiding users in
finding files in the gopher archive sites. Veronica can do keyword searches
whereas Archie can only search for file names.


WAIS is Wide Area Information Server which provides information  lookup services
to libraries and databases on the Internet. A simple  WAIS client allows the user
to select databases to search from a list.  The user then provides keywords to
search for, and the WAIS client   allows the user to view any matches found. This
is cumbersome once  the list of databases grows into the thousands. Screenfull
after screenfull of database names scroll by.

As of March 16, 1994 future versions of WAIS server & client library  will be
known as ZDist NOT freeWAIS.  freeWAIS is based on the  older version of the
search and retrieval protocol Z39.50-1988.  The  newest version of that protocol
Z39.50-1992 is NOT backwards compatible. 

Since both versions will be around for awhile, a name change for the server/client
software libraries had to be established. Both freeWAIS  and ZDist are maintained
by CNIDR. Kevin Gamiel is the contact.  

It should be noted that the Z39.50 protocol is a standard which is NOT published
or maintained by CNIDR, but is publicly available.  Z39.50-1992 is the protocol of
choice for many other network based  information search and retrieval applications
besides WAIS. 

Much more info is available thru Mosaic by searching  on CNIDR,  WAIS, or Z39.


WWW stands for world wide web which is name used to describe the global system of
hypertext and multimedia services. WWW consists of clients called browsers and
servers called web servers. Web servers use   http   and   html   to make the WWW
hypertext and multimedia services available to mosaic and     AMosaic   clients over
the Internet. WAIS support is being added to Mosaic. Mosaic offers WAIS an
effective interface and WAIS offers Mosaic an effective search engine. Other
commercial search engines are also available.

All three of these servers use the TCP/IP protocol, and all have both public
domain and commercial versions of the clients.


What are Mosaic, html, http, and browser?

Mosaic is a hypertext based multimedia interface for browsing the Internet, thus
it is referred to as a browser. Mosaic is the name of the browser created by NCSA
for Xwindows, Macs, and Windows. In the  last year several other browsers have
been created for the various platforms. Some are free and others are commercial.

  Amosaic   is developed by public domain effort for the Amiga. Although it may not
have all the toots and whistles of the other  browsers, it is free! Also, it was
started after the others and thus has to  play catchup. Development of all of the
browsers has been slowed  down because they are all dependent on   html   and   http  
which are in  a state of change.

The browsers are primarily used to access the thousands of World  Wide Web (WWW)
servers, but can also be used to access WAIS,  Gopher, and  others. They enable
the user to click on hypertext links  which will automatically use the network
services such as FTP to  retrieve the information pointed to by the link
regardless if it is text, sound, or graphics.  They utilize shareware and public
domain viewers  and players of the users choice to play the sounds or to display
the  pictures or animations. Thus the browser is a point and click front end  to a
wide array of other software.

Navigating the Web can be a challenge due the enormous size, but  there are
several tools that make it easier.  The simplest tool is the  usage of a common
naming convention for the main WWW servers. Most large organizations have their
primary server named www.  For example, NASA's primary server is called Microsoft's server is called Can you guess what
NewTek's server is called ?

Once you know the name of the server, it is very easy to create the  URL which the
browser needs to make the connection.  URL stands for  Universal Resource Locator
which is just a scheme for specifying the  type of link to make, to which host,
and optionally which file. To open  NASA's front door (primary home page) just use
the Open URL menu option and type: This says make an  http  
connection to Since no file was specified it will get the default
home page for that server.

Other navigation tools include search utilities, the what's new page,  and indexes
by category or subject.  Most of this is explained on line.  Just go explore.


What are Veronica and Archie?

Archie is the older of the two search tools. A user submits a query to Archie or
Veronica and they search their database for the location of files or programs.
Veronica is associated with the Gopher servers.

Both require TCP/IP at some point.  Although both can be queried by electronic

There is an Archie client available for AmiTCP via anonymous FTP  from in the  /pub/amiga/amitcp directory.


What is news? 

NEWS is a global BBS run by everyone and no one. I will describe it briefly here,
but see the   NEWS FAQ   for details.

NEWS is made up of broad topics called news groups, to which   people can post or
respond to posts. Anyone can create a new post,  but new  news groups are added
based on an email voting system. A  few groups are moderated, but most are not.
NEWS  is available via  usenet, the internet, and some commercial services. Almost
NOBODY carries ALL the news groups. User access is through a news reader
application that accesses a news server.  There are many variations of  news
readers. Several for the Amiga can be found on   Aminet   and   Fred Fish  .

  GRn   by Michael Smith is one Amiga News reader.

Arn by Roland Bless ( is another.

  THOR   and   Offline-Orbit   are offline news and message  readers.

NEWS began life on a college campus and then became the USENET  news as it spread
to other college campuses and beyond via   UUCP  .  Today it is also carried across
the Internet using the NNTP application  over TCP/IP.  The links between servers
are set up manually by news  server administrators and the links are called news
feeds. A lot of the  feeds come and go, since they are done on an informal basis.

GRn in combination with   INetUtils   allows you to access news over  either NNTP or


What is a Set top?

A twinkle in some entrepreneur's eye.  It will most likely occupy the __TOP__ of
your television __SET__. Some call it Interactive TV.  Some call it info-pliances.
It could possibly bring the internet to your home via cable TV or phone  lines,
but more than likely it will only bring limited expensive services.

AT&T says, "YOU WILL."     I say,  "I AIN'T YET."  ;-)

A newspaper article listed the following companies as  competition for IBM in the
set top market:   General Instrument,  Scientific Atlanta, 3DO, and Nintendo.   NO
mention of HP, Sony,  SEGA, or <insert Amiga owner of the week here>. Hmmmmmmm.

AS most of you know ESCOM's Amiga Technologies is hawking the Amiga as THE
platform for making set top boxes. So we shall see.  VIScorp is also very
interested in the Amiga as a set top box.  

The race will be to develop a box and service that will sell (i.e. it has to be
cheap and yet do a lot.)

The starting gun has sounded in the States with the telecommunications bill which
opens up the phone and cable markets.

Several operating systems are being developed for set top boxes. Since the box has
to be cheap, Win NT is obviously not in the running. JAVA is Sun's bid which is
gaining a foothold in the Web market. Apple is rumored to have an OS tailored
specificly for set top's. So keep the top of your set open ;-)


X-windows allows you have a graphical user interface similar to workbench where
you can run programs (clients) both locally and remotely.

A breif description of how X-windows works:

X-windows involves two cooperating programs. One program acts as a server, and the
other as a client. The client programs need not be on your machine, but the server
program must be on your local machine. For remote clients to talk to your server
you must be running a networking protocol either TCP-IP or DecNet. Of course if
your clients are local, no network is required.

The first step to starting X-windows is run the x-server program which isn't very
exciting by itself. The server just opens a plain root window and starts listening
for clients to give it commands. One of the first clients you will want to run is
a window-manager. As the name implies it helps you manage the windows that your
clients will open. Similar to running workbench, but it is much more limited.

Once the server and a window manager are running you can begin running other
clients which can be local or on a remote machine. You can even cut and paste data
between clients.

The benefit of x-windows is that the client programmer does not have to write a
special user interface for each type of machine on the market. Any machine with an
x-server should be able to accept the display from the x-client regardless of what
kind of machine the client is running on. This also means that the client does not
have to written to run on your machine. For example, you can use a word processor
written for a cray from your amiga as long as the word processor supports
x-windows and you have a cray to run the client on ;-)

The downside of x-windows is that it requires a lot of bandwidth to operate. You
can get it to work over a 14.4 baud modem, but it is slow. Even over ethernet
graphic intensive clients can be sluggish. Also, more than one flavor of x-windows
emerged so that the main benefit is somewhat negated. Motif is one of the main
flavors of x-windows, but others exist.

Also check out the   X11 FAQ   for help with X specific questions.


What is TIA and Mlink, and are they useful to an Amiga User?

TIA  ==> The Internet Adapter (TM)

by Cyberspace Development, Inc. (CSD).

It is a commercial software product that enables shell account users to have
partial SLIP access to the Internet without paying the extra monthly surcharge of
having a full SLIP account, and without having to have an Internet address. Since
TIA runs on the service providers host, Amiga users can take advantage of it too.

Although the service provider misses out on some revenue, they also miss out on a
lot of management headaches from SLIP. Check with your service provider to see if
TIA or Mlink is endorsed.  

The drawback to TIA is that you don't have your own internet address,  and
therefore no one can telnet or FTP to your machine. This does not  stop you from
running Mosaic or FTP *OUT*. Just the incoming is  unavailable. In other words you
can act only as a client not a server.

Another drawback is that you still have to have SLIP on the Amiga side. TIA
basically sets up a  software gateway that speaks SLIP to your Amiga over the
serial port of the host, and TCP/IP over the host's ethernet card. TIA doesn't
allow the AmiTCP packets to pass directly to  the Internet therefore your machine
has no address as far as the Internet is concerned. The Internet only sees the
service host. TIA  makes the service host make TCP/IP requests on your behalf and
then  passes you back the results. This does not work for some TCP/IP utilities
such as ping. Think of it as layers or stacks the data must filter through with
TIA as a middleman or translator.

 |====< AMIGA >====|     |====< Service Host >======|

 |     AMosaic     |     |  TIA <====GW====> TCP/IP | 

 |     AmiTCP      |     |your Shell Account   ||   |

 |      SLIP       |     |     |               ||   |

 |   serial port   |     |   serial         ethernet|

 |====|---|========|     |===|---|===========|++++|=|

        |                      |               ||

      modem<--serial line-->modem              ||
                                        ethernet LAN


                                       Internet & WWW

There are well written docs available on line from CSD that explain TIA much
better. You can FTP them from  You can also  use gopher and
Mosaic to the same site.

  Mlink   is available on Aminet and performs a similar function as TIA. It allows
you to use a cheaper shell account to access the Internet, but just like TIA it is
a one way glass: you can see out, but no one can see in.


What is SAMBA and is it available?

SAMBA is a suite of programs which work together to allow clients to access Unix
filespace and printers via the SMB (Session Message Block) protocol.

In practice, this means that you can redirect disks and printers to Unix disks and
printers from LAN Manager clients, Windows for Workgroups 3.11 clients, Windows NT
clients and OS/2 clients.  There is also a Unix client program supplied as part of
the suie which allows Unis users to use an ftp-like interface to access filespace
and printers on any other SMB servers.

Summary of SAMBA suite components:

 smbd       the SMB server. This handles actual connections from clients
 nmbd       the Netbios name server, which helps clients locate servers
 smbclient  the Unix-hosted client program
 smbrun     a little "glue' program to help the server run external programs
 testprns   a program to test server acess to printers
 testparms  a program to test the SAMBA config file for corectness
 smb.conf   The SAMBA config file
 smbprint   a sample script to allow a Unix host to use smbclient to print
            to an SMB server

Although this is the UNIX suite summary, the source code is available and   SAMBA  
has been ported to the Amiga. SAMBA is of particular use to Lightwave users to
move files between the Amiga and a PC.


What is JAVA and VRML, and are they available for the Amiga?

JAVA is being spearheaded by SUN Microsystems,and you can check their web site for

JAVA is a new language for the WWW that has more power than   HTML  . Don't expect
it to replace HTML any time soon though. JAVA is intended to augment HTML by
allowing web page authors to provide programs which run on the client's machine.
These programs can be anything from an animation to a full blown user interface
into a remote database or application. In fact there is more than one form of
JAVA: JAVA as applets, JAVA as applications, and JAVAScript.

JAVA applets run in the context of a web browser. Currently there are no Amiga web
browsers that support JAVA applets, but that could change soon.

JAVA applications require an interpreter called a virtual machine (VM).

JAVAScript is more of a Basic langauage which is only supported by Netscape and
Microsoft's Internet Explorer. It was developed by Netscape and SUN.

Since JAVA is a programming language, you can find tools on the new GEEK GADGETS
cd rom from   Cronus  .

JAVA is being ported to the Amiga. Niall Teasdale has a web page on the project
which is being called P'Jami.

There are also several other ports of JAVA underway. One is called Kaffe and it
supplies a VM to run JAVA applications. Another is the JAVA JIT compiler.

VRML is Virtual Reality Markup Langauge which is being spearheaded by SGI. This
language also augments HTML and allows web authors to add 3d graphics, or to build
3d graphics worlds (virtual reality) which can be navigated over the web or

Remember Calagari? The Amiga 3d graphics package which became Truespace when they
ported to the PC. Well they are heavily involved with SGI in developing VRML
tools. Even if there is no Amiga port of VRML viewers, you can still get your
Amiga 3d graphics objects into VRML format.  Lightwave has a VRML saver.  Also
there are DXF to VRML converters on other platforms.

You can always use one of the web search engines to find tons of Java and VRML


IRC == Internet Relay Chat

Sort of like a conference call but instead of speaking you type. They can be
somewhat structured with a moderator and guest which accept questions sort of like
a call in show on TV.

There are some IRC clients such as Grapevine for the Amiga on Aminet.

You might also want to check out CLChat.


!!!!!!!! new section !!!!!!


Proxies are intended as a security measure for firewalls, but as Randall Lasini
describes on his web page it can also be used to connect multiple machines to the
internet over a single dial up line without having to get a unique internet
address for each machine. I'll describe the basic idea here and you can get more
info from his web page at

Although it is not a perfect solution, it is quite interesting. Your Internet
Service Provider (ISP) does not have to provide an internet address for each of
your machines, but it would still be a good idea to get your ISP's blessing in
case there are any unforseen problems or if your ISP considers it as a different
form of service.

The solution requires httprox14 and HiJack which are both on   Aminet   and assumes
you will be using an Amiga to dial into your ISP. Randall's solution was done
using all Amigas with Arcnet cards, but it should be doable with any physical
media that has a SANA II device driver. The solution was also performed using
AmiTCP 4.2.

HiJack and httprox14 are installed on the Amiga which is connecting to the ISP.
This Amiga must also being running a TCP-IP stack which supports the Gateway
function. AmiTCP supports the gateway function, but it must be enabled by editing
the amitcp:db/amitcp.config file. This Amiga has now become a special kind of
gateway called a firewall.

Point each of your "hidden" machines to use the gateway. This is done on an
application by application basis, and is not supported by all applications.
Ibrowse has a preferences tool for setting a proxy gateway, but others use
environment variables such as "setenv nntpserver" or "setenv
http_proxy" where is the name of your Amiga
which is acting as a gateway.

The HJprox will route your applications packets to the internet and remember where
the returning packets go to.  Currently httpprox14 will not handle "refresh" or
random links like the one at Yahoo, but if you have an upstream proxy available
you might be able to use the random links.

As I said it isn't a perfect solution, but it looks quite interesting. Let   me  
know ( and Randall!) what setups you get to work, and I'll add them to the FAQ.

 General  (C) 



  GHC01   I only have two machines, an Amiga and _________(MAC/PC/etc).
           How can I exchange data without a net?

  GHC02   How do I connect a thin or thick card to a 10baseT net?

  GHC03   How do I connect my Amiga 2,3, or 4000 to ethernet?

  GHC04   How do I connect my Amiga 500, 1000 or 1200 to ethernet?

  GHC05   How about arcnet instead of ethernet?

  GHC06   How do I connect to ISDN?


  GSC01    What terminal emulations are available over ethernet?

  GSC02    Can I use multiple protocol stacks on my Amiga at the
        same time?

  GSC03   How can I uudecode messages from binary newsgroups?

  GSC04   Adding to the PATH from a shell doesn't seem to work, why?

  GSC05   Are there any Amiga to Amiga networking packages?

  GSC06   What Email options are available?

  GSC07   Can I do multimedia over a network?

  GSC08   Can I do parallel programming over a network?


I only have two machines, an Amiga and __________.

How can I exchange data without a net?

Four solutions come to mind. From least to most expensive:

  1) Floppies
  2) a) NULL Modem cable (serial/modem port)
     b) Parallel cable (may require special wiring. consult software)
  3) External SCSI or IDE
  4) Ethernet   (Ok, OK, so this one is a net.)

1) Floppies

If the data will fit on a 720k or 1.4M floppy then you have it made.  See
appropriate section below  for details on your computer setup.

2) a) NULL Modem cable

If the two machines are in the same room a null modem cable is useful for moving
larger amounts of data. You will need software in addition to the cable. You can
write your own or use something like TwinExpress  which is on   Aminet   . In
addition to moving files TwinExpress will also  allow you to print remotely. For
example, If you have a postscript  printer hooked to the PC's LPT2 port, then 

  copy hd0:psfiles/ ~LPT2

will send the postscript file over the nullmodem cable to the PC printer.

   b) Parallel cable

If the computers are close together (6 to 12 feet), then a special parallel cable
can be used to connect them.

PARnet is available for PC's and can be made to work with the Amiga version of
  PARnet  . Sorry, I don't have any details. If someone wants to send some, I'll add
them to the FAQ.

  Link It!   is a commercial solution that will work with either serial or parallel,
and comes with a parallel cable.

  PLIP  , is also a possibility but I don't have any details.

Also there is a program on Aminet called PC2Amiga. 

3) External SCSI or IDE

The next cheapest solution is to get a SCSI external drive with removable media
such as a Syquest or Bernoulli.  See below for details and an example of

4) Ethernet

Of course there is nothing wrong with setting up an ethernet LAN between just two
machines other than cost.
     NFS solutions:
     Amiga -- NFSd by Interworks
     Amiga -- ch_NFS (comes with AmiTCP)
     MAC   -- MacNFS by Thursby Software
     PC    -- PcNFS by Sun

PC clone to/from Amiga


Floppies and removable media can be formatted in MSDOS format.  The Amiga can then
read and write to them using CrossDos which is  included in AmigaDOS 2.x and
higher. CrossDos can also format a  MSDOS disk, but it takes a while. To preserve
long file names you can use LhaNT under Windows NT.

For PC you can get Conversions Plus by DataViz which allows the PC to read MAC
disks. It also provides file conversions such as Pict to tiff. Combine this with
MaxDos on the Amiga and you can exchange data between a PC and Amiga using a Mac
formatted disk! Now that's Mondo.

Mac to/from Amiga


There are now commercial products which allow the Amiga to read Mac formatted
floppies and disks (both removable and hard).   MaxDos   and  CrossMac.

Under System 7:

The Mac will automatically recognize a MSDOS disk. Another trick learned from the
Amiga. It is called PC Exchange and has a control panel for dealing with SCSI

Under system 6:

The Mac can also read and write MSDOS format floppies using the  Apple File
Exchange utility which comes with the Mac operating  system.  AFE is not
automatically installed so you may have to get off  the master diskettes if you
cannot find it on your Mac. AFE can also format a disk as MSDOS.  AFE MUST BE
RUNNING BEFORE you insert the MSDOS disk or it won't recognize it!!

Lee Stranahan's Mondo-Sneakernet system:


From video and back to video by way of a Mac and PC.

  Load digitized footage from Exabyte tape into Mac using Missing Link;
  Process in AfterEffects;
  Store sequence of PICTS on Mac EZ (removable MSDOS format) drive;
  Move cart to EZ IDE in PC;
  Load PiCTS into Perception...

Of course, there are mucho other ways to skin a file.


How do I connect a thin or thick net card to a 10baset net?

You need a 10baset transceiver called a TPAU (Twisted Pair Access Unit). The TPAU
should have an RJ-45, and an AUI connection.

Set the jumper on the card for thick net. Use the thick network connector called
an AUI and connect it to the TPAU's AUI connector and then connect the TPAU's RJ45
connector to your network. This setup requires two cables: one AUI, and one

For connecting the Thin net connection to twisted pair thin net instead of a co-ax
thin net, you will need a ballun.


What do I need to hook up my Amiga  2,3, or 4000 to ethernet?

If the following sounds like geek  8-)  

then try the   Generic  (G)   section.

Also you can try the book store for a variety of books on the subject including
"Connect your Amiga!" by Dale Larson of   IAM  . They can go  into a lot more detail
than an FAQ.

You basically have two choices: a direct connection which requires a ethernet card
or a much slower remote connection via the serial port.  An ethernet card is also
referred to as an ethernet adapter, an ethernet controller, or as a network
interface card. One reason it is called a network interface card is that there are
other types of networks out there besides ethernet  ( ARCNET for example).
Ethernet is just extremely popular.

There are several cards to choose from and they support different ethernet cable
types. See the generic section for a description of cable types. See the product
specs section to see which cards support  which cables.  

In addition to the card you will need a protocol to communicate to other hosts or
nodes. See a description of protocols in the generic section. The protocols all
require configuration such as an address which you should get from your network
administrator or service provider.

Last but not least you will need some network applications to use over your
network link. Telnet and FTP usually come with the TCP/IP protocol, but there are
many others available.

In summary, you will need: 1) NIC 2) Protocol 3) Application.

Ethernet cards:

 The   A2065   was by Commodore Business Machines.
 The   A4066   is by   Ameristar   supersedes the A2065 card.
 The   LAN Rover    was by   ASDG   and is also called the  EB920.
 The   Hydra   is by   Hydra Systems  
 The   Ariadne   is by   Village Tronic  

Also cheap PC ethernet cards can be used with   GG2 bus+   card from
  Software Results Enterprises  .

The Ariadne is a hybrid card which includes both ethernet and parallel ports on
the same card.

All of  these cards are full size and most are   SANA II   compatible.


All these cards  can be used with protocol software such as
     AmiTCP   by   NSDi  
     I-NET 225   by   Interworks  
     AS225   was by CBM
   TSSnet   DECnet    software by   Thunder Ridge, Inc.   ,
   Novell Netware client by   Oxxi  
 Amiga to Amiga:
     DNET   (also does Amiga to Unix)
     SAMBA   (also does Amiga to Unix or PC)

     Resource Management Force  
   has a zorro II card called   QuickNet   which uses
   thin ethernet, and special Amiga to Amiga software.

Serial port:

The serial port offers a much slower, but much cheaper way to build a network. By
using a high speed modem connection to an Internet Service Provider you can use
your Amiga serial port to become a full fledge node on the Internet. The internet
requires the   TCP-IP   protocol and you will need either   SLIP   or   PPP   to drive
the serial port. SLIP comes with AmiTCP and   PPP.device  is available on Aminet.

If you plan on tying several machines to the internet over a single SLIP or PPP
line, you will HAVE to coordinate it with your service provider, otherwise only
one machine will be seen. Unless of course you are clever like Randall Lasini and
figure out a   way   around it.

Other types of networks can also be supported via the serial port such as  DECnet .
Again the tradeoff being giving up speed for distance and cost.

No place to dial into? You can usually find a book on the Internet at a bookstore
that lists the major providers, but your local user groups and BBS users can
provide good insight  into which are the best or  cheapest.


Can I hook up an Amiga 500,1000, 1200  to ethernet?

Yes, Almost all Amiga models can be hooked to the ethernet. Using the serial port
is the cheapest, but the fastest is a direct connect  using an ethernet adapter

For the 1200    Interworks   has an ethernet card called   ICard   that  will support
the major protocols. They also have some Amiga peer to peer software products for
the ICard.

For the 500 and 1000:

The   A2065   has reportedly been used successfully with third-party expansion
boxes, such as Bodega Bay.  It has  also been reported that  the A2065 card can be
used with the Slingshot expansion device used  with an Amiga 500 and a SupraDrive
500XP's pass-through. 

The A2065 has been superseded by the   Ameristar      A4066   .   Don't know if it
works with the A500 or A1000 expansion buses.

The serial port approach for TCP/IP is supported by:

  several flavors of   AmigaNOS  
    I-Net 225  

all of which require   SLIP   or   PPP   to use the serial port.   DECnet   and   DNET  
can be also be used  with the serial port.


Arcnet runs at about 2.5 Mbits/sec which is a lot faster than parnet or Appletalk,
but not as fast as ethernet. Arcnet hardware is cheaper than ethernet, however, so
for a small shop they may be a better deal.

Once upon a time, CBM released the A2060 for the Amiga 2000, and the A560 for the
A500. You can probably still find these used, and apparently there is a SANA II
driver for them called ch2060.device by Carsten Heyl. Look on Aminet.

CSA was working on some, but are on  hold pending the outcome of the CBM
liquidation. Contact   CSA   if you  are interested.


Can I hook an Amiga to ISDN?

Yes,   ISDN Master   is one solution for hooking an Amiga to   ISDN  .

Since I haven't done this myself, I'm interested in    hearing   from those who have
as to what solutions are available and what specifically is required.


What terminal emulations are available over ethernet?

The   AS225   package allows rlogin using the Amiga console (a  termcap is supplied)
only. A separate rloginVT program is supplied for  VT100 emulation. Under X
Windows, xterm provides terminal  emulation that typically works with all software
available on the host.

AS225r2 provides telnet and nterm (telnet with VT100).

TSSnet   DECnet   provides VT100 terminal emulation  using the  DECnet CTERM
facility or use your favorite VT compatible Amiga  terminal program including

  VLT   works with TSSnet DECnet, Enlan, and with tn3270.device for  AS225r2 .  VLT
provides Tektronix and DEC terminal emulation.

  telser  opens the door to user your favorite modem software's terminal emulator
with telnet.


Can I use multiple protocol stacks on my Amiga at the same time?
   If all desired protocol stacks support the   SANA II   standard, several
protocols can be run simultaneously on the same A2065 card.  Some commercially
available versions of the network protocol stacks support the SANA II
specification now. But if they don't, you can have multiple hardware interfaces to
run different protocols on the same machine simultaneously (i.e. one A2065 used
for TCP/IP and one used for Netware).


How can I uudecode messages from binary newsgroups?

MASSDECODE is an ARexx script by Gregg Giles which will scan all newsgroups for
uuencoded binaries, joins the parts of a single binary, and decodes the binary.
Ideal for those who want to have binary newsgroups decoded automatically and have
the resulting binaries put online for their users to download and/or access.

It is available from   Aminet   as comm/news/MassDecode1.1.lha

Or you can use   MunPack   if the file is  MIME  encoded.


Adding to the PATH doesn't seem to work from the Shell, why?

Each shell has it's own copy of the workbench PATH structure. This allows each
shell to be customized, but does lead to confusion because adding to the PATH in
one shell does not affect the other shells. To change the PATH for the workbench
and thus all new Shells you must use the NEWPATH option of the LOADWB command. For
example, to add work:newdir to the PATH system wide you'd type:

   >PATH work:newdir add

Now work:newdir will be added to the search path system wide.


Are there any peer-peer network packages for the Amiga?

Yes, several.

  ENLAN-DFS    from   Interworks    provides peer to peer  networking and Distributed
File System over   SANA II   compatible hardware. 

  Envoy    from   IAM   provides peer to peer networking for Amigas that is  tied very
close to the operating system. It too is SANA II compatible.

  Resource Management Force   has a zorro II card called    QuickNet   which uses thin
ethernet, and special Amiga to Amiga software.

ALAN-FS   is a peer-to-peer network package that allows full  transparent
file-sharing, device sharing over ethernet. It requires  WB2.0 and the Commodore
AS225 package. It is available from    GfxBase, Inc  , or
  Canadian Prototype Replicas  . NOTE: Current Product status  unknown.   FEEDBACK  

  Dnet    ---   Dnet has client/server software for both Amiga-Amiga and Amiga-UNIX
networking over a serial line. Among other things Dnet supports shells, file
transfer, IRC, and something like NFS. Dnet is available on   Aminet  .

PARnet/PARbench  ---   PARbench   is a workbench installable version of PARnet which
allows two Amigas to be networked using a parallel port and cable. It is basically
file sharing similar to NFS, but Amiga only. PARbench greatly simplifies
installing and using PARnet.


What electronic mail options are available?

The   DECnet   package from   Thunder Ridge, Inc.     supports  VMSmail.   AmigaELM  
supports UUCP mail. 

Both packages require a mail utility on a remote host.

You should also pick up a copy of  InetUtils  from Aminet. InetUtils allows AmigaELM
and other mail utilities to use   SMTP   instead of relying on a remote host.

Graham Walter has uploaded a SMTP daemon for AmiTCP to   Aminet   

Also available for both   AmigaNOS flavors   is a mail agent called BM,  B-Dale's
Messy-Dos Mailer.  It doesn't have as nice an interface as  Elm, but is easy to
use and can build RFC822 formatted files.

GMail is available as part of  INET225 .

 VooDoo  is available on Aminet. It provides a graphical user interface (GUI) but
requires WB3.0 or higher.

To handle   MIME   attachments you might also want to pick up a copy of    MUNPACK  
or MetaMail.


Is network based multimedia available?

InfoChannel  is a   SCALA, Inc.   product that can run over LAN's or modems. It
allows remote Amiga multimedia stations to be controlled  from a central Amiga
host. Data can also be stored centrally and  supplied upon demand. InfoChannel
also comes with tools and  graphics for creating a multimedia service such as a

Also   Amosaic   can be used as a multimedia hypertext user interface  for both
local and remote data.

Also JAVA can be used as multimedia development tool. JAVA is being developed by
Sun Microsystems, but an Amiga port is in the works by someone other than Sun.


Is network parallel programming available?

  TorqueWare (TM)   is by   AugmenTek    and allows  parallel  programming between
several Amigas. Also an Amiga running  AugmenTek's TorqueWare can act as a client
to a SGI or Mac running  TorqueWare by  Torque Systems.

 Product Specific 

  CBM TCPIP (B)   

  Envoy (E)  

  AMosaic (AM)  

  AmiTCP (AT)  


Questions about Commodore's TCPIP software

  B01    I can't login to my Amiga over the network. Why?

  B02    When I FTP to some hosts, I get part of an introductory 
         message and then either the network hangs up or 
        the connection gets closed. Why?

  B03    Is Domain Name Resolution available with the AS225 software?

  B04    Can I use NFS to mount a partition on my Amiga from a remote 

  B05    I can't use FTP, rsh or rcp into my Amiga. Why?

  B06    FTP into my Amiga works, but rsh and rcp into my Amiga don't.

  B07    I can communicate with machines on my network/floor/building, 
        but I  can't communicate with other machines even though they 
        are in my   inet:db/hosts file.


I can't login to my Amiga over the network. Why?

The AS225 software does not support interactive remote logins to the Amiga. It
does have servers for rsh (remote shell), rcp (remote copy)  and does support
remote FTP logins. rsh allows you to execute  commands on the Amiga, but does not
allow an interactive shell.

  I-NET 225   has numerous servers including telnetd.

For   AmiTCP   there are two utilities on   Aminet   called  tnserv.lha  and
FtpDaemon.lha that provide remote telnet and FTP to  an Amiga.


When I FTP to some hosts, I get part of an introductory message and then either
the network hangs up or the connection gets closed. Why?

There apparently is a bug in the AS225 software that causes trouble  when ftp'ing
to a system that has a long login message. You can  suppress this login message on
some systems by typing a hyphen ('-')  as the first character in your password.


Is Domain Name Resolution available with the AS225 software?

For AS225r1: No. You must have an entry in the host table for each machine you
wish to reference by name (as opposed to IP address). Also the gateways file is
not currently used.

For As225r2: Yes. All variants support DNS, and gateway. These functions are
turned off and on via the config files and the ConfigINet utility.


Can I use NFS to mount a partition on my Amiga from a remote  machine?

For AS225r1: No. Currently, the AS225 software only supports NFS as a client. An
NFS server is not included.

For AS225r2: Yes. NFSd the NFS server is included. The 'd' stands for daemon which
is a term used by the un*x community for a program which runs continuously and
watches for certain events, and then loads the appropriate program to handle a
given event.

Not all variants of AS225r2 contain the NFSd.


I can't use FTP, rsh or rcp into my Amiga. Why?

Make sure that you are running inet:s/start-inet with the servers keyword (i.e.,
"execute inet:s/start-inet servers").


FTP into my Amiga works, but rsh and rcp into my Amiga don't.

Make sure that you have an entry in inet:db/passwd for the user who  is rshing
into the Amiga (you can use the -l option to change the user trying to do the
remote access.) Make sure that you have an entry in inet:db/hosts.equiv for the
machine being rsh'd from.


I can communicate with machines on my network/floor/building, but I can't
communicate with other machines even though they are in my inet:db/hosts file.

Make sure that you have routes set up to other networks. Many  networks have one
primary gateway which you should make your  default route for reaching all other
networks. See the commented-out  "route add default" line in inet:s/start-inet.

 Envoy (E) 

Questions about Envoy

  E1          How do I configure a machine which has both an Amiga Link 
        and an ethernet connection so that machines on either network 
        can see each other?


How do I configure a machine which has both an Amiga Link and an  ethernet
connection so that machines on either network can see each  other?

Given machines A, B, and C with node B having both Amiga Link and Ethernet card
(Quicknet) as shown below, and all running Envoy.

 A  <=== Alink ===>  B  <=== Ethernet ===>  C

In order for node A to access node C or vice versa use the following configuration
scheme: (IP addresses for example only!)

              node A        node B        node C

 IP-Address:  244.1.a.a     244.1.b1.b1   244.1.c.c


 Subnet Mask:


 Use Realm:   yes           yes           yes

 Realm-Serv:  NO            yes           yes

 Realm-Name:  NET           NET           NET

 Serv-Addr:   244.1.b1.b1   244.1.b1.b1   244.2.b2.b2

 Def GateWay: 244.1.b1.b1   ------        244.2.b2.b2

 Loc Realms:  ------        NET -------

 Loc Realms:                NET

 Rem Realms:  ------        ------        ------

where b1.b1, and a.a are the AmigaLink hardware addresses. i.e. the last two bytes
of the IP address MUST match the hardware address on the AmigaLink interfaces.

  On the ethernet interfaces, however, b2.b2 and c.c can be anything since Envoy
supports ARP on ethernet.

NOTE: the IP addresses are for example ONLY!  Unless you manage  all the nodes
concerned you must coordinate the IP addresses with  your network administrator or

This example basically creates two TCP/IP domains: 244.1 and 244.2 Each domain can
have multiple nodes. Node B serves as the gateway between the two domains. If you
were to set up additional gateways to other domains, you would use the route
command on each node that you wished to enable communications to the new domain.
The  route command merely tells TCP/IP which gateway or router to use for  data
that is to be sent to a particular domain thus providing a more direct path, and
avoiding sending unnecessary traffic to other parts of  the network.

The gateway provides access to other parts of a network that would  not otherwise
be directly accessible. A router is dedicated to keeping track of routes to
various domains. On large networks your default  gateway will often point to a
router thus negating the need to maintain  route commands on each node.

For further discussion of domains and beginner info on the Internet you should
refer to   ZEN  


NOTE: for more info on Mosaic check out   Amosaic-FAQ  

Questions about AMosaic

          AM1   What do I need to run AMosaic?

          AM2   Is there a way to print from AMosaic using arexx?

          AM3   Having problems with "service looping" with http?

          AM4   How do I connect to a news server with AMosaic?

          AM5   How do I access docs in AMosaic NoNet mode?

          AM6   How do I make AMosaic appear on a custom screen?

          AM7   How do I change AMosaic's preferences?

          AM8   How do I route past a FireWall? (proxies)


What do I need to run AMosaic?

  * A link to the Internet

  * Any Amiga running AmigaDos 3.0 or higher. 

  Aminet   is the place to go for all the rest of this stuff!

  * Amosaic V1.2 or higher (latest is available on

  * MUI 2.0 or higher

  * TCP/IP:  AmiTCP, INet 225, DNET, TIA, MLINK, MIAMI, TermiteTCP,  etc. (see

  * For modem connections: SLIP (included with AmiTCP) or PPP

  *   INetUtils   (optional  adds SMTP, etc.)

  * FTPd (optional  allows inbound FTP)

  * The following utilities are used by default by Amosaic, but you can
    use others:   amisox,  edplay,  zgif,  ams
    They are available via Amosaic once you get it up and going.

Summary of TCP-IP software solutions:

Two new entries are   TermiteTCP   and   Miami   . Both stacks are designed with "ease
of use" in mind, and are primarily targeted at the home user who is dialing up an
ISP by modem to connect to the internet.

  INet-225   is a new product from Interworks which will provide full TCP/IP
connectivity plus includes several other useful applications.

=======< end first part >======

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Last Update March 27 2014 @ 02:11 PM