Top Document: comp.ai.neuralnets FAQ, Part 2 of 7: Learning Previous Document: What is the curse of dimensionality? Next Document: What are OLS and subset/stepwise regression? See reader questions & answers on this topic!  Help others by sharing your knowledge Multilayer perceptrons (MLPs) and radial basis function (RBF) networks are the two most commonlyused types of feedforward network. They have much more in common than most of the NN literature would suggest. The only fundamental difference is the way in which hidden units combine values coming from preceding layers in the networkMLPs use inner products, while RBFs use Euclidean distance. There are also differences in the customary methods for training MLPs and RBF networks, although most methods for training MLPs can also be applied to RBF networks. Furthermore, there are crucial differences between two broad types of RBF networkordinary RBF networks and normalized RBF networksthat are ignored in most of the NN literature. These differences have important consequences for the generalization ability of the networks, especially when the number of inputs is large. Notation: a_j is the altitude or height of the jth hidden unit b_j is the bias of the jth hidden unit f is the fanin of the jth hidden unit h_j is the activation of the jth hidden unit s is a common width shared by all hidden units in the layer s_j is the width of the jth hidden unit w_ij is the weight connecting the ith input to the jth hidden unit w_i is the common weight for the ith input shared by all hidden units in the layer x_i is the ith input The inputs to each hidden or output unit must be combined with the weights to yield a single value called the "net input" to which the activation function is applied. There does not seem to be a standard term for the function that combines the inputs and weights; I will use the term "combination function". Thus, each hidden or output unit in a feedforward network first computes a combination function to produce the net input, and then applies an activation function to the net input yielding the activation of the unit. A multilayer perceptron has one or more hidden layers for which the combination function is the inner product of the inputs and weights, plus a bias. The activation function is usually a logistic or tanh function. Hence the formula for the activation is typically: h_j = tanh( b_j + sum[w_ij*x_i] ) The MLP architecture is the most popular one in practical applications. Each layer uses a linear combination function. The inputs are fully connected to the first hidden layer, each hidden layer is fully connected to the next, and the last hidden layer is fully connected to the outputs. You can also have "skiplayer" connections; direct connections from inputs to outputs are especially useful. Consider the multidimensional space of inputs to a given hidden unit. Since an MLP uses linear combination functions, the set of all points in the space having a given value of the activation function is a hyperplane. The hyperplanes corresponding to different activation levels are parallel to each other (the hyperplanes for different units are not parallel in general). These parallel hyperplanes are the isoactivation contours of the hidden unit. Radial basis function (RBF) networks usually have only one hidden layer for which the combination function is based on the Euclidean distance between the input vector and the weight vector. RBF networks do not have anything that's exactly the same as the bias term in an MLP. But some types of RBFs have a "width" associated with each hidden unit or with the the entire hidden layer; instead of adding it in the combination function like a bias, you divide the Euclidean distance by the width. To see the similarity between RBF networks and MLPs, it is convenient to treat the combination function as the square of distance/width. Then the familiar exp or softmax activation functions produce members of the popular class of Gaussian RBF networks. It can also be useful to add another term to the combination function that determines what I will call the "altitude" of the unit. The altitude is the maximum height of the Gaussian curve above the horizontal axis. I have not seen altitudes used in the NN literature; if you know of a reference, please tell me (saswss@unx.sas.com). The output activation function in RBF networks is usually the identity. The identity output activation function is a computational convenience in training (see Hybrid training and the curse of dimensionality) but it is possible and often desirable to use other output activation functions just as you would in an MLP. There are many types of radial basis functions. Gaussian RBFs seem to be the most popular by far in the NN literature. In the statistical literature, thin plate splines are also used (Green and Silverman 1994). This FAQ will concentrate on Gaussian RBFs. There are two distinct types of Gaussian RBF architectures. The first type uses the exp activation function, so the activation of the unit is a Gaussian "bump" as a function of the inputs. There seems to be no specific term for this type of Gaussian RBF network; I will use the term "ordinary RBF", or ORBF, network. The second type of Gaussian RBF architecture uses the softmax activation function, so the activations of all the hidden units are normalized to sum to one. This type of network is often called a "normalized RBF", or NRBF, network. In a NRBF network, the output units should not have a bias, since the constant bias term would be linearly dependent on the constant sum of the hidden units. While the distinction between these two types of Gaussian RBF architectures is sometimes mentioned in the NN literature, its importance has rarely been appreciated except by Tao (1993) and Werntges (1993). Shorten and MurraySmith (1996) also compare ordinary and normalized Gaussian RBF networks. There are several subtypes of both ORBF and NRBF architectures. Descriptions and formulas are as follows: ORBFUN Ordinary radial basis function (RBF) network with unequal widths h_j = exp(  s_j^2 * sum[(w_ijx_i)^2] ) ORBFEQ Ordinary radial basis function (RBF) network with equal widths h_j = exp(  s^2 * sum[(w_ijx_i)^2] ) NRBFUN Normalized RBF network with unequal widths and heights h_j = softmax(f*log(a_j)  s_j^2 * sum[(w_ijx_i)^2] ) NRBFEV Normalized RBF network with equal volumes h_j = softmax( f*log(s_j)  s_j^2 * sum[(w_ijx_i)^2] ) NRBFEH Normalized RBF network with equal heights (and unequal widths) h_j = softmax(  s_j^2 * sum[(w_ijx_i)^2] ) NRBFEW Normalized RBF network with equal widths (and unequal heights) h_j = softmax( f*log(a_j)  s^2 * sum[(w_ijx_i)^2] ) NRBFEQ Normalized RBF network with equal widths and heights h_j = softmax(  s^2 * sum[(w_ijx_i)^2] ) To illustrate various architectures, an example with two inputs and one output will be used so that the results can be shown graphically. The function being learned resembles a landscape with a Gaussian hill and a logistic plateau as shown in ftp://ftp.sas.com/pub/neural/hillplat.gif. There are 441 training cases on a regular 21by21 grid. The table below shows the root mean square error (RMSE) for a test data set. The test set has 1681 cases on a regular 41by41 grid over the same domain as the training set. If you are reading the HTML version of this document via a web browser, click on any number in the table to see a surface plot of the corresponding network output (each plot is a gif file, approximately 9K). The MLP networks in the table have one hidden layer with a tanh activation function. All of the networks use an identity activation function for the outputs. Hill and Plateau Data: RMSE for the Test Set HUs MLP ORBFEQ ORBFUN NRBFEQ NRBFEW NRBFEV NRBFEH NRBFUN 2 0.218 0.247 0.247 0.230 0.230 0.230 0.230 0.230 3 0.192 0.244 0.143 0.218 0.218 0.036 0.012 0.001 4 0.174 0.216 0.096 0.193 0.193 0.036 0.007 5 0.160 0.188 0.083 0.086 0.051 0.003 6 0.123 0.142 0.058 0.053 0.030 7 0.107 0.123 0.051 0.025 0.019 8 0.093 0.105 0.043 0.020 0.008 9 0.084 0.085 0.038 0.017 10 0.077 0.082 0.033 0.016 12 0.059 0.074 0.024 0.005 15 0.042 0.060 0.019 20 0.023 0.046 0.010 30 0.019 0.024 40 0.016 0.022 50 0.010 0.014 The ORBF architectures use radial combination functions and the exp activation function. Only two of the radial combination functions are useful with ORBF architectures. For radial combination functions including an altitude, the altitude would be redundant with the hiddentooutput weights. Radial combination functions are based on the Euclidean distance between the vector of inputs to the unit and the vector of corresponding weights. Thus, the isoactivation contours for ORBF networks are concentric hyperspheres. A variety of activation functions can be used with the radial combination function, but the exp activation function, yielding a Gaussian surface, is the most useful. Radial networks typically have only one hidden layer, but it can be useful to include a linear layer for dimensionality reduction or oblique rotation before the RBF layer. The output of an ORBF network consists of a number of superimposed bumps, hence the output is quite bumpy unless many hidden units are used. Thus an ORBF network with only a few hidden units is incapable of fitting a wide variety of simple, smooth functions, and should rarely be used. The NRBF architectures also use radial combination functions but the activation function is softmax, which forces the sum of the activations for the hidden layer to equal one. Thus, each output unit computes a weighted average of the hiddentooutput weights, and the output values must lie within the range of the hiddentooutput weights. Therefore, if the hiddentooutput weights are within a reasonable range (such as the range of the target values), you can be sure that the outputs will be within that same range for all possible inputs, even when the net is extrapolating. No comparably useful bound exists for the output of an ORBF network. If you extrapolate far enough in a Gaussian ORBF network with an identity output activation function, the activation of every hidden unit will approach zero, hence the extrapolated output of the network will equal the output bias. If you extrapolate far enough in an NRBF network, one hidden unit will come to dominate the output. Hence if you want the network to extrapolate different values in a different directions, an NRBF should be used instead of an ORBF. Radial combination functions incorporating altitudes are useful with NRBF architectures. The NRBF architectures combine some of the virtues of both the RBF and MLP architectures, as explained below. However, the isoactivation contours are considerably more complicated than for ORBF architectures. Consider the case of an NRBF network with only two hidden units. If the hidden units have equal widths, the isoactivation contours are parallel hyperplanes; in fact, this network is equivalent to an MLP with one logistic hidden unit. If the hidden units have unequal widths, the isoactivation contours are concentric hyperspheres; such a network is almost equivalent to an ORBF network with one Gaussian hidden unit. If there are more than two hidden units in an NRBF network, the isoactivation contours have no such simple characterization. If the RBF widths are very small, the isoactivation contours are approximately piecewise linear for RBF units with equal widths, and approximately piecewise spherical for RBF units with unequal widths. The larger the widths, the smoother the isoactivation contours where the pieces join. As Shorten and MurraySmith (1996) point out, the activation is not necessarily a monotone function of distance from the center when unequal widths are used. The NRBFEQ architecture is a smoothed variant of the learning vector quantization (Kohonen 1988, Ripley 1996) and counterpropagation (HechtNielsen 1990), architectures. In LVQ and counterprop, the hidden units are often called "codebook vectors". LVQ amounts to nearestneighbor classification on the codebook vectors, while counterprop is nearestneighbor regression on the codebook vectors. The NRBFEQ architecture uses not just the single nearest neighbor, but a weighted average of near neighbors. As the width of the NRBFEQ functions approaches zero, the weights approach one for the nearest neighbor and zero for all other codebook vectors. LVQ and counterprop use ad hoc algorithms of uncertain reliability, but standard numerical optimization algorithms (not to mention backprop) can be applied with the NRBFEQ architecture. In a NRBFEQ architecture, if each observation is taken as an RBF center, and if the weights are taken to be the target values, the outputs are simply weighted averages of the target values, and the network is identical to the wellknown NadarayaWatson kernel regression estimator, which has been reinvented at least twice in the neural net literature (see "What is GRNN?"). A similar NRBFEQ network used for classification is equivalent to kernel discriminant analysis (see "What is PNN?"). Kernels with variable widths are also used for regression in the statistical literature. Such kernel estimators correspond to the the NRBFEV architecture, in which the kernel functions have equal volumes but different altitudes. In the neural net literature, variablewidth kernels appear always to be of the NRBFEH variety, with equal altitudes but unequal volumes. The analogy with kernel regression would make the NRBFEV architecture the obvious choice, but which of the two architectures works better in practice is an open question. Hybrid training and the curse of dimensionality +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ A comparison of the various architectures must separate training issues from architectural issues to avoid common sources of confusion. RBF networks are often trained by "hybrid" methods, in which the hidden weights (centers) are first obtained by unsupervised learning, after which the output weights are obtained by supervised learning. Unsupervised methods for choosing the centers include: 1. Distribute the centers in a regular grid over the input space. 2. Choose a random subset of the training cases to serve as centers. 3. Cluster the training cases based on the input variables, and use the mean of each cluster as a center. Various heuristic methods are also available for choosing the RBF widths (e.g., Moody and Darken 1989; Sarle 1994b). Once the centers and widths are fixed, the output weights can be learned very efficiently, since the computation reduces to a linear or generalized linear model. The hybrid training approach can thus be much faster than the nonlinear optimization that would be required for supervised training of all of the weights in the network. Hybrid training is not often applied to MLPs because no effective methods are known for unsupervised training of the hidden units (except when there is only one input). Hybrid training will usually require more hidden units than supervised training. Since supervised training optimizes the locations of the centers, while hybrid training does not, supervised training will provide a better approximation to the function to be learned for a given number of hidden units. Thus, the better fit provided by supervised training will often let you use fewer hidden units for a given accuracy of approximation than you would need with hybrid training. And if the hiddentooutput weights are learned by linear leastsquares, the fact that hybrid training requires more hidden units implies that hybrid training will also require more training cases for the same accuracy of generalization (Tarassenko and Roberts 1994). The number of hidden units required by hybrid methods becomes an increasingly serious problem as the number of inputs increases. In fact, the required number of hidden units tends to increase exponentially with the number of inputs. This drawback of hybrid methods is discussed by Minsky and Papert (1969). For example, with method (1) for RBF networks, you would need at least five elements in the grid along each dimension to detect a moderate degree of nonlinearity; so if you have Nx inputs, you would need at least 5^Nx hidden units. For methods (2) and (3), the number of hidden units increases exponentially with the effective dimensionality of the input distribution. If the inputs are linearly related, the effective dimensionality is the number of nonnegligible (a deliberately vague term) eigenvalues of the covariance matrix, so the inputs must be highly correlated if the effective dimensionality is to be much less than the number of inputs. The exponential increase in the number of hidden units required for hybrid learning is one aspect of the curse of dimensionality. The number of training cases required also increases exponentially in general. No neural network architecturein fact no method of learning or statistical estimationcan escape the curse of dimensionality in general, hence there is no practical method of learning general functions in more than a few dimensions. Fortunately, in many practical applications of neural networks with a large number of inputs, most of those inputs are additive, redundant, or irrelevant, and some architectures can take advantage of these properties to yield useful results. But escape from the curse of dimensionality requires fully supervised training as well as special types of data. Supervised training for RBF networks can be done by "backprop" (see "What is backprop?") or other optimization methods (see "What are conjugate gradients, LevenbergMarquardt, etc.?"), or by subset regression "What are OLS and subset/stepwise regression?"). Additive inputs +++++++++++++++ An additive model is one in which the output is a sum of linear or nonlinear transformations of the inputs. If an additive model is appropriate, the number of weights increases linearly with the number of inputs, so high dimensionality is not a curse. Various methods of training additive models are available in the statistical literature (e.g. Hastie and Tibshirani 1990). You can also create a feedforward neural network, called a "generalized additive network" (GAN), to fit additive models (Sarle 1994a). Additive models have been proposed in the neural net literature under the name "topologically distributed encoding" (Geiger 1990). Projection pursuit regression (PPR) provides both universal approximation and the ability to avoid the curse of dimensionality for certain common types of target functions (Friedman and Stuetzle 1981). Like MLPs, PPR computes the output as a sum of nonlinear transformations of linear combinations of the inputs. Each term in the sum is analogous to a hidden unit in an MLP. But unlike MLPs, PPR allows general, smooth nonlinear transformations rather than a specific nonlinear activation function, and allows a different transformation for each term. The nonlinear transformations in PPR are usually estimated by nonparametric regression, but you can set up a projection pursuit network (PPN), in which each nonlinear transformation is performed by a subnetwork. If a PPN provides an adequate fit with few terms, then the curse of dimensionality can be avoided, and the results may even be interpretable. If the target function can be accurately approximated by projection pursuit, then it can also be accurately approximated by an MLP with a single hidden layer. The disadvantage of the MLP is that there is little hope of interpretability. An MLP with two or more hidden layers can provide a parsimonious fit to a wider variety of target functions than can projection pursuit, but no simple characterization of these functions is known. Redundant inputs ++++++++++++++++ With proper training, all of the RBF architectures listed above, as well as MLPs, can process redundant inputs effectively. When there are redundant inputs, the training cases lie close to some (possibly nonlinear) subspace. If the same degree of redundancy applies to the test cases, the network need produce accurate outputs only near the subspace occupied by the data. Adding redundant inputs has little effect on the effective dimensionality of the data; hence the curse of dimensionality does not apply, and even hybrid methods (2) and (3) can be used. However, if the test cases do not follow the same pattern of redundancy as the training cases, generalization will require extrapolation and will rarely work well. Irrelevant inputs +++++++++++++++++ MLP architectures are good at ignoring irrelevant inputs. MLPs can also select linear subspaces of reduced dimensionality. Since the first hidden layer forms linear combinations of the inputs, it confines the networks attention to the linear subspace spanned by the weight vectors. Hence, adding irrelevant inputs to the training data does not increase the number of hidden units required, although it increases the amount of training data required. ORBF architectures are not good at ignoring irrelevant inputs. The number of hidden units required grows exponentially with the number of inputs, regardless of how many inputs are relevant. This exponential growth is related to the fact that ORBFs have local receptive fields, meaning that changing the hiddentooutput weights of a given unit will affect the output of the network only in a neighborhood of the center of the hidden unit, where the size of the neighborhood is determined by the width of the hidden unit. (Of course, if the width of the unit is learned, the receptive field could grow to cover the entire training set.) Local receptive fields are often an advantage compared to the distributed architecture of MLPs, since local units can adapt to local patterns in the data without having unwanted side effects in other regions. In a distributed architecture such as an MLP, adapting the network to fit a local pattern in the data can cause spurious side effects in other parts of the input space. However, ORBF architectures often must be used with relatively small neighborhoods, so that several hidden units are required to cover the range of an input. When there are many nonredundant inputs, the hidden units must cover the entire input space, and the number of units required is essentially the same as in the hybrid case (1) where the centers are in a regular grid; hence the exponential growth in the number of hidden units with the number of inputs, regardless of whether the inputs are relevant. You can enable an ORBF architecture to ignore irrelevant inputs by using an extra, linear hidden layer before the radial hidden layer. This type of network is sometimes called an "elliptical basis function" network. If the number of units in the linear hidden layer equals the number of inputs, the linear hidden layer performs an oblique rotation of the input space that can suppress irrelevant directions and differentally weight relevant directions according to their importance. If you think that the presence of irrelevant inputs is highly likely, you can force a reduction of dimensionality by using fewer units in the linear hidden layer than the number of inputs. Note that the linear and radial hidden layers must be connected in series, not in parallel, to ignore irrelevant inputs. In some applications it is useful to have linear and radial hidden layers connected in parallel, but in such cases the radial hidden layer will be sensitive to all inputs. For even greater flexibility (at the cost of more weights to be learned), you can have a separate linear hidden layer for each RBF unit, allowing a different oblique rotation for each RBF unit. NRBF architectures with equal widths (NRBFEW and NRBFEQ) combine the advantage of local receptive fields with the ability to ignore irrelevant inputs. The receptive field of one hidden unit extends from the center in all directions until it encounters the receptive field of another hidden unit. It is convenient to think of a "boundary" between the two receptive fields, defined as the hyperplane where the two units have equal activations, even though the effect of each unit will extend somewhat beyond the boundary. The location of the boundary depends on the heights of the hidden units. If the two units have equal heights, the boundary lies midway between the two centers. If the units have unequal heights, the boundary is farther from the higher unit. If a hidden unit is surrounded by other hidden units, its receptive field is indeed local, curtailed by the field boundaries with other units. But if a hidden unit is not completely surrounded, its receptive field can extend infinitely in certain directions. If there are irrelevant inputs, or more generally, irrelevant directions that are linear combinations of the inputs, the centers need only be distributed in a subspace orthogonal to the irrelevant directions. In this case, the hidden units can have local receptive fields in relevant directions but infinite receptive fields in irrelevant directions. For NRBF architectures allowing unequal widths (NRBFUN, NRBFEV, and NRBFEH), the boundaries between receptive fields are generally hyperspheres rather than hyperplanes. In order to ignore irrelevant inputs, such networks must be trained to have equal widths. Hence, if you think there is a strong possibility that some of the inputs are irrelevant, it is usually better to use an architecture with equal widths. References: There are few good references on RBF networks. Bishop (1995) gives one of the better surveys, but also see Tao (1993) and Werntges (1993) for the importance of normalization. Orr (1996) provides a useful introduction. Bishop, C.M. (1995), Neural Networks for Pattern Recognition, Oxford: Oxford University Press. Friedman, J.H. and Stuetzle, W. (1981), "Projection pursuit regression," J. of the American Statistical Association, 76, 817823. Geiger, H. (1990), "Storing and Processing Information in Connectionist Systems," in Eckmiller, R., ed., Advanced Neural Computers, 271277, Amsterdam: NorthHolland. Green, P.J. and Silverman, B.W. (1994), Nonparametric Regression and Generalized Linear Models: A roughness penalty approach,, London: Chapman & Hall. Hastie, T.J. and Tibshirani, R.J. (1990) Generalized Additive Models, London: Chapman & Hall. HechtNielsen, R. (1990), Neurocomputing, Reading, MA: AddisonWesley. Kohonen, T (1988), "Learning Vector Quantization," Neural Networks, 1 (suppl 1), 303. Minsky, M.L. and Papert, S.A. (1969), Perceptrons, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Moody, J. and Darken, C.J. (1989), "Fast learning in networks of locallytuned processing units," Neural Computation, 1, 281294. Orr, M.J.L. (1996), "Introduction to radial basis function networks," http://www.anc.ed.ac.uk/~mjo/papers/intro.ps or http://www.anc.ed.ac.uk/~mjo/papers/intro.ps.gz Ripley, B.D. (1996), Pattern Recognition and Neural Networks, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Sarle, W.S. (1994a), "Neural Networks and Statistical Models," in SAS Institute Inc., Proceedings of the Nineteenth Annual SAS Users Group International Conference, Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc., pp 15381550, ftp://ftp.sas.com/pub/neural/neural1.ps. Sarle, W.S. (1994b), "Neural Network Implementation in SAS Software," in SAS Institute Inc., Proceedings of the Nineteenth Annual SAS Users Group International Conference, Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc., pp 15511573, ftp://ftp.sas.com/pub/neural/neural2.ps. Shorten, R., and MurraySmith, R. (1996), "Side effects of normalising radial basis function networks" International Journal of Neural Systems, 7, 167179. Tao, K.M. (1993), "A closer look at the radial basis function (RBF) networks," Conference Record of The TwentySeventh Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems and Computers (Singh, A., ed.), vol 1, 401405, Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Comput. Soc. Press. Tarassenko, L. and Roberts, S. (1994), "Supervised and unsupervised learning in radial basis function classifiers," IEE Proceedings Vis. Image Signal Processing, 141, 210216. Werntges, H.W. (1993), "Partitions of unity improve neural function approximation," Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Neural Networks, San Francisco, CA, vol 2, 914918. User Contributions:Comment about this article, ask questions, or add new information about this topic:Top Document: comp.ai.neuralnets FAQ, Part 2 of 7: Learning Previous Document: What is the curse of dimensionality? Next Document: What are OLS and subset/stepwise regression? Part1  Part2  Part3  Part4  Part5  Part6  Part7  Single Page [ Usenet FAQs  Web FAQs  Documents  RFC Index ] Send corrections/additions to the FAQ Maintainer: saswss@unx.sas.com (Warren Sarle)
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