Search the FAQ Archives

3 - A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M
N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X - Y - Z - Internet FAQ Archives

Artificial Intelligence FAQ: Open Source AI Software 6/6 [Monthly posting]

( Part1 - Part2 - Part3 - Part4 - Part5 - Part6 - Part7 - MultiPage )
[ Usenet FAQs | Web FAQs | Documents | RFC Index | Neighborhoods ]
Archive-name: ai-faq/general/part6
Posting-Frequency: monthly
Version: 2.1
Maintainer: Ric Crabbe <> and Amit Dubey <>
Size: 82158 bytes, 1700 lines

See reader questions & answers on this topic! - Help others by sharing your knowledge
;;; ****************************************************************
;;; Answers to Questions about Artificial Intelligence *************
;;; ****************************************************************
;;; Written by Amit Dubey, Ric Crabbe, and Mark Kantrowitz
;;; ai_6.faq 

If you think of questions that are appropriate for this FAQ, or would
like to improve an answer, please send email to the maintainers.

Part 6 (AI Open-Source and Other Software by Sub-field)
  [6-1] Languages
  [6-2] General AI Software
  [6-3] Well-known Classics

  the rest of the sections are an alphabetical listing by topic:

  [6-4] Agent Modelling, Artificial Life
  [6-5] Blackboard Architectures, Case Based Reasoning, Chatbots,
  Chess,  Constraint Programming
  [6-6] Data Mining, Defeasible Reasoning, Expert Systems
  [6-7] Frame Systems, Fuzzy Logic, Games, General, Genetic Algorithms, ICOT
  [6-8] Knowledge Representation, Machine Learning, Medical
  [6-9] Natural Language Processing
  [6-9a] Speech
  [6-10] Neural Networks
  [6-11] Organizations, Pedegogy, Probability, Planning, Qualitative Reasoning
  [6-12] Robotics
  [6-13] Temporal Reasoning, Theorem Proving, Truth Maintenance
  [6-14] Search, Simulated Annealing

Search for [#] to get to question number # quickly.

Subject: [6-1] Languages Its assumed that you can find your way to common languages like LISP, C++ or Prolog by doing a web search; what are listed here are some other languages that AI researchers may find interesting. [Because I had trouble finding a good prolog recently, I've added some prolog listings here.] XSB Prolog: XSB is a Logic Programming and Deductive Database system for Unix and Windows. It is being developed at The Computer Science Department, Stony Brook University, in collaboration with Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, and Uppsala Universitet. Amzi! Prolog + Logic Server: "Embed Prolog rule-based components in C/C++, Java, Delphi, Visual Basic, Web Servers and more. Develop Unicode and/or ASCII logic-bases using the Windows interactive development environment (IDE). Integrate them with ODBC databases. Deploy them with the Logic Server Libraries. Extend Amzi! Prolog with your own functions/libraries. For Windows, Linux, Solaris, HP/UX. Available on any other platform with a custom port (see below). Royalty-free runtime" Free Academic, Personal & Evaluation License. Mozart: Mozart is an advanced development platform for intelligent, distributed applications. The system is the result of a decade of research in programming language design and implementation, constraint-based inferencing, distributed computing, and human-computer interfaces. JEOPS - The Java Embedded Object Production System: It's a project intended to give Java the power of production systems. JEOPS adds forward chaining, first-order production rules to Java through a set of classes designed to provide this language with some kind of declarative programming. With that, the development of intelligent applications, such as software agents or expert systems is facilitated. KIEV: Kiev is a backwards-compatible extension of Java that includes support for (amount other things) lambda-calculus closures (ie functional programming) and Prolog-like logic programming. Please see LAMBDA-CALCULUS-BASED LANGUAGES: LISP's theoretical origins lie in Church's lambda calculus. A number of new languages that fix some shortcomings of LISP's implementation of the lambda calculus are Scheme (simpler and fully tail recursive), ML (support for types using the typed lambda calculus; and Hashell (like ML but it implements lazy evaluation properly; POPLOG: POPLOG is a multi-language software development environment providing incremental compilers for a number of interactive programming languages, notably: Pop-11, Prolog, and Common Lisp. CLIPS: CLIPS is a productive development and delivery expert system tool which provides a complete environment for the construction of rule and/or object based expert systems. CLIPS is used throughout the public and private community including: all NASA sites and branches of the military, numerous federal bureaus, government contractors, universities, and many companies. The CLIPS home page is: SCREAMER: Screamer is an extension of Common Lisp that adds support for nondeterministic programming. Screamer consists of two levels. The basic nondeterministic level adds support for backtracking and undoable side effects. On top of this nondeterministic substrate, Screamer provides a comprehensive constraint programming language in which one can formulate and solve mixed systems of numeric and symbolic constraints. Together, these two levels augment Common Lisp with practically all of the functionality of both Prolog and constraint logic programming languages such as CHiP and CLP(R). Furthermore, Screamer is fully integrated with Common Lisp. Screamer programs can coexist and interoperate with other extensions to Common Lisp such as CLOS, CLIM and Iterate. In several ways Screamer is more efficient than other implementations of backtracking languages. First, Screamer code is transformed into Common Lisp which can be compiled by the underlying Common Lisp system. Many competing implementations of nondeterministic Lisp are interpreters and thus are far less efficient than Screamer. Second, the backtracking primitives require fairly low overhead in Screamer. Finally, this overhead to support backtracking is only paid for those portions of the program which use the backtracking primitives. Deterministic portions of user programs pass through the Screamer to Common Lisp transformation unchanged. Since in practise, only small portions of typical programs utilize the backtracking primitives, Screamer can produce more efficient code than compilers for languages in which backtracking is more pervasive. Screamer is fairly portable across most Common Lisp implementations. It currently runs under Genera 8.1.1 and 8.3 on both Symbolics 36xx and Ivory machines, under Lucid 4.0.2 and 4.1 on Sun SPARC machines, under MCL 2.0 and 2.0p2 on Apple Macintosh machines, and under Poplog Common Lisp on Sun SPARC machines. It should run under any implementation of Common Lisp which is compliant with CLtL2 and with minor revision could be made to run under implementations compliant with CLtL1 or dpANS. Screamer is available by anonymous FTP from Contact Jeffrey Mark Siskind <> or David McAllester <> for more information. The Screamer Tool Repository, a collection of user-contributed Screamer code, is available by anonymous ftp from or by WWW from Please direct all inquires about the repository to
Subject: [6-2] General AI Software "AGLETS" IBM has created a software package for creating internet agents using Java applets. It's an interesting concept, and worth a look. See
Subject: [6-3] Well-known Classics For a large collection of Eliza programs, see The software from Peter Norvig's book "Paradigms of AI Programming" is available by anonymous ftp from and on disk in Macintosh or DOS format from the publisher, Morgan Kaufmann. The software includes Common Lisp implementations of: Eliza and pattern matchers, Emycin, Othello, Parsers, Scheme interpreters and compilers, Unification and a prolog interpreter and compiler, Waltz line-labelling, implementation of GPS, macsyma, and random number generators. For more information, write to Morgan Kaufmann, Dept. P1, 2929 Campus Drive, Suite 260, San Mateo CA 94403, call 800-745-7323, or fax 415-578-0672. (Mac ISBN 1-55860-227-5; DOS 3.5" ISBN 1-55860-228-3; or DOS 5.25" ISBN 1-55860-229-1). The doctor.el is an implementation of Eliza for GNU-Emacs emacs-lisp. Invoke it with "Meta-X doctor". The original Parry (in MLISP for a PDP-10) is available in RACTER is *not* public domain. It costs $50 for MS-DOS and Macintosh versions, the Inrac compiler is $200 (MS-DOS only), and the Inrac manual alone is $25. Racter is available from John Owens, INRAC Corp./Nickers International Ltd., 12 Schubert Street, Staten Island, NY 10305, Tel: 718-448-6283, or Fax: 718-448-6298. Racter was published in 1984, and written in compiled BASIC. To read some of RACTER's work, see "The Policeman's Beard is Half Constructed", Computer Prose and Poetry by Racter, Warner Books, 1984. ISBN 0-446-38051-2 (paperback). Written by William Chamberlain and Thomas Etter. Some discussion of RACTER appears in A.K. Dewdney's book, "The Armchair Universe". The Macintosh version runs only on SEs and Pluses (it comes on a single-sided 400k copy-protected disk, with an old version of the system). Racter is also sold by the following mail-order software retailer: Mindware, 1803 Mission Street, Suite 414, Santa Cruz, CA 95060-5292, phone 800-447-0477 (408-427-9455), fax 408-429-5302. Mindware sells a variety of similar programs for MS-DOS and Windows, including Joseph Weintraub's PC Therapist. You can nab a copy of Terry Winograd's seminal SHRDLU from
Subject: [6-4] Agent Modelling - Artificial Life In addition to programs available free by anonymous ftp, we've included some programs which are available by contacting the authors, and some programs which charge a nominal fee. Agent Modelling: ANIMALS is a simulation system written by Toby Tyrrell, <>, for his PhD thesis. The thesis examines the problem of action selection when dealing with realistic, animal-like situations: how to choose, at each moment in time, the most appropriate out of a repertoire of possible actions. It includes a description is given of a simulated environment which is an extensive and detailed simulation of the problem of action selection for animals. This simulated environment is used to investigate the adequacy of several theories of action selection (from both ethology and artificial intelligence) such as the drive model, Lorenz's psycho-hydraulic model and Maes' spreading activation network, and outlines deficiencies in each mechanism. Finally, it proposes a new approach to action selection is developed which determines the most appropriate action in a principled way, and which does not suffer from the inherent shortcomings found in other methods. The thesis includes a review and bibliography of existing work on action selection. The thesis is available by anonymous ftp from [] as the files,, ..., and The simulation software is also available from the same site, as the file se.tar.Z. The simulation software was written in Suntools rather than Xtools. It can be run only from SunView or OpenWindows. The action selection problem modelled by the simulated environment comprises 15 different `sub-problems' (getting food, reproducing, not getting lost, being vigilant for predators, etc), many internal and external stimuli, and 35 different low-level actions to select between. ***ViewGen SCHEDULED TO BE DELETED FROM THE FAQ*** ViewGen (Viewpoint Generator) is a Prolog program that implements a "Belief Ascription Algorithm" as described in Ballim and Wilks (see the bibliography section on User Modelling). This can be seen as a form of agent modelling tool, which allows for the generation of arbitrarily deep nested belief spaces based on the system's own beliefs, and on beliefs that are typically held by groups of agents. ViewGen is available by anonymous ftp from [] (user anonymous) [] (user ftp) as the file ViewGen.tar.Z. The theory of belief ascription upon which it is based is described in detail in Ballim and Wilks, and a general framework for attributing and maintaining nested propositional attitudes is described in Afzal Ballim's dissertation which is archived with the Viewgen program (in the files ViewFinder-{A4/A5/US}.tar.Z, the variable part indicating the format of the PostScript file). The inheritance reasoner is in the file vf-hetis.tar.Z. Implemented in Sicstus prolog, and hence easily convertible to any Edinburgh-style prolog. Contact Afzal Ballim <> for more information. [Interface Agents] Andy Wood <> [Tim Finin's Software Agents Page] Artificial Life: One of the major institutions do Artificial Life research, The Santa Fe Institute's web page has lots of information. Swarm is a software package for multi-agent simulation of complex systems, originally developed at the Santa Fe Institute. Swarm is intended to be a useful tool for researchers in a variety of disciplines. The basic architecture of Swarm is the simulation of collections of concurrently interacting agents: with this architecture, we can implement a large variety of agent based models. See: Tierra is an artificial life system for studying the evolution of digital organisms. Tierra consists of a virtual computer and its operating system, whose architecture has been designed in such a way that the executable machine codes are evolvable. This means that the machine code can be mutated (by flipping bits at random) or recombined (by swapping segments of code between algorithms), and the resulting code remains functional enough of the time for natural (or presumably artificial) selection to be able to improve the code over time. Tierra runs on Unix, Win32, the Amiga and MS-DOS. Tierra's homepage is at: The software can be downloaded from [] To be added to the tierra-announce mailing list, send an email to Tom Ray (the author of Tierra as well as the list administrator) at Send bug reports or questions about the code or installation to For those without access to anonymous ftp, the Tierra software may be obtained on disk for $50 ($20 for upgrades) from Virtual Life c/o Tom Ray, ATR HIP Labs, 2-2 Hikaridai Seika-cho Soraku-gun Kyoto 619-02 Japan. The software ships on PC formatted disks, but contains the source for all versions.
Subject: [6-5] Blackboard Architectures - Constraint Programming Blackboard Architectures: ***GBB SCHEDULED TO BE DELETED FROM THE FAQ*** GBB (PD Version) -- Case-based Reasoning: ***CL-Protos SCHEDULED TO BE DELETED FROM THE FAQ*** CL-Protos -- (Get the README file for more information) Contact: Bruce W. Porter <> Ray Bareiss <> Erik Eilerts <> Dan Dvorak ***MICRO-xxx SCHEDULED TO BE DELETED FROM THE FAQ*** MICRO-xxx -- Contact: The directory /pub/schank/icbr/ contains the complete code for "Inside Case-Based Reasoning" by Riesbeck and Schank, 1989. This includes code for an instructional version of CHEF by Kristian Hammond. Chatbots: AI: There is a much maligned chatbot at the Warner Brothers page on the AI movie. Alice: A.L.I.C.E. (Artificial Linguistic Internet Computer Entity) is an award-winning open source natural language artificial intelligence chat robot. The software used to create A.L.I.C.E. is available as free open source Alicebot and AIML software. Winner of the 2000 Loebner Prize. See: Mind: Free public-domain source code of a learning chat-bot based on "Chomskyan linguistics and the neural feature extraction of Hubel and Wiesel." The bot starts out knowing little, and tries to learn to chat with the user. Theory, documentation and source code are available from: and the JavaScript Mind runs immediately when one clicks on while using the Microsoft Internet Explorer browser. Hippie: A C-based version of Alice: Chess: ***SAN Kit SCHEDULED TO BE DELETED FROM THE FAQ*** The SAN Kit chess programming C source toolkit provides common routines for move notation I/O, move generation, move execution, etc. Only search routines and an evaluation function need be added to obtain a working chess program. It runs on Apple Macintosh (Think C 5.0), Commodore Amiga (SAS C), MS-DOS, and Unix. It is available by anonymous ftp from [] in the as the compressed tar file SAN.tar.Z or SAN.tar.gz. Contact Steven J. Edwards <> for more information. Constraint Programming and Non-determinism: Dragonbreath is an optimization engine based on constraint programming and local search. The engine is built to solve search problems, i.e., problems for which you don't really know how to construct a solution but can describe what potential parts a solution can consist of and which restrictions must be satisfied by the parts / the parts' constellation. Parts can be variables as well as structural components. In addition, you can specify a preference between different solutions, i.e., solve optimization problems. JACK is a new library providing constraint programming and search for Java. JACK consists of three components: - JCHR: Java Constraint Handling Rules A high-level language to write constraint solvers - JASE: Java Abstract Search Engine A generic search engine for JCHR to solve constraint problems - VisualCHR: An interactive tool to visualize JCHR computations JACK and its documentation are available for browser use and for download at:
Subject: [6-6] Data Mining - Expert Systems Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery in Databases: ***Explora SCHEDULED TO BE DELETED FROM THE FAQ*** Explora is a data mining package written in Lisp for the Macintosh. It includes a natural language hypertext-type interface for presentation of dicoveries. It is available at: Data Mine [Bibliographies, On-line papers, Software, and Other Resources] Andy Pryke <> Defeasible Reasoning: An implementation of J. Paris and A. Vencovska's model of belief is available by anonymous ftp from Paris and Vencovska's paper (Artificial Intelligence, 64(2), December 1993) provides a mathematical model of an agent's belief in an event by identifying it with his ability to imagine the event within the context of his previous experience. This approach leads to beliefs having properties different from those normally ascribed to it. The implementation was written by Ian Pratt <> and Jens Doerpmund <> and runs in Common Lisp. Expert Systems: Free ftpable expert system shells are listed in the Expert Systems Shells FAQ, which is available by anonymous ftp from [Interactive expert systems and "agents". Includes nice model of space shuttle engines.]
Subject: [6-7] Frame Systems - ICOT Frame Systems: FrameWork -- Theo -- Contact: FrameKit -- Contact: KR -- Contact: PARKA -- Contact: Frames for the CM PARMENIDES (Frulekit) -- Contact: FROBS -- Contact: Robert Kessler <> PFC -- ?? YAK -- Contact: Enrico Franconi <> Fuzzy Logic: FLIE -- [] Contact: Fuzzy Logic Inference Engine, Institute of Robotics, ETH. RICE (Routines for Implementing C Expert systems) is a fuzzy/MV logic inference engine written in C. A C++ front-end with classes is provided. Tested with Borland C/C++ 3.1, Microsoft C/C++ 7.00 and GCC 2.4.5; examples are included. Documentation is available in WP 5.1 format and PostScript. Available by anonymous ftp from and For more info contact Rene' Jager, <R.Jager@ET.TUDelft.NL>. FuNeGen 1.0 is a fuzzy neural system capable of generating fuzzy classification systems (as C-code) from sample data. FuNeGen 1.0 and the papers/reports describing the application and the theoretical background can be obtained by anonymous ftp from Game Playing: METAGAME is a game-playing workbench for developing and playing metagame programs. It includes a generator for symmetric chess-like games; definitions of chess, checkers, chinese chess, shogi, lose chess, lose checkers, french checkers, and tic tac toe translated into symmetric chess-like games; a legal move generator; and a variety of player programs, from simple through sophisticated. The METAGAME Workbench runs in Quintus or Sictus Prolog. Available by anonymous ftp from [] For more information, contact Barney Pell <> of the University of Cambridge Computer Laboratory. General AI: Generation5: Artificial Intelligence Repository. A repository of AI information and code, plus interviews with famous AI people. National Research Council of Canada's complete reseource page: Genetic Algorithms: SCS (Simple Classifier System) is a C port of the system from Appendix D of "Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimization, and Machine Learning" by David E. Goldberg. It was ported to C by Erik Mayer <>. For more information, contact the author. SCS-C is another port to C of Goldberg's Simple Classifier System. It includes some extensions, and runs on Sun 10/30 and Atari ST. SCS-C is available via anonymous ftp as scs-c-0.98j.tar.Z from []. The documentation alone is available as scs-c-doc.tar.Z in the directory /pub/LCS/docs/. For more information, contact Joerg Heitkoetter <>, c/o Systems Analysis Group, LSXI, Department of Computer Science, University of Dortmund, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany. GENITOR is available by anonymous ftp from the Colorado State University Computer Science Department in [] For further information, contact or If these fail to work, contact Other packages are described in detail in Nici Schraudolph's survey of free and commercial GA software (see the Genetic Algorithms Repository in [5-1]). Some of the free ones from Nici's list are summarized below. Many are available from the GA Repository. GAucsd Genetic algorithms software [] Contact To be put on a mailing list of GAucsd users, send the message "add GAucsd" to GAbench Genetic algorithms benchmarks and test problems Thomas Kammeyer ( EM Evolution Machine (EM) [] em_tc.exe (EM for Turbo C) em_tcp.exe (EM for Turbo C++) em_man.exe (the manual) Joachim Born <> Genie GA-based modeling/forecasting system Lance Chambers <> GENOCOP GEnetic algorithm for Numerical Optimization for COnstrained Problems. Optimizes function with any number of linear constraints (equalities and inequalities) Genetic-2 Optimization package for the linear transportation problem. Genetic-2N Optimization package for the nonlinear transportation problem. All three were developed by Zbigniew Michalewicz and are described in detail in his book "Genetic Algorithms + Data Structures = Evolution Programs", Springer Verlag, August 1992. [] (also known as Zbigniew Michalewicz <> WOLF Simulator for G/SPLINES algorithm (genetic spline models) GAC, GAL GA written in C/Lisp. Similar to John Grefenstette's Genesis. Bill Spears <> ESCaPaDE Experiments with evolutionary algorithsm. Frank Hoffmeister <> (Send mail with subject line "help" or "get ESCaPaDE") mGA1.0 Common Lisp implementation of a messy GA as described in TCGA report 90004. SGA-C C-language port and extension of the original Pascal SGA code presented in Goldberg's book "Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimization & Machine Learning", Addison Wesley, 1989. See TCGA report 91002. SGA-Cube Goldberg's SGA code modified for nCUBE 2 hypercube parallel computer. All three are available by e-mail from Robert Elliott Smith <>. BUGS Demonstrates genetic algorithms. Joshua Smith <> SGPC Simple Genetic Programming in C Walter Alden Tackett and Aviram Carmi ( GENEsYs [] Use "ftp" as user name, e-mail address as password. Thomas Baeck <> GAGA Jon Crowcroft <>. Splicer Steve Bayer <> PARAGENESIS GA-Repository/e-mail Michael van Lent <> GENESIS GA-Repository/e-mail John Grefenstette <> OOGA GA-Repository/e-mail John Grefenstette <> DGENESIS Erick Cantu <> or <ecantu@itamvms1.bitnet>. PGA Parallel Genetic Algorithms testbed ( Peter Ross, ANT PC Version of 'John Muir Trail' experiment. Patrick M Brennan <> GPQUICK is a simple GP system implemented in C++. It features an elegant object architecture with function (Function), program (Chrome), GA (Pop) and problem (Problem) classes. The Problem class is proposed as a portable representation for problems that would be source compatible with a variety of other GP systems. GPQUICK uses a steady state GA, tournament selection, one type of mutation, and subtree crossover. It uses a fast, compact linear representation for S-expressions. It includes documentation from the associated magazine article (Byte, "Some Assembly Required", February 1994). GPQUICK is available by anonymous ftp from as the files gpquick.tar (unix version, tested with CC and g++) and (PC/ANSI C version, tested with Borland 3.1). For more information, write to Andrew Singleton <>. GENlib is a library of functions for genetic algorithms together with two applications of the library to train neural networks. The library is available by anonymous ftp from for academic research and educational purposes only. Commercial uses ICOT: Japan's Institute for New Generation Computer Technology (ICOT) has made their software available to the public free of charge. The collection includes a variety of prolog-based programs in symbol processing, knowledge representation, reasoning and problem solving, natural language processing. All programs are available by anonymous ftp from Note that most of the programs are written for the PSI machines, and very few have been ported to Unix-based emulators. For further information, send email to, or write to ICOT Free Software Desk, Institute for New Generation Computer Technology, 21st Floor, Mita Kokusai Bldg., 4-28, Mita 1-chome, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108, Japan, fax +81-3-4456-1618.
Subject: [6-8] Knowledge Representation - Medical Knowledge Representation: OpenCyc -- OpenCyc is the open source version of the Cyc(r) technology, the world's largest and most complete general knowledge base and commonsense reasoning engine. OpenCyc can be used as the basis for a wide variety of intelligent applications. web site: documentation: download: KNOWBEL -- as the files knowbel.tar.Z and manual.txt.tar.Z Contact: Bryan M. Kramer, <> Telos temporal/sorted logic system. SB-ONE -- Contact: KL-ONE family. Currently undergoing revision and will be renamed KN-PART+. KRIS -- Contact: KL-ONE family (Symbolics only) BACK -- Contact: Files are BACK_V52.intro and Back52.tar.Z Tar file includes Tutorial/Manual in postscript format and installation instructions. KL-ONE family CLASSIC -- Contact: KL-ONE family MOTEL -- Contact: [] Modal KL-ONE (contains KRIS as a kernel). Implemented in Prolog. FOL GETFOL -- Contact: Weyrauch's FOL system COLAB/RELFUN -- Contact: Logic Programming COLAB/FORWARD -- Contact: Logic Programming COLAB/CONTAX -- Contact: Constraint System for Weighted Constraints over Hierarchically Structured Finite Domains. COLAB/TAXON -- Contact: Terminological Knowl. Rep. w/Concrete Domains SNePS (Semantic Network Processing System) is the implementation of a fully intensional theory of propositional knowledge representation and reasoning. SNePS includes a module for creating and accessing propositional semantic networks, path-based inference, node-based inference based on SWM (a relevance logic with quantification) that uses natural deduction and can deal with recursive rules, forward, backward and bi-directional inference, nonstandard logical connectives and quantifiers, an assumption based TMS for belief revision (SNeBR), a morphological analyzer and a generalized ATN (GATN) parser for parsing and generating natural language, SNePSLOG, a predicate-logic-style interface to SNePS, XGinseng, an X-based graphics interface for displaying, creating and editing SNePS networks, SNACTor, a preliminary version of the SNePS Acting component, and SNIP 2.2, a new implementation of the SNePS Inference Package that uses rule shadowing and knowledge migration to speed up inference. SNeRE (the SNePS Rational Engine), which is part of Deepak Kumar's dissertation about the integration of inference and acting, will replace the current implementation of SNACTor. SNePS is written in Common Lisp, and has been tested in Allegro CL 4.1, Lucid CL 4.0, TI Common Lisp, CLISP May-93, and CMU CL 17b. It should also run in Symbolics CL, AKCL 1.600 and higher, VAX Common Lisp, and MCL. The XGinseng interface is built on top of Garnet. SNePS 2.1 is free according to the GNU General Public License version 2. The SNePS distribution is available by anonymous ftp from [] as the file rel-x-yyy.tar.Z, where 'x-yyy' is the version. The other files in the directory are included in the distribution; they are duplicated to let you get them without unpacking the full distribution if you just want the bibliography or manual. If you use SNePS, please send a short message to and Please also let them know whether you'd like to be added to the SNUG (SNePS Users Group) mailing list. URANUS is a logic-based knowledge representation language. Uranus is an extension of Prolog written in Common Lisp and using the syntax of Lisp. Uranus extends Prolog with a multiple world mechanism for knowledge representation and term descriptions to provide functional programming within the framework of logic programming. It is available free by anonymous ftp from [] for research purposes only. For more information contact the author, Hideyuki Nakashima <>. Machine Learning: The prudsys XELOPES library (eXtEnded Library fOr Prudsys Embedded Solutions) is an open platform-independent and data-source-independent library for Embedded Data Mining. It was developed in close cooperation with the Russian MDA specialist ZSoft Ltd. XELOPES is CWM-compatible, supports the relevant Data Mining standards and can be combined with all prudsys products. RFCT is a tool based on C4.5 and written in Java. It uses C4.5 to discover temporal and causal rules, and has the following features: *) Has a graphical user interface. *) Handles temporal data, both in input and output. *) Can function in an unsupervised manne.r *) Outputs temporal/causal rules in a useful manner, so the user can have a good understanding of what influences the result. *) handles continous values (can discretize real-valued variables). *) Can output rules in Prolog, thus the rules are readily executable. The package, including full source code, example files, and online help, is available freely from LIBSVM -- a support vector machines (SVM) library for classification problems by Chih-Chung Chang and Chih-Jen Lin. See: Weka -- a GPLed Java machine learning toolkit Is associated with an ML book. See: COBWEB/3 -- Contact: IND -- Contact: NASA COSMIC, <> Tel: 706-542-3265 (ask for customer support) Fax: 706-542-4807 IND is a C program for the creation and manipulation of decision trees from data, integrating the CART, ID3/C4.5, Buntine's smoothing and option trees, Wallace and Patrick's MML method, and Oliver and Wallace's MML decision graphs which extend the tree representation to graphs. Written by Wray Buntine, <>. AUTOCLASS -- Contact: AutoClass is an unsupervised Bayesian classification system for independent data. FOIL -- [] as the files,, and Each shell archive contains source, a brief manual, and several sample datasets. FOIL2 should be available from FOIL 6.0 now uses ANSI C. Contact: J. Ross Quinlan <> Mike Cameron-Jones <> RWM -- Contact: H. Altay Guvenir <guvenir@trbilun.bitnet> RWM is a program for learning problem solving strategies, written in Common Lisp (tested on Suns and NeXT). MOBAL is a system for developing operational models of application domains in a first order logic representation. It integrates a manual knowledge acquisition and inspection environment, an inference engine, machine learning methods for automated knowledge acquisition, and a knowledge revision tool. By using MOBAL's knowledge acquisition environment, you can incrementally develop a model of your domain in terms of logical facts and rules. You can inspect the knowledge you have entered in text or graphics windows, augment the knowledge, or change it at any time. The built-in inference engine can immediately execute the rules you have entered to show you the consequences of your inputs, or answer queries about the current knowledge. MOBAL also builds a dynamic sort taxonomy from your inputs. If you wish, you can use several machine learning methods to automatically discover additional rules based on the facts that you have entered, or to form new concepts. If there are contradictions in the knowledge base due to incorrect rules or facts, there is a knowledge revision tool to help you locate the problem and fix it. MOBAL (release 3.0b) is available free for non-commercial academic use by anonymous ftp from The system runs on Sun SparcStations, SunOS 4.1, and includes a graphical interface implemented using Tcl/TK. PEBLS (Parallel Exemplar-Based Learning System) is a nearest-neighbor learning system designed for applications where the instances have symbolic feature values. PEBLS has been applied to the prediction of protein secondary structure and to the identification of DNA promoter sequences. PEBLS 3.0 is written in ANSI C and is available by anonymous ftp from [] for research purposes only. For more information, contact Steven Salzberg <>. OC1 (Oblique Classifier 1) is a multivariate decision tree induction system designed for applications where the instances have numeric feature values. OC1 builds decision trees that contain linear combinations of one or more attributes at each internal node; these trees then partition the space of examples with both oblique and axis-parallel hyperplanes. OC1 has been used for classification of data from several real world domains, such as astronomy and cancer diagnosis. A technical decription of the algorithm can be found in the AAAI-93 paper by Sreerama K. Murthy, Simon Kasif, Steven Salzberg and Richard Beigel. A postscript version of this paper is included in the distribution. OC1 is a written entirely in ANSI C. OC1 is available by anonymous ftp from [] This distribution is provided for non-commercial purposes only. For more information, contact Sreerama K. Murthy <> (primary contact), Steven Salzberg <>, or Simon Kasif <>, Department of Computer Science, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218. Set-Enumeration (SE) Trees for Induction/Classification. Significant research in Machine Learning, and in Statistics, has been devoted to the induction and use of decision trees as classifiers. An induction framework which generalizes decision trees using a Set-Enumeration (SE) tree is outlined in Rymon, R. (1993), An SE-tree-based Characterization of the Induction Problem. In Proc. of the Tenth International Conference on Machine Learning, Amherst MA, pp. 268-275. In this framework, called SE-Learn, rather than splitting according to a single attribute, one recursively branches on all (or most) relevant attributes. An induced SE-tree can be shown to economically embed many decision trees, thereby supporting a more expressive hypothesis representation. Also, by branching on many attributes, SE-Learn removes much of the algorithm-dependent search bias. Implementations of SE-Learn can benefit from many techniques developed for decision trees (e.g., attribute-selection and pruning measures). In particular, SE-Learn can be tailored to start off with one's favorite decision tree, and then improve upon it by further exploring the SE-tree. This hill-climbing algorithm allows trading time/space for added accuracy. Current studies (yet unpublished) show that SE-trees are particularly advantageous in domains where (relatively) few examples are available for training, and in noisy domains. Finally, SE-trees can provide a unified framework for combining induced knowledge with knowledge available from other sources (Rymon, 1994). Rymon, R. (1994), On Kernel Rules and Prime Implicants. To appear in Proc. of the Twelfth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Seattle WA. A Lisp implementation of SE-Learn is available from Ron Rymon <>. A commercial version in C is currently under development. MLC++ is a Machine Learning library of C++ classes being developed at Stanford. More information about the library can be obtained at URL /"> The utilities are available by anonymous ftp from They are currently provided only as object code for Sun, but source code will be distributed to sites that wish to port the code to other compilers. For more information write to Ronny Kohavi <ronnyk@CS.Stanford.EDU>. Medical Reasoning: TMYCIN --
Subject: [6-9] Natural Language Processing Natural Language Processing: * ALE (Attribute Logic Engine) is a freeware system written in Prolog that integrates phase-structred parsing, semantic-head-driven generalization and constraint logic programming with typed features such as terms. You can find ALE at The site details how to build an NLP grammar using a head-driven phase structured grammar (HPSG) and ALE. * Eric Brill's trainable rule-based part of speech tagger (version 1.0.2) is available by anonymous ftp from This tagger is based on transformation-based error-driven learning, a technique that has been effective in a number of natural language applications, including part of speech and word sense tagging, prepositional phrase attachment, and syntactic parsing. For more information, you can obtain relevant papers in If you do download the tagger and wish to be on the mailing list for future releases, bug reports, etc, please send mail to Eric Brill <> or <>. * Hdrug is an environment to develop logic grammars, parsers, and generators for natural languages. The package comes with a number of example grammars, including a Categorial Grammar, a Tree Adjoining Grammar, a Unification Grammar in the spirit of Head-driven Phrase Structure Grammar, an Extraposition Grammar, a Definite Clause Grammar, and a port of the HPSG grammar from Bob Carpenter's ALE system. Each of the grammars comes with a set of parsers, such as Earley-like chart parsers, left-corner parsers and head-driven parsers. Some grammars come with variants of the head-driven generator. The package allows easy comparison of different parsers/generators, extensive possibilities of compiling feature equations into Prolog terms, graphical (Tk), LaTeX and ordinary Prolog output of trees, feature structures and Prolog terms, and plotted graphs and tables of statistical information. Hdrug runs in Sicstus Prolog and requires ProTcl and Tcl/Tk. It is available by anonymous FTP from or by WWW from For more information, write to Gertjan van Noord <>. * NLBean(tm) version 2: a natural language interface to databases. It is an example of conversion of natural language from a limit domain to SQL querries for database access. Go to * Grok is a project dedicated to developing a large collection of basic tools for NLP. See more at
Subject: [6-9a] Speech * The ISIP project at Mississippi State University is a public-domain speech-to-text system currently in an Alpha release. See * CMU's Sphinx system is available from http:// * RECNET is a complete speech recognition system for the DARPA TIMIT and Resource Management tasks. It uses recurrent networks to estimate phone probabilities and Markov models to find the most probable sequence of phones or words. The system is a snapshot of evolving research code. There is no documentation other than published research papers. It is configured for the two specific databases and is unlikely to be of use as a complete system for other tasks. It is available by anonymous ftp from Related publications can be found in (see the ABSTRACT file first). You will need the relevant CDROMs, 150MByte of free space for TIMIT and 300MByte for RM. If you use the code, the author would appreciate an email message so that he can keep you informed of new releases. Write to Tony Robinson, <>, for more information. * CELP 3.2a is available from [] with copies available on The code (C, FORTRAN, diskio) all has been built and tested on a Sun4 under SunOS4.1.3. If you want to run it somewhere else, then you may have to do a bit of work. (A Solaris 2.x-compatible release is planned soon.) Written by Joe Campbell <> of the Department of Defense. Distribution facilitated by Craig F. Reese <>, IDA/Supercomputing Research Center. * The OGI Speech Tools are set of speech data manipulation tools developed at the Center for Spoken Language Understanding (CSLU) at the Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology (Portland Oregon). The tools can be used to compute and display signal representations, label speech at different levels (e.g., phonetic, phonemic and word), train neural network classifiers, and display the output of classification or recognition algorithms time-aligned with the speech. The OGI Speech Tools were written in ANSI C. The OGI Speech Tools are available by anonymous ftp from as ogitools.v1.0.tar.Z. For more information, write to Johan Schalkwyk <>. If you're using the tools, please let Johan know by sending him a mail message. * PC Convolution is a educational software package that graphically demonstrates the convolution operation. It runs on IBM PC compatibles using DOS 4.0 or later. A demo version is available by anonymous ftp from [] as pc_conv.*. University instructors may obtain a free, fully operational version by contacting Dr. Kurt Kosbar <> at 117 Electrical Engineering Building, University of Missouri/Rolla, Rolla, Missouri, 65401, phone 314-341-4894. * Online Speech Synthesizer using the RSYNTH package (prefered URL) * AsTeR (Audio System For Technical Readings) is a computing system that orally renders technical documents marked up in LaTeX. An interactive demo is accessible via the URL This document presents a collection of math examples rendered in audio by AsTeR and in Postscript by LaTeX/DVIPS from the same original LaTeX source. A version of the demo that uses inline images can be found in the URL For more information, write to T.V. Raman <>, If you download a copy of his thesis, please send him a short email message. [European Speech Communication Association (ESCA)] Christian Benoit, <> or <> [Examples of speech synthesis from different systems.] Jon Iles <> or [Archive of resources for studying speech sounds, primarily English. Includes symbols and samples of English phones/phonemes, both American and British; tips, tutorials, basic walk-throughs of waveform analysis; and examples and links to TTS synthesizers, mainly in Europe.] George Dillon <>
Subject: [6-10] Neural Networks (see for a more complete list) Neural Network Toolkits: The Stuttgart Neural Network Simulator supports a number of different kinds of neural networks. It's build on a C kernel, and has an X-Windows GUI interface to "create, manipulate and visualize nets in various ways." You can find out more from http://www-ra.informatik/ Neural Systems (Biological Simulation): BIOSIM is a biologically-oriented neural network simulator. It implements four neuron models: a simple model only switching ion channels on and off, the original Hodgkin-Huxley model, the SWIM model (a modified HH model) and the Golowasch-Buchholz model (the most enhanced model). Dendrites consist of a chain of segments without bifurcation. It is in the public domain and runs on Unix workstations (a less-powerful PC version is also available). BIOSIM includes a graphical user interface and was designed for research and teaching. It is available by anonymous ftp from [] For more information, write to Stefan Bergdoll <>. GENESIS (short for GEneral NEural SImulation System) is a general purpose simulation platform which was developed to support the simulation of neural systems ranging from complex models of single neurons to simulations of large networks made up of more abstract neuronal components. GENESIS has provided the basis for laboratory courses in neural simulation at both Caltech and the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, MA, as well as many other institutions. Most current GENESIS applications involve realistic simulations of biological neural systems. Although the software can also model more abstract networks, other simulators are more suitable for backpropagation and similar connectionist modeling. The homepage is located at:
Subject: [6-11] Organizations - Qualitative Reasoning Organizations: AAAI, the American Association of Artificial Intelligence homepage: IJCAI, the International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence home page: The Association for Computational Linguistics homepage: Pedagogy: Temple University's page on teaching AI: Probabilistic Reasoning: BELIEF is a Common Lisp implementation of the Dempster and Kong fusion and propagation algorithm for Graphical Belief Function Models and the Lauritzen and Spiegelhalter algorithm for Graphical Probabilistic Models. It includes code for manipulating graphical belief models such as Bayes Nets and Relevance Diagrams (a subset of Influence Diagrams) using both belief functions and probabilities as basic representations of uncertainty. It is available by anonymous ftp from [] and by email from the author, Russell Almond <>. Contact the author at for information about a commercial version GRAPHICAL-BELIEF currently in the prototype stages. IDEAL is a LISP system developed for building and evaluating influence diagrams and Bayesian networks. It is accompanied with a graphical user interface (CLIM-based) for constructing, editing, and solving belief networks and influence diagrams. For more information, write to Planning: St. Amant's NCSU AI Planning Resources- A List of links to planning sites all over the world. NONLIN -- about the author. RHETORICAL -- Contact: Brad Miller <> SNLP -- Contact: Nonlinear planner. IDM -- ( Contact: STRIPS-like planning. PRODIGY -- Contact: Integrated Planning and Learning System SOAR -- Contact: Integrated Agent Architecture. Supports learning through chunking. CLIPS -- CLIPS Expert System Shell Executable and Documentation directory: There are also some DLLs for CLIPS. (Thanks Sergio Navega) Java variant: : Qualitative Reasoning/Qualitative Physics: QSIM -- Contact: Ben Kuipers <> QPE -- contact: Prof. Kenneth D. Forbus <> Qualitative Process Engine (an implementation of QP theory)
Subject: [6-12] Robotics Robotics: A list of pointers to sources of robotics information on the Internet. [Robotics Internet Resources Page] Robotic Simulation (Planning Testbeds and Simulators): * See Steve Hanks, Martha E. Pollack, and Paul R. Cohen, "Benchmarks, Test Beds, Controlled Experimentation, and the Design of Agent Architectures", AI Magazine 14(4):17-42, Winter 1993. * The ARS MAGNA abstract robot simulator provides an abstract world in which a planner controls a mobile robot. This abstract world is more realistic than typical blocks worlds, in which micro-world simplifying assumptions do not hold. Experiments may be controlled by varying global world parameters, such as perceptual noise, as well as building specific environments in order to exercise particular planner features. The world is also extensible to allow new experimental designs that were not thought of originally. The simulator also includes a simple graphical user-interface which uses the CLX interface to the X window system. ARS MAGNA can be obtained by anonymous ftp from as the file ars-magna.tar.Z. Installation instructions are in the file Installation.readme. The simulator is written in Nisp, a macro-package for Common Lisp. Nisp can be retrieved in the same way as the simulator. Version 1.0 of the ARS MAGNA simulator is documented in Yale Technical Report YALEU/DCS/RR #928, "ARS MAGNA: The Abstract Robot Simulator". This report is available in the distribution as a PostScript file. Comments should be directed to Sean Philip Engelson <>. * Erratic, a mobile robot simulator and controller by is available by anonymous ftp from * The Michigan Intelligent Coordination Experiment (MICE) testbed is a tool for experimenting with coordination between intelligent systems under a variety of conditions. MICE simulates a two-dimensional grid-world in which agents may move, communicate, and affect their environment. MICE is essentially a discrete-event simulator that helps control the domain and a graphical representation, but provides relatively few constraints on the form of the domain and the agents' abilities. Users may specify the time required by various activities, the constraints on an agents' sensors, the configuration of the domain and its properties, etc. MICE runs under XWindows on Un*x boxes, on Macs, and on TI Explorers, with relatively consistent graphical displays. Source code, documentation, and examples are available via anonymous ftp to MICE was produced by the University of Michigan's Distributed Intelligent Agent Group (UM DIAG). For further information, write to * RSIM, a SGI-based simulator from the University of Melbourne, with very nice graphics, is available by anonymous ftp from Write to for more information. * Simderella is a robot simulator consisting of three programs: CONNEL (the controller), SIMMEL (the robot simulator), and BEMMEL (the X-windows oriented graphics back-end). SIMMEL performs a few matrix multiplications, based on the Denavit Hartenberg method, calculates velocities with the Newton-Euler scheme, and communicates with the other two programs. BEMMEL only displays the robot. CONNEL is the controller, which must be designed by the user (in the distributed version, CONNEL is a simple inverse kinematics routine.) The programs use Unix sockets for communication, so you must have sockets, but you can run the programs on different machines. The software is available by anonymous ftp from [] as the file simderella.2.0.tar.gz. The software has been compiled using gcc on SunOS running under X11R4/5 on Sun3, Sun4, Sun Sparc 1, 2, and 10, DEC Alpha, HP700, 386/486 (Linux), and Silicon Graphics architectures. For more information, send email to Patrick van der Smagt, <>. * RP1 is a Java-based robot simulator. It allows applications to build arbitrary landscapes and a data-configurable robot which can interact with a simulated environment or solve a virtual maze. The system provides abstract features that model real-world objects such as walls, light sources, and goals. For more information, see: TILEWORLD -- Planning testbed
Subject: [6-13] Temporal Reasoning - Truth Maintenance Temporal Reasoning: See also KNOWBEL above. MATS -- Metric/Allen Time System Contact: Henry Kautz <> MATS is a Common Lisp program which solves temporal constraint problems. Input constraints are either difference inequalities or Allen-style qualitative constraints. TMM -- New implementation of Dean & McDermott's Temporal Map Manager system written in Common Lisp. See SIGART Bulletin 4(3), July 1993. Contact: MTMM -- Modified version of Dean & McDermott's TMM written in MCL. Available on diskette. Contact: Eckehard Gross <> TimeGraph-- Metric and Qualitative temporal reasoning system which handles (<, =, >) point relations, bounds on absolute calendar/clock times, and bounds on durations. Data entry and retrieval is through interval or point relations. The system is scalable in the sense that storage remains linear in the number of relations added. Efficient retrieval is achieved through a simple timepoint numbering scheme and metagraph structure. See SIGART Bulletin 4 (3), pp. 21-25, July 1993. Contact: Lenhart Schubert ( TimeGraph II (TG-II) handles the set of the relations of the Point Algebra and of the Pointizable Interval Algebra (also called Simple Interval Algebra by P. van Beek). Temporal relations are represented through a "timegraph", a graph partitioned into a collection of "time chains" which are automatically structured for efficiency. The system is scalable, in the sense that the storage tends to remain linear in the number of relations asserted. Efficient query handling is achieved through a time point numbering scheme and a "metagraph" data structure. TG-II is written in Common Lisp. For a description of the theory underlying the system see: [1] Alfonso Gerevini and Lenhart Schubert, "Efficient Temporal Reasoning through Timegraphs", in Proceedings of IJCAI-93. [2] Alfonso Gerevini and Lenhart Schubert, "Temporal Reasoning in TimeGraph I-II", SIGART Bulletin 4(3), July 1993. [3] Alfonso Gerevini and Lenhart Schubert, "Efficient Algorithms for Qualitative Reasoning about Time", Artificial Intelligece, to appear. Also available as IRST Technical Report 9307-44, IRST 38050 Povo, TN Italy; or Tech. report 496, Computer Science Department, University of Rochester, Rochester 14627 NY, USA. TimeGraph II is available by anonymous ftp from as the files tg-ii.readme and tg-ii-1.tar.gz. If you retrieve a copy of TimeGraph II by anonymous ftp, please let them know that you've retrieved a copy by sending a message to For more information, contact Alfonso Gerevini <> or Lenhart Schubert <>. Tachyon -- Performs constraint satisfaction for point-based metric reasoning. Qualitative constraints are also handled by translation into quantitative ones. Written in C++. See SIGART Bulletin 4(3), July 1993. Contact: Richard Arthur ( TimeLogic-- The TimeLogic system is an interval-based forward chaining inference engine and database manager of temporal constraints. Relational constraints, indicating relative order between intervals, are based on Allen's interval logic. The TimeLogic system also supports durational constraints, indicating relative magnitude between intervals, and reference links, used for the explicit or automatic construction of interval hierarchies. Constraints are posed and propagated in user-defined contexts with inheritance. Supports relative metric constraints but no absolute dates or times. Written in Common Lisp. Contact: Peggy Meeker ( TemPro -- A temporal constraint system that uses both interval algebra and point-based algebra. Written in Common Lisp. Contact: J-P Haton <> or F. Charpillet <> TIE -- Temporal Inference Engine. Written in Common Lisp. Contact: E. Tsang (Essex University, UK) TCNM (Temporal Constraint Network Manager) manages non-disjunctive metric constraints on time-points and on durations in an integrated way. These constraints allow us express absolute, qualitative and metric constraints on time-points and on durations, which are managed in an integrated way. In the updating processes, a non-redundant and global consistent Temporal Constraint Network is always maintained by means of an efficient and complete propagation method, with a O(n**2) temporal complexity. Sound and complete retrieval processes have a constant cost. Written in Common Lisp. For more information, contact Federico A. Barber <>. See also SIGART Bulletin 4(3), July 1993. Theorem Proving/Automated Reasoning: Coq is the Calculus of Inductive Constructions. It runs in Caml-Light and is available by anonymous ftp from (unix version) (mac version) The Mac version is standalone, not requiring Caml-Light. The unix version requires Caml-Light, however, which is available from Documentation is included in the distribution. Questions and comments should be directed to the Coq hotline <>. DTP is a general first-order theorem prover incorporating intelligent backtracking and subgoal caching, as well as a trace facility that can display proof spaces graphically. It is implemented in (CLtL2) Common Lisp, and is available on the web at Contact Don Geddis <Geddis@CS.Stanford.EDU> for more information. Elf implements the LF Logical Framework (based on the theory of dependent types) and gives it a logic programming interpretation in order to support search and the implementation of other algorithms (e.g. evaluation or compilation in programming languages). It comes with a number of examples from logic and the theory of programming languages such as the Church Rosser theorem for the untyped lambda-calculus and type soundness for Mini-ML. It is written in Standard ML and includes some support code for editing and interaction in gnu-emacs. It is available by anonymous ftp from as the files README (general information), elf-04.tar.Z (Version 0.4 of Elf, 1 Jul 1993), elf-examples.tar.Z (Version 0.4 of Elf examples, unchanged from Version 0.3), and elf-papers/ (DVI files for papers related to LF and Elf, including a "tutorial" and a bibliography). For more information, contact Frank Pfenning <>, Department of Computer Science, Carnegie Mellon University. FRAPPS (Framework for Resolution-based Automated Proof Procedures) is a portable resolution theorem-prover written in Common Lisp. It is available via anonymous ftp from []. If you take a copy of FRAPPS, please send a short note to Prof. Alan M. Frisch <>. Gazer is a sequent calculus based system for first order logic with a novel inference rule, gazing, that enables the system to determine which of a possibly large number of definitions and lemmas should be used at any point in a proof. Available from the authors, Dave Barker-Plummer <> and Alex Rothenberg <>. ISABELLE-93. Isabelle is a highly automated generic theorem prover written in Standard ML. New logics are introduced by specifying their syntax and rules of inference. Proof procedures can be expressed using tactics and tacticals. Isabelle comes with 8 different logics, including LCF, some modal logics, first-order logic, Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory, and higher-order logic. Isabelle-93 is not upwardly compatible with its predecessor, but comes with advice on converting to the new simplifier. Isabelle-93 is available by anonymous ftp from the University of Cambridge, [] as Isabelle93.tar.gz. It is also available from the Technical University of Munich, [] The distribution includes extensive documentation, including a 71-page introduction, an 85-page reference manual, and a 166-page description of the various logics supplied with Isabelle. For more information, write to and An Emacs-Lisp package for Isabelle by is available from The users mailing list is and is moderated. KEIM is a collection of software modules, written in Common Lisp with CLOS, designed to be used in the production of theorem proving systems. KEIM is intended to be used by those who want to build or use deduction systems (such as resolution theorem provers) without having to write the entire framework. KEIM is also suitable for embedding a reasoning component into another Common Lisp program. KEIM offers a range of datatypes implementing a logical language of type theory (higher order logic), in which first order logic can be embedded. KEIM's datatypes and algorithms include: types; terms (symbols, applications, abstractions), environments (e.g., associating symbols with types); unification and substitutions; proofs, including resolution and natural deduction style. KEIM also provides functionality for the pretty-printing, error handling, formula parsing and user interface facilities which form a large part of any theorem prover. Implementing with KEIM thus allows the programmer to avoid a great deal of drudgery. KEIM has been tested in Allegro CL 4.1 and Lucid CL 4.0 on Sun 4 workstations. KEIM is available for noncommercial use via anonymous FTP from* For more information contact Dan Nesmith, Fachbereich Informatik/AG Siekmann, Universitaet des Saarlandes, Postfach 1150, D-66041 Saarbruecken, Germany, or send email to A mailing list for KEIM users is also being set up. Send mail to to be put on the list. MVL -- [] Contact: Multi-valued logics Boyer-Moore -- See also the pub/proof-checker/ subdirectory, which contains Matt Kaufmann's proof checking enhancements to nqthm. Nqthm-1992 is the Boyer-Moore theorem prover. The 1992 version of the theorem prover is upwardly compatible with the previous (1987) version. Included in the distribution are thousands of Nqthm-checked theorems formulated by Bevier, Boyer, Brock, Bronstein, Cowles, Flatau, Hunt, Kaufmann, Kunen, Moore, Nagayama, Russinoff, Shankar, Talcott, Wilding, Yu, and others. The release of Nqthm-1992 includes three revised chapters of the book `A Computational Logic Handbook', including Chapter 4, on the formal logic for which the system is a prover, and Chapter 12, the reference guide to user commands. Nqthm runs in Common Lisp, and has been tested in AKCL, CMU CL, Allegro CL, Lucid CL, MCL, and Symbolics CL. Nqthm-1992 is available by anonymous ftp from [] as the file nqthm-1992.tar.Z. See the file README in the same directory for instructions on retrieving nqthm. See also the /pub/pc-nqthm/pc-nqthm-1992/ directory (files README-pc and pc-nqthm-1992.tar.Z), which contains Matt Kaufmann's interactive proof-checking enhancements to Nqthm-1992. For more information, contact Robert S. Boyer <>, J. Strother Moore <>, or Matt Kaufmann <>, Computational Logic Inc., 1717 West 6th Street, Suite 290, Austin, TX 78703-4776. Send mail to to be added to the mailing list. The Nuprl Proof Development System is available by anonymous ftp from Nuprl should run in any Common Lisp with CLX. There are also (obsolete) interfaces for Symbolics Lisp machines and Suns running the SunView window system. Nuprl has been tested with Allegro, Lucid, AKCL. For further information, contact Elizabeth Maxwell, <>, Nuprl Distribution Coordinator, Department of Computer Science, Upson Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853. Otter -- Contact: Resolution-based theorem prover. RRL -- [] Rewrite Rule Laboratory See SEQUEL entry in the Lisp FAQ, part 6. SETHEO -- [] Get the files and setheo.tar.Z. SETHEO (SEquential THEOrem prover) is an automated theorem prover for formulae of predicate logic. SETHEO is based on the calculus of ``connection tableaux''. SETHEO runs on Sun SPARCs only. Contact: XPNet (X Proof Net) is a graphical interface to proof nets with an efficient proof checker. It is available by anonymous ftp to []. For further information, write to Jawahar Chirimar <>, Carl A. Gunter <>, or Myra VanInwegen <>. Theorem Proving/Automated Reasoning (Problems): ATP Problems --* Collection of ATP problems from Otter, CADE, and JAR. The problems include algebra, analysis, circuits, geometry, logic problems, Pelletier's problem set, program verification, puzzles, set theory, and topology. The TPTP (Thousands of Problems for Theorem Provers) Problem Library is a collection of test problems for automated theorem provers (ATPs), using the clausal normal form of 1st order predicate logic. The goal of the TPTP is to provide a firm basis for the testing, evaluation, and comparison of ATP systems through a comprehensive library of ATP test problems in a general purpose format. The TPTP includes tools to convert the problems to existing ATP formats, such as the OTTER, MGTP, PTTP, SETHEO, and SPRFN formats. Each problem includes a list of references and other relevant information. The TPTP also aims to supply general guidelines outlining the requirements for ATP system evaluation. The TPTP can be obtained by anonymous ftp from either the Department of Computer Science, James Cook University, Australia, [] or the Institut fuer Informatik, TU Muenchen, Germany, [] as the files ReadMe (general information about the library), TPTP-v1.1.0.tar.gz (the library itself), and (a postscript technical report about the TPTP). The TPTP is also accessible through WWW using either of the URLs Additions and corrections may be sent to Geoff Sutcliffe <> (Fax: +61-77-814029) or Christian Suttner <> (Fax: +49-89-526502). If you would like to be kept informed of new versions of the TPTP, please send email to either of them. Truth Maintenance: The truth maintenance system and problem solver implementations described in the book "Building Problem Solvers" by Ken Forbus and Johan de Kleer are available by anonymous ftp from For more information send mail to Johan de Kleer <>. Send bug reports to
Subject: [6-14] Search Search: AISEARCH is a C++ class library for search algorithms implemented by Peter Bouthoorn <>. It includes implementations of DFS, BFS, uniform cost, best-first, bidirectional DFS/BFS, and AND/OR DFS/BFS search algorithms. It is available by anonymous ftp from as or aisearch.tar.Z. Simulated Annealing: ASA (Adaptive Simulated Annealing) is a powerful global optimization C-code algorithm especially useful for nonlinear and/or stochastic systems. Most current copies can be obtained by anonymous ftp from [] an uncompressed version, asa, also is in that archive. There are several related (p)reprints in the Caltech archive, including, "Simulated annealing: Practice versus theory." The first VFSR code was developed by Lester Ingber in 1987, and the reprint of that paper is, "Very fast simulated re-annealing". If you cannot use ftp or ftpmail, then copies of the code are also available by email from the author at To be added to the mailing list, send mail to The VFSR code was made publicly available in 1992 under the GNU GPL, by Lester Ingber and Bruce Rosen. The last version of that code before the introduction of ASA is available via anonymous ftp from Bruce Rosen has a comparison study, "Function Optimization based on Advanced Simulated Annealing," which is available via anonymous ftp from [VFSR is no longer supported, but ASA is. --mk] ________________________________________________________ --- [ is moderated. To submit, just post and be patient, or if ] [ that fails mail your article to <>, and ] [ ask your news administrator to fix the problems with your system. ]

User Contributions:

Apr 4, 2023 @ 1:13 pm
You actually said it wonderfully!
english essay writer unique college essay

Comment about this article, ask questions, or add new information about this topic:

Part1 - Part2 - Part3 - Part4 - Part5 - Part6 - Part7 - MultiPage

[ Usenet FAQs | Web FAQs | Documents | RFC Index ]

Send corrections/additions to the FAQ Maintainer:,

Last Update March 27 2014 @ 02:11 PM