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;;; Answers to Questions about Artificial Intelligence *************
;;; Written by Amit Dubey, Ric Crabbe, and Mark Kantrowitz
If you think of questions that are appropriate for this FAQ, or would
like to improve an answer, please send email to the maintainers.
Part 6 (AI Open-Source and Other Software by Sub-field)
[6-2] General AI Software
[6-3] Well-known Classics
the rest of the sections are an alphabetical listing by topic:
[6-4] Agent Modelling, Artificial Life
[6-5] Blackboard Architectures, Case Based Reasoning, Chatbots,
Chess, Constraint Programming
[6-6] Data Mining, Defeasible Reasoning, Expert Systems
[6-7] Frame Systems, Fuzzy Logic, Games, General, Genetic Algorithms, ICOT
[6-8] Knowledge Representation, Machine Learning, Medical
[6-9] Natural Language Processing
[6-10] Neural Networks
[6-11] Organizations, Pedegogy, Probability, Planning, Qualitative Reasoning
[6-13] Temporal Reasoning, Theorem Proving, Truth Maintenance
[6-14] Search, Simulated Annealing
Search for [#] to get to question number # quickly.
Subject: [6-1] Languages
Its assumed that you can find your way to common languages like
LISP, C++ or Prolog by doing a web search; what are listed here are
some other languages that AI researchers may find
interesting. [Because I had trouble finding a good prolog recently,
I've added some prolog listings here.]
XSB is a Logic Programming and Deductive Database system for Unix
and Windows. It is being developed at The Computer Science
Department, Stony Brook University, in collaboration with
Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, and
Uppsala Universitet. http://xsb.sourceforge.net/
Amzi! Prolog + Logic Server:
"Embed Prolog rule-based components in C/C++, Java, Delphi, Visual
Basic, Web Servers and more. Develop Unicode and/or ASCII
logic-bases using the Windows interactive development environment
(IDE). Integrate them with ODBC databases. Deploy them with the
Logic Server Libraries. Extend Amzi! Prolog with your own
functions/libraries. For Windows, Linux, Solaris, HP/UX. Available
on any other platform with a custom port (see below). Royalty-free
Free Academic, Personal & Evaluation License.
Mozart is an advanced development platform for intelligent,
distributed applications. The system is the result of a decade of
research in programming language design and implementation,
constraint-based inferencing, distributed computing, and
JEOPS - The Java Embedded Object Production System:
It's a project intended to give Java the power of production
systems. JEOPS adds forward chaining, first-order production rules
to Java through a set of classes designed to provide this language
with some kind of declarative programming. With that, the
development of intelligent applications, such as software agents or
expert systems is facilitated.
Kiev is a backwards-compatible extension of Java that includes support
for (amount other things) lambda-calculus closures (ie functional
programming) and Prolog-like logic programming. Please see
LISP's theoretical origins lie in Church's lambda calculus. A number of
new languages that fix some shortcomings of LISP's implementation of the
lambda calculus are Scheme (simpler and fully tail recursive), ML
(support for types using the typed lambda calculus;
cm.bell-labs.com/cm/cs/what/smlnj/sml97.html) and Hashell (like ML but
it implements lazy evaluation properly; www.haskell.org).
POPLOG is a multi-language software development environment
providing incremental compilers for a number of interactive
programming languages, notably: Pop-11, Prolog, and Common Lisp.
CLIPS is a productive development and delivery expert system tool
which provides a complete environment for the construction of rule
and/or object based expert systems. CLIPS is used throughout the
public and private community including: all NASA sites and branches
of the military, numerous federal bureaus, government contractors,
universities, and many companies. The CLIPS home page is:
Screamer is an extension of Common Lisp that adds support for
nondeterministic programming. Screamer consists of two levels. The
basic nondeterministic level adds support for backtracking and
undoable side effects. On top of this nondeterministic substrate,
Screamer provides a comprehensive constraint programming language in
which one can formulate and solve mixed systems of numeric and
symbolic constraints. Together, these two levels augment Common Lisp
with practically all of the functionality of both Prolog and
constraint logic programming languages such as CHiP and CLP(R).
Furthermore, Screamer is fully integrated with Common Lisp. Screamer
programs can coexist and interoperate with other extensions to Common
Lisp such as CLOS, CLIM and Iterate.
In several ways Screamer is more efficient than other implementations
of backtracking languages. First, Screamer code is transformed into
Common Lisp which can be compiled by the underlying Common Lisp
system. Many competing implementations of nondeterministic Lisp are
interpreters and thus are far less efficient than Screamer. Second,
the backtracking primitives require fairly low overhead in Screamer.
Finally, this overhead to support backtracking is only paid for those
portions of the program which use the backtracking primitives.
Deterministic portions of user programs pass through the Screamer to
Common Lisp transformation unchanged. Since in practise, only small
portions of typical programs utilize the backtracking primitives,
Screamer can produce more efficient code than compilers for languages
in which backtracking is more pervasive.
Screamer is fairly portable across most Common Lisp implementations.
It currently runs under Genera 8.1.1 and 8.3 on both Symbolics 36xx
and Ivory machines, under Lucid 4.0.2 and 4.1 on Sun SPARC machines,
under MCL 2.0 and 2.0p2 on Apple Macintosh machines, and under Poplog
Common Lisp on Sun SPARC machines. It should run under any
implementation of Common Lisp which is compliant with CLtL2 and with
minor revision could be made to run under implementations compliant
with CLtL1 or dpANS.
Screamer is available by anonymous FTP from
Contact Jeffrey Mark Siskind <Qobi@research.nj.nec.com> or David McAllester
<firstname.lastname@example.org> for more information.
The Screamer Tool Repository, a collection of user-contributed
Screamer code, is available by anonymous ftp from
or by WWW from
Please direct all inquires about the repository to
Subject: [6-2] General AI Software
IBM has created a software package for creating internet agents using
Java applets. It's an interesting concept, and worth a look. See
Subject: [6-3] Well-known Classics
For a large collection of Eliza programs, see
The software from Peter Norvig's book "Paradigms of AI Programming" is
available by anonymous ftp from ftp://unix.sri.com/pub/norvig/ and on disk in
Macintosh or DOS format from the publisher, Morgan Kaufmann. The
software includes Common Lisp implementations of: Eliza and pattern
matchers, Emycin, Othello, Parsers, Scheme interpreters and compilers,
Unification and a prolog interpreter and compiler, Waltz
line-labelling, implementation of GPS, macsyma, and random number
generators. For more information, write to Morgan Kaufmann, Dept. P1,
2929 Campus Drive, Suite 260, San Mateo CA 94403, call 800-745-7323,
or fax 415-578-0672. (Mac ISBN 1-55860-227-5; DOS 3.5" ISBN
1-55860-228-3; or DOS 5.25" ISBN 1-55860-229-1).
The doctor.el is an implementation of Eliza for GNU-Emacs
emacs-lisp. Invoke it with "Meta-X doctor".
The original Parry (in MLISP for a PDP-10) is available in
RACTER is *not* public domain. It costs $50 for MS-DOS and Macintosh
versions, the Inrac compiler is $200 (MS-DOS only), and the Inrac
manual alone is $25. Racter is available from John Owens, INRAC
Corp./Nickers International Ltd., 12 Schubert Street, Staten Island,
NY 10305, Tel: 718-448-6283, or Fax: 718-448-6298. Racter was
published in 1984, and written in compiled BASIC. To read some of
RACTER's work, see "The Policeman's Beard is Half Constructed",
Computer Prose and Poetry by Racter, Warner Books, 1984. ISBN
0-446-38051-2 (paperback). Written by William Chamberlain and Thomas
Etter. Some discussion of RACTER appears in A.K. Dewdney's book, "The
Armchair Universe". The Macintosh version runs only on SEs and Pluses
(it comes on a single-sided 400k copy-protected disk, with an old
version of the system). Racter is also sold by the following
mail-order software retailer: Mindware, 1803 Mission Street, Suite
414, Santa Cruz, CA 95060-5292, phone 800-447-0477 (408-427-9455),
fax 408-429-5302. Mindware sells a variety of similar programs for
MS-DOS and Windows, including Joseph Weintraub's PC Therapist.
You can nab a copy of Terry Winograd's seminal SHRDLU from
Subject: [6-4] Agent Modelling - Artificial Life
In addition to programs available free by anonymous ftp, we've
included some programs which are available by contacting the authors,
and some programs which charge a nominal fee.
ANIMALS is a simulation system written by Toby Tyrrell,
<email@example.com>, for his PhD thesis. The thesis examines the
problem of action selection when dealing with realistic, animal-like
situations: how to choose, at each moment in time, the most
appropriate out of a repertoire of possible actions. It includes a
description is given of a simulated environment which is an extensive
and detailed simulation of the problem of action selection for
animals. This simulated environment is used to investigate the
adequacy of several theories of action selection (from both ethology
and artificial intelligence) such as the drive model, Lorenz's
psycho-hydraulic model and Maes' spreading activation network, and
outlines deficiencies in each mechanism. Finally, it proposes a new
approach to action selection is developed which determines the most
appropriate action in a principled way, and which does not suffer from
the inherent shortcomings found in other methods. The thesis includes
a review and bibliography of existing work on action selection. The
thesis is available by anonymous ftp from
as the files as.1.ps.Z, as.2.ps.Z, ..., and as.7.ps.Z.
The simulation software is also available from the same site, as the
file se.tar.Z. The simulation software was written in Suntools rather
than Xtools. It can be run only from SunView or OpenWindows. The
action selection problem modelled by the simulated environment
comprises 15 different `sub-problems' (getting food, reproducing, not
getting lost, being vigilant for predators, etc), many internal and
external stimuli, and 35 different low-level actions to select
***ViewGen SCHEDULED TO BE DELETED FROM THE FAQ***
ViewGen (Viewpoint Generator) is a Prolog program that implements a
"Belief Ascription Algorithm" as described in Ballim and Wilks (see the
bibliography section on User Modelling). This can be seen as a form of
agent modelling tool, which allows for the generation of arbitrarily deep
nested belief spaces based on the system's own beliefs, and on beliefs
that are typically held by groups of agents. ViewGen is available by
anonymous ftp from
crl.nmsu.edu:/pub/non-lexical/ViewFinder [188.8.131.52] (user anonymous)
ftp.ims.uni-stuttgart.de:/pub/ballim [184.108.40.206] (user ftp)
as the file ViewGen.tar.Z. The theory of belief ascription upon which
it is based is described in detail in Ballim and Wilks, and a general
framework for attributing and maintaining nested propositional
attitudes is described in Afzal Ballim's dissertation which is
archived with the Viewgen program (in the files
the variable part indicating the format of the PostScript file).
The inheritance reasoner is in the file vf-hetis.tar.Z.
Implemented in Sicstus prolog, and hence easily convertible to
any Edinburgh-style prolog. Contact Afzal Ballim <firstname.lastname@example.org>
for more information.
Andy Wood <email@example.com>
[Tim Finin's Software Agents Page]
One of the major institutions do Artificial Life research, The
Santa Fe Institute's web page has lots of information.
Swarm is a software package for multi-agent simulation of complex
systems, originally developed at the Santa Fe Institute. Swarm is
intended to be a useful tool for researchers in a variety of
disciplines. The basic architecture of Swarm is the simulation of
collections of concurrently interacting agents: with this
architecture, we can implement a large variety of agent based models.
Tierra is an artificial life system for studying the evolution of
digital organisms. Tierra consists of a virtual computer and its
operating system, whose architecture has been designed in such a way
that the executable machine codes are evolvable. This means that the
machine code can be mutated (by flipping bits at random) or recombined
(by swapping segments of code between algorithms), and the resulting
code remains functional enough of the time for natural (or presumably
artificial) selection to be able to improve the code over time.
Tierra runs on Unix, Win32, the Amiga and MS-DOS. Tierra's homepage is at:
The software can be downloaded from
To be added to the tierra-announce mailing list, send an email to
Tom Ray (the author of Tierra as well as the list administrator) at
firstname.lastname@example.org. Send bug reports or questions about the code or
installation to email@example.com.
For those without access to anonymous ftp, the Tierra software may be
obtained on disk for $50 ($20 for upgrades) from Virtual Life c/o Tom Ray,
ATR HIP Labs, 2-2 Hikaridai Seika-cho Soraku-gun Kyoto 619-02 Japan. The
software ships on PC formatted disks, but contains the source for all
Subject: [6-5] Blackboard Architectures - Constraint Programming
***GBB SCHEDULED TO BE DELETED FROM THE FAQ***
GBB (PD Version) -- ftp.cs.umass.edu:/gbb/
***CL-Protos SCHEDULED TO BE DELETED FROM THE FAQ***
CL-Protos -- ftp.cs.utexas.edu:/pub/porter/
(Get the README file for more information)
Contact: Bruce W. Porter <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Ray Bareiss <email@example.com>
Erik Eilerts <firstname.lastname@example.org>
***MICRO-xxx SCHEDULED TO BE DELETED FROM THE FAQ***
MICRO-xxx -- ftp.cs.umd.edu:/pub/schank/icbr/
The directory /pub/schank/icbr/ contains the complete
code for "Inside Case-Based Reasoning" by
Riesbeck and Schank, 1989. This includes code
for an instructional version of CHEF by Kristian Hammond.
There is a much maligned chatbot at the Warner Brothers page on
the AI movie.
A.L.I.C.E. (Artificial Linguistic Internet Computer Entity) is an
award-winning open source natural language artificial intelligence
chat robot. The software used to create A.L.I.C.E. is available as
free open source Alicebot and AIML software. Winner of the 2000
Loebner Prize. See:
Free public-domain source code of a learning chat-bot based on
"Chomskyan linguistics and the neural feature extraction of Hubel
and Wiesel." The bot starts out knowing little, and tries to learn
to chat with the user. Theory, documentation and source code are
while using the Microsoft Internet Explorer browser.
A C-based version of Alice:
***SAN Kit SCHEDULED TO BE DELETED FROM THE FAQ***
The SAN Kit chess programming C source toolkit provides common routines
for move notation I/O, move generation, move execution, etc. Only search
routines and an evaluation function need be added to obtain a working
chess program. It runs on Apple Macintosh (Think C 5.0),
Commodore Amiga (SAS C), MS-DOS, and Unix. It is available by
anonymous ftp from
raven.alaska.edu:/pub/coherent/sources32/ [220.127.116.11] in the
as the compressed tar file SAN.tar.Z or SAN.tar.gz.
Contact Steven J. Edwards <email@example.com> for more information.
Constraint Programming and Non-determinism:
Dragonbreath http://www.ai-center.com/projects/dragonbreath/ is an
optimization engine based on constraint programming and local
search. The engine is built to solve search problems, i.e.,
problems for which you don't really know how to construct a
solution but can describe what potential parts a solution can
consist of and which restrictions must be satisfied by the parts /
the parts' constellation. Parts can be variables as well as
structural components. In addition, you can specify a preference
between different solutions, i.e., solve optimization problems.
JACK is a new library providing constraint programming and search for Java.
JACK consists of three components:
- JCHR: Java Constraint Handling Rules
A high-level language to write constraint solvers
- JASE: Java Abstract Search Engine
A generic search engine for JCHR to solve constraint problems
An interactive tool to visualize JCHR computations
JACK and its documentation are available for browser use and for download at:
Subject: [6-6] Data Mining - Expert Systems
Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery in Databases:
***Explora SCHEDULED TO BE DELETED FROM THE FAQ***
Explora is a data mining package written in Lisp for the Macintosh. It
includes a natural language hypertext-type interface for presentation
of dicoveries. It is available at:
[Bibliographies, On-line papers, Software, and Other Resources]
Andy Pryke <firstname.lastname@example.org>
An implementation of J. Paris and A. Vencovska's model of belief is
available by anonymous ftp from
Paris and Vencovska's paper (Artificial Intelligence, 64(2), December
1993) provides a mathematical model of an agent's belief in an event
by identifying it with his ability to imagine the event within the
context of his previous experience. This approach leads to beliefs
having properties different from those normally ascribed to it. The
implementation was written by Ian Pratt <email@example.com> and Jens
Doerpmund <firstname.lastname@example.org> and runs in Common Lisp.
Free ftpable expert system shells are listed in the Expert Systems
Shells FAQ, which is available by anonymous ftp from
[Interactive expert systems and "agents". Includes nice model of
space shuttle engines.]
Subject: [6-7] Frame Systems - ICOT
FrameWork -- ftp://ftp.cs.cmu.edu/user/ai/areas/kr/frames/framework/
Theo -- Contact: Tom.Mitchell@cs.cmu.edu
FrameKit -- Contact: Eric.Nyberg@cs.cmu.edu
KR -- Contact: Brad.Myers@cs.cmu.edu
PARKA -- Contact: email@example.com
Frames for the CM
PARMENIDES (Frulekit) -- Contact: Peter.Shell@cs.cmu.edu
FROBS -- ftp://cs.utah.edu/pub/
Contact: Robert Kessler <firstname.lastname@example.org>
PFC -- linc.cis.upenn.edu: ??
YAK -- Contact: Enrico Franconi <email@example.com>
FLIE -- ftp://ural.ethz.ch/robo/flie/ [18.104.22.168]
Fuzzy Logic Inference Engine, Institute of Robotics, ETH.
RICE (Routines for Implementing C Expert systems) is a fuzzy/MV logic
inference engine written in C. A C++ front-end with classes is provided.
Tested with Borland C/C++ 3.1, Microsoft C/C++ 7.00 and GCC 2.4.5;
examples are included. Documentation is available in WP 5.1 format and
PostScript. Available by anonymous ftp from ntia.its.bldrdoc.gov and
ftp.cs.cmu.edu. For more info contact Rene' Jager, <R.Jager@ET.TUDelft.NL>.
FuNeGen 1.0 is a fuzzy neural system capable of generating fuzzy
classification systems (as C-code) from sample data.
FuNeGen 1.0 and the papers/reports describing the application and the
theoretical background can be obtained by anonymous ftp from
METAGAME is a game-playing workbench for developing and playing
metagame programs. It includes a generator for symmetric chess-like
games; definitions of chess, checkers, chinese chess, shogi, lose
chess, lose checkers, french checkers, and tic tac toe translated into
symmetric chess-like games; a legal move generator; and a variety of
player programs, from simple through sophisticated. The METAGAME
Workbench runs in Quintus or Sictus Prolog. Available by anonymous
For more information, contact Barney Pell <firstname.lastname@example.org> of the
University of Cambridge Computer Laboratory.
Generation5: Artificial Intelligence Repository.
A repository of AI information and code, plus interviews with
famous AI people.
National Research Council of Canada's complete reseource page:
SCS (Simple Classifier System) is a C port of the system from
Appendix D of "Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimization, and Machine
Learning" by David E. Goldberg. It was ported to C by Erik Mayer
<email@example.com>. For more information, contact the author.
SCS-C is another port to C of Goldberg's Simple Classifier System.
It includes some extensions, and runs on Sun 10/30 and Atari ST. SCS-C
is available via anonymous ftp as scs-c-0.98j.tar.Z from
ftp://lumpi.informatik.uni-dortmund.de/pub/LCS/src/ [22.214.171.124]. The
documentation alone is available as scs-c-doc.tar.Z in the directory
/pub/LCS/docs/. For more information, contact Joerg Heitkoetter
<firstname.lastname@example.org>, c/o Systems Analysis Group,
LSXI, Department of Computer Science, University of Dortmund, D-44221
GENITOR is available by anonymous ftp from the Colorado State
University Computer Science Department in
For further information, contact email@example.com or
firstname.lastname@example.org. If these fail to work, contact
Other packages are described in detail in Nici Schraudolph's survey
of free and commercial GA software (see the Genetic Algorithms
Repository in [5-1]). Some of the free ones from Nici's list are
summarized below. Many are available from the GA Repository.
GAucsd Genetic algorithms software
To be put on a mailing list of GAucsd users, send
the message "add GAucsd" to email@example.com.
GAbench Genetic algorithms benchmarks and test problems
Thomas Kammeyer (firstname.lastname@example.org)
EM Evolution Machine (EM)
em_tc.exe (EM for Turbo C)
em_tcp.exe (EM for Turbo C++)
em_man.exe (the manual)
Joachim Born <email@example.com>
Genie GA-based modeling/forecasting system
Lance Chambers <P_Stampoul@fennel.cc.uwa.oz.au>
GENOCOP GEnetic algorithm for Numerical Optimization for
COnstrained Problems. Optimizes function with any
number of linear constraints (equalities and inequalities)
Genetic-2 Optimization package for the linear transportation problem.
Genetic-2N Optimization package for the nonlinear transportation problem.
All three were developed by Zbigniew Michalewicz and are
described in detail in his book "Genetic Algorithms + Data
Structures = Evolution Programs", Springer Verlag,
(also known as ftp.uncc.edu)
Zbigniew Michalewicz <firstname.lastname@example.org>
WOLF Simulator for G/SPLINES algorithm (genetic spline models)
GAC, GAL GA written in C/Lisp. Similar to John Grefenstette's Genesis.
Bill Spears <email@example.com>
ESCaPaDE Experiments with evolutionary algorithsm.
Frank Hoffmeister <firstname.lastname@example.org>
(Send mail with subject line "help" or "get ESCaPaDE")
mGA1.0 Common Lisp implementation of a messy GA as described in
TCGA report 90004.
SGA-C C-language port and extension of the original Pascal
SGA code presented in Goldberg's book "Genetic
Algorithms in Search, Optimization & Machine
Learning", Addison Wesley, 1989. See TCGA report 91002.
SGA-Cube Goldberg's SGA code modified for nCUBE 2 hypercube
All three are available by e-mail from
Robert Elliott Smith <email@example.com>.
BUGS Demonstrates genetic algorithms.
Joshua Smith <firstname.lastname@example.org>
SGPC Simple Genetic Programming in C
Walter Alden Tackett and Aviram Carmi (email@example.com)
GENEsYs ftp://lumpi.informatik.uni-dortmund.de/pub/GA/src/ [126.96.36.199]
Use "ftp" as user name, e-mail address as password.
Thomas Baeck <firstname.lastname@example.org>
GAGA Jon Crowcroft <email@example.com>. cs.ucl.ac.uk:darpa/gaga.shar
Splicer Steve Bayer <firstname.lastname@example.org>
PARAGENESIS GA-Repository/e-mail Michael van Lent <email@example.com>
GENESIS GA-Repository/e-mail John Grefenstette <firstname.lastname@example.org>
OOGA GA-Repository/e-mail John Grefenstette <email@example.com>
DGENESIS Erick Cantu <firstname.lastname@example.org> or
PGA Parallel Genetic Algorithms testbed
Peter Ross, email@example.com
ANT PC Version of 'John Muir Trail' experiment.
Patrick M Brennan <firstname.lastname@example.org>
GPQUICK is a simple GP system implemented in C++. It features an
elegant object architecture with function (Function), program
(Chrome), GA (Pop) and problem (Problem) classes. The Problem class
is proposed as a portable representation for problems that would be
source compatible with a variety of other GP systems. GPQUICK uses a
steady state GA, tournament selection, one type of mutation, and
subtree crossover. It uses a fast, compact linear representation for
S-expressions. It includes documentation from the associated magazine
article (Byte, "Some Assembly Required", February 1994). GPQUICK is
available by anonymous ftp from
as the files gpquick.tar (unix version, tested with CC and g++) and
gpquick.zip (PC/ANSI C version, tested with Borland 3.1).
For more information, write to Andrew Singleton <email@example.com>.
GENlib is a library of functions for genetic algorithms together with
two applications of the library to train neural networks. The library
is available by anonymous ftp from
for academic research and educational purposes only. Commercial uses
Japan's Institute for New Generation Computer Technology (ICOT) has
made their software available to the public free of charge. The
collection includes a variety of prolog-based programs in symbol
processing, knowledge representation, reasoning and problem solving,
natural language processing. All programs are available by anonymous
ftp from ftp.icot.or.jp. Note that most of the programs are written
for the PSI machines, and very few have been ported to Unix-based
emulators. For further information, send email to firstname.lastname@example.org, or
write to ICOT Free Software Desk, Institute for New Generation
Computer Technology, 21st Floor, Mita Kokusai Bldg., 4-28, Mita
1-chome, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108, Japan, fax +81-3-4456-1618.
Subject: [6-8] Knowledge Representation - Medical
OpenCyc -- OpenCyc is the open source version of the Cyc(r)
technology, the world's largest and most complete
general knowledge base and commonsense reasoning
engine. OpenCyc can be used as the basis for a wide
variety of intelligent applications.
web site: http://www.opencyc.org
KNOWBEL -- ftp://ai.toronto.edu/pub/kr/ as the files knowbel.tar.Z and
Contact: Bryan M. Kramer, <email@example.com>
Telos temporal/sorted logic system.
SB-ONE -- Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org
KL-ONE family. Currently undergoing revision and will be
KRIS -- Contact: email@example.com
KL-ONE family (Symbolics only)
BACK -- Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org
Files are BACK_V52.intro and Back52.tar.Z
Tar file includes Tutorial/Manual in postscript format
and installation instructions.
CLASSIC -- Contact: email@example.com
MOTEL -- Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org
Modal KL-ONE (contains KRIS as a kernel).
Implemented in Prolog.
FOL GETFOL -- Contact: email@example.com
Weyrauch's FOL system
COLAB/RELFUN -- Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org
COLAB/FORWARD -- Contact: email@example.com
COLAB/CONTAX -- Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org
Constraint System for Weighted Constraints over
Hierarchically Structured Finite Domains.
COLAB/TAXON -- Contact: email@example.com
Terminological Knowl. Rep. w/Concrete Domains
SNePS (Semantic Network Processing System) is the implementation of a
fully intensional theory of propositional knowledge representation and
reasoning. SNePS includes a module for creating and accessing
propositional semantic networks, path-based inference, node-based
inference based on SWM (a relevance logic with quantification) that
uses natural deduction and can deal with recursive rules, forward,
backward and bi-directional inference, nonstandard logical connectives
and quantifiers, an assumption based TMS for belief revision (SNeBR), a
morphological analyzer and a generalized ATN (GATN) parser for parsing
and generating natural language, SNePSLOG, a predicate-logic-style
interface to SNePS, XGinseng, an X-based graphics interface for
displaying, creating and editing SNePS networks, SNACTor, a
preliminary version of the SNePS Acting component, and SNIP 2.2, a new
implementation of the SNePS Inference Package that uses rule shadowing
and knowledge migration to speed up inference. SNeRE (the SNePS
Rational Engine), which is part of Deepak Kumar's dissertation about
the integration of inference and acting, will replace the current
implementation of SNACTor. SNePS is written in Common Lisp, and has
been tested in Allegro CL 4.1, Lucid CL 4.0, TI Common Lisp, CLISP
May-93, and CMU CL 17b. It should also run in Symbolics CL, AKCL 1.600
and higher, VAX Common Lisp, and MCL. The XGinseng interface is built
on top of Garnet. SNePS 2.1 is free according to the GNU General
Public License version 2. The SNePS distribution is available by
anonymous ftp from
as the file rel-x-yyy.tar.Z, where 'x-yyy' is the version. The other
files in the directory are included in the distribution; they are
duplicated to let you get them without unpacking the full distribution
if you just want the bibliography or manual. If you use SNePS, please
send a short message to firstname.lastname@example.org and
email@example.com. Please also let them know whether you'd like to
be added to the SNUG (SNePS Users Group) mailing list.
URANUS is a logic-based knowledge representation language. Uranus is
an extension of Prolog written in Common Lisp and using the syntax of
Lisp. Uranus extends Prolog with a multiple world mechanism for
knowledge representation and term descriptions to provide
functional programming within the framework of logic programming.
It is available free by anonymous ftp from
for research purposes only. For more information contact the author,
Hideyuki Nakashima <firstname.lastname@example.org>.
The prudsys XELOPES library (eXtEnded Library fOr Prudsys Embedded
Solutions) is an open platform-independent and
data-source-independent library for Embedded Data Mining. It was
developed in close cooperation with the Russian MDA specialist
ZSoft Ltd. XELOPES is CWM-compatible, supports the relevant Data
Mining standards and can be combined with all prudsys products.
RFCT is a tool based on C4.5 and written in Java. It uses C4.5 to
discover temporal and causal rules, and has the following features:
*) Has a graphical user interface.
*) Handles temporal data, both in input and output.
*) Can function in an unsupervised manne.r
*) Outputs temporal/causal rules in a useful manner, so the user can
have a good understanding of what influences the result.
*) handles continous values (can discretize real-valued variables).
*) Can output rules in Prolog, thus the rules are readily
The package, including full source code, example files, and online
help, is available freely from
LIBSVM -- a support vector machines (SVM) library for
classification problems by Chih-Chung Chang and
Chih-Jen Lin. See:
Weka -- a GPLed Java machine learning toolkit
Is associated with an ML book. See:
COBWEB/3 -- Contact: email@example.com
IND -- Contact: NASA COSMIC, <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Tel: 706-542-3265 (ask for customer support)
IND is a C program for the creation and manipulation of
decision trees from data, integrating the CART,
ID3/C4.5, Buntine's smoothing and option trees, Wallace
and Patrick's MML method, and Oliver and Wallace's MML
decision graphs which extend the tree representation to
graphs. Written by Wray Buntine, <email@example.com>.
AUTOCLASS -- Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org
AutoClass is an unsupervised Bayesian classification system for
FOIL -- ftp.cs.su.oz.au:/pub/ [188.8.131.52]
as the files foil4.sh, foil5.sh, and foil6.sh.
Each shell archive contains source, a brief manual,
and several sample datasets. FOIL2 should be available
from sumex-aim.stanford.edu:/pub/FOIL.sh. FOIL 6.0 now uses
Contact: J. Ross Quinlan <email@example.com>
Mike Cameron-Jones <firstname.lastname@example.org>
RWM -- Contact: H. Altay Guvenir <email@example.com>
RWM is a program for learning problem solving strategies,
written in Common Lisp (tested on Suns and NeXT).
MOBAL is a system for developing operational models of application
domains in a first order logic representation. It integrates a manual
knowledge acquisition and inspection environment, an inference engine,
machine learning methods for automated knowledge acquisition, and a
knowledge revision tool. By using MOBAL's knowledge acquisition
environment, you can incrementally develop a model of your domain in
terms of logical facts and rules. You can inspect the knowledge you
have entered in text or graphics windows, augment the knowledge, or
change it at any time. The built-in inference engine can immediately
execute the rules you have entered to show you the consequences of
your inputs, or answer queries about the current knowledge. MOBAL also
builds a dynamic sort taxonomy from your inputs. If you wish, you can
use several machine learning methods to automatically discover
additional rules based on the facts that you have entered, or to form
new concepts. If there are contradictions in the knowledge base due to
incorrect rules or facts, there is a knowledge revision tool to help
you locate the problem and fix it. MOBAL (release 3.0b) is available
free for non-commercial academic use by anonymous ftp from
The system runs on Sun SparcStations, SunOS 4.1, and includes a
graphical interface implemented using Tcl/TK.
PEBLS (Parallel Exemplar-Based Learning System) is a nearest-neighbor
learning system designed for applications where the instances have
symbolic feature values. PEBLS has been applied to the prediction of
protein secondary structure and to the identification of DNA promoter
sequences. PEBLS 3.0 is written in ANSI C and is available by
anonymous ftp from ftp://blaze.cs.jhu.edu/pub/pebls/
[184.108.40.206] for research purposes only. For more information,
contact Steven Salzberg <firstname.lastname@example.org>.
OC1 (Oblique Classifier 1) is a multivariate decision tree induction
system designed for applications where the instances have numeric
feature values. OC1 builds decision trees that contain linear
combinations of one or more attributes at each internal node; these
trees then partition the space of examples with both oblique and
axis-parallel hyperplanes. OC1 has been used for classification of
data from several real world domains, such as astronomy and cancer
diagnosis. A technical decription of the algorithm can be found in
the AAAI-93 paper by Sreerama K. Murthy, Simon Kasif, Steven Salzberg
and Richard Beigel. A postscript version of this paper is included in
the distribution. OC1 is a written entirely in ANSI C. OC1 is
available by anonymous ftp from
This distribution is provided for non-commercial purposes only. For
more information, contact Sreerama K. Murthy <email@example.com>
(primary contact), Steven Salzberg <firstname.lastname@example.org>, or Simon
Kasif <email@example.com>, Department of Computer Science, The Johns
Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218.
Set-Enumeration (SE) Trees for Induction/Classification. Significant
research in Machine Learning, and in Statistics, has been devoted to
the induction and use of decision trees as classifiers. An induction
framework which generalizes decision trees using a Set-Enumeration
(SE) tree is outlined in
Rymon, R. (1993), An SE-tree-based Characterization of the Induction
Problem. In Proc. of the Tenth International Conference on Machine
Learning, Amherst MA, pp. 268-275.
In this framework, called SE-Learn, rather than splitting according to
a single attribute, one recursively branches on all (or most) relevant
attributes. An induced SE-tree can be shown to economically embed many
decision trees, thereby supporting a more expressive hypothesis
representation. Also, by branching on many attributes, SE-Learn
removes much of the algorithm-dependent search bias. Implementations
of SE-Learn can benefit from many techniques developed for decision
trees (e.g., attribute-selection and pruning measures). In particular,
SE-Learn can be tailored to start off with one's favorite decision
tree, and then improve upon it by further exploring the SE-tree. This
hill-climbing algorithm allows trading time/space for added accuracy.
Current studies (yet unpublished) show that SE-trees are particularly
advantageous in domains where (relatively) few examples are available
for training, and in noisy domains. Finally, SE-trees can provide a
unified framework for combining induced knowledge with knowledge
available from other sources (Rymon, 1994).
Rymon, R. (1994), On Kernel Rules and Prime Implicants. To appear in
Proc. of the Twelfth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence,
A Lisp implementation of SE-Learn is available from Ron Rymon
<Rymon@ISP.Pitt.edu>. A commercial version in C is currently under
MLC++ is a Machine Learning library of C++ classes being developed at
Stanford. More information about the library can be obtained at URL
The utilities are available by anonymous ftp from
They are currently provided only as object code for Sun, but source code
will be distributed to sites that wish to port the code to other compilers.
For more information write to Ronny Kohavi <ronnyk@CS.Stanford.EDU>.
TMYCIN -- sumex-aix.stanford.edu:/tmycin
Subject: [6-9] Natural Language Processing
Natural Language Processing:
* ALE (Attribute Logic Engine) is a freeware system written in Prolog
that integrates phase-structred parsing, semantic-head-driven generalization
and constraint logic programming with typed features such as terms.
You can find ALE at http://www.sfs.nphil.uni-tuebingen.de/~gpenn/ale.html
The site http://www.ltg.hcrc.ed.ac.uk/projects/ledtools/ale-hpsg/ details
how to build an NLP grammar using a head-driven phase structured grammar
(HPSG) and ALE.
* Eric Brill's trainable rule-based part of speech tagger (version 1.0.2)
is available by anonymous ftp from
This tagger is based on transformation-based error-driven learning, a
technique that has been effective in a number of natural language
applications, including part of speech and word sense tagging,
prepositional phrase attachment, and syntactic parsing. For more
information, you can obtain relevant papers in
If you do download the tagger and wish to be on the mailing list for
future releases, bug reports, etc, please send mail to Eric Brill
<firstname.lastname@example.org> or <email@example.com>.
* Hdrug is an environment to develop logic grammars, parsers, and
generators for natural languages. The package comes with a number of
example grammars, including a Categorial Grammar, a Tree Adjoining
Grammar, a Unification Grammar in the spirit of Head-driven Phrase
Structure Grammar, an Extraposition Grammar, a Definite Clause
Grammar, and a port of the HPSG grammar from Bob Carpenter's ALE
system. Each of the grammars comes with a set of parsers, such as
Earley-like chart parsers, left-corner parsers and head-driven
parsers. Some grammars come with variants of the head-driven
generator. The package allows easy comparison of different
parsers/generators, extensive possibilities of compiling feature
equations into Prolog terms, graphical (Tk), LaTeX and ordinary Prolog
output of trees, feature structures and Prolog terms, and plotted
graphs and tables of statistical information. Hdrug runs in Sicstus
Prolog and requires ProTcl and Tcl/Tk. It is available by anonymous
or by WWW from
For more information, write to Gertjan van Noord <firstname.lastname@example.org>.
* NLBean(tm) version 2: a natural language interface to databases.
It is an example of conversion of natural language from a limit domain
to SQL querries for database access. Go to http://www.markwatson.com
* Grok is a project dedicated to developing a large collection of
basic tools for NLP. See more at
Subject: [6-9a] Speech
* The ISIP project at Mississippi State University is a public-domain
speech-to-text system currently in an Alpha release. See
* CMU's Sphinx system is available from
* RECNET is a complete speech recognition system for the DARPA TIMIT and
Resource Management tasks. It uses recurrent networks to estimate phone
probabilities and Markov models to find the most probable sequence of
phones or words. The system is a snapshot of evolving research code.
There is no documentation other than published research papers. It is
configured for the two specific databases and is unlikely to be of use as
a complete system for other tasks. It is available by anonymous ftp from
Related publications can be found in
svr-ftp.eng.cam.ac.uk:/reports/ (see the ABSTRACT file first).
You will need the relevant CDROMs, 150MByte of free space for TIMIT and
300MByte for RM. If you use the code, the author would appreciate an
email message so that he can keep you informed of new releases. Write to
Tony Robinson, <email@example.com>, for more information.
* CELP 3.2a is available from ftp://super.org/pub/
[220.127.116.11] with copies available on
ftp://svr-ftp.eng.cam.ac.uk/comp.speech/sources/ The code (C, FORTRAN,
diskio) all has been built and tested on a Sun4 under SunOS4.1.3. If
you want to run it somewhere else, then you may have to do a bit of
work. (A Solaris 2.x-compatible release is planned soon.) Written by
Joe Campbell <firstname.lastname@example.org> of the Department of
Defense. Distribution facilitated by Craig F. Reese
<email@example.com>, IDA/Supercomputing Research Center.
* The OGI Speech Tools are set of speech data manipulation tools
developed at the Center for Spoken Language Understanding (CSLU) at
the Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology (Portland
Oregon). The tools can be used to compute and display signal
representations, label speech at different levels (e.g., phonetic,
phonemic and word), train neural network classifiers, and display the
output of classification or recognition algorithms time-aligned with
the speech. The OGI Speech Tools were written in ANSI C. The OGI
Speech Tools are available by anonymous ftp from
as ogitools.v1.0.tar.Z. For more information, write to Johan Schalkwyk
<firstname.lastname@example.org>. If you're using the tools, please let Johan know
by sending him a mail message.
* PC Convolution is a educational software package that graphically
demonstrates the convolution operation. It runs on IBM PC compatibles
using DOS 4.0 or later. A demo version is available by anonymous ftp
as pc_conv.*. University instructors may obtain a free, fully
operational version by contacting Dr. Kurt Kosbar <email@example.com> at
117 Electrical Engineering Building, University of Missouri/Rolla,
Rolla, Missouri, 65401, phone 314-341-4894.
* Online Speech Synthesizer using the RSYNTH package
http://www_tios.cs.utwente.nl/say/ (prefered URL)
* AsTeR (Audio System For Technical Readings) is a computing system that
orally renders technical documents marked up in LaTeX. An interactive
demo is accessible via the URL
This document presents a collection of math examples rendered in
audio by AsTeR and in Postscript by LaTeX/DVIPS from the same original
LaTeX source. A version of the demo that uses inline images can be
found in the URL
For more information, write to T.V. Raman <firstname.lastname@example.org>,
If you download a copy of his thesis, please send him a short email message.
[European Speech Communication Association (ESCA)]
Christian Benoit, <email@example.com> or <firstname.lastname@example.org>
[Examples of speech synthesis from different systems.]
Jon Iles <email@example.com> or http://www.cs.bham.ac.uk/~jpi/
[Archive of resources for studying speech sounds, primarily English.
Includes symbols and samples of English phones/phonemes, both
American and British; tips, tutorials, basic walk-throughs of
waveform analysis; and examples and links to TTS synthesizers,
mainly in Europe.]
George Dillon <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Subject: [6-10] Neural Networks
(see ftp://ftp.sas.com/pub/neural/FAQ5.html for a more complete list)
Neural Network Toolkits:
The Stuttgart Neural Network Simulator supports a number of different
kinds of neural networks. It's build on a C kernel, and has an X-Windows
GUI interface to "create, manipulate and visualize nets in various ways."
You can find out more from http://www-ra.informatik/uni-tuebingen.de/SNNS
Neural Systems (Biological Simulation):
BIOSIM is a biologically-oriented neural network simulator. It
implements four neuron models: a simple model only switching ion
channels on and off, the original Hodgkin-Huxley model, the SWIM model
(a modified HH model) and the Golowasch-Buchholz model (the most
enhanced model). Dendrites consist of a chain of segments without
bifurcation. It is in the public domain and runs on Unix workstations
(a less-powerful PC version is also available). BIOSIM includes a
graphical user interface and was designed for research and teaching.
It is available by anonymous ftp from
For more information, write to Stefan Bergdoll <email@example.com>.
GENESIS (short for GEneral NEural SImulation System) is a general
purpose simulation platform which was developed to support the
simulation of neural systems ranging from complex models of single
neurons to simulations of large networks made up of more abstract
neuronal components. GENESIS has provided the basis for laboratory
courses in neural simulation at both Caltech and the Marine
Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, MA, as well as many other
institutions. Most current GENESIS applications involve realistic
simulations of biological neural systems. Although the software
can also model more abstract networks, other simulators are more
suitable for backpropagation and similar connectionist modeling.
The homepage is located at: http://www.genesis-sim.org/GENESIS/
Subject: [6-11] Organizations - Qualitative Reasoning
AAAI, the American Association of Artificial Intelligence homepage:
IJCAI, the International Joint Conference on Artificial
Intelligence home page: http://ijcai.org/
The Association for Computational Linguistics homepage:
Temple University's page on teaching AI:
BELIEF is a Common Lisp implementation of the Dempster and Kong fusion
and propagation algorithm for Graphical Belief Function Models and the
Lauritzen and Spiegelhalter algorithm for Graphical Probabilistic
Models. It includes code for manipulating graphical belief models such
as Bayes Nets and Relevance Diagrams (a subset of Influence Diagrams)
using both belief functions and probabilities as basic representations
of uncertainty. It is available by anonymous ftp from
and by email from the author, Russell Almond <firstname.lastname@example.org>.
Contact the author at email@example.com for information about a
commercial version GRAPHICAL-BELIEF currently in the prototype stages.
IDEAL is a LISP system developed for building and evaluating influence
diagrams and Bayesian networks. It is accompanied with a graphical
user interface (CLIM-based) for constructing, editing, and solving
belief networks and influence diagrams. For more information, write
St. Amant's NCSU AI Planning Resources-
A List of links to planning sites all over the world.
NONLIN -- http://www.cs.bham.ac.uk/research/poplog/nonlin/
http://www.aiai.ed.ac.uk/~bat/bat.html about the
RHETORICAL -- ftp.cs.rochester.edu:/pub/packages/knowledge-tools
Contact: Brad Miller <firstname.lastname@example.org>
SNLP -- ftp://cs.washington.edu/pub/
IDM -- sauquoit.gsfc.nasa.gov (18.104.22.168)
PRODIGY -- Contact: email@example.com
Integrated Planning and Learning System
SOAR -- http://bigfoot.eecs.umich.edu/~soar/
Integrated Agent Architecture.
Supports learning through chunking.
CLIPS -- CLIPS Expert System Shell
Executable and Documentation directory:
There are also some DLLs for CLIPS.
(Thanks Sergio Navega)
Java variant: :http://herzberg.ca.sandia.gov/jess
Qualitative Reasoning/Qualitative Physics:
QSIM -- cs.utexas.edu:/pub/qsim
Contact: Ben Kuipers <firstname.lastname@example.org>
QPE -- ftp://multivac.ils.nwu.edu/pub/
contact: Prof. Kenneth D. Forbus <email@example.com>
Qualitative Process Engine (an implementation of QP theory)
Subject: [6-12] Robotics
A list of pointers to sources of robotics information on the Internet.
[Robotics Internet Resources Page]
Robotic Simulation (Planning Testbeds and Simulators):
* See Steve Hanks, Martha E. Pollack, and Paul R. Cohen, "Benchmarks,
Test Beds, Controlled Experimentation, and the Design of Agent
Architectures", AI Magazine 14(4):17-42, Winter 1993.
* The ARS MAGNA abstract robot simulator provides an abstract world in
which a planner controls a mobile robot. This abstract world is more
realistic than typical blocks worlds, in which micro-world simplifying
assumptions do not hold. Experiments may be controlled by varying
global world parameters, such as perceptual noise, as well as building
specific environments in order to exercise particular planner
features. The world is also extensible to allow new experimental
designs that were not thought of originally. The simulator also
includes a simple graphical user-interface which uses the CLX
interface to the X window system. ARS MAGNA can be obtained by
anonymous ftp from
as the file ars-magna.tar.Z. Installation instructions are in the file
Installation.readme. The simulator is written in Nisp, a macro-package
for Common Lisp. Nisp can be retrieved in the same way as the
simulator. Version 1.0 of the ARS MAGNA simulator is documented in
Yale Technical Report YALEU/DCS/RR #928, "ARS MAGNA: The Abstract
Robot Simulator". This report is available in the distribution as a
PostScript file. Comments should be directed to Sean Philip
* Erratic, a mobile robot simulator and controller by firstname.lastname@example.org is
available by anonymous ftp from
* The Michigan Intelligent Coordination Experiment (MICE) testbed is a
tool for experimenting with coordination between intelligent systems
under a variety of conditions. MICE simulates a two-dimensional
grid-world in which agents may move, communicate, and affect their
environment. MICE is essentially a discrete-event simulator that
helps control the domain and a graphical representation, but provides
relatively few constraints on the form of the domain and the agents'
abilities. Users may specify the time required by various activities,
the constraints on an agents' sensors, the configuration of the domain
and its properties, etc. MICE runs under XWindows on Un*x boxes, on
Macs, and on TI Explorers, with relatively consistent graphical
displays. Source code, documentation, and examples are available via
anonymous ftp to ftp.eecs.umich.edu:/software/Mice/Mice.tar.Z. MICE was
produced by the University of Michigan's Distributed Intelligent Agent
Group (UM DIAG). For further information, write to
* RSIM, a SGI-based simulator from the University of Melbourne, with very
nice graphics, is available by anonymous ftp from
Write to email@example.com for more information.
* Simderella is a robot simulator consisting of three programs: CONNEL
(the controller), SIMMEL (the robot simulator), and BEMMEL (the
X-windows oriented graphics back-end). SIMMEL performs a few matrix
multiplications, based on the Denavit Hartenberg method, calculates
velocities with the Newton-Euler scheme, and communicates with the
other two programs. BEMMEL only displays the robot. CONNEL is the
controller, which must be designed by the user (in the distributed
version, CONNEL is a simple inverse kinematics routine.) The programs
use Unix sockets for communication, so you must have sockets, but you
can run the programs on different machines. The software is available
by anonymous ftp from
as the file simderella.2.0.tar.gz. The software has been compiled using
gcc on SunOS running under X11R4/5 on Sun3, Sun4, Sun Sparc 1, 2, and
10, DEC Alpha, HP700, 386/486 (Linux), and Silicon Graphics
architectures. For more information, send email to Patrick van der
* RP1 is a Java-based robot simulator. It allows applications to build
arbitrary landscapes and a data-configurable robot which can interact with
a simulated environment or solve a virtual maze. The system provides
abstract features that model real-world objects such as walls, light
sources, and goals. For more information, see:
TILEWORLD -- ftp://cs.washington.edu/
Subject: [6-13] Temporal Reasoning - Truth Maintenance
See also KNOWBEL above.
MATS -- Metric/Allen Time System
Contact: Henry Kautz <firstname.lastname@example.org>
MATS is a Common Lisp program which solves temporal
constraint problems. Input constraints are either
difference inequalities or Allen-style qualitative constraints.
TMM -- New implementation of Dean & McDermott's Temporal Map
Manager system written in Common Lisp.
See SIGART Bulletin 4(3), July 1993.
MTMM -- Modified version of Dean & McDermott's TMM written in
MCL. Available on diskette.
Contact: Eckehard Gross <email@example.com>
TimeGraph-- Metric and Qualitative temporal reasoning system which
handles (<, =, >) point relations, bounds on absolute
calendar/clock times, and bounds on durations. Data entry
and retrieval is through interval or point relations.
The system is scalable in the sense that storage
remains linear in the number of relations added.
Efficient retrieval is achieved through a simple
timepoint numbering scheme and metagraph structure.
See SIGART Bulletin 4 (3), pp. 21-25, July 1993.
Contact: Lenhart Schubert (firstname.lastname@example.org)
TimeGraph II (TG-II) handles the set of the relations of the Point
Algebra and of the Pointizable Interval Algebra (also called Simple
Interval Algebra by P. van Beek). Temporal relations are represented
through a "timegraph", a graph partitioned into a collection of "time
chains" which are automatically structured for efficiency. The system
is scalable, in the sense that the storage tends to remain linear in
the number of relations asserted. Efficient query handling is achieved
through a time point numbering scheme and a "metagraph" data
structure. TG-II is written in Common Lisp. For a description of the
theory underlying the system see:
 Alfonso Gerevini and Lenhart Schubert, "Efficient Temporal
Reasoning through Timegraphs", in Proceedings of IJCAI-93.
 Alfonso Gerevini and Lenhart Schubert, "Temporal Reasoning in
TimeGraph I-II", SIGART Bulletin 4(3), July 1993.
 Alfonso Gerevini and Lenhart Schubert, "Efficient Algorithms
for Qualitative Reasoning about Time", Artificial Intelligece,
to appear. Also available as IRST Technical Report 9307-44,
IRST 38050 Povo, TN Italy; or Tech. report 496, Computer Science
Department, University of Rochester, Rochester 14627 NY, USA.
TimeGraph II is available by anonymous ftp from
as the files tg-ii.readme and tg-ii-1.tar.gz. If you retrieve a copy
of TimeGraph II by anonymous ftp, please let them know that you've
retrieved a copy by sending a message to
For more information, contact Alfonso Gerevini <email@example.com> or
Lenhart Schubert <firstname.lastname@example.org>.
Tachyon -- Performs constraint satisfaction for point-based metric
reasoning. Qualitative constraints are also handled by
translation into quantitative ones. Written in C++.
See SIGART Bulletin 4(3), July 1993.
Contact: Richard Arthur (email@example.com)
TimeLogic-- The TimeLogic system is an interval-based forward
chaining inference engine and database manager of
temporal constraints. Relational constraints,
indicating relative order between intervals, are based
on Allen's interval logic. The TimeLogic system also
supports durational constraints, indicating relative
magnitude between intervals, and reference links, used
for the explicit or automatic construction of interval
hierarchies. Constraints are posed and propagated in
user-defined contexts with inheritance. Supports relative
metric constraints but no absolute dates or times.
Written in Common Lisp.
Contact: Peggy Meeker (firstname.lastname@example.org)
TemPro -- A temporal constraint system that uses both interval
algebra and point-based algebra. Written in Common Lisp.
Contact: J-P Haton <email@example.com> or
F. Charpillet <firstname.lastname@example.org>
TIE -- Temporal Inference Engine. Written in Common Lisp.
Contact: E. Tsang (Essex University, UK)
TCNM (Temporal Constraint Network Manager) manages non-disjunctive
metric constraints on time-points and on durations in an integrated
way. These constraints allow us express absolute, qualitative and
metric constraints on time-points and on durations, which are managed
in an integrated way. In the updating processes, a non-redundant and
global consistent Temporal Constraint Network is always maintained by
means of an efficient and complete propagation method, with a O(n**2)
temporal complexity. Sound and complete retrieval processes have a
constant cost. Written in Common Lisp. For more information, contact
Federico A. Barber <email@example.com>. See also SIGART Bulletin
4(3), July 1993.
Theorem Proving/Automated Reasoning:
Coq is the Calculus of Inductive Constructions. It runs in
Caml-Light and is available by anonymous ftp from
ftp://ftp.inria.fr/INRIA/coq/ (unix version)
ftp://ftp.inria.fr/INRIA/coq/ (mac version)
The Mac version is standalone, not requiring Caml-Light. The unix
version requires Caml-Light, however, which is available from
Documentation is included in the distribution. Questions and comments
should be directed to the Coq hotline <firstname.lastname@example.org>.
DTP is a general first-order theorem prover incorporating
intelligent backtracking and subgoal caching, as well as a trace
facility that can display proof spaces graphically. It is
implemented in (CLtL2) Common Lisp, and is available on the web at
Contact Don Geddis <Geddis@CS.Stanford.EDU> for more information.
Elf implements the LF Logical Framework (based on the theory of
dependent types) and gives it a logic programming interpretation in
order to support search and the implementation of other algorithms (e.g.
evaluation or compilation in programming languages). It comes with a
number of examples from logic and the theory of programming languages
such as the Church Rosser theorem for the untyped lambda-calculus and
type soundness for Mini-ML. It is written in Standard ML and includes
some support code for editing and interaction in gnu-emacs. It is
available by anonymous ftp from
as the files README (general information), elf-04.tar.Z (Version 0.4
of Elf, 1 Jul 1993), elf-examples.tar.Z (Version 0.4 of Elf examples,
unchanged from Version 0.3), and elf-papers/ (DVI files for papers
related to LF and Elf, including a "tutorial" and a bibliography). For
more information, contact Frank Pfenning <email@example.com>,
Department of Computer Science, Carnegie Mellon University.
FRAPPS (Framework for Resolution-based Automated Proof Procedures) is
a portable resolution theorem-prover written in Common Lisp. It is
available via anonymous ftp from a.cs.uiuc.edu:/pub/frapps [22.214.171.124].
If you take a copy of FRAPPS, please send a short note to Prof.
Alan M. Frisch <firstname.lastname@example.org>.
Gazer is a sequent calculus based system for first order logic with a
novel inference rule, gazing, that enables the system to determine
which of a possibly large number of definitions and lemmas should be
used at any point in a proof. Available from the authors, Dave
Barker-Plummer <email@example.com> and Alex Rothenberg
ISABELLE-93. Isabelle is a highly automated generic theorem prover
written in Standard ML. New logics are introduced by specifying their
syntax and rules of inference. Proof procedures can be expressed
using tactics and tacticals. Isabelle comes with 8 different logics,
including LCF, some modal logics, first-order logic, Zermelo-Fraenkel
set theory, and higher-order logic. Isabelle-93 is not upwardly
compatible with its predecessor, but comes with advice on converting
to the new simplifier. Isabelle-93 is available by anonymous ftp from
the University of Cambridge,
as Isabelle93.tar.gz. It is also available from the Technical
University of Munich,
The distribution includes extensive documentation, including a 71-page
introduction, an 85-page reference manual, and a 166-page description of
the various logics supplied with Isabelle. For more information, write
to Larry.Paulson@cl.cam.ac.uk and Tobias.Nipkow@informatik.tu-muenchen.de.
An Emacs-Lisp package for Isabelle by David.Aspinall@dcs.ed.ac.uk
is available from
The users mailing list is firstname.lastname@example.org and is moderated.
KEIM is a collection of software modules, written in Common Lisp with
CLOS, designed to be used in the production of theorem proving
systems. KEIM is intended to be used by those who want to build or
use deduction systems (such as resolution theorem provers) without
having to write the entire framework. KEIM is also suitable for
embedding a reasoning component into another Common Lisp program.
KEIM offers a range of datatypes implementing a logical language of
type theory (higher order logic), in which first order logic can be
embedded. KEIM's datatypes and algorithms include: types; terms
(symbols, applications, abstractions), environments (e.g., associating
symbols with types); unification and substitutions; proofs, including
resolution and natural deduction style. KEIM also provides
functionality for the pretty-printing, error handling, formula parsing
and user interface facilities which form a large part of any theorem
prover. Implementing with KEIM thus allows the programmer to avoid a
great deal of drudgery. KEIM has been tested in Allegro CL 4.1 and
Lucid CL 4.0 on Sun 4 workstations. KEIM is available for
noncommercial use via anonymous FTP from
For more information contact Dan Nesmith, Fachbereich Informatik/AG
Siekmann, Universitaet des Saarlandes, Postfach 1150, D-66041
Saarbruecken, Germany, or send email to email@example.com. A mailing
list for KEIM users is also being set up. Send mail to
firstname.lastname@example.org to be put on the list.
MVL -- ftp://t.uoregon.edu/mvl/ [126.96.36.199]
Boyer-Moore -- ftp.cli.com:/pub/nqthm/nqthm.tar.Z
See also the pub/proof-checker/ subdirectory, which contains Matt
Kaufmann's proof checking enhancements to nqthm.
Nqthm-1992 is the Boyer-Moore theorem prover. The 1992 version of the
theorem prover is upwardly compatible with the previous (1987)
version. Included in the distribution are thousands of Nqthm-checked
theorems formulated by Bevier, Boyer, Brock, Bronstein, Cowles,
Flatau, Hunt, Kaufmann, Kunen, Moore, Nagayama, Russinoff, Shankar,
Talcott, Wilding, Yu, and others. The release of Nqthm-1992 includes
three revised chapters of the book `A Computational Logic Handbook',
including Chapter 4, on the formal logic for which the system is a
prover, and Chapter 12, the reference guide to user commands. Nqthm
runs in Common Lisp, and has been tested in AKCL, CMU CL, Allegro CL,
Lucid CL, MCL, and Symbolics CL. Nqthm-1992 is available by anonymous
as the file nqthm-1992.tar.Z. See the file README in the same
directory for instructions on retrieving nqthm. See also the
directory (files README-pc and pc-nqthm-1992.tar.Z), which contains
Matt Kaufmann's interactive proof-checking enhancements to Nqthm-1992.
For more information, contact Robert S. Boyer <email@example.com>, J.
Strother Moore <firstname.lastname@example.org>, or Matt Kaufmann <email@example.com>,
Computational Logic Inc., 1717 West 6th Street, Suite 290, Austin, TX
78703-4776. Send mail to firstname.lastname@example.org to be added to
the mailing list.
The Nuprl Proof Development System is available by anonymous ftp
from ftp://ftp.cs.cornell.edu/pub/n/. Nuprl should run in any Common
Lisp with CLX. There are also (obsolete) interfaces for Symbolics Lisp
machines and Suns running the SunView window system. Nuprl has been
tested with Allegro, Lucid, AKCL. For further information, contact
Elizabeth Maxwell, <email@example.com>, Nuprl Distribution
Coordinator, Department of Computer Science, Upson Hall, Cornell
University, Ithaca, NY 14853.
Otter -- ftp://info.mcs.anl.gov/pub/Otter/Otter-2.2/
Resolution-based theorem prover.
RRL -- ftp://herky.cs.uiowa.edu/public/ [188.8.131.52]
Rewrite Rule Laboratory
See SEQUEL entry in the Lisp FAQ, part 6.
SETHEO -- ftp://flop.informatik.tu-muenchen.de/pub/fki/ [184.108.40.206]
Get the files setheo.info and setheo.tar.Z.
SETHEO (SEquential THEOrem prover) is an automated
theorem prover for formulae of predicate logic.
SETHEO is based on the calculus of ``connection
tableaux''. SETHEO runs on Sun SPARCs only.
XPNet (X Proof Net) is a graphical interface to proof nets with an
efficient proof checker. It is available by anonymous ftp to
ftp.cis.upenn.edu:/pub/xpnet.tar.Z [220.127.116.11]. For further
information, write to Jawahar Chirimar <firstname.lastname@example.org>,
Carl A. Gunter <email@example.com>, or Myra VanInwegen
Theorem Proving/Automated Reasoning (Problems):
ATP Problems -- anagram.mcs.anl.gov:/pub/ATP_Problems/*
Collection of ATP problems from Otter, CADE, and JAR.
The problems include algebra, analysis, circuits,
geometry, logic problems, Pelletier's problem set,
program verification, puzzles, set theory, and topology.
The TPTP (Thousands of Problems for Theorem Provers) Problem Library
is a collection of test problems for automated theorem provers (ATPs),
using the clausal normal form of 1st order predicate logic. The goal
of the TPTP is to provide a firm basis for the testing, evaluation,
and comparison of ATP systems through a comprehensive library of ATP
test problems in a general purpose format. The TPTP includes tools to
convert the problems to existing ATP formats, such as the OTTER, MGTP,
PTTP, SETHEO, and SPRFN formats. Each problem includes a list of
references and other relevant information. The TPTP also aims to
supply general guidelines outlining the requirements for ATP system
evaluation. The TPTP can be obtained by anonymous ftp from either the
Department of Computer Science, James Cook University, Australia,
or the Institut fuer Informatik, TU Muenchen, Germany,
as the files ReadMe (general information about the library),
TPTP-v1.1.0.tar.gz (the library itself), and
TR-v1.0.0.ps.gz (a postscript technical report about the TPTP).
The TPTP is also accessible through WWW using either of the URLs
Additions and corrections may be sent to Geoff Sutcliffe
<firstname.lastname@example.org> (Fax: +61-77-814029) or Christian Suttner
<email@example.com> (Fax: +49-89-526502). If you
would like to be kept informed of new versions of the TPTP, please
send email to either of them.
The truth maintenance system and problem solver implementations
described in the book "Building Problem Solvers" by Ken Forbus and
Johan de Kleer are available by anonymous ftp from
For more information send mail to Johan de Kleer <deKleer@parc.xerox.com>.
Send bug reports to firstname.lastname@example.org.
Subject: [6-14] Search
AISEARCH is a C++ class library for search algorithms implemented by
Peter Bouthoorn <email@example.com>. It includes implementations of
DFS, BFS, uniform cost, best-first, bidirectional DFS/BFS, and AND/OR
DFS/BFS search algorithms. It is available by anonymous ftp from
ftp://obelix.icce.rug.nl/pub/peter/ as aisearch.zip or aisearch.tar.Z.
ASA (Adaptive Simulated Annealing) is a powerful global optimization
C-code algorithm especially useful for nonlinear and/or stochastic
systems. Most current copies can be obtained by anonymous ftp from
an uncompressed version, asa, also is in that archive. There are several
related (p)reprints in the Caltech archive, including sa_pvt93.ps.Z,
"Simulated annealing: Practice versus theory." The first VFSR code was
developed by Lester Ingber in 1987, and the reprint of that paper is
vfsr89.ps.Z, "Very fast simulated re-annealing". If you cannot use
ftp or ftpmail, then copies of the code are also available by email
from the author at firstname.lastname@example.org. To be added to the
mailing list, send mail to email@example.com.
The VFSR code was made publicly available in 1992 under the GNU GPL, by
Lester Ingber and Bruce Rosen. The last version of that code before
the introduction of ASA is available via anonymous ftp from
ftp://ringer.cs.utsa.edu/pub/rosen/. Bruce Rosen has a comparison
study, "Function Optimization based on Advanced Simulated Annealing,"
which is available via anonymous ftp from
[VFSR is no longer supported, but ASA is. --mk]
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