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FAQ: Expert System Shells 1/1 [Monthly posting]

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Archive-name: ai-faq/expert/part1
Last-Modified: Wed Apr 30 14:01:59 1997 by Mark Kantrowitz
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;;; ****************************************************************
;;; Expert System Shells *******************************************
;;; ****************************************************************
;;; Written by Mark Kantrowitz
;;; expert_1.faq

This post contains the Expert System Shells FAQ. 

If you think of questions that are appropriate for this FAQ, or would
like to improve an answer, please send email to us at

CONTRIBUTIONS to this summary should be sent to
Companies wishing to expand their entries should send product
summaries no longer than the RTworks or CLIPS entries, and should
focus on features and facts. Hype and vague generalizations will be removed.

*** Copyright:

Copyright (c) 1992-95 by Mark Kantrowitz. All rights reserved.

This FAQ may be freely redistributed in its entirety without
modification provided that this copyright notice is not removed.  It
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If this FAQ is reproduced in offline media (e.g., CD-ROM, print form,
etc.), a complimentary copy should be sent to Mark Kantrowitz, School
of Computer Science, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue,
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This article is provided AS IS without any express or implied warranty.

*** Recent changes:

;;; 1.32:
;;;  8-AUG-95 mk    Updated COMDALE entry in [1-6].
;;; 1.33:
;;; 21-DEC-95 mk    Deleted GEST entry, per Stefan Roth.
;;; 22-DEC-95 mk    Updated Gensym entry. New URL.
;;; 1.34:
;;; 18-JAN-96 mk    Updated M.4 entry.
;;; 19-JAN-96 mk    Updated the C-PRS entry.
;;; 1.35:
;;;  7-MAR-96 mk    Updated various Haley Enterprises entries.
;;; 19-MAR-96 mk    Updated ACQUIRE entry.
;;; 1.36:
;;; 10-MAY-96 mk    Updated EXSYS entry.
;;;  4-JUN-96 mk    Added TechMate entry.
;;; 20-JUN-96 mk    Updated telephone numbers for ILOG France.
;;; 23-JUL-96 mk    Updated XpertRule for Window entry.
;;; 29-JUL-96 mk    Replaced AIM entry with ModelQuest entry.
;;; 18-NOV-96 mk    Updated wxCLIPS entry.

*** Topics Covered:

  [1-1]  Introduction
  [1-2]  Other Sources of Information
  [1-3]  Bibliography of Expert Systems books, introductions,
         documentation, periodicals, and conference proceedings.
  [1-4]  Note about 'Real-Time' expert systems
  [1-5a] Free/Cheap Expert System Shells
  [1-5b] Free/Cheap Expert System Shells: CLIPS and Related Systems
  [1-6]  Commercial Expert System Shells
  [1-7]  Associations
  [1-8]  Glossary
  [1-A]  Acknowledgements

Search for [#] to get to question number # quickly.

Subject: [1-1] Introduction Certain questions and topics come up frequently in the various network discussion groups devoted to and related to Expert Systems. This file/article is an attempt to gather these questions and their answers into a convenient reference for AI researchers, students, and practitioners. It is posted on a monthly basis. The hope is that this will cut down on the user time and network bandwidth used to post, read and respond to the same questions over and over, as well as providing education by answering questions some readers may not even have thought to ask. Currently this FAQ is a primarily a list of free and commercial expert system shells, but other questions and answers will be added as they arise. The latest version of this file is available by anonymous FTP from [] using username "anonymous" and password "name@host" (substitute your email address) or via AFS in the Andrew File System directory /afs/ You can also obtain a copy of the FAQ by sending a message to with Send ESS FAQ in the message body. The FAQ postings are also archived in the periodic posting archive on [] If you do not have anonymous ftp access, you can access the archive by mail server as well. Send an E-mail message to with "help" and "index" in the body on separate lines for more information. An automatically generated HTML version of this FAQ is accessible by WWW as part of the AI-related FAQs Mosaic page. The URL for this resource is The direct URL for the Expert Systems FAQ is If you need to cite the FAQ for some reason, use the following format: Mark Kantrowitz, "Answers to Frequently Asked Questions about Expert System Shells",, <month>, <year>,,
Subject: [1-2] Other Sources of Information In addition to the free expert system shells listed below, the Prolog Resource Guide lists a variety of Prolog implementations and products. In addition to being backward-chaining systems, many Prolog implementations provide support for forward-chaining rules and other expert systems requirements. For example, Amzi! Inc. sells Dennis Merritt's book, "Building Expert Systems in Prolog", Springer-Verlag, 1989, for $52 (see entry in bibliography below). The July/August 1992 issue of PC AI magazine includes their annual product guide for expert systems and related tools. AI Expert Magazine publishes an "Expert Systems Resource Guide" once per year, usually in April. The February 1991 issue of IEEE Computer has an article about Expert System Tools. Another article of possible interest is "Selection Criteria for Expert System Shells: A Socio-Technical Framework", by Anthony C. Stylianou, Gregory R. Madey, and Robert D. Smith, CACM 35(10):30-48, October 1992. The AI FAQ contains pointers to other resources that may be of interest to readers of this FAQ. If you can't find the information you're looking for here, try looking in the AI FAQ. The AI FAQ is posted monthly to the newsgroup and is also available from the anonymous ftp locations mentioned above. The Prime Time Freeware for AI CD-ROM collection includes several expert system shells, including Babylon, CLIPS, ESIE, Frulekit, and OPS5, among others. The sells (list) for $60 US plus applicable sales tax and shipping and handling charges. Payable through Visa, Mastercard, postal money orders in US funds, and checks in US funds drawn on a US bank. For more information write to Prime Time Freeware, 370 Altair Way, Suite 150, Sunnyvale, CA 94086 USA, call 408-433-9662, fax 408-433-0727, or send email to
Subject: [1-3] Bibliography of Expert Systems books, introductions, documentation, periodicals, and conference proceedings. This section contains a list of key references and introductions about Production Systems, Expert Systems, and Match Algorithms. For other AI-related books, see part 4 of the AI FAQ. Overviews and Texts: Bruce G. Buchanan and Edward H. Shortliffe, "Rule-Based Expert Systems: The MYCIN Experiments of the Stanford Heuristic Programming Project", Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1985. The Davis and King paper (chapter 4, "An overview of production systems") provides a good overview. Frederick Hayes-Roth, "The knowledge based expert system: A tutorial", IEEE Computer 17(9):11-28, 1984. Bruce G. Buchanan and R.O. Duda, "Principles of Rule-Based Systems", Tech Report HPP-82-14, 1982. (Discusses the design of expert systems, including representation, inference, and uncertainty management. Examples from numerous specific systems, and discusses which problems are suitable for attack by rule-based systems.) Send email to for information on getting the tech report, or see the later report: Bruce Buchanan and Reid Smith, "Fundamentals of Expert Systems", Annual Review of Computer Science 3, 23-58, 1988. Joseph Giarratano and Gary Riley, "Expert Systems Principles and Practice", PWS Publishing (20 Park Plaza, Boston, MA 02116-4324 1-800-842-3636, 1-617-542-3377, fax 1-617-338-6134), 1993, 644 pages, ISBN 0-534-93744-6, $53.94. [This is the second edition of "Expert Systems: Principles and Programming" and comes with an MS-DOS CLIPS 6.0 interpreter. The book includes a good tutorial on using CLIPS.] James P. Ignizio, "Introduction to Expert Systems: The Development and Implementation of Rule-Based Expert Systems", McGraw-Hill, 1991. 402 pages, ISBN 0-07-909785-5 ($37.50). [Focuses on the building of the knowledge-base model and its proper implmentation from a decision-making perspective. Also covers knowledge acquisition, inference, and validation. Especially good for students in fields besides computer science, such as business, engineering, and the social sciences. There are exercises at the end of every chapter. Clear and concise explanations with good examples. Also provides an introduction to EXSYS with an EXSYS demo disk.] Samuel J. Biondo, "Fundamentals of Expert Systems Technology: Principles and Concepts", Ablex, Norwood, NJ, 1990. 160 pages, ISBN 0-89391-701-X paper ($35). Dennis Merritt, "Building Expert Systems in Prolog", Springer-Verlag, 1989. 358 pages, ISBN 0-387-97016-9 hardcover ($52). Explains how to build various expert system shells in Prolog, including forward/backward chaining, FOOPS, rete-network, frames, solving Rubik's cube and more. Includes complete source code listings. (Source code from the book is also sold on disk by Amzi! Inc. and is available by anonymous FTP from as the files xsip.*) Their Web page is David Hu, "C/C++ for Expert Systems", Management Information Source, Portland, OR, 1989. 565 pages, ISBN 0-943518-86-5 ($24.95). [Includes a diskette of source code from the book.] General AI books with extensive coverage of expert systems: Firebaugh, Morris W., "Artificial Intelligence: A Knowledge-Based Approach", PWS-Kent, Massachusetts, 1989. ISBN 0-87835-325-9 OPS5: Charles L. Forgy, "OPS5 User's Manual", Technical Report CMU-CS-81-135, Carnegie Mellon University, School of Computer Science, Pittsburgh, PA 1981. Thomas Cooper and Nancy Wogrin, "Rule-based Programming with OPS5", Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, 1988, ISBN 0-934613-51-6, $49.95. Match Algorithms: RETE: Charles L. Forgy, "RETE: A fast algorithm for the many pattern/many object pattern match problem", Artificial Intelligence 19(1):17-37, September 1982. TREAT: Daniel P. Miranker, "TREAT: A better match algorithm for AI production systems". In Proceedings of the Sixth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI-87), pages 42-47, August 1987. Daniel P. Miranker, "TREAT: A New and Efficient Match Algorithm for AI Production Systems", Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, 1990, 143 pages, ISBN 0-934613-71-0, $29.95. MatchBox: Mark Perlin, "The match box algorithm for parallel production system match", Technical Report CMU-CS-89-163, Carnegie Mellon University, School of Computer Science, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, May 1989. DRETE: Michael A. Kelly and Rudolph E. Seviora, "An evaluation of DRETE on CUPID for OPS5 matching", in Proceedings of the Eleventh International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI-89), pages 84-90, Detroit MI, August 1989, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers. Journals -- Expert Systems: EXPERT SYSTEMS WITH APPLICATIONS Published 4 times annually. ISSN 0957-4174. Subscriptions: Institutions L85 ($155), Individuals L45 ($72). Pergamon Press Inc., 660 White Plains Road, Tarrytown, NY 10591-5153, email, or Pergamon Press Ltd., Headington Hill Hall, Oxford OX3 0BW, England. EXPERT SYSTEMS: THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF KNOWLEDGE ENGINEERING Published 4 times annually. ISSN 0266-4720. Subscriptions: L85 ($110) Learned Information Ltd., Woodside, Hinksey Hill, Oxford OX1 5AU, UK. Tel: +44 (0)865-730275 Fax: +44 (0)085-736354 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EXPERT SYSTEMS Published 4 times annually. ISSN 0894-9077. Subscriptions: Institutions $135; Individuals $75. Outside the US add $10 for surface mail and $20 for airmail. JAI Press Inc., 55 Old Post Road -- No. 2, PO Box 1678, Greenwich, CT 06836-1678. KNOWLEDGE ENGINEERING REVIEW Published quarterly, ISSN 0269-8889. In the UK: Cambridge University Press, The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 1BR, UK. In N. America: Cambridge University Press, Journals Department, 40 West 20th Street, New York, NY 10011-4211. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF APPLIED EXPERT SYSTEMS (IJAES) Published three times annually. ISSN 0969-9317 Subscriptions: BP60.00/US$117.00. Taylor Graham Publishing, 500 Chesham House, 150 Regent Street, London W1R 5FA UK. Editor: Alan Sangster <> URL:
Subject: [1-4] Note about 'Real-Time' expert systems Many "real-time" expert systems are 'soft' real-time systems, in that they claim to be fast. A 'hard' real-time system would have features that guarantee a response within a fixed amount of real-time (e.g., bounded computation, not just a fast match-recognize-act cycle). Systems like G2 use event-driven processing (restricting certain rules to execute only when specific WM elements change in a particular way) as a method of limiting forward chaining.
Subject: [1-5a] Free/Cheap Expert System Shells Remember, when ftping compressed or compacted files (.Z, .gz, .arc, .fit, etc.) to use binary mode for retrieving the files. Files that end with a .gz suffix were compressed with the patent-free gzip (no relation to zip). Source for gzip is available from:{gzip-1.2.3.shar,gzip-1.2.3.tar,gzip-1.2.3.msdos.exe} If you do not have ftp access, you can FTP files by E-mail. Send a message with the word "help" in the body to FOCL is an expert system shell and machine learning program written in Common Lisp. The machine learning program extends Quinlan's FOIL program by containing a compatible explanation-based learning component. FOCL learns Horn Clause programs from examples and (optionally) background knowledge. The expert system includes a backward-chaining rule interpreter and a graphical interface to the rule and fact base. For details on FOCL, see: Pazzani, M. and Kibler, D., "The role of prior knowledge in inductive learning", Machine Learning 9:54-97, 1992. It is available by anonymous ftp from as the files README.FOCL-1-2-3, FOCL-1-2-3.cpt.hqx (a binhexed, compacted Macintosh application), FOCL-1-2-3.tar.Z (Common Lisp source code), and FOCL-1-2-3-manual.hqx (binhexed manual). If you use a copy of FOCL, or have any comments or questions, send mail to SOAR -- /afs/ -- Lisp Version /afs/ -- C Version Contact: Integrated Agent Architecture. Supports learning through chunking. OPS5 -- BABYLON is a development environment for expert systems. It includes frames, constraints, a prolog-like logic formalism, and a description language for diagnostic applications. It is implemented in Common Lisp and has been ported to a wide range of hardware platforms. Available by anonymous ftp from [] as a BinHexed stuffit archive, on the Web via the URL on the Apple CD-ROM, or with the book "The AI Workbench BABYLON", which contains *full source code* of BABYLON and the stand-alone version for the Mac. The book describes the use of BABYLON in detail. MOBAL is a system for developing operational models of application domains in a first order logic representation. It integrates a manual knowledge acquisition and inspection environment, an inference engine, machine learning methods for automated knowledge acquisition, and a knowledge revision tool. By using MOBAL's knowledge acquisition environment, you can incrementally develop a model of your domain in terms of logical facts and rules. You can inspect the knowledge you have entered in text or graphics windows, augment the knowledge, or change it at any time. The built-in inference engine can immediately execute the rules you have entered to show you the consequences of your inputs, or answer queries about the current knowledge. MOBAL also builds a dynamic sort taxonomy from your inputs. If you wish, you can use several machine learning methods to automatically discover additional rules based on the facts that you have entered, or to form new concepts. If there are contradictions in the knowledge base due to incorrect rules or facts, there is a knowledge revision tool to help you locate the problem and fix it. MOBAL (release 3.0b) is available free for non-commercial academic use by anonymous ftp from The system runs on Sun SparcStations, SunOS 4.1, and includes a graphical interface implemented using Tcl/TK. MIKE (Micro Interpreter for Knowledge Engineering) is a full-featured, free, and portable software environment designed for teaching purposes at the UK's Open University. It includes forward and backward chaining rules with user-definable conflict resolution strategies, and a frame representation language with inheritance and 'demons' (code triggered by frame access or change), plus user-settable inheritance strategies. Automatic 'how' explanations (proof histories) are provided for rule exectuion, as are user-specified 'why' explanations. Coarse-grained and fine-grained rule tracing facilities are provided, along with a novel 'rule graph' display which concisely shows the history of rule execution. MIKE, which forms the kernel of an Open University course on Knowledge Engineering, is written in a conservative and portable subset of Edinburgh-syntax Prolog, and is distributed as non-copy-protected source code. MIKE version 1 was described in the October/November 1990 issue of BYTE. MIKE v1.50, which was formerly available from a range of ftp servers, has been superseded by two newer versions: MIKEv2.03, a full Prolog source code version, incorporating a RETE algorithm for fast forward chaining, a truth maintenance system, uncertainty handling, and hypothetical worlds, and MIKEv2.50, a turnkey DOS version with menu-driven interface and frame- and rule-browsing tools, fully compatible with MIKEv2.03, but without source code. They are available by anonymous ftp from [] as the files MIKEv2.03: /pub/software/src/MIKEv2.03/* MIKEv2.50: /pub/software/pc/MIKEV25.ZIP They are also available from the CMU AI Repository. For further information, please contact Marc Eisenstadt,, Human Cognition Research Lab, The Open University, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA, UK, phone +44 908-65-3149, fax +44 908-65-3169. ES: The October/November 1990 issue of BYTE also described the ES expert system. ES supports backward/forward chaining, fuzzy set relations, and explanation, and is a standalone executable for IBM-PCs. ES is available by anonymous ftp from [] as summers.tar.Z. is mirrored on [] under /pub/uunet/. WindExS (Windows Expert System) is a fully functional Windows-based forward chaining expert system. Its modular architecture allows the user to substitute new modules as required to enhance the capabilites of the system. WindExS sports Natural Language Rule Processor, Inference Engine, File Manager, User Interface, Message Manager and Knowledge Base modules. It supports forward chaining, and graphical knowledge base representation. Write for documentation and operational system. RT-Expert is a shareware expert system that lets C programmers integrate expert systems rules into their C or C++ applications. RT-Expert consists of a rule-compiler that compiles rules into C code, and a library containing the rule execution engine. RT-Expert for DOS works with Borland Turbo C, Borland C++, and Microsoft C/C++ compilers. The personal edition is licensed for educational, research, and hobby use. Applications created with RT-Expert personal edition are not licensed for commercial purposes. Professional editions are available for commercial applications using DOS, Windows, and Unix environments. RT-Expert is available by anonymous ftp from For more information, write to Real-Time Intelligent Systems Corporation <>.
Subject: [1-5b] Free/Cheap Expert System Shells: CLIPS and Related Systems CLIPS 6.0 (C Language Integrated Production System) is an OPS-like forward chaining production system written in ANSI C by NASA. The CLIPS inference engine includes truth maintenance, dynamic rule addition, and customizable conflict resolution strategies. CLIPS, including the runtime version, is easily embeddable in other applications. CLIPS includes an object-oriented language called COOL (CLIPS Object-Oriented Language) which is directly integrated with the inference engine. CLIPS runs on many platforms including IBM PC compatibles (including Windows 3.1 and MS-DOS 386 versions), Macintosh, VAX 11/780, Sun 3/260, and HP9000/500. CLIPS is available from COSMIC at a "nominal" fee (the MS-DOS/Windows 3.1 version $350 for the software and $115 more for the documentation, with discounts for US academic institutions; for update orders $100 and $200, respectively) for unlimited copies with no royalties. (CLIPS is available free to NASA, USAF, and their contractors for use on NASA and USAF projects.) For more information, send email to, write COSMIC, University of Georgia, 382 East Broad Street, Athens, GA 30602, call 706-542-3265, or fax 706-542-4807. To subscribe to the CLIPS mailing list, send a message to the list server ( with message body SUBSCRIBE CLIPS-LIST The CLIPS help desk phone number is 713-286-8919 (fax 713-286-4479/244-5698) and email address is (The address is STB Products Help Desk, LinCom Corporation, 1020 Bay Area Boulevard, #200, Houston, TX 77058-2628.) The Software Technology Branch's home page is NASA Information Services's home page is and the CLIPS home page is [Note: Folks who obtain CLIPS from COSMIC can do anything they wish with it, including redistribute it. Folks who obtain CLIPS directly from NASA are restricted to using it for US government purposes only.] The CLIPS FAQ list and bug fixes are available from and are maintained by Gary Riley <>. Joseph Giarratano and Gary Riley's book, "Expert Systems Principles and Practice", comes with an MS-DOS CLIPS 6.0 interpreter (see [1-3] above). CLIPS is also available on the various AI CD-ROMs, and the MS-DOS version is available for $50 from Austin Code Works <>, 11100 Leafwood Lane, Austin, Texas 78750-3409, phone 512-258-0785, fax 512-258-8831, or BBS 512-258-8831. DYNACLIPS (DYNAamic CLIPS Utilities), is a set of blackboard, dynamic knowledge exchange, and agent tools for CLIPS 5.1 and 6.0. It is implemented as a set of libraries that can be linked with CLIPS 5.1 or CLIPS 6.0. Versions 3.0 and 3.1 will work with either CLIPS 5.1 or CLIPS 6.0. Source code is not available. Agents use the blackboard to communicate with other intelligent agents in the framework. Each intelligent agent can send and receive facts, rules, and commands. Rules and facts are inserted and deleted dynamicly while the agents are running. Knowledge can be transfered on a temporary or permanent basis. For more information, please contact Yilmaz Cengeloglu, PO Box 4142, Winter Park, FL 32793-4142, or send email to, or It is available from the CMU AI Repository in AGENT_CLIPS is a multi-agent tool for MACINTOSH. Multiple copies of CLIPS run at the same time on MACINTOSH. Each Agent (CLIPS) can send CLIPS commands to other active agents at run time. AGENT_CLIPS handles incoming commands automatically. Command transfer is also mean that agents can exchange facts, rules at run time. This is a form of Knowledge Exchange Among Intelligent Agents. AGENT_CLIPS does NOT use Blackboard Architecture. Library for AGENT_CLIPS is also included in this package. You can link this library with other CLIPS applications such as fuzzyCLIPS. AGENT_CLIPS can be obtained by anonymous ftp from It is also available from Compuserve, AIEXPERT Forum, Libraries, Expert System. For more information contact Yilmaz Cengeloglu at FuzzyCLIPS 6.02 is a version of the CLIPS rule-based expert system shell with extensions for representing and manipulating fuzzy facts and rules. In addition to the CLIPS functionality, FuzzyCLIPS can deal with exact, fuzzy (or inexact), and combined reasoning, allowing fuzzy and normal terms to be freely mixed in the rules and facts of an expert system. The system uses two basic inexact concepts, fuzziness and uncertainty. Versions are available for UNIX systems, Macintosh systems and PC systems. There is no cost for the software, but please read the terms for use in the FuzzyCLIPS documentation. FuzzyCLIPS is available via WWW (World Wide Web). It can be accessed indirectly through the Knowledge Systems Lab Server using the URL or more directly by using the URL or by anonymous ftp from For more information about FuzzyCLIPS send mail to wxCLIPS provides a simple graphical front end to CLIPS 5.1, CLIPS 6.0 and CLIPS 6.0 with fuzzy extensions. It is essentially CLIPS modified to work with an event driven style of programming, and a set of GUI functions. wxCLIPS is available as Sun Open Look, Sun Motif, Linux Open Look, Windows 3.1, Windows 32-bit, and Windows 95 binaries. wxCLIPS is available by anonymous FTP from [] or the URL To be added to the wxclips-users or wxclips-announce mailing lists, send mail to For more information, write to Julian Smart <>.
Subject: [1-6] Commercial Expert System Shells The commercial products below are listed in alphabetical order. ACQUIRE is knowledge acquisition system and expert system shell. It is a complete development environment for building and maintaining knowledge-based applications. It provides a step-by-step methodology for knowledge engineering that allows the domain experts themselves to be directly involved in structuring and encoding the knowledge. (The direct involvement of the domain expert improves the quality, completeness and accuracy of acquired knowledge, lowers development and maintenance costs, and increases their control over the form of the software application.) Features include a structured approach to knowledge acquisition; a model of knowledge acquisition based on pattern recognition; knowledge represented as objects, production rules and decision tables; handling uncertainty by qualitative, non-numerical procedures; extremely thorough knowledge bases; sophisticated report writing facilities; and self documenting knowledge bases in a hypertext environment. ACQUIRE-SDK, their Software Development Kit, provides: callable libraries for MS-DOS,and SCO Unix; DLL's for Asmetrix TooBook, Windows, Windows NT, Windows 95 and Win 32; and custom controls for Visual Basic. Call or email them for information on how to utilize the SDK to deliver applications over the WWW. The ACQUIRE development package (knowledge acquisition system and expert system shell) costs $995 for Windows 3.1 and includes manual, a tutorial, on-line help and telephone helpline. For more information please visit their web page at For an example of an ACQUIRE application that is running over the web try their Whale Watcher demonstration at For more information, write to Acquired Intelligence Inc, Suite 205, 1095 McKenzie Avenue, Victoria, Canada V8P 2L5, call 604-479-8646, fax 604-479-0764, or send email <>. ACTIVATION FRAMEWORK runs on personal computers (DOS, Windows) and UNIX workstations. This tool is not a traditional expert system shell, rather is a tool for building real-time data interpretation applications. The vendor claims the tool competes with Gensym's G2 in terms of application domains. For more information, write to the sales office at The Real-Time Intelligent Systems Corporation, 26 Worthen, Chelmsford, MA 01824, call 508-250-4633, or fax 508-256-8132. To reach the development office write to 76 Otis Street, Westborough, MA 01581, call 508-870-0043, fax 508-870-0148, or send email to Aion Development System (ADS) runs on numerous platforms, including DOS, OS/2, SunOS, Microsoft Windows, and VMS. It includes an object oriented knowledge representation, forward, backward, bidirectional, and pattern matching rules, graphics, calls to/from other languages (C, Pascal, ...), and the Choreographer graphical user interface. For more information, write to Aion Corporation, 101 University Avenue, Palo Alto, CA 94301, call 800-845-2466 (415-328-9595), or fax 415-321-7728. For Europe, write to Software Generation, Kontichsesteenweg 40, B 2630 Aartselaar, Belgium, call 32-(0)3-877.12.93, or fax 32-(0)3-877.13.55 Angoss Knowledge Seeker. Angoss is a data-mining tool that can be used to produce knowledge bases of rules by infering cause and effect relationships from a database. The DOS version costs $799 and the Windows version $899. For more information, write to Angoss Software International Ltd., 430 King Street W., Suite 201, Toronto M5V 1J5, Canada, call 416-593-1122, or fax 416-593-5077. ART*Enterprise (Brightware, Inc., formerly a division of Inference Corporation). ART*Enterprise is the latest of the family of rule-based development environments originating with ART in the mid-1980s. It is a development environment for enterprise-wide applications, incorporating rules, a full object system which includes features currently not present in C++ or Smalltalk, and a large collection of object classes for UI development across platforms (from Windows to OS/2 to Unix), access to databases (SQL-based and ODBC-based), and multi-person development. The ART*Enterprise environment provides a forward chaining engine where backward chaining can be implemented, though it is not supported directly. ART*Enterprise also provides a CBR kernel for those who are interested in incorporating it into their applications. For further information, contact Brightware, Inc., 101 Rowland Way, Suite 310, Novato, CA 94945, call 1-800-532-2890 (1-415-899-9070), fax 415-899-9080, or email Their home page is located at the URL In addition to the usual company and product information, this page features several job openings. Arity Expert Development Package is an expert system that integrates rule-based and frame-based representations of knowledge with several different kinds of certainty factors. The OS/2 version costs $495 and the DOS version $295. For more information, write to Arity Corporation, Damonmill Square, Concord, MA 01742, call 800-722-7489 (508-371-1243), fax 508-371-1487, or send email to or Paul G. Weiss <>. BABYLON. For more information, write to VW-GEDAS GmbH, Pascalstrasse 11, W-1000 Berlin 10, call +49 30-39-970-0, or fax +49 30-39-970-999. CAM Software sells two expert system tools, DClass and LogicTree. DClass is a decision-tree system used for manufacturing applications. LogicTree is a decision-making system designed for non-programmers. For more information, write to CAM Software, 390 W. 800 N., Suite 103, PO Box 276, Orem, UT 84059-0276, call 800-293-6777, or fax 801-225-0286. CBR Express (Inference Corporation). CBR Express family of products supports case-based retrieval of information. For further information contact Inference Corporation, 550 N. Continental Blvd., El Segundo, CA 90245, call 800-322-9923 (310-322-0200), fax 310-322-3242, or email Their home page is located at the URL In addition to the usual company and product information, this page features a live demo of case-based retrieval in action and several job openings. COGSYS. For more information, write to COGSYS Ltd., Enterprise House, Unit 37, Salford University Business Park, Salford M6 6AJ, England, or call 061-745-7604. COMDALE/C, COMDALE/X, and ProcessVision. COMDALE/C is a real-time expert system designed for industrial process monitoring and control. + COMDALE/C allows requests for justification of recommendations, conclusions, and control actions without interrupting the decision making process. It can deal with uncertainty in knowledge and data, and has an open architecture and time-based reasoning. Other features include: full object-oriented configuration; full networking capabilities; alarm processing; an interrupt driven controller; trending and historical data collection; time-scheduled events; a realtime database, and interfaces with DCSs, PLCs and other I/O devices. + COMDALE/X is an off-line consultative expert system which queries the user for information required to make its decisions. COMDALE/X is included with COMDALE/C as the development tool for real-time expert systems. COMDALE/X has the capability to incorporate hypertext documents with the reasoning abilities of the expert system to produce expert hyper manuals which provide information and generate advice through an easy to use interface. + ProcessVision is a real-time process monitoring and control software package. Based on an open and modular architecture, ProcessVision provides a graphical operator interface; intuitive object-oriented display configuration, smart alarming, sensor validation, hot standby, and unlimited connectivity to all your process instrumentation in one global environment. For more information, write to Comdale Technologies (Canada) Inc., The Comdale Building, 701 Evans Avenue, Suite 600, Toronto, Ontario, CANADA, M9C 1A3, call 416-620-1234, fax 416-620-4526, or send email to, or see their web site, C-PRS (Procedural Reasoning System in C) aims at representing and executing operating procedures. It allows the user to express and represent the conditional sequences of complex operations and to ensure their execution in real time while embedded in the application environment. C-PRS is useful for process control and supervision applications. The PRS technology has been applied to different tasks with real-time constraints and demands including the monitoring of several subsystems of the NASA space shuttle, the diagnosis and supervision of telecommunication networks (Telecom Australia), the control of mobile robots (SRI, LAAS), the control system of surveillance aircrafts (Grumman) and air traffic management (Civil Aviation Authority). The procedural reasoning technology was initially developed at the Artificial Intelligence Center of the Stanford Research Institute (Menlo Park, California). ACS Technologies has further developed and now markets C-PRS, the first commercial implementation of the Procedural Reasoning technology. C-PRS was developed with the most currently recognized standards: C, UNIX, X11, MOTIF. It guarantees some real time properties. It is available on numerous platforms and operating systems, including SPARC, DECstation, Sony News, Hewlett Packard, VxWorks, and others. For more information write to ACS Technologies, 5, Place du Village d'Entreprises, B.P. 556 31674 LABEGE Cedex, FRANCE, call 33-62-24-99-20, fax 33-61-39-86-74, or send email to email to <> or <>. CPR (Case-based Problem Resolution) is a C++ class library and Help!CPR is a helpdesk and knowledge authoring application that uses CPR. CPR is being embedded within call tracking systems and Help!CPR competes directly with Inference Corporations's CBR Express and CasePoint (CasePoint being CBR Express without authoring capabilities). For more information, write to The Haley Enterprise, Inc., 413 Orchard Street, Sewickley, PA 15143, call 800-233-2622 (412-741-6420), fax 412-741-6457, send email to, or see their web site or ftp site These sites include their literature in PostScript and HTML, as well as their software. CRYSTAL runs on personal computers and is available from Intelligent Environemnts. For more information, write to Intelligent Environments Europe Ltd., Crystal House, PO Box 51, Sunbury-on-Thames, Middlesex TW16 7UL, England, call 44-0-932-772266, or fax 44-0-932-771499. See PC Magazine 8(2), January 31, 1989. CxPERT is an expert system shell that produces royalty-free C code. For more information, write to Software Plus Ltd., 1315 Pleasant Meadow Road, Crofton, MD 21114, or call 301-261-0264. The Easy Reasoner (TM) is a Case-Based Retrieval (CBR) tool with Reasoning that provides an adaptive associative memory; retrieves similar cases from memory given a new case; extends Query-by-Example (QBE) by providing Query-by-Similarity(TM) (QBS); indexes existing databases using decision trees; supports xBase, ODBC, and SQL databases; maximizes information while minimizing complexity; automatically filteres noise to simplifies decision trees; induces automatically or under explicit control; ranks and retrieves classified cases by similarity; efficiently retrieves similar cases from large databases; efficiently retrieves most similar case from large DBs; efficiently retrieves "next most similar" case; supports multiple decision tree indices per database; supports multiple decision trees per field; classifies new information using any decision tree; automatically or interactively classifies new cases; handles missing data and "don't know" responses; provides customizable thesaurus for nominal fields; provides adaptive, context-sensitive, default reasoning; provides adaptive estimation using decision trees; predicts or ranks values for nominal or ordinal fields; automatically learns N-dimensional similarity spaces; quickly retrieves closest case from similarity space; ranks cases by distance in similarity space; retrieves records where similarity depends on text; circumvents spelling problems with N-M-grams; recognizes various forms of English dictionary words; automatically determines information content per word; automatically determines thesaural information content. Easy Reasoner. The Easy Reaoner 16 bit Windows Toolkit costs $249, The Easy Reaoner 32 bit Windows Toolkit costs $499, The Easy Reasoner OS/2 Toolkit costs $499, and The Easy Reasoner UNIX X/Motif Toolkit costs $999. UNIX Versions available for Sun OS, Sun Solaris, HP UX, Data General, AIX. For more information, write to The Haley Enterprise, Inc., 413 Orchard Street, Sewickley, PA 15143, call 800-233-2622 (412-741-6420), fax 412-741-6457, send email to, or see their web site or ftp site These sites include their literature in PostScript and HTML, as well as their software. ECLIPSE runs on personal computers (DOS, Windows). System V Unix and POSIX versions are also available. The syntax is derived from Inference Corporations' ART and is compatible with NASA's CLIPS. Features include data-driven pattern matching, forward and backward chaining, truth maintenance, support for multiple goals, relational and object-oriented representations, and integration with dBase. For more information, write to The Haley Enterprise, Inc., 413 Orchard Street, Sewickley, PA 15143, call 800-233-2622 (412-741-6420), fax 412-741-6457, or send email to, or see their web site or ftp site These sites include their literature in PostScript and HTML, as well as their software. See also IEEE Computer, February 1991, pages 4-12. The cost is $499 for the Eclipse 16 bit Windows Toolkit, $999 for Eclipse 32 bit Windows Toolkit or Eclipse OS/2 Toolkit, and $1,999 for Eclipse UNIX X/Motif Toolkit. Versions are available for Sun OS, Sun Solaris, HP UX, Data General, AIX. Emerald Empower Procedural Advisor for Macintosh or PC Windows. $6800 Fault trees are built graphically to automate the decision path that an expert uses for troubleshooting a problem. Emerald Intelligence, Inc, 3850E Research Park Dr, Ann Arbor, MI 48108, call 313-663-8757, or fax 313-663-8757. Esteem is a case-based reasoning tool for Windows that integrates case-based reasoning with rules. For more information write to Esteem Software Inc., 302 E. Main, Cambridge City, IN 47327, call 317-478-3955, or fax 317-478-3550. EXSYS Professional runs under MS-DOS, MS-Windows, Macintosh, SunOS, Solaris, Unix and Vax. It supports backward and forward chaining, linear programming, fuzzy logic, neural networks, and has a SQL interface. For more information please visit their web page at For examples of EXSYS applications running over the web try their Web Runtime Engine demonstrations at For an MS-Windows executable demo of EXSYS Professional/EXSYS RuleBook These sites include their literature in PDF and HTML, as well as their software. For more information, send Email to, write to Exsys, Inc., 1720 Louisiana Boulevard, NE, Suite 312, Albuquerque, NM 87110, call 800-676-8356 (505-256-8356), or fax 505-256-8359. See also PC Tech Journal 7(1):115, January, 1989. FLEX is a hybrid expert system toolkit available across a wide range of different hardware platforms which offers frames, procedures and rules integrated within a logic programming environment. FLEX supports interleaved forward and backward chaining, multiple inheritance, procedural attachment, an automatic question and answer system. Rules, frames and questions are described in a English-like Knowledge Specification Language (KSL) which enables the development of easy-to-read and easy-to-maintain knowledge bases. FLEX is implemented in, and has access to, Prolog. FLEX is available from LPA (who originally developed flex on the PC), and also from most major Prolog vendors under license, including Quintus, BIM, Interface, and ISL. FLEX has been used in numerous commercial expert systems, and prices on a PC running Windows or on a Macintosh start at around $1,000. [A review of Quintus-flex is expected in an upcoming issue of PC-AI. --mk] For more information contact: Logic Programming Associates Ltd, Studio 4, R.V.P.B., Trinity Road, London, SW18 3SX. Tel: +44 (0) 181-871-2016; Fax: +44 (0) 181-874-0449. Email: In the US call 1-800-949-7567. Their web page is located at the URL Foundation Technologies sells expert system products and services for financial applications, such as pension management. For more information write to Foundation Technologies Inc., One Kendall Square, Cambridge, MA 02139, call 617-720-2760, or fax 617-720-4153. Gensym's G2 offers a graphical, object-oriented environment for creating intelligent applications that monitor, diagnose, and control dynamic events in on-line and simulated environments. Featuring a structured natural language for creating rules, models, and procedures, G2 is the foundation of all Gensym application products and end-user applications. Gensym's application products include the G2 Diagnostic Assistant (GDA), which provides a visual programming environment for creating intelligent process management applications. NeurOn-Line, another Gensym product, allows users to easily create neural network applications. G2 includes concurrent execution of rules and procedures and the ability to reason about behavior over time. G2 GUIDE allows users to easily create graphical end user interfaces and real-time displays. Gensym's Telewindows provides a powerful multi-user client/server environment that allows users to share G2 applications. Gensym also offers G2 Bridge Products for connectivity to other programs (C and ADA) and real-time data systems including relational databases, distributed control systems, and programmable logic controllers. Gensym supports its products worldwide through 26 direct sales offices and a network of over 100 marketing partners. For more information, please write to Gensym Corporation, 125 Cambridge Park Drive, Cambridge, MA 02140 USA, call +617-547-2500, fax +617-547-1962, or send email to Gensym's homepage is located at (The Gensym page was formerly located at The IndustryNet page will be removed this spring.) GBB, generic blackboard framework: provides: -- A high-performance blackboard database compiler and runtime library, which support pattern-based, multidimensional range-searching algorithms for efficient proximity-based retrieval of blackboard objects -- KS representation languages -- Generic control shells and agenda-management utilities -- Interactive, graphic displays for monitoring and examining blackboard and control components These components provide the infrastructure needed to build blackboard-based applications. GBB is available for DOS/Windows, Mac, Unix workstations (Sun, HP/Apollo, IBM, DEC, Silicon Graphics), Symbolics and TI Explorer Lisp machines. (GBB is a significantly enhanced, commercial version of the UMass GBB research framework, available via FTP from NetGBB, distributed extension to GBB, provides to GBB the communication and coordination facilities needed to build heterogenous distributed blackboard applications. For more information write to Blackboard Technology Group, Inc., 401 Main Street, Amherst, MA 01002, call 800-KSS-8990 or 413-256-8990, or fax 413-256-3179. To be added to the mailing lists, send mail to There are two mailing lists, gbb-user (moderated) and gbb-users (unmoderated). Blackboard Technlogy has a WWW page at the URL GOLDWORKS III. For more information, write to Gold Hill Computers, Inc., 26 Landsdowne Street, Cambridge, MA 02139, call 800-242-5477 (617-621-3300), or fax 617-621-0656. GURU is an expert system development environment and RDBMS that offers a wide variety of information processing tools combined with knowledge-based capabilities such as forward chaining, backward chaining, mixed chaining, multi-value variables, and fuzzy reasoning. For more information about GURU and the other database engines, development tools, and services offered by Micro Data Base Systems, please write to Micro Data Base Systems, Inc., 1305 Cumberland Avenue, P.O. Box 2438, West Lafayette, IN 47906-0438, call 800-445-MDBS/6327 (317-463-7200), fax 317-463-1234, or send email to HUGIN System is a software package for construction of model based expert systems in domains characterized by inherent uncertainty. The Hugin System contains an easy to use probability based deduction system, applicable to complex networks with cause-effect causal relations subject to uncertainty. The Hugin System presents a novel development. The implementation is based on an improvement of the award winning work by Lauritzen and Spiegelhalter: Local Computation with Probabilities on Graphical Structures and their Application to Expert Systems. The Hugin Demonstration, for Sun Workstations and PC-Windows, is available for anonymous ftp from [] The WWW home page for HUGIN is accessible by the URL For more information write to Hugin Expert A/S, Niels Jernes Vej 10, DK-9220 Aalborg O, Phone +45 9815 6644, Fax: +45 9815 8550, Email: Icarus is an expert systems development tool for PCs. It includes links to Lotus and dBASE files, forward and backward chaining, and Bayesian confidence factors. For more information, write to Icarus, 11300 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 02852-3088, call 301-881-9350, or fax 301-881-2542. ILOG RULES is a high performance embeddable rule-based inference engine. It is a forward chaining tool, written in C++ (hence it is object-oriented and supports inheritance mechanisms) and is also provided as a C++ library. It runs virtually on any Unix platform (e.g., HP97X0, Sun4, RS/6000, DecStations) as well as on PCs running DOS (with or without MS/Windows) or OS/2. It extends OPS/5 with nested premises (objects as values), rule packets (logical grouping of rules), a full Truth Maintenance System (TMS) for efficient non-monotonic reasoning, compilation of rules into C/C++ code, and an object oriented data-model in C++. ILOG RULES work directly on user objects, so interfacing is straightforward. C/C++ code may be included in rule conditions and actions. ILOG RULES is based on the fast XRETE implementation of the RETE algorithm developed by Thomson-CSF. For more information, contact ILOG, Inc., 2073 Landings Drive, Mountain View, CA 94043, tel 415-390-9000, fax 415-390-0946, e-mail European customers should contact ILOG SA, 9, rue de Verdun, BP 85, 94253 Gentilly CEDEX, France, tel +33 (1) 49-08-35-00, fax +33 (1) 49-08-35-10, e-mail The URL of ILOG's web page is INTELLIGENCE COMPILER. For more information, write to Intelligence Ware 9800 S. Sepulveda Blvd. Los Angeles, CA 90045-5228 call 213-417-8896, or fax 213-417-8897. KDS is a case-based system that produces rules from cases. For more information, write to KDS Corporation, 934 Cornell Street, Wilmeete, IL 60091-1405, call 708-251-2621, or fax 708-251-6489. KEE, ProKappa, and Kappa are expert system development packages that run on personal computers, workstations, and Lisp machines. Features include ATM, rule-based reasoning, and OOP support. For more information, write to IntelliCorp, Inc., 1975 El Camino Real West, Suite 101, Mountain View, CA 94040-2216, call 415-965-5700/5500 or fax 415-965-5647. In Europe call +44-344-305305. See also CACM 31(4):382-401, April, 1988. KES and SNAP run on personal computers (KES $4,000), workstations (KES $10,000, SNAP $40,000 on most platforms), minicomputers (KES $25,000), IBM mainframes (KES $60,000). Although KES can be purchased separately, it is part of SNAP. For more information write to Software Architecture and Engineering, Inc., 1600 Wilson Boulevard, Suite 500, Arlington, VA 22209, call 703-276-7910, or fax 703-284-3821. Write to Template Software, 13100 Worldgate Drive, Suite 340, Herndon, Virginia 22070, call 703-318-1000, or fax 703-318-7378. Knowledge Craft is an expert-system development toolkit for scheduling, design, and configuration applications. For more information, write to Carnegie Group, 5 PPG Place, Pittsburgh, PA 15222, call 800-284-3424 (412-642-6900), or fax 412-642-6906. KnowledgeWorks from Harlequin runs on a variety of Unix platforms, including Sun Sparc and clones (SunOS and Solaris), IBM RS/6000 (AIX), DEC MIPS (Ultrix), DEC Alpha (OSF/1), HP PA (HP-UX), and SGI (IRIX). It includes a CLOS-based object system, OPS compatible forward chainer (2500 firings/sec on a Sparc2), Prolog compatible backward chainer (40 KLIPS), graphical programming environment, user-defined conflict resolution, MetaRule Protocol for extending execution model, and a SQL interface for relational databases. For further information, contact by e-mail worldwide: (OR or in the US: FAX: 617-252-6505 Voice: 800-WORKS-4-YOU (800-967-5749) or 617-374-2400 or 617-252-0052 Mail: Harlequin Inc., One Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142 or in Europe: FAX: 0223-872-519 (OR 44-1223-872-519 from outside UK) Voice: 0223-873-800 OR -872-522 (OR 44-1223-873-800 from outside UK) Telex: 818440 harlqn g Mail: Harlequin Ltd., Barrington Hall, Barrington, Cambridge, CB2 5RG Harlequin also sells LispWorks (a Common Lisp and Prolog programming environment described in part 4 of the Lisp FAQ), MLWorks (an ML programming environment), and Watson (an intelligence analysis tool). K-Vision is a knowledge acquisition and visualization tool. It runs on Windows, DOS, and UNIX workstations. For more information write to Ginesys Corporation, 1200 Woodruff Road, Suite C-9, Greenville, SC 29607-5731, call 800-277-8338 (803-288-8338), or fax 803-458-9050. Laser. For more information, write to Bell Atlantic Knowledge Systems, Inc., P.O. Box 3528, Princeton, NJ 08543-3528, or call 800-552-2257 (609-275-8393). LEVEL5 OBJECT for Microsoft Windows runs on an IBM PC compatible computer using Windows 3.1 or above. LEVEL5 OBJECT is a robust object-oriented application development system with a tunable inference engine product. For more information, write to Information Builders, 503 Fifth Avenue, Indialantic, FL 32903, call 800-444-4303 (407-729-9046), fax 407-727-7615, or email to,, or Their Web server is located at the URL For Customer Support call 407-984-8705. There are several versions of the M.4 product. M.4 VB is a Visual Basic custom control that sells for $199. The full M.4 package runs on personal computers (DOS, Windows) and sells for $995. It features a modular kernel library that can be linked into C-language applications, backward and forward chaining, pattern matching, certainty factors, procedural control, an object-oriented representation, and ODBC hooks. M.4 is embeddable, configurable, and extendable and is provided as libraries, a custom control (VBX), and as a DDE Server. Working VB, Visual C++, ToolBook, and DOS GUIs are provided to illustrate various integration techniques. M.4 is also available as embeddable libraries for Sun SPARCstations for $2,495 and as embeddable libraries for Macintosh System 7 for $995. For more information, write to Teknowledge Corporation (formerly Cimflex Teknowledge Corporation), 1810 Embarcadero Road, Palo Alto, CA 94303, or call 800-285-0500 (415-424-0500), fax 415-493-2645, or visit MailBot, from Daxtron Labs, is a personal E-Mail agent for Microsoft Mail. MailBot provides filtering, forwarding, notification, automatic question answering and listserv like capabilities. MailBot can act as a expert system shell for mail. The front-end translates user rule inputs into a variant of Prolog. A API exists for writting action code in Visual Basic. More information is available from the URL MEM-1 is a Lisp-based language that aids in the development of Case-Based Reasoning systems; provides facilities to define case structures, create cases, divide cases into sub-cases, weigh case attributes, define indexing schemes and similarity functions, adapt solutions and define procedural adaptation rules. Runs on Windows, DOS, Sun, DECStation, RS/6000, and Macintosh. Price: $199 ($50 for educational institutions). For more information, write to CECASE, 2291 Irving Hill Drive, Lawrence, KS 66045, call 913-864-4896, fax 913-864-7789, or send email to ModelQuest 4.0. Runs on Windows 3+, NT, 95 ($995). ModelQuest is easy to learn and use so you can quickly take advantage of its power. ModelQuest produces more accurate and robust models as well as royalty-free C code. For more information, write to Abtech Corporation, 1575 State Farm Boulevard, Charlottesville, VA 22901, call 804-977-0686, fax 804-977-9615, e -mail, or visit their web page MUSE. For more information, write to Cambridge Consultants, Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge CB4 4DW, England, or call 0223-420024 Cambridge. NEXPERT OBJECT runs on over 30 platforms supported including personal computers ($5000), Macintosh ($5000), workstations ($12,000), minicomputers, and mainframes. Nexpert Object is written in C, and includes a graphical user interface, knowledge acquisition tools, and forms system. For more information, write to Neuron Data, 156 University Avenue, Palo Alto, CA 94301, call 800-876-4900 (415-321-4488), or fax 415-321-3728. Other offices include New York, 212-832-8900; Philadelphia, 215-941-2981; Washington, DC, 703-821-8800; Los Angeles, 714-851-4621; Chicago, 708-955-3688; Houston, 713-739-9020; United Kingdom, 44-71-408-2333, fax 44-71-495-6274; France, 33-1-40-70-04-21, fax 33-1-47-23-71-43; and Japan, 81-3-3746-4371, fax 81-3-3746-4374. See also IEEE Software 5(5):98, September, 1988, PC Tech Journal 6(11):112, November, 1988, MacUser 4(12):134, December, 1988, MacUser 4(9):136, September, 1989, Computer Language 6(12):123, December, 1989, PC Week 7(26):43, July 2, 1990, MacWeek 4(25):10, July 10, 1990, and IEEE Expert December, 1991, page 72. [This entry is a bit out of date. Nexpert Object is now part of a larger product called "Smart Elements", which includes Open Interface 2.0 -- an object-oriented GUI developer -- in addition to Nexpert Object 3.0. Any Neuron Data folks out there want to redo this entry?] Object Management Workbench* (OMW) is the first object-oriented analysis and design tool which incorporates directly executable diagrams and business rules. OMW works with Kappa(, an integrated, visual programming environment for developing client/server applications. Kappa applications are developed on Unix and can be delivered on either Unix or MS Windows. With Kappa CommManager*, an object request broker, customers can distribute Kappa applications, including program logic, across Unix, MS Windows and MVS. Kappa-PC( is IntelliCorps' integrated MS Windows-based programming environment for departmental developers. For more information, write to IntelliCorp, Inc., 1975 El Camino Real West, Mountain View, CA 94040-2216, call 415-965-5700 or fax 415-965-5647. In Europe call +44-344-305305. See also CACM 31(4):382-401, April, 1988. OPS83 was developed by the developers of OPS5 as a successor to OPS5. OPS83 is written in C, and OPS83 rule bases can be embedded in C programs. OPS83 was the first OPS-like language to provide this integration of rule bases with C. OPS83 supports Generalized Forward Chaining (GFC), a new control structure that permits rules to be more expressive; one GFC rule can replace several conventional flat rules. (Details and examples are available on request.) The current version of OPS83 uses the proprietary Rete II algorithm to enable it to handle large, complex rule sets efficiently. A multi-windowed, point-and-click development environment called the OPS83 Workbench is offered. OPS83 is available for DOS, OS/2, UNIX, VMS, and some proprietary operating systems. For information, write Production Systems Technologies, Inc., 5001 Baum Blvd., Pittsburgh, PA 15213, call 412-683-4000, or fax 412-683-6347. Personal Consultant Plus. For more information, write to Texas Instruments PO Box 2909, MS/2240, Austin, TX 78769, or call 800-527-3500. PowerSMARTS (multimedia rule-based logic), DataSMARTS (database mining), NeuroSMARTS (neural net) for Macintosh or PC Windows. Costs range from $495 to $4995. Cognition Technology Corporation, 1000 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02138, 617-492-0246, FAX 617-492-0247, Internet RAL (Rule-extended Algorithmic Language) is a high-performance C-based expert systems tool. It was designed to permit seamless integration of rules and objects into C programs. RAL is a superset of C. RAL rules can operate directly on the data types used by the C code in your application. RAL "understands" C type declarations, function prototypes, #define constants, etc. C expressions, statements, macros, function calls, etc. can be embedded directly in the rules. RAL has an open architecture that permits it to be used with any GUI builder, data base library, or other library that can be used with C. No bridges are required. For efficiency, RAL rules are compiled into C code. Charles Forgy, the inventor of Rete, has developed a more efficient match algorithm called Rete II for RAL. (Benchmark results are available on request.) A special version of the language, called RAL/RT, adds the features that are required for real-time expert systems. RAL and RAL/RT have a multi-windowed, point-and-click development environment called the RAL Workbench. RAL and RAL/RT are available for DOS, MS Windows, OS/2, and UNIX. License fees for development systems are available on request. There are no run-time fees charged for distributing applications developed using RAL. For information, write Production Systems Technologies, Inc., 5001 Baum Blvd., Pittsburgh, PA 15213, call 412-683-4000, or fax 412-683-6347. ReMind. ReMind is a case-based reasoning tool. For more information, write to Cognitive Systems Inc., 880 Canal Street, Stamford, CT 06907, call 203-356-7756, or fax 203-356-7760. Rete++ supports both forward and backward chaining. With Rete++ the programmer can develop object hierarchies and instantiate, manipulate, and access them using either C++, the standard rule-based syntax, or C. Asserting and modifying the data that is considered by rules is done by creating a C++ instance and performing assignments to and accessing the member data of the instance. Rete++ automatically generates C++ class taxonomies. The C++ components of Rete++ applications use these generated classes directly or further subclass them as needed. The Rete++ inference engine automatically considers any instances of a generated class (or its subclasses) in the matching of rule conditions. C++ data types provided by Rete++ allow more flexible representation and automatic reasoning using standard C++ syntax without extraneous function calls. Rete++ automatically monitors changes to C++ objects without requiring programmers to explicitly code function calls. Rete++ is provided as a C++ class library. As such, it may be linked as part of your C++ application. You may completely embed Rete++, with or without its graphical development environment. Modules for developing Case Based Reasoning and integration with databases are available for Rete++ applications. Rete++ integrates a dependency based Truth Maintenance System to preserve logically sound and complete reasoning in spite of non-monotonicity. Multiple rulesets and agendas support modular development and cooperating expert systems. Rete++ has an advanced browser for rule based programming. The Rete++ windowing development environment monitors the knowledge base with multiple views that are all updated in real-time, allowing for debugging, browsing, the monitoring and setting of break points, and the tracing of rules, facts and goals. Rete++ 16 bit Windows Toolkit costs $999, Rete++ 32 bit Windows Toolkit costs $1,999, Rete++ OS/2 Toolkit costs $1,999, and Rete++ UNIX X/Motif Toolkit costs $2,999. UNIX Versions available for Sun OS, Sun Solaris, HP UX, Data General, AIX. For more information write to The Haley Enterprise, Inc. 413 Orchard St., Sewickley, PA 15143, call 800-233-2622 (412-741-6420 or 412-967-1100), fax 412-741-6457, or send email to, or see their web site or ftp site These sites include their literature in PostScript and HTML, as well as their software. RT/Expert is an expert system development package integrated into the SystemBuild development environment that runs on PCs, UNIX, and VMS systems. For more information, write to Integrated Systems Inc., 3260 Jay Street, Santa Clara, CA 95054, call 408-980-1500, or fax 408-980-0400. RTworks is a family of independent software modules developed for intelligent real-time data acquisition and monitoring, data analysis, message/data distribution, and message/data display. RTworks offers a number of sophisticated problem-solving strategies including knowledge-based systems, a point-and-click graphical user interface, temporal and statistical reasoning, and the ability to distribute an application over a heterogeneous network. Included with RTworks is a high-speed inference engine (RTie) which is used to analyze the data using objects, classes, procedures, and rules. The IE can perform trending, prediction and temporal reasoning of rapidly changing data. Displays can be built by non-programmers using a user-friendly DRAW program. More than 60 different formats are provided for displaying input data including strip charts, bar charts, control charts, dials, pie charts, and high-low graphs. Graphical objects can be tied to variables which dynamically control attributes such as color, scale, rotation, motion, animation, and more. RTworks runs in a client-server architecture in which the RTserver process intelligently distributes the application's messages and data to only the client prcoesses which need them. User-defined client processes can connect to the RTserver and send and receive messages with other processes in the application. Possible applications include process control, network monitoring, financial trading, and command and control. RTworks is available on a variety of Unix and VMS platforms under a floating license in which you pay only for the number of simultaneous users, and the software is not node-locked to a particular machine. Current RTworks customers include Lockheed, NASA, Dow Chemical, PG&E (Pacific, Gas, and Electric), SWIFT, Mazda, and NTT. For further information, write to Talarian Corporation, 444 Castro Street, Suite 140, Moutain View, CA 94041, call 415-965-8050, fax 415-965-9077, or send E-mail to, or look on the world-wide web at SMECI is an expert system shell based on Lisp. For more information, contact ILOG, Inc., 2073 Landings Drive, Mountain View, CA 94043, tel 415-390-9000, fax 415-390-0946, email European customers should write to ILOG, 2, av. Gallieni, BP 85, 94253 Gentilly Cedex, France, tel +33 (1) 46-63-66-66, fax +33 (1) 46-63-15-82, email Sophos. For more information, write to Cognisys Consultants Inc., 7355 Trans Canada Highway, Suite 210, Saint-Laurent, Quebec, CANADA H4T 1T3, call 514-856-2311, or fax 514-856-2368. STATUTE Corporate V3.0 for Windows. Includes facilities for automatic document generation. Interfaces for Visual Basic, C, C++, and applications that can link to DLLs. Phone: 1-800-229-1954 (616-242-1982). Fax: 1-800-229-1959 (616-242-1948). TechMate is a real life expert system designed to serve as a decision aid and productivity tool for maintenance engineers and technicians. TechMate minimizes the expertise required from the technician to troubleshoot and diagnose problems in even highly sophisticated and complex units. Oriented for the functional level, TechMate can troubleshoot units that contain analog, digital and mechanical modules in electronic, electro-optic, hydraulic, or mechanical systems and devices. TechMate is used in many fault isolation applications in field service, depot facilities, and production lines. Its learning algorithms make TechMate grow smarter with use. TechMate is a model-based system that derives its intelligence from universal built-in knowledge bases and inference mechanisms, and from specific knowledge about the UUT (Unit Under Test) supplied by the test designer. It generates diagnostic assessments from the equipments block diagram (which can be entered manually or imported electronically) and the characteristics of the symptoms and tests. It is also capable of diagnosing multiple faults. For a given set of symptoms and test results (including BIT results), TechMate's diagnostic algorithms rank candidate faulty modules by their likelihood of failure. It may also zoom in to further assess the fault likelihood of each individual sub-module. Next, TechMate identifies and evaluates the tests that may be used to isolate a fault, and proposes the most cost-efficient tests. The sequence of tests is dynamically reordered based on the symptoms, BIT and test responses, thereby eliminating redundant tests. TechMate provides on-line documentation of the device and its tests. It also includes a database tool for storing and retrieving administrative data and sharing it with commercial DBMS. TechMate can be interfaced with a wide variety of test instruments and ATE systems. TechMate runs on Microsoft Windows and on UNIX/X-Windows. TechMate customers include Texas Instruments, Northrop, Raytheon, Honeywell, BARCO, British Gas, Deutche Aerospace, and Siemens Plessey. For further information, call IET Intelligent Electronics at 617-229-5855, fax 617-221-5692, or send E-mail to, or look on the world-wide web at TestBench, Shell is available from the Carnegie Group, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The development environment runs on the SUN workstations and the production environment on a number of platforms including PCs and NeXT machines. For more information, write to Carnegie Group, 5 PPG Place, Pittsburgh, PA 15222, call 800-284-3424 (412-642-6900), or fax 412-642-6906. VBXpert is a VBX custom control that uses the Rete Algorithm to add expertise to Visual Basic applications. VBXpert extends Visual Basic to support rule-based knowledge-based systems development by encapsulating the Rete Algorithm within a VBX custom control. It is a true custom control with Visual Basic property and event editing support and provides convenient properties that can be accessed and set by VB code to control embedded reasoning. VBXpert also provides: inference engine events that execute code you enter using the Visual Basic editor; a general-purpose "Callback" event to call Visual Basic from the actions of rules; efficient processing, even for a thousand if-then rules; automatic subgoaling and logical deduction; automatic retraction of invalid or outdated conclusions; Visual Basic declarations for Eclipse DLLs; supports Visual Basic's ANY and Variant data types; supports multiple concurrent Visual Basic apps; includes Eclipse DLLs and executable; includes C source code for the VBX; VBXpert for Windows $99 (price shown is for domestic check, VISA, MasterCard, and American Express orders only.) The Haley Enterprise, Inc. 413 Orchard St., Sewickley, PA 15143-2029 (800) 233-2622, 412-741-6420, Info@Haley.COM, or see their web site or ftp site These sites include their literature in PostScript and HTML, as well as their software. Visual Expert is a GUI-based expert system development tool for Windows. For more information, write to SoftSell Technologies, 16150 NE 85th Avenue, Suite 224, Redmond, WA 98052, call 206-556-1436, or fax 206-883-9002. VP-EXPERT version 3.1 runs on the IBM PC under DOS. It costs $349. A student version of the product is available for around $40. The student version is fully functional but limited to 16k in the total size of the system. For more information, write to Wordtech Systems Inc., PO Box 1747, Orinda, CA 94563, call 510-689-1200, or fax 510-689-1263. See also MacUser 4(12):134, December, 1988. XpertRule for Windows represents knowledge as decision trees, tables of decision examples, exception trees and sets of pattern rules. It can produce C code. Fuzzy Logic and Genetic Algorithm optimization are included. For more information, write to Attar Software USA, PO Box 68, Harvard, MA 01451-0068, call 800-456-3966, or fax 508-456-8383. European customers should write to Attar Software Limited, Newlands House, Leigh, Lancashire, UK WN7 4HN, or send email to See also their home page at YAPS is a tool for building expert systems and other programs that use a rule-based knowledge representation in Lisp. The YAPS library provides a CLOS class and appropriate methods which the programmer may mix into his/her own classes or use directly. Rules and facts about an instance are associated with the instance. Instead of one large knowledgebase with many rules which are hard to debug and maintain, the programmer creates smaller knowledge-bases which are modular and more efficient. The YAPS knowledge-bases can interact with and be controlled by the programmer's other modules, making hybrid systems straightforward. Introduced by Liz Allen at AAAI-83, YAPS is now available on Apple Macintosh, Sun3 and Sun4 (SPARC), DEC VAX under VMS and Ultrix, and 88Open platforms. On workstations, a single license costs $3995 and on the Macintosh (under Macintoch Common Lisp), it is $445. YAPS runs in most commercial Common Lisps including Allegro CL, Harlequin LispWorks, Lucid CL, IBUKI CL, and Macintosh Common Lisp. YAPS is also available for the TI Explorer and Symbolic Lisp Machines, and a Flavors version is available for Sun3 in Franz Lisp. Other ports are underway -- for price and availability contact College Park Software at 461 W. Loma Alta Dr., Altadena, CA 91001-3841, USA; or by email at, or call 818-791-9153 (voice) or 818-791-1755 (FAX).
Subject: [1-7] Associations INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF KNOWLEDGE ENGINEERS (IAKE) IAKE, 973-D Russell Avenue, Gaithersburg, MD 20879-3276. 301-948-5390, fax 301-926-4243. Email: $65 regular ($110 2-year), $30 students in US/Canada. Add $10/year for Carribean, Central America, Mexico. Add $25/year for Europe, North Africa, South America. Add $30/year for Asia, USSR, Central and South Africa, Australia, and New Zealand.
Subject: [1-8] Glossary Expert System Shell A shell is a program that facilitates the development of expert systems.
Subject: [1-A] Acknowledgements This FAQ was originally based on posts by Jason Trenouth <>, George Betzos <>, and Douglas Foxvog <>, as well as parts of the commercial products section of the AI FAQ. Thanks also to Arnold Bloemer <>, Hans Voss, Stephan Weber, Tom Laffey,, Hal Waters, Philip Vanneste, Daniel Corkill, Bruce Chih-Lung Lin, Willem Van Dyk, Kan-Lee Liou, Les Degroff, Alex Kean, Bob Orchard, Steve Witt, Cameron Laird, Thomas A. Russ, Peter Pavek, Ingemar Hulthage, Jerry Franke, Julian Smart, Andrew Verden, Remi Lissajoux, Patrick Albert, Patrick Suel, Liz Allen. Thanks to Richard Fozzard for information about MIKE and ES. ---------------------------------------------------------------- ;;; *EOF*

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