Last-Modified: Wed Apr 30 14:01:59 1997 by Mark Kantrowitz
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;;; Expert System Shells *******************************************
;;; Written by Mark Kantrowitz
This post contains the Expert System Shells FAQ.
If you think of questions that are appropriate for this FAQ, or would
like to improve an answer, please send email to us at firstname.lastname@example.org.
CONTRIBUTIONS to this summary should be sent to email@example.com.
Companies wishing to expand their entries should send product
summaries no longer than the RTworks or CLIPS entries, and should
focus on features and facts. Hype and vague generalizations will be removed.
Copyright (c) 1992-95 by Mark Kantrowitz. All rights reserved.
This FAQ may be freely redistributed in its entirety without
modification provided that this copyright notice is not removed. It
may not be sold for profit or incorporated in commercial documents
(e.g., published for sale on CD-ROM, floppy disks, books, magazines,
or other print form) without the prior written permission of the
copyright holder. Permission is expressly granted for this document
to be made available for file transfer from installations offering
unrestricted anonymous file transfer on the Internet.
If this FAQ is reproduced in offline media (e.g., CD-ROM, print form,
etc.), a complimentary copy should be sent to Mark Kantrowitz, School
of Computer Science, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue,
Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3891 USA.
This article is provided AS IS without any express or implied warranty.
*** Recent changes:
;;; 8-AUG-95 mk Updated COMDALE entry in [1-6].
;;; 21-DEC-95 mk Deleted GEST entry, per Stefan Roth.
;;; 22-DEC-95 mk Updated Gensym entry. New URL.
;;; 18-JAN-96 mk Updated M.4 entry.
;;; 19-JAN-96 mk Updated the C-PRS entry.
;;; 7-MAR-96 mk Updated various Haley Enterprises entries.
;;; 19-MAR-96 mk Updated ACQUIRE entry.
;;; 10-MAY-96 mk Updated EXSYS entry.
;;; 4-JUN-96 mk Added TechMate entry.
;;; 20-JUN-96 mk Updated telephone numbers for ILOG France.
;;; 23-JUL-96 mk Updated XpertRule for Window entry.
;;; 29-JUL-96 mk Replaced AIM entry with ModelQuest entry.
;;; 18-NOV-96 mk Updated wxCLIPS entry.
*** Topics Covered:
[1-2] Other Sources of Information
[1-3] Bibliography of Expert Systems books, introductions,
documentation, periodicals, and conference proceedings.
[1-4] Note about 'Real-Time' expert systems
[1-5a] Free/Cheap Expert System Shells
[1-5b] Free/Cheap Expert System Shells: CLIPS and Related Systems
[1-6] Commercial Expert System Shells
Search for [#] to get to question number # quickly.
Subject: [1-1] Introduction
Certain questions and topics come up frequently in the various network
discussion groups devoted to and related to Expert Systems. This
file/article is an attempt to gather these questions and their answers
into a convenient reference for AI researchers, students, and
practitioners. It is posted on a monthly basis. The hope is that this
will cut down on the user time and network bandwidth used to post,
read and respond to the same questions over and over, as well as
providing education by answering questions some readers may not even
have thought to ask.
Currently this FAQ is a primarily a list of free and commercial expert
system shells, but other questions and answers will be added as they
The latest version of this file is available by anonymous FTP from
using username "anonymous" and password "name@host" (substitute your
email address) or via AFS in the Andrew File System directory
You can also obtain a copy of the FAQ by sending a message to
Send ESS FAQ
in the message body.
The FAQ postings are also archived in the periodic posting archive on
If you do not have anonymous ftp access, you can access the archive by
mail server as well. Send an E-mail message to firstname.lastname@example.org
with "help" and "index" in the body on separate lines for more
An automatically generated HTML version of this FAQ is accessible by
WWW as part of the AI-related FAQs Mosaic page. The URL for this
The direct URL for the Expert Systems FAQ is
If you need to cite the FAQ for some reason, use the following format:
Mark Kantrowitz, "Answers to Frequently Asked Questions about
Expert System Shells", comp.ai.shells, <month>, <year>,
Subject: [1-2] Other Sources of Information
In addition to the free expert system shells listed below, the Prolog
Resource Guide lists a variety of Prolog implementations and products.
In addition to being backward-chaining systems, many Prolog
implementations provide support for forward-chaining rules and other
expert systems requirements. For example, Amzi! Inc. sells Dennis
Merritt's book, "Building Expert Systems in Prolog", Springer-Verlag,
1989, for $52 (see entry in bibliography below).
The July/August 1992 issue of PC AI magazine includes their annual
product guide for expert systems and related tools. AI Expert Magazine
publishes an "Expert Systems Resource Guide" once per year, usually in
The February 1991 issue of IEEE Computer has an article about Expert
System Tools. Another article of possible interest is "Selection
Criteria for Expert System Shells: A Socio-Technical Framework", by
Anthony C. Stylianou, Gregory R. Madey, and Robert D. Smith, CACM
35(10):30-48, October 1992.
The AI FAQ contains pointers to other resources that may be of
interest to readers of this FAQ. If you can't find the information
you're looking for here, try looking in the AI FAQ. The AI FAQ is
posted monthly to the newsgroup comp.ai and is also available from the
anonymous ftp locations mentioned above.
The Prime Time Freeware for AI CD-ROM collection includes several expert
system shells, including Babylon, CLIPS, ESIE, Frulekit, and OPS5, among
others. The sells (list) for $60 US plus applicable sales tax and
shipping and handling charges. Payable through Visa, Mastercard, postal
money orders in US funds, and checks in US funds drawn on a US bank. For
more information write to Prime Time Freeware, 370 Altair Way, Suite
150, Sunnyvale, CA 94086 USA, call 408-433-9662, fax 408-433-0727, or
send email to email@example.com.
Subject: [1-3] Bibliography of Expert Systems books, introductions,
documentation, periodicals, and conference proceedings.
This section contains a list of key references and introductions about
Production Systems, Expert Systems, and Match Algorithms. For other
AI-related books, see part 4 of the AI FAQ.
Overviews and Texts:
Bruce G. Buchanan and Edward H. Shortliffe, "Rule-Based Expert
Systems: The MYCIN Experiments of the Stanford Heuristic Programming
Project", Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1985. The Davis and King
paper (chapter 4, "An overview of production systems") provides
a good overview.
Frederick Hayes-Roth, "The knowledge based expert system: A tutorial",
IEEE Computer 17(9):11-28, 1984.
Bruce G. Buchanan and R.O. Duda, "Principles of Rule-Based Systems",
Tech Report HPP-82-14, 1982. (Discusses the design of expert
systems, including representation, inference, and uncertainty
management. Examples from numerous specific systems, and discusses
which problems are suitable for attack by rule-based systems.)
Send email to firstname.lastname@example.org for information on getting
the tech report, or see the later report:
Bruce Buchanan and Reid Smith, "Fundamentals of Expert
Systems", Annual Review of Computer Science 3, 23-58, 1988.
Joseph Giarratano and Gary Riley, "Expert Systems Principles and
Practice", PWS Publishing (20 Park Plaza, Boston, MA 02116-4324
1-800-842-3636, 1-617-542-3377, fax 1-617-338-6134), 1993, 644
pages, ISBN 0-534-93744-6, $53.94.
[This is the second edition of "Expert Systems: Principles and
Programming" and comes with an MS-DOS CLIPS 6.0 interpreter. The
book includes a good tutorial on using CLIPS.]
James P. Ignizio, "Introduction to Expert Systems: The Development
and Implementation of Rule-Based Expert Systems", McGraw-Hill,
1991. 402 pages, ISBN 0-07-909785-5 ($37.50). [Focuses on the
building of the knowledge-base model and its proper implmentation
from a decision-making perspective. Also covers knowledge
acquisition, inference, and validation. Especially good for
students in fields besides computer science, such as business,
engineering, and the social sciences. There are exercises at the
end of every chapter. Clear and concise explanations with good
examples. Also provides an introduction to EXSYS with an EXSYS demo disk.]
Samuel J. Biondo, "Fundamentals of Expert Systems Technology:
Principles and Concepts", Ablex, Norwood, NJ, 1990. 160 pages, ISBN
0-89391-701-X paper ($35).
Dennis Merritt, "Building Expert Systems in Prolog", Springer-Verlag, 1989.
358 pages, ISBN 0-387-97016-9 hardcover ($52).
Explains how to build various expert system shells in Prolog, including
forward/backward chaining, FOOPS, rete-network, frames, solving
Rubik's cube and more. Includes complete source code listings.
(Source code from the book is also sold on disk by Amzi! Inc. and
is available by anonymous FTP from
as the files xsip.*) Their Web page is http://world.std.com/~amzi/
David Hu, "C/C++ for Expert Systems", Management Information
Source, Portland, OR, 1989. 565 pages, ISBN 0-943518-86-5 ($24.95).
[Includes a diskette of source code from the book.]
General AI books with extensive coverage of expert systems:
Firebaugh, Morris W., "Artificial Intelligence: A Knowledge-Based
Approach", PWS-Kent, Massachusetts, 1989. ISBN 0-87835-325-9
Charles L. Forgy, "OPS5 User's Manual", Technical Report
CMU-CS-81-135, Carnegie Mellon University, School of Computer
Science, Pittsburgh, PA 1981.
Thomas Cooper and Nancy Wogrin, "Rule-based Programming with OPS5",
Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, 1988, ISBN 0-934613-51-6, $49.95.
Charles L. Forgy, "RETE: A fast algorithm for the many
pattern/many object pattern match problem", Artificial
Intelligence 19(1):17-37, September 1982.
Daniel P. Miranker, "TREAT: A better match algorithm for AI
production systems". In Proceedings of the Sixth National
Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI-87), pages 42-47,
Daniel P. Miranker, "TREAT: A New and Efficient Match Algorithm
for AI Production Systems", Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, 1990,
143 pages, ISBN 0-934613-71-0, $29.95.
Mark Perlin, "The match box algorithm for parallel production
system match", Technical Report CMU-CS-89-163, Carnegie Mellon
University, School of Computer Science, Pittsburgh,
Pennsylvania, May 1989.
Michael A. Kelly and Rudolph E. Seviora, "An evaluation of DRETE
on CUPID for OPS5 matching", in Proceedings of the Eleventh
International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI-89),
pages 84-90, Detroit MI, August 1989, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers.
Journals -- Expert Systems:
EXPERT SYSTEMS WITH APPLICATIONS
Published 4 times annually. ISSN 0957-4174.
Subscriptions: Institutions L85 ($155), Individuals L45 ($72).
Pergamon Press Inc., 660 White Plains Road, Tarrytown, NY 10591-5153,
email PPI@pergamon.com, or Pergamon Press Ltd., Headington Hill Hall,
Oxford OX3 0BW, England.
EXPERT SYSTEMS: THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF KNOWLEDGE ENGINEERING
Published 4 times annually. ISSN 0266-4720.
Subscriptions: L85 ($110)
Learned Information Ltd., Woodside, Hinksey Hill, Oxford OX1 5AU, UK.
Tel: +44 (0)865-730275 Fax: +44 (0)085-736354
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EXPERT SYSTEMS
Published 4 times annually. ISSN 0894-9077.
Subscriptions: Institutions $135; Individuals $75. Outside the US add
$10 for surface mail and $20 for airmail.
JAI Press Inc., 55 Old Post Road -- No. 2, PO Box 1678, Greenwich, CT
KNOWLEDGE ENGINEERING REVIEW
Published quarterly, ISSN 0269-8889.
In the UK: Cambridge University Press, The Edinburgh Building,
Cambridge CB2 1BR, UK.
In N. America: Cambridge University Press, Journals Department, 40 West
20th Street, New York, NY 10011-4211.
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF APPLIED EXPERT SYSTEMS (IJAES)
Published three times annually. ISSN 0969-9317
Taylor Graham Publishing, 500 Chesham House, 150 Regent Street,
London W1R 5FA UK.
Editor: Alan Sangster <email@example.com>
Subject: [1-4] Note about 'Real-Time' expert systems
Many "real-time" expert systems are 'soft' real-time systems, in that
they claim to be fast. A 'hard' real-time system would have features
that guarantee a response within a fixed amount of real-time (e.g.,
bounded computation, not just a fast match-recognize-act cycle).
Systems like G2 use event-driven processing (restricting certain rules
to execute only when specific WM elements change in a particular way)
as a method of limiting forward chaining.
Subject: [1-5a] Free/Cheap Expert System Shells
Remember, when ftping compressed or compacted files (.Z, .gz, .arc, .fit,
etc.) to use binary mode for retrieving the files.
Files that end with a .gz suffix were compressed with the patent-free
gzip (no relation to zip). Source for gzip is available from:
If you do not have ftp access, you can FTP files by E-mail. Send a
message with the word "help" in the body to firstname.lastname@example.org.
FOCL is an expert system shell and machine learning program written in
Common Lisp. The machine learning program extends Quinlan's FOIL
program by containing a compatible explanation-based learning
component. FOCL learns Horn Clause programs from examples and
(optionally) background knowledge. The expert system includes a
backward-chaining rule interpreter and a graphical interface to the
rule and fact base. For details on FOCL, see: Pazzani, M. and Kibler,
D., "The role of prior knowledge in inductive learning", Machine
Learning 9:54-97, 1992. It is available by anonymous ftp from
as the files README.FOCL-1-2-3, FOCL-1-2-3.cpt.hqx (a binhexed,
compacted Macintosh application), FOCL-1-2-3.tar.Z (Common Lisp
source code), and FOCL-1-2-3-manual.hqx (binhexed manual). If you
use a copy of FOCL, or have any comments or questions, send mail to
SOAR -- ftp.cs.cmu.edu:
/afs/cs.cmu.edu/project/soar/public/Soar5/ -- Lisp Version
/afs/cs.cmu.edu/project/soar/public/Soar6/ -- C Version
Integrated Agent Architecture. Supports learning through chunking.
OPS5 -- ftp.cs.cmu.edu:/user/ai/areas/expert/systems/ops5/ops5.tar.gz
BABYLON is a development environment for expert systems. It
includes frames, constraints, a prolog-like logic formalism, and a
description language for diagnostic applications. It is implemented in
Common Lisp and has been ported to a wide range of hardware platforms.
Available by anonymous ftp from
as a BinHexed stuffit archive, on the Web via the URL
on the Apple CD-ROM, or with the book "The AI Workbench BABYLON",
which contains *full source code* of BABYLON and the stand-alone
version for the Mac. The book describes the use of BABYLON in detail.
MOBAL is a system for developing operational models of application
domains in a first order logic representation. It integrates a manual
knowledge acquisition and inspection environment, an inference engine,
machine learning methods for automated knowledge acquisition, and a
knowledge revision tool. By using MOBAL's knowledge acquisition
environment, you can incrementally develop a model of your domain in
terms of logical facts and rules. You can inspect the knowledge you
have entered in text or graphics windows, augment the knowledge, or
change it at any time. The built-in inference engine can immediately
execute the rules you have entered to show you the consequences of
your inputs, or answer queries about the current knowledge. MOBAL also
builds a dynamic sort taxonomy from your inputs. If you wish, you can
use several machine learning methods to automatically discover
additional rules based on the facts that you have entered, or to form
new concepts. If there are contradictions in the knowledge base due to
incorrect rules or facts, there is a knowledge revision tool to help
you locate the problem and fix it. MOBAL (release 3.0b) is available
free for non-commercial academic use by anonymous ftp from
The system runs on Sun SparcStations, SunOS 4.1, and includes a
graphical interface implemented using Tcl/TK.
MIKE (Micro Interpreter for Knowledge Engineering) is a full-featured,
free, and portable software environment designed for teaching purposes
at the UK's Open University. It includes forward and backward
chaining rules with user-definable conflict resolution strategies, and
a frame representation language with inheritance and 'demons' (code
triggered by frame access or change), plus user-settable inheritance
strategies. Automatic 'how' explanations (proof histories) are
provided for rule exectuion, as are user-specified 'why' explanations.
Coarse-grained and fine-grained rule tracing facilities are provided,
along with a novel 'rule graph' display which concisely shows the
history of rule execution. MIKE, which forms the kernel of an Open
University course on Knowledge Engineering, is written in a
conservative and portable subset of Edinburgh-syntax Prolog, and is
distributed as non-copy-protected source code. MIKE version 1 was
described in the October/November 1990 issue of BYTE. MIKE v1.50,
which was formerly available from a range of ftp servers, has been
superseded by two newer versions: MIKEv2.03, a full Prolog source code
version, incorporating a RETE algorithm for fast forward chaining, a
truth maintenance system, uncertainty handling, and hypothetical
worlds, and MIKEv2.50, a turnkey DOS version with menu-driven
interface and frame- and rule-browsing tools, fully compatible with
MIKEv2.03, but without source code. They are available by anonymous
ftp from hcrl.open.ac.uk [184.108.40.206] as the files
They are also available from the CMU AI Repository.
For further information, please contact Marc Eisenstadt,
M.Eisenstadt@open.ac.uk, Human Cognition Research Lab, The Open
University, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA, UK, phone +44 908-65-3149, fax +44
ES: The October/November 1990 issue of BYTE also described the ES
expert system. ES supports backward/forward chaining, fuzzy set
relations, and explanation, and is a standalone executable for
IBM-PCs. ES is available by anonymous ftp from
ftp.uu.net:/pub/ai/expert-sys/ [220.127.116.11] as summers.tar.Z.
ftp.uu.net is mirrored on unix.hensa.ac.uk [18.104.22.168] under
WindExS (Windows Expert System) is a fully functional Windows-based
forward chaining expert system. Its modular architecture allows the
user to substitute new modules as required to enhance the capabilites
of the system. WindExS sports Natural Language Rule Processor,
Inference Engine, File Manager, User Interface, Message Manager and
Knowledge Base modules. It supports forward chaining, and graphical
knowledge base representation. Write email@example.com for documentation
and operational system.
RT-Expert is a shareware expert system that lets C programmers
integrate expert systems rules into their C or C++ applications.
RT-Expert consists of a rule-compiler that compiles rules into C code,
and a library containing the rule execution engine. RT-Expert for DOS
works with Borland Turbo C, Borland C++, and Microsoft C/C++
compilers. The personal edition is licensed for educational, research,
and hobby use. Applications created with RT-Expert personal edition
are not licensed for commercial purposes. Professional editions are
available for commercial applications using DOS, Windows, and Unix
environments. RT-Expert is available by anonymous ftp from
For more information, write to Real-Time Intelligent Systems Corporation
Subject: [1-5b] Free/Cheap Expert System Shells: CLIPS and Related Systems
CLIPS 6.0 (C Language Integrated Production System) is an OPS-like
forward chaining production system written in ANSI C by NASA. The
CLIPS inference engine includes truth maintenance, dynamic rule
addition, and customizable conflict resolution strategies. CLIPS,
including the runtime version, is easily embeddable in other
applications. CLIPS includes an object-oriented language called COOL
(CLIPS Object-Oriented Language) which is directly integrated with the
inference engine. CLIPS runs on many platforms including IBM PC
compatibles (including Windows 3.1 and MS-DOS 386 versions),
Macintosh, VAX 11/780, Sun 3/260, and HP9000/500. CLIPS is available
from COSMIC at a "nominal" fee (the MS-DOS/Windows 3.1 version $350
for the software and $115 more for the documentation, with discounts
for US academic institutions; for update orders $100 and $200,
respectively) for unlimited copies with no royalties. (CLIPS is
available free to NASA, USAF, and their contractors for use on NASA
and USAF projects.) For more information, send email to
firstname.lastname@example.org, write COSMIC, University of Georgia,
382 East Broad Street, Athens, GA 30602, call 706-542-3265, or fax
706-542-4807. To subscribe to the CLIPS mailing list, send a message
to the list server
with message body
The CLIPS help desk phone number is 713-286-8919 (fax 713-286-4479/244-5698)
and email address is email@example.com. (The address is STB
Products Help Desk, LinCom Corporation, 1020 Bay Area Boulevard, #200,
Houston, TX 77058-2628.) The Software Technology Branch's home page is
NASA Information Services's home page is
and the CLIPS home page is
[Note: Folks who obtain CLIPS from COSMIC can do anything they wish
with it, including redistribute it. Folks who obtain CLIPS directly
from NASA are restricted to using it for US government purposes only.]
The CLIPS FAQ list and bug fixes are available from
and are maintained by Gary Riley <firstname.lastname@example.org>.
Joseph Giarratano and Gary Riley's book, "Expert Systems Principles
and Practice", comes with an MS-DOS CLIPS 6.0 interpreter (see [1-3]
above). CLIPS is also available on the various AI CD-ROMs, and the
MS-DOS version is available for $50 from Austin Code Works <email@example.com>,
11100 Leafwood Lane, Austin, Texas 78750-3409, phone 512-258-0785,
fax 512-258-8831, or BBS 512-258-8831.
DYNACLIPS (DYNAamic CLIPS Utilities), is a set of blackboard, dynamic
knowledge exchange, and agent tools for CLIPS 5.1 and 6.0. It is
implemented as a set of libraries that can be linked with CLIPS 5.1 or
CLIPS 6.0. Versions 3.0 and 3.1 will work with either CLIPS 5.1 or CLIPS 6.0.
Source code is not available. Agents use the blackboard to
communicate with other intelligent agents in the framework. Each
intelligent agent can send and receive facts, rules, and commands.
Rules and facts are inserted and deleted dynamicly while the agents
are running. Knowledge can be transfered on a temporary or permanent
basis. For more information, please contact Yilmaz Cengeloglu, PO Box
4142, Winter Park, FL 32793-4142, or send email to
firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org.
It is available from the CMU AI Repository in
AGENT_CLIPS is a multi-agent tool for MACINTOSH. Multiple copies of CLIPS
run at the same time on MACINTOSH. Each Agent (CLIPS) can send CLIPS
commands to other active agents at run time. AGENT_CLIPS handles incoming
commands automatically. Command transfer is also mean that agents can
exchange facts, rules at run time. This is a form of Knowledge Exchange
Among Intelligent Agents. AGENT_CLIPS does NOT use Blackboard Architecture.
Library for AGENT_CLIPS is also included in this package. You can link
this library with other CLIPS applications such as fuzzyCLIPS.
AGENT_CLIPS can be obtained by anonymous ftp from
It is also available from Compuserve, AIEXPERT Forum, Libraries,
Expert System. For more information contact Yilmaz Cengeloglu at
FuzzyCLIPS 6.02 is a version of the CLIPS rule-based expert system
shell with extensions for representing and manipulating fuzzy facts
and rules. In addition to the CLIPS functionality, FuzzyCLIPS can deal
with exact, fuzzy (or inexact), and combined reasoning, allowing fuzzy
and normal terms to be freely mixed in the rules and facts of an
expert system. The system uses two basic inexact concepts, fuzziness
and uncertainty. Versions are available for UNIX systems, Macintosh
systems and PC systems. There is no cost for the software, but please
read the terms for use in the FuzzyCLIPS documentation. FuzzyCLIPS is
available via WWW (World Wide Web). It can be accessed indirectly
through the Knowledge Systems Lab Server using the URL
or more directly by using the URL
or by anonymous ftp from
For more information about FuzzyCLIPS send mail to email@example.com.
wxCLIPS provides a simple graphical front end to CLIPS 5.1, CLIPS 6.0 and
CLIPS 6.0 with fuzzy extensions. It is essentially CLIPS modified to work
with an event driven style of programming, and a set of GUI functions.
wxCLIPS is available as Sun Open Look, Sun Motif, Linux Open Look, Windows
3.1, Windows 32-bit, and Windows 95 binaries. wxCLIPS is available by
anonymous FTP from
or the URL
To be added to the wxclips-users or wxclips-announce mailing lists, send
mail to firstname.lastname@example.org. For more information,
write to Julian Smart <J.Smart@ed.ac.uk>.
Subject: [1-6] Commercial Expert System Shells
The commercial products below are listed in alphabetical order.
ACQUIRE is knowledge acquisition system and expert system shell. It is a
complete development environment for building and maintaining
knowledge-based applications. It provides a step-by-step methodology for
knowledge engineering that allows the domain experts themselves to be
directly involved in structuring and encoding the knowledge. (The direct
involvement of the domain expert improves the quality, completeness and
accuracy of acquired knowledge, lowers development and maintenance
costs, and increases their control over the form of the software
application.) Features include a structured approach to knowledge
acquisition; a model of knowledge acquisition based on pattern
recognition; knowledge represented as objects, production rules and
decision tables; handling uncertainty by qualitative, non-numerical
procedures; extremely thorough knowledge bases; sophisticated report
writing facilities; and self documenting knowledge bases in a hypertext
ACQUIRE-SDK, their Software Development Kit, provides: callable libraries for
MS-DOS,and SCO Unix; DLL's for Asmetrix TooBook, Windows, Windows NT,
Windows 95 and Win 32; and custom controls for Visual Basic. Call or email
them for information on how to utilize the SDK to deliver applications over
The ACQUIRE development package (knowledge acquisition system and expert
system shell) costs $995 for Windows 3.1 and includes manual, a tutorial,
on-line help and telephone helpline. For more information please visit their
web page at
For an example of an ACQUIRE application that is running over the web
try their Whale Watcher demonstration at
For more information, write to Acquired Intelligence Inc, Suite 205,
1095 McKenzie Avenue, Victoria, Canada V8P 2L5, call 604-479-8646, fax
604-479-0764, or send email <email@example.com>.
ACTIVATION FRAMEWORK runs on personal computers (DOS, Windows) and UNIX
workstations. This tool is not a traditional expert system shell,
rather is a tool for building real-time data interpretation
applications. The vendor claims the tool competes with Gensym's G2 in
terms of application domains. For more information, write to the sales
office at The Real-Time Intelligent Systems Corporation, 26 Worthen,
Chelmsford, MA 01824, call 508-250-4633, or fax 508-256-8132. To reach
the development office write to 76 Otis Street, Westborough, MA 01581,
call 508-870-0043, fax 508-870-0148, or send email to firstname.lastname@example.org.
Aion Development System (ADS) runs on numerous platforms, including
DOS, OS/2, SunOS, Microsoft Windows, and VMS. It includes an object
oriented knowledge representation, forward, backward, bidirectional,
and pattern matching rules, graphics, calls to/from other languages
(C, Pascal, ...), and the Choreographer graphical user interface. For
more information, write to Aion Corporation, 101 University Avenue,
Palo Alto, CA 94301, call 800-845-2466 (415-328-9595), or fax
415-321-7728. For Europe, write to Software Generation,
Kontichsesteenweg 40, B 2630 Aartselaar, Belgium, call
32-(0)3-877.12.93, or fax 32-(0)3-877.13.55
Angoss Knowledge Seeker. Angoss is a data-mining tool that can be used
to produce knowledge bases of rules by infering cause and effect
relationships from a database. The DOS version costs $799 and the
Windows version $899. For more information, write to Angoss Software
International Ltd., 430 King Street W., Suite 201, Toronto M5V 1J5,
Canada, call 416-593-1122, or fax 416-593-5077.
ART*Enterprise (Brightware, Inc., formerly a division of Inference
Corporation). ART*Enterprise is the latest of the family of rule-based
development environments originating with ART in the mid-1980s. It is a
development environment for enterprise-wide applications,
incorporating rules, a full object system which includes features
currently not present in C++ or Smalltalk, and a large collection of
object classes for UI development across platforms (from Windows to
OS/2 to Unix), access to databases (SQL-based and ODBC-based), and
multi-person development. The ART*Enterprise environment provides a
forward chaining engine where backward chaining can be implemented,
though it is not supported directly. ART*Enterprise also provides a
CBR kernel for those who are interested in incorporating it into their
applications. For further information, contact Brightware, Inc.,
101 Rowland Way, Suite 310, Novato, CA 94945, call 1-800-532-2890
(1-415-899-9070), fax 415-899-9080, or email email@example.com.
Their home page is located at the URL
In addition to the usual company and product information, this page features
several job openings.
Arity Expert Development Package is an expert system that integrates
rule-based and frame-based representations of knowledge with several
different kinds of certainty factors. The OS/2 version costs $495 and
the DOS version $295. For more information, write to Arity Corporation,
Damonmill Square, Concord, MA 01742, call 800-722-7489 (508-371-1243),
fax 508-371-1487, or send email to firstname.lastname@example.org or Paul G.
BABYLON. For more information, write to VW-GEDAS GmbH, Pascalstrasse
11, W-1000 Berlin 10, call +49 30-39-970-0, or fax +49 30-39-970-999.
CAM Software sells two expert system tools, DClass and LogicTree.
DClass is a decision-tree system used for manufacturing applications.
LogicTree is a decision-making system designed for non-programmers.
For more information, write to CAM Software, 390 W. 800 N., Suite 103,
PO Box 276, Orem, UT 84059-0276, call 800-293-6777, or fax 801-225-0286.
CBR Express (Inference Corporation). CBR Express family of
products supports case-based retrieval of information. For further
information contact Inference Corporation, 550 N. Continental Blvd., El
Segundo, CA 90245, call 800-322-9923 (310-322-0200), fax 310-322-3242,
or email email@example.com. Their home page is located at the URL
In addition to the usual company and product information, this page
features a live demo of case-based retrieval in action and several job
COGSYS. For more information, write to COGSYS Ltd., Enterprise House,
Unit 37, Salford University Business Park, Salford M6 6AJ, England, or
COMDALE/C, COMDALE/X, and ProcessVision. COMDALE/C is a real-time
expert system designed for industrial process monitoring and control.
+ COMDALE/C allows requests for justification of recommendations,
conclusions, and control actions without interrupting the decision
making process. It can deal with uncertainty in knowledge and data,
and has an open architecture and time-based reasoning. Other features
include: full object-oriented configuration; full networking
capabilities; alarm processing; an interrupt driven controller;
trending and historical data collection; time-scheduled events; a
realtime database, and interfaces with DCSs, PLCs and other I/O
+ COMDALE/X is an off-line consultative expert system which
queries the user for information required to make its decisions.
COMDALE/X is included with COMDALE/C as the development tool for
real-time expert systems. COMDALE/X has the capability to incorporate
hypertext documents with the reasoning abilities of the expert system
to produce expert hyper manuals which provide information and generate
advice through an easy to use interface.
+ ProcessVision is a real-time process monitoring and control
software package. Based on an open and modular architecture,
ProcessVision provides a graphical operator interface; intuitive
object-oriented display configuration, smart alarming, sensor
validation, hot standby, and unlimited connectivity to all your
process instrumentation in one global environment.
For more information, write to Comdale Technologies (Canada) Inc., The
Comdale Building, 701 Evans Avenue, Suite 600, Toronto, Ontario, CANADA,
M9C 1A3, call 416-620-1234, fax 416-620-4526, or send email to
firstname.lastname@example.org, or see their web site,
C-PRS (Procedural Reasoning System in C) aims at representing and
executing operating procedures. It allows the user to express and
represent the conditional sequences of complex operations and to
ensure their execution in real time while embedded in the application
environment. C-PRS is useful for process control and supervision
applications. The PRS technology has been applied to different tasks
with real-time constraints and demands including the monitoring of
several subsystems of the NASA space shuttle, the diagnosis and
supervision of telecommunication networks (Telecom Australia), the
control of mobile robots (SRI, LAAS), the control system of
surveillance aircrafts (Grumman) and air traffic management (Civil
Aviation Authority). The procedural reasoning technology was
initially developed at the Artificial Intelligence Center of the
Stanford Research Institute (Menlo Park, California). ACS
Technologies has further developed and now markets C-PRS, the first
commercial implementation of the Procedural Reasoning technology.
C-PRS was developed with the most currently recognized standards: C,
UNIX, X11, MOTIF. It guarantees some real time properties. It is
available on numerous platforms and operating systems, including
SPARC, DECstation, Sony News, Hewlett Packard, VxWorks, and others.
For more information write to ACS Technologies, 5, Place du Village
d'Entreprises, B.P. 556 31674 LABEGE Cedex, FRANCE, call
33-62-24-99-20, fax 33-61-39-86-74, or send email to email to
<email@example.com> or <firstname.lastname@example.org>.
CPR (Case-based Problem Resolution) is a C++ class library and
Help!CPR is a helpdesk and knowledge authoring application that uses
CPR. CPR is being embedded within call tracking systems and Help!CPR
competes directly with Inference Corporations's CBR Express and
CasePoint (CasePoint being CBR Express without authoring
capabilities). For more information, write to The Haley Enterprise,
Inc., 413 Orchard Street, Sewickley, PA 15143, call 800-233-2622
(412-741-6420), fax 412-741-6457, send email to email@example.com, or see
their web site
or ftp site
These sites include their literature in PostScript and HTML, as well
as their software.
CRYSTAL runs on personal computers and is available from Intelligent
Environemnts. For more information, write to Intelligent Environments
Europe Ltd., Crystal House, PO Box 51, Sunbury-on-Thames, Middlesex TW16
7UL, England, call 44-0-932-772266, or fax 44-0-932-771499.
See PC Magazine 8(2), January 31, 1989.
CxPERT is an expert system shell that produces royalty-free C code. For
more information, write to Software Plus Ltd., 1315 Pleasant Meadow
Road, Crofton, MD 21114, or call 301-261-0264.
The Easy Reasoner (TM) is a Case-Based Retrieval (CBR) tool with
Reasoning that provides an adaptive associative memory; retrieves
similar cases from memory given a new case; extends Query-by-Example
(QBE) by providing Query-by-Similarity(TM) (QBS); indexes existing
databases using decision trees; supports xBase, ODBC, and SQL
databases; maximizes information while minimizing complexity;
automatically filteres noise to simplifies decision trees; induces
automatically or under explicit control; ranks and retrieves
classified cases by similarity; efficiently retrieves similar cases
from large databases; efficiently retrieves most similar case from
large DBs; efficiently retrieves "next most similar" case; supports
multiple decision tree indices per database; supports multiple
decision trees per field; classifies new information using any
decision tree; automatically or interactively classifies new cases;
handles missing data and "don't know" responses; provides customizable
thesaurus for nominal fields; provides adaptive, context-sensitive,
default reasoning; provides adaptive estimation using decision trees;
predicts or ranks values for nominal or ordinal fields; automatically
learns N-dimensional similarity spaces; quickly retrieves closest case
from similarity space; ranks cases by distance in similarity space;
retrieves records where similarity depends on text; circumvents
spelling problems with N-M-grams; recognizes various forms of English
dictionary words; automatically determines information content per
word; automatically determines thesaural information content. Easy
Reasoner. The Easy Reaoner 16 bit Windows Toolkit costs $249, The Easy
Reaoner 32 bit Windows Toolkit costs $499, The Easy Reasoner OS/2
Toolkit costs $499, and The Easy Reasoner UNIX X/Motif Toolkit costs
$999. UNIX Versions available for Sun OS, Sun Solaris, HP UX, Data
General, AIX. For more information, write to The Haley Enterprise,
Inc., 413 Orchard Street, Sewickley, PA 15143, call 800-233-2622
(412-741-6420), fax 412-741-6457, send email to firstname.lastname@example.org, or see
their web site
or ftp site
These sites include their literature in PostScript and HTML, as well
as their software.
ECLIPSE runs on personal computers (DOS, Windows). System V Unix and
POSIX versions are also available. The syntax is derived from
Inference Corporations' ART and is compatible with NASA's CLIPS.
Features include data-driven pattern matching, forward and backward
chaining, truth maintenance, support for multiple goals, relational
and object-oriented representations, and integration with dBase. For
more information, write to The Haley Enterprise, Inc., 413 Orchard
Street, Sewickley, PA 15143, call 800-233-2622 (412-741-6420), fax
412-741-6457, or send email to email@example.com, or see their web site
or ftp site
These sites include their literature in PostScript and HTML, as well
as their software. See also IEEE Computer, February 1991, pages
4-12. The cost is $499 for the Eclipse 16 bit Windows Toolkit, $999
for Eclipse 32 bit Windows Toolkit or Eclipse OS/2 Toolkit, and $1,999
for Eclipse UNIX X/Motif Toolkit. Versions are available for Sun OS,
Sun Solaris, HP UX, Data General, AIX.
Emerald Empower Procedural Advisor for Macintosh or PC Windows. $6800
Fault trees are built graphically to automate the decision path that an
expert uses for troubleshooting a problem. Emerald Intelligence, Inc,
3850E Research Park Dr, Ann Arbor, MI 48108, call 313-663-8757, or fax
Esteem is a case-based reasoning tool for Windows that integrates
case-based reasoning with rules. For more information write to Esteem
Software Inc., 302 E. Main, Cambridge City, IN 47327, call
317-478-3955, or fax 317-478-3550.
EXSYS Professional runs under MS-DOS, MS-Windows, Macintosh, SunOS,
Solaris, Unix and Vax. It supports backward and forward chaining, linear
programming, fuzzy logic, neural networks, and has a SQL interface.
For more information please visit their
web page at
For examples of EXSYS applications running over the web
try their Web Runtime Engine demonstrations at
For an MS-Windows executable demo of EXSYS Professional/EXSYS RuleBook
These sites include their literature in PDF and HTML, as well as their
For more information, send Email to firstname.lastname@example.org,
write to Exsys, Inc., 1720 Louisiana Boulevard, NE, Suite 312,
Albuquerque, NM 87110, call 800-676-8356 (505-256-8356), or fax
505-256-8359. See also PC Tech Journal 7(1):115, January, 1989.
FLEX is a hybrid expert system toolkit available across a wide range of
different hardware platforms which offers frames, procedures and rules
integrated within a logic programming environment. FLEX supports
interleaved forward and backward chaining, multiple inheritance,
procedural attachment, an automatic question and answer system. Rules,
frames and questions are described in a English-like Knowledge
Specification Language (KSL) which enables the development of easy-to-read
and easy-to-maintain knowledge bases. FLEX is implemented in, and has
access to, Prolog. FLEX is available from LPA (who originally developed
flex on the PC), and also from most major Prolog vendors under license,
including Quintus, BIM, Interface, and ISL. FLEX has been used in
numerous commercial expert systems, and prices on a PC running Windows or
on a Macintosh start at around $1,000. [A review of Quintus-flex is
expected in an upcoming issue of PC-AI. --mk] For more information contact:
Logic Programming Associates Ltd, Studio 4, R.V.P.B., Trinity Road,
London, SW18 3SX. Tel: +44 (0) 181-871-2016; Fax: +44 (0) 181-874-0449.
Email: email@example.com. In the US call 1-800-949-7567.
Their web page is located at the URL
Foundation Technologies sells expert system products and services for
financial applications, such as pension management. For more
information write to Foundation Technologies Inc., One Kendall Square,
Cambridge, MA 02139, call 617-720-2760, or fax 617-720-4153.
Gensym's G2 offers a graphical, object-oriented environment for
creating intelligent applications that monitor, diagnose, and control
dynamic events in on-line and simulated environments. Featuring a
structured natural language for creating rules, models, and
procedures, G2 is the foundation of all Gensym application products
and end-user applications. Gensym's application products include the G2
Diagnostic Assistant (GDA), which provides a visual programming
environment for creating intelligent process management applications.
NeurOn-Line, another Gensym product, allows users to easily create
neural network applications. G2 includes concurrent execution of
rules and procedures and the ability to reason about behavior over
time. G2 GUIDE allows users to easily create graphical end user
interfaces and real-time displays. Gensym's Telewindows provides a
powerful multi-user client/server environment that allows users to share G2
applications. Gensym also offers G2 Bridge Products for connectivity to other
programs (C and ADA) and real-time data systems including relational
databases, distributed control systems, and programmable logic controllers.
Gensym supports its products worldwide through 26 direct sales offices and a
network of over 100 marketing partners. For more information, please write
to Gensym Corporation, 125 Cambridge Park Drive, Cambridge, MA 02140 USA,
call +617-547-2500, fax +617-547-1962, or send email to firstname.lastname@example.org.
Gensym's homepage is located at
(The Gensym page was formerly located at http://www.industry.net/gensym.
The IndustryNet page will be removed this spring.)
GBB, generic blackboard framework: provides:
-- A high-performance blackboard database compiler and
runtime library, which support pattern-based, multidimensional
range-searching algorithms for efficient proximity-based retrieval
of blackboard objects
-- KS representation languages
-- Generic control shells and agenda-management utilities
-- Interactive, graphic displays for monitoring and examining
blackboard and control components
These components provide the infrastructure needed to build
blackboard-based applications. GBB is available for DOS/Windows, Mac,
Unix workstations (Sun, HP/Apollo, IBM, DEC, Silicon Graphics),
Symbolics and TI Explorer Lisp machines. (GBB is a significantly enhanced,
commercial version of the UMass GBB research framework, available via
FTP from ftp.cs.umass.edu:/gbb/.) NetGBB, distributed extension to
GBB, provides to GBB the communication and coordination facilities
needed to build heterogenous distributed blackboard applications.
For more information write to Blackboard Technology Group, Inc., 401 Main
Street, Amherst, MA 01002, call 800-KSS-8990 or 413-256-8990, or fax
413-256-3179. To be added to the mailing lists, send mail to
email@example.com. There are two mailing lists, gbb-user
(moderated) and gbb-users (unmoderated). Blackboard Technlogy has a
WWW page at the URL
GOLDWORKS III. For more information, write to Gold Hill Computers, Inc.,
26 Landsdowne Street, Cambridge, MA 02139, call 800-242-5477
(617-621-3300), or fax 617-621-0656.
GURU is an expert system development environment and RDBMS that offers a
wide variety of information processing tools combined with
knowledge-based capabilities such as forward chaining, backward
chaining, mixed chaining, multi-value variables, and fuzzy reasoning.
For more information about GURU and the other database engines,
development tools, and services offered by Micro Data Base Systems,
please write to Micro Data Base Systems, Inc., 1305 Cumberland Avenue,
P.O. Box 2438, West Lafayette, IN 47906-0438, call 800-445-MDBS/6327
(317-463-7200), fax 317-463-1234, or send email to firstname.lastname@example.org.
HUGIN System is a software package for construction of model based expert
systems in domains characterized by inherent uncertainty. The Hugin System
contains an easy to use probability based deduction system, applicable to
complex networks with cause-effect causal relations subject to uncertainty.
The Hugin System presents a novel development. The implementation is based
on an improvement of the award winning work by Lauritzen and Spiegelhalter:
Local Computation with Probabilities on Graphical Structures and their
Application to Expert Systems. The Hugin Demonstration, for
Sun Workstations and PC-Windows, is available for anonymous ftp from
The WWW home page for HUGIN is accessible by the URL
For more information write to Hugin Expert A/S, Niels Jernes Vej 10,
DK-9220 Aalborg O, Phone +45 9815 6644, Fax: +45 9815 8550, Email:
Icarus is an expert systems development tool for PCs. It includes
links to Lotus and dBASE files, forward and backward chaining, and
Bayesian confidence factors. For more information, write to Icarus,
11300 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 02852-3088, call 301-881-9350, or
ILOG RULES is a high performance embeddable rule-based inference
engine. It is a forward chaining tool, written in C++ (hence it is
object-oriented and supports inheritance mechanisms) and is also
provided as a C++ library. It runs virtually on any Unix platform
(e.g., HP97X0, Sun4, RS/6000, DecStations) as well as on PCs running
DOS (with or without MS/Windows) or OS/2. It extends OPS/5 with
nested premises (objects as values), rule packets (logical grouping of
rules), a full Truth Maintenance System (TMS) for efficient
non-monotonic reasoning, compilation of rules into C/C++ code, and an
object oriented data-model in C++. ILOG RULES work directly on user
objects, so interfacing is straightforward. C/C++ code may be included
in rule conditions and actions. ILOG RULES is based on the fast XRETE
implementation of the RETE algorithm developed by Thomson-CSF. For
more information, contact ILOG, Inc., 2073 Landings Drive, Mountain
View, CA 94043, tel 415-390-9000, fax 415-390-0946, e-mail
email@example.com. European customers should contact ILOG SA, 9, rue de
Verdun, BP 85, 94253 Gentilly CEDEX, France,
tel +33 (1) 49-08-35-00, fax +33 (1) 49-08-35-10, e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org.
The URL of ILOG's web page is
INTELLIGENCE COMPILER. For more information, write to Intelligence
Ware 9800 S. Sepulveda Blvd. Los Angeles, CA 90045-5228 call
213-417-8896, or fax 213-417-8897.
KDS is a case-based system that produces rules from cases. For more
information, write to KDS Corporation, 934 Cornell Street, Wilmeete, IL
60091-1405, call 708-251-2621, or fax 708-251-6489.
KEE, ProKappa, and Kappa are expert system development packages that run
on personal computers, workstations, and Lisp machines. Features include
ATM, rule-based reasoning, and OOP support. For more information, write
to IntelliCorp, Inc., 1975 El Camino Real West, Suite 101, Mountain View, CA
94040-2216, call 415-965-5700/5500 or fax 415-965-5647. In Europe call
+44-344-305305. See also CACM 31(4):382-401, April, 1988.
KES and SNAP run on personal computers (KES $4,000), workstations (KES
$10,000, SNAP $40,000 on most platforms), minicomputers (KES $25,000),
IBM mainframes (KES $60,000). Although KES can be purchased
separately, it is part of SNAP. For more information write to Software
Architecture and Engineering, Inc., 1600 Wilson Boulevard, Suite 500,
Arlington, VA 22209, call 703-276-7910, or fax 703-284-3821. Write to
Template Software, 13100 Worldgate Drive, Suite 340, Herndon, Virginia
22070, call 703-318-1000, or fax 703-318-7378.
Knowledge Craft is an expert-system development toolkit for
scheduling, design, and configuration applications. For more
information, write to Carnegie Group, 5 PPG Place, Pittsburgh, PA
15222, call 800-284-3424 (412-642-6900), or fax 412-642-6906.
KnowledgeWorks from Harlequin runs on a variety of Unix platforms,
including Sun Sparc and clones (SunOS and Solaris), IBM RS/6000 (AIX),
DEC MIPS (Ultrix), DEC Alpha (OSF/1), HP PA (HP-UX), and SGI (IRIX).
It includes a CLOS-based object system, OPS compatible forward chainer
(2500 firings/sec on a Sparc2), Prolog compatible backward chainer
(40 KLIPS), graphical programming environment, user-defined conflict
resolution, MetaRule Protocol for extending execution model, and a
SQL interface for relational databases. For further information,
contact by e-mail worldwide:
email@example.com (OR @harlequin.co.uk)
or in the US:
Voice: 800-WORKS-4-YOU (800-967-5749) or 617-374-2400 or 617-252-0052
Mail: Harlequin Inc., One Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142
or in Europe:
FAX: 0223-872-519 (OR 44-1223-872-519 from outside UK)
Voice: 0223-873-800 OR -872-522 (OR 44-1223-873-800 from outside UK)
Telex: 818440 harlqn g
Mail: Harlequin Ltd., Barrington Hall, Barrington, Cambridge, CB2 5RG
Harlequin also sells LispWorks (a Common Lisp and Prolog programming
environment described in part 4 of the Lisp FAQ), MLWorks (an ML
programming environment), and Watson (an intelligence analysis tool).
K-Vision is a knowledge acquisition and visualization tool. It runs on
Windows, DOS, and UNIX workstations. For more information write to
Ginesys Corporation, 1200 Woodruff Road, Suite C-9, Greenville, SC
29607-5731, call 800-277-8338 (803-288-8338), or fax 803-458-9050.
Laser. For more information, write to Bell Atlantic Knowledge Systems,
Inc., P.O. Box 3528, Princeton, NJ 08543-3528, or call 800-552-2257
LEVEL5 OBJECT for Microsoft Windows runs on an IBM PC compatible
computer using Windows 3.1 or above. LEVEL5 OBJECT is a robust
object-oriented application development system with a tunable inference
engine product. For more information, write to Information Builders,
503 Fifth Avenue, Indialantic, FL 32903, call 800-444-4303
(407-729-9046), fax 407-727-7615, or email to firstname.lastname@example.org,
email@example.com, or firstname.lastname@example.org. Their Web server is located at the URL
For Customer Support call 407-984-8705.
There are several versions of the M.4 product. M.4 VB is a Visual
Basic custom control that sells for $199. The full M.4 package runs on
personal computers (DOS, Windows) and sells for $995. It features a modular
kernel library that can be linked into C-language applications, backward and
forward chaining, pattern matching, certainty factors, procedural control,
an object-oriented representation, and ODBC hooks. M.4 is embeddable,
configurable, and extendable and is provided as libraries, a custom control
(VBX), and as a DDE Server. Working VB, Visual C++, ToolBook, and DOS GUIs
are provided to illustrate various integration techniques. M.4 is also
available as embeddable libraries for Sun SPARCstations for $2,495 and as
embeddable libraries for Macintosh System 7 for $995. For more information,
write to Teknowledge Corporation (formerly Cimflex Teknowledge Corporation),
1810 Embarcadero Road, Palo Alto, CA 94303, or call 800-285-0500
(415-424-0500), fax 415-493-2645, or visit http://www.teknowledge.com/M4
MailBot, from Daxtron Labs, is a personal E-Mail agent for Microsoft Mail.
MailBot provides filtering, forwarding, notification, automatic
question answering and listserv like capabilities. MailBot can act as a
expert system shell for mail. The front-end translates user rule inputs
into a variant of Prolog. A API exists for writting action code in
Visual Basic. More information is available from the URL
MEM-1 is a Lisp-based language that aids in the development of
Case-Based Reasoning systems; provides facilities to define case
structures, create cases, divide cases into sub-cases, weigh case
attributes, define indexing schemes and similarity functions, adapt
solutions and define procedural adaptation rules. Runs on Windows, DOS,
Sun, DECStation, RS/6000, and Macintosh. Price: $199 ($50 for
educational institutions). For more information, write to CECASE, 2291
Irving Hill Drive, Lawrence, KS 66045, call 913-864-4896, fax
913-864-7789, or send email to email@example.com
ModelQuest 4.0. Runs on Windows 3+, NT, 95 ($995). ModelQuest is easy to
learn and use so you can quickly take advantage of its power. ModelQuest
produces more accurate and robust models as well as royalty-free C code.
For more information, write to Abtech Corporation, 1575 State Farm
Boulevard, Charlottesville, VA 22901, call 804-977-0686, fax
804-977-9615, e -mail firstname.lastname@example.org, or visit their web page
MUSE. For more information, write to Cambridge Consultants, Science
Park, Milton Road, Cambridge CB4 4DW, England, or call
NEXPERT OBJECT runs on over 30 platforms supported including personal
computers ($5000), Macintosh ($5000), workstations ($12,000),
minicomputers, and mainframes. Nexpert Object is written in C, and
includes a graphical user interface, knowledge acquisition tools, and
forms system. For more information, write to Neuron Data, 156
University Avenue, Palo Alto, CA 94301, call 800-876-4900
(415-321-4488), or fax 415-321-3728. Other offices include New York,
212-832-8900; Philadelphia, 215-941-2981; Washington, DC,
703-821-8800; Los Angeles, 714-851-4621; Chicago, 708-955-3688;
Houston, 713-739-9020; United Kingdom, 44-71-408-2333, fax
44-71-495-6274; France, 33-1-40-70-04-21, fax 33-1-47-23-71-43; and
Japan, 81-3-3746-4371, fax 81-3-3746-4374. See also IEEE Software
5(5):98, September, 1988, PC Tech Journal 6(11):112, November, 1988,
MacUser 4(12):134, December, 1988, MacUser 4(9):136, September, 1989,
Computer Language 6(12):123, December, 1989, PC Week 7(26):43, July 2,
1990, MacWeek 4(25):10, July 10, 1990, and IEEE Expert December, 1991,
page 72. [This entry is a bit out of date. Nexpert Object is now part
of a larger product called "Smart Elements", which includes Open
Interface 2.0 -- an object-oriented GUI developer -- in addition to
Nexpert Object 3.0. Any Neuron Data folks out there want to redo this entry?]
Object Management Workbench* (OMW) is the first object-oriented
analysis and design tool which incorporates directly executable
diagrams and business rules. OMW works with Kappa(, an integrated,
visual programming environment for developing client/server
applications. Kappa applications are developed on Unix and can be
delivered on either Unix or MS Windows. With Kappa CommManager*, an
object request broker, customers can distribute Kappa applications,
including program logic, across Unix, MS Windows and MVS. Kappa-PC(
is IntelliCorps' integrated MS Windows-based programming environment
for departmental developers. For more information, write to
IntelliCorp, Inc., 1975 El Camino Real West, Mountain View, CA
94040-2216, call 415-965-5700 or fax 415-965-5647. In Europe call
+44-344-305305. See also CACM 31(4):382-401, April, 1988.
OPS83 was developed by the developers of OPS5 as a successor to OPS5.
OPS83 is written in C, and OPS83 rule bases can be embedded in C
programs. OPS83 was the first OPS-like language to provide this
integration of rule bases with C. OPS83 supports Generalized Forward
Chaining (GFC), a new control structure that permits rules to be more
expressive; one GFC rule can replace several conventional flat rules.
(Details and examples are available on request.) The current version
of OPS83 uses the proprietary Rete II algorithm to enable it to handle
large, complex rule sets efficiently. A multi-windowed,
point-and-click development environment called the OPS83 Workbench is
offered. OPS83 is available for DOS, OS/2, UNIX, VMS, and some
proprietary operating systems. For information, write Production
Systems Technologies, Inc., 5001 Baum Blvd., Pittsburgh, PA 15213,
call 412-683-4000, or fax 412-683-6347.
Personal Consultant Plus. For more information, write to Texas Instruments
PO Box 2909, MS/2240, Austin, TX 78769, or call 800-527-3500.
PowerSMARTS (multimedia rule-based logic), DataSMARTS (database mining),
NeuroSMARTS (neural net) for Macintosh or PC Windows. Costs range from
$495 to $4995. Cognition Technology Corporation, 1000 Massachusetts Ave,
Cambridge, MA 02138, 617-492-0246, FAX 617-492-0247, Internet email@example.com
RAL (Rule-extended Algorithmic Language) is a high-performance C-based
expert systems tool. It was designed to permit seamless integration
of rules and objects into C programs. RAL is a superset of C. RAL
rules can operate directly on the data types used by the C code in
your application. RAL "understands" C type declarations, function
prototypes, #define constants, etc. C expressions, statements,
macros, function calls, etc. can be embedded directly in the rules.
RAL has an open architecture that permits it to be used with any GUI
builder, data base library, or other library that can be used with C.
No bridges are required. For efficiency, RAL rules are compiled into
C code. Charles Forgy, the inventor of Rete, has developed a more
efficient match algorithm called Rete II for RAL. (Benchmark results
are available on request.) A special version of the language, called
RAL/RT, adds the features that are required for real-time expert
systems. RAL and RAL/RT have a multi-windowed, point-and-click
development environment called the RAL Workbench. RAL and RAL/RT are
available for DOS, MS Windows, OS/2, and UNIX. License fees for
development systems are available on request. There are no run-time
fees charged for distributing applications developed using RAL. For
information, write Production Systems Technologies, Inc., 5001 Baum
Blvd., Pittsburgh, PA 15213, call 412-683-4000, or fax 412-683-6347.
ReMind. ReMind is a case-based reasoning tool. For more information,
write to Cognitive Systems Inc., 880 Canal Street, Stamford, CT 06907,
call 203-356-7756, or fax 203-356-7760.
Rete++ supports both forward and backward chaining. With Rete++ the
programmer can develop object hierarchies and instantiate, manipulate,
and access them using either C++, the standard rule-based syntax, or
C. Asserting and modifying the data that is considered by rules is
done by creating a C++ instance and performing assignments to and
accessing the member data of the instance. Rete++ automatically
generates C++ class taxonomies. The C++ components of Rete++
applications use these generated classes directly or further subclass
them as needed. The Rete++ inference engine automatically considers
any instances of a generated class (or its subclasses) in the matching
of rule conditions. C++ data types provided by Rete++ allow more
flexible representation and automatic reasoning using standard C++
syntax without extraneous function calls. Rete++ automatically
monitors changes to C++ objects without requiring programmers to
explicitly code function calls. Rete++ is provided as a C++ class
library. As such, it may be linked as part of your C++ application.
You may completely embed Rete++, with or without its graphical
development environment. Modules for developing Case Based Reasoning
and integration with databases are available for Rete++ applications.
Rete++ integrates a dependency based Truth Maintenance System to
preserve logically sound and complete reasoning in spite of
non-monotonicity. Multiple rulesets and agendas support modular
development and cooperating expert systems. Rete++ has an advanced
browser for rule based programming. The Rete++ windowing development
environment monitors the knowledge base with multiple views that are
all updated in real-time, allowing for debugging, browsing, the
monitoring and setting of break points, and the tracing of rules,
facts and goals. Rete++ 16 bit Windows Toolkit costs $999, Rete++ 32
bit Windows Toolkit costs $1,999, Rete++ OS/2 Toolkit costs $1,999,
and Rete++ UNIX X/Motif Toolkit costs $2,999. UNIX Versions available
for Sun OS, Sun Solaris, HP UX, Data General, AIX. For more
information write to The Haley Enterprise, Inc. 413 Orchard St.,
Sewickley, PA 15143, call 800-233-2622 (412-741-6420 or 412-967-1100), fax
412-741-6457, or send email to firstname.lastname@example.org, or see
their web site
or ftp site
These sites include their literature in PostScript and HTML, as well
as their software.
RT/Expert is an expert system development package integrated into the
SystemBuild development environment that runs on PCs, UNIX, and VMS
systems. For more information, write to Integrated Systems Inc., 3260
Jay Street, Santa Clara, CA 95054, call 408-980-1500, or fax 408-980-0400.
RTworks is a family of independent software modules developed for
intelligent real-time data acquisition and monitoring, data analysis,
message/data distribution, and message/data display. RTworks offers a
number of sophisticated problem-solving strategies including
knowledge-based systems, a point-and-click graphical user interface,
temporal and statistical reasoning, and the ability to distribute an
application over a heterogeneous network. Included with RTworks is a
high-speed inference engine (RTie) which is used to analyze the data
using objects, classes, procedures, and rules. The IE can perform
trending, prediction and temporal reasoning of rapidly changing data.
Displays can be built by non-programmers using a user-friendly DRAW
program. More than 60 different formats are provided for displaying
input data including strip charts, bar charts, control charts, dials,
pie charts, and high-low graphs. Graphical objects can be tied to
variables which dynamically control attributes such as color, scale,
rotation, motion, animation, and more. RTworks runs in a
client-server architecture in which the RTserver process intelligently
distributes the application's messages and data to only the client
prcoesses which need them. User-defined client processes can connect
to the RTserver and send and receive messages with other processes in
the application. Possible applications include process control,
network monitoring, financial trading, and command and control.
RTworks is available on a variety of Unix and VMS platforms under a
floating license in which you pay only for the number of simultaneous
users, and the software is not node-locked to a particular machine.
Current RTworks customers include Lockheed, NASA, Dow Chemical, PG&E
(Pacific, Gas, and Electric), SWIFT, Mazda, and NTT. For further
information, write to Talarian Corporation, 444 Castro Street, Suite
140, Moutain View, CA 94041, call 415-965-8050, fax 415-965-9077, or
send E-mail to email@example.com, or look on the world-wide web at
SMECI is an expert system shell based on Lisp. For more information,
contact ILOG, Inc., 2073 Landings Drive, Mountain View, CA 94043, tel
415-390-9000, fax 415-390-0946, email firstname.lastname@example.org. European
customers should write to ILOG, 2, av. Gallieni, BP 85, 94253 Gentilly
Cedex, France, tel +33 (1) 46-63-66-66, fax +33 (1) 46-63-15-82, email
Sophos. For more information, write to Cognisys Consultants Inc., 7355
Trans Canada Highway, Suite 210, Saint-Laurent, Quebec, CANADA H4T
1T3, call 514-856-2311, or fax 514-856-2368.
STATUTE Corporate V3.0 for Windows. Includes facilities for automatic
document generation. Interfaces for Visual Basic, C, C++, and
applications that can link to DLLs. Phone: 1-800-229-1954 (616-242-1982).
Fax: 1-800-229-1959 (616-242-1948).
TechMate is a real life expert system designed to serve as a decision
aid and productivity tool for maintenance engineers and technicians.
TechMate minimizes the expertise required from the technician to
troubleshoot and diagnose problems in even highly sophisticated and
complex units. Oriented for the functional level, TechMate can
troubleshoot units that contain analog, digital and mechanical modules
in electronic, electro-optic, hydraulic, or mechanical systems and
devices. TechMate is used in many fault isolation applications in
field service, depot facilities, and production lines. Its learning
algorithms make TechMate grow smarter with use. TechMate is a
model-based system that derives its intelligence from universal
built-in knowledge bases and inference mechanisms, and from specific
knowledge about the UUT (Unit Under Test) supplied by the test
designer. It generates diagnostic assessments from the equipments
block diagram (which can be entered manually or imported
electronically) and the characteristics of the symptoms and tests. It
is also capable of diagnosing multiple faults. For a given set of
symptoms and test results (including BIT results), TechMate's
diagnostic algorithms rank candidate faulty modules by their
likelihood of failure. It may also zoom in to further assess the fault
likelihood of each individual sub-module. Next, TechMate identifies
and evaluates the tests that may be used to isolate a fault, and
proposes the most cost-efficient tests. The sequence of tests is
dynamically reordered based on the symptoms, BIT and test responses,
thereby eliminating redundant tests. TechMate provides on-line
documentation of the device and its tests. It also includes a database
tool for storing and retrieving administrative data and sharing it
with commercial DBMS. TechMate can be interfaced with a wide variety
of test instruments and ATE systems. TechMate runs on Microsoft
Windows and on UNIX/X-Windows. TechMate customers include Texas
Instruments, Northrop, Raytheon, Honeywell, BARCO, British Gas,
Deutche Aerospace, and Siemens Plessey. For further information, call
IET Intelligent Electronics at 617-229-5855, fax 617-221-5692, or send
E-mail to email@example.com, or look on the world-wide web at
TestBench, Shell is available from the Carnegie Group, Pittsburgh,
Pennsylvania. The development environment runs on the SUN
workstations and the production environment on a number of platforms
including PCs and NeXT machines. For more information, write to
Carnegie Group, 5 PPG Place, Pittsburgh, PA 15222, call 800-284-3424
(412-642-6900), or fax 412-642-6906.
VBXpert is a VBX custom control that uses the Rete Algorithm to add
expertise to Visual Basic applications. VBXpert extends Visual Basic
to support rule-based knowledge-based systems development by encapsulating
the Rete Algorithm within a VBX custom control. It is a true custom
control with Visual Basic property and event editing support and provides
convenient properties that can be accessed and set by VB code to control
embedded reasoning. VBXpert also provides: inference engine events that
execute code you enter using the Visual Basic editor; a general-purpose
"Callback" event to call Visual Basic from the actions of rules; efficient
processing, even for a thousand if-then rules; automatic subgoaling and
logical deduction; automatic retraction of invalid or outdated conclusions;
Visual Basic declarations for Eclipse DLLs; supports Visual Basic's ANY
and Variant data types; supports multiple concurrent Visual Basic apps;
includes Eclipse DLLs and executable; includes C source code for the VBX;
VBXpert for Windows $99 (price shown is for domestic check, VISA,
MasterCard, and American Express orders only.) The Haley Enterprise, Inc.
413 Orchard St., Sewickley, PA 15143-2029 (800) 233-2622, 412-741-6420,
Info@Haley.COM, or see their web site
or ftp site
These sites include their literature in PostScript and HTML, as well
as their software.
Visual Expert is a GUI-based expert system development tool for Windows.
For more information, write to SoftSell Technologies, 16150 NE 85th
Avenue, Suite 224, Redmond, WA 98052, call 206-556-1436, or fax 206-883-9002.
VP-EXPERT version 3.1 runs on the IBM PC under DOS. It costs $349. A
student version of the product is available for around $40. The
student version is fully functional but limited to 16k in the total
size of the system. For more information, write to Wordtech Systems
Inc., PO Box 1747, Orinda, CA 94563, call 510-689-1200, or fax
510-689-1263. See also MacUser 4(12):134, December, 1988.
XpertRule for Windows represents knowledge as decision trees, tables
of decision examples, exception trees and sets of pattern rules. It
can produce C code. Fuzzy Logic and Genetic Algorithm optimization
are included. For more information, write to Attar Software USA, PO Box
68, Harvard, MA 01451-0068, call 800-456-3966, or fax 508-456-8383.
European customers should write to Attar Software Limited, Newlands
House, Leigh, Lancashire, UK WN7 4HN, or send email to firstname.lastname@example.org
See also their home page at http://www.attar.com/
YAPS is a tool for building expert systems and other programs that use
a rule-based knowledge representation in Lisp. The YAPS library
provides a CLOS class and appropriate methods which the programmer may
mix into his/her own classes or use directly. Rules and facts about
an instance are associated with the instance. Instead of one large
knowledgebase with many rules which are hard to debug and maintain,
the programmer creates smaller knowledge-bases which are modular and
more efficient. The YAPS knowledge-bases can interact with and be
controlled by the programmer's other modules, making hybrid systems
straightforward. Introduced by Liz Allen at AAAI-83, YAPS is now
available on Apple Macintosh, Sun3 and Sun4 (SPARC), DEC VAX under VMS
and Ultrix, and 88Open platforms. On workstations, a single license
costs $3995 and on the Macintosh (under Macintoch Common Lisp), it is
$445. YAPS runs in most commercial Common Lisps including Allegro CL,
Harlequin LispWorks, Lucid CL, IBUKI CL, and Macintosh Common Lisp.
YAPS is also available for the TI Explorer and Symbolic Lisp Machines,
and a Flavors version is available for Sun3 in Franz Lisp. Other
ports are underway -- for price and availability contact College Park
Software at 461 W. Loma Alta Dr., Altadena, CA 91001-3841, USA; or by
email at email@example.com, or call 818-791-9153 (voice) or
Subject: [1-7] Associations
INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF KNOWLEDGE ENGINEERS (IAKE)
IAKE, 973-D Russell Avenue, Gaithersburg, MD 20879-3276.
301-948-5390, fax 301-926-4243. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
$65 regular ($110 2-year), $30 students in US/Canada.
Add $10/year for Carribean, Central America, Mexico.
Add $25/year for Europe, North Africa, South America.
Add $30/year for Asia, USSR, Central and South Africa, Australia, and
Subject: [1-8] Glossary
Expert System Shell A shell is a program that facilitates the
development of expert systems.
Subject: [1-A] Acknowledgements
This FAQ was originally based on posts by Jason Trenouth
<email@example.com>, George Betzos <firstname.lastname@example.org>, and
Douglas Foxvog <email@example.com>, as well as parts of the
commercial products section of the AI FAQ. Thanks also to Arnold
Bloemer <firstname.lastname@example.org>, Hans Voss, Stephan Weber, Tom
Laffey, email@example.com, Hal Waters, Philip Vanneste, Daniel
Corkill, Bruce Chih-Lung Lin, Willem Van Dyk, Kan-Lee Liou, Les
Degroff, Alex Kean, Bob Orchard, Steve Witt, Cameron Laird, Thomas A.
Russ, Peter Pavek, Ingemar Hulthage, Jerry Franke, Julian Smart,
Andrew Verden, Remi Lissajoux, Patrick Albert, Patrick Suel, Liz
Allen. Thanks to Richard Fozzard for information about MIKE and ES.