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soc.religion.quaker Answers to Frequently Asked Questions

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In response to various requests in soc.religion.quaker
I have compiled the following FAQ answers posting. The
history in particular is rather sketchy. This is an
evolving document, and corrections are welcomed.

See reader questions & answers on this topic! - Help others by sharing your knowledge
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	Marc Mengel <mengel at users dot sourceforge dot net>


    0 Newsgroup
    1 Names 
	1.1 Quakers 
	1.2 Shakers 
	1.3 Plymouth Bretheren
	1.4 Oatmeal, Motor Oil, etc.
    2 History
	2.1 Origins
	2.2 American Friends
	2.3 "Programmed" and "Unprogrammed" Meetings
	2.4 Worldwide Friends
    3 Meetings for Worship
	3.1 Traditional/Unprogrammed/Silent Meetings
	3.2 Programmed Meetings
	3.3 Children at Meeting for Worship
    4 Meetings for Business
	4.1 Monthly Meetings
	4.2 Committees
	4.3 Quarterly/Regional Meetings
	4.4 Yearly Meetings
    5 Beliefs of Friends
	5.1 Christianity
	5.2 Authority
	5.3 Marriage
	5.4 War
	5.5 Oaths 
	5.6 The Death Penalty, the Prison System, etc.
	5.7 Rituals, sacraments, etc.
	5.8 Dress
    6 Terms, Acronyms etc.
    7 Speech mannerisms
	7.1 Thee and Thou (archaic)
	7.2 I have a Concern...
	7.3 Days of the Week
	7.4 Speaking Truth to Power
    8 Where can I find...
	8.1 a local Quaker meeting
	8.2 Quaker publications
	8.3 Quaker email, lists, etc.
    9 Bibliography

Subject: (0) Newsgroup

	The soc.religion.quaker newsgroup is a "netnews" discussion board,
	to which this article is regularly posted.  Readers should be 
	aware that absolutely anyone, absolutely anywhere, with any agenda
	whatsoever can post to this newsgroup, and that names and email
	addresses can be trivially forged.  So while one might hope that
	this discussion group would attempt to adhere to Quaker ideals
	regarding listening for and seeking that of God in everyone, in
	practice discussions on this forum are often anything but Friendly.

Subject: (1) Names

Subject: (1.1) Quakers

	The term "Quaker" refers to a member ofthe Religious 
	Society of Friends, which is the proper name of the sect.
	There are two reputed origins of the term, the first 
	refers to people "quaking" or trembling when feeling
	moved by the Holy Spirit to speak in Meetings for
	Worship.  The other according to Elfrida Vipont Brown, is:

	    George Fox was arrested in Derby in October 1650 and
	    charged with blasphemy.  The magistrates who tried him
	    were Gervase Bennett and Colonel Nathaniel Barton.
	    George Fox was questioned intermittently over an eight
	    hour period, during which at one point George Fox told
	    the magistrates "Tremble at the word of the Lord". It
	    was Justice Bennett who coined the name "Quakers" for
	    the followers of George Fox.

Subject: (1.2) Shakers

	The "Quakers" are occasionally confused with the "Shakers";
	the Shakers were to some extent a "spin-off" of the Quakers, a
	group started by a Manchester, England woman, Ann Lee, who was
	born Quaker. She formed a "celibate order" which started communities
	throughout the United States.  The Shakers are quite interesting
	in their own right, adding speaking in tongues and free-form
	dancing to the end of a Quaker-style silent meeting.  There are 
	fewer than 10 Shakers left today in the last remaining Shaker
	community in Maine, but several of their communities are preserved 
	as museums.

Subject: (1.3) Plymouth Brethren

	The Plymouth Brethren are not an offshoot of Quakerism and 
	not a branch of the (German) Brethren church, to the best
	I have been informed.

Subject: (1.4) Oatmeal, Motor Oil, etc.

	Since the city of Philadelphia and the state of Pennsylvania in 
	the United States were started by Quakers, many businesses and
	towns originating in that area mention Quakers in their names.
	In fact these names are particularly common in places like
	Quakertown, PA., where the names are actually derived from the
	name of the town.

	This leads many to the incorrect conclusion that members of the 
	Religious Society of Friends still are in the habit of wearing 
	the late 1600's period clothing of the person pictured on the 
	Quaker Oats(tm) box; this perhaps contributes to the common American
	confusion between Quakers and the Amish (who really *do* wear 
	clothing styles standardized in the 1600's).

Subject: (2) History

Subject: (2.1) Origins

	The Religious Society of Friends was started in England around 
	1650, by many people, the most famous being George Fox.  They
	in fact intended to start a movement to unify the splintered 
	Christian churches, rather than to start a separate sect.
	Many radical groups were formed in England about this time as a 
	result of the turmoil, economic injustice, and starvation caused 
	by the English Revolution and Civil War, and the repeated changes 
	between Catholicism and Anglicism in England; however most of these 
	groups disappeared soon after the restoration of the monarchy.

Subject: (2.2) American Friends

	Friends were active in New England almost from the beginning
	of the Quaker movement, as early as 1654.  The Puritans of 
	Massachusetts, found Quaker ideas unacceptable and exiled Friends 
	on pain of death. Between 1659 and 1661 one woman and three men 
	were hanged for returning after such banishment. George Fox spent 
	over a year in America in  1672. The Quaker population increased 
	greatly after 1682 when William Penn (who was a Friend)	set 
	about the foundation of Pennsylvania and started the city of
	Philadelphia.  Friends in general showed an enlightened attitude 
	to Native Americans, and were also active in the movement
	against the slave trade. Later, they helped escaped slaves and
	worked for the abolition of slavery, due in part to the work and 
	ministry of John Woolman (See "Bibliography").

Subject: (2.3) "Programmed", "Unprogrammed", "Evangelical", etc. Meetings, 

	During the Revival movement in the later 1800's many Friends Meetings 
	were influenced by Revival preachers. Many of these later hired 
	preachers and now hold more "conventional" services, with a 
	preacher, choir, etc.  These meetings often call themselves
	"Quaker Churches" or "Friend's Churches" rather than "Quaker 
	Meetings" or "Friends Meetings."  Some such branches of
	Quakerism refer to themselves as "Evangelical Friends", and
	some have gone so far as to hold baptisms and communion, which
	many consider an extreme departure from early Quakerism.

	There are considered to have been quite a few "schisms" in 
	Quakerism over the years; the overall history is far too
	complicated to describe here.

Subject: (2.4) Worldwide Friends

	Many of the Friends elsewhere in the world (besides Britain,
	Europe, and America) are more of the "Programmed" meeting 
	variety.  There are large numbers of Friends in various 
	countries around the world, especially Kenya.

Subject: (3) Meetings for Worship

Subject: (3.1) Traditional/Unprogrammed/Silent Meetings

	Silent Meetings for Worship are quite a bit different from most
	organized religious services. Basically those attending the meeting
	sit silently, trying to listen to the (Holy) Spirit , until someone 
	is moved by the Spirit to speak.  The person so moved generally 
	stands, says what they have to say, and sits down.  Meetings like 
	this generally run for about an hour, and it is not out of the 
	ordinary for a meeting to be silent the whole hour.

	It is customary to wait a few minutes between speakers to allow
	time for consideration of what they have said.

	It is considered bad form to "debate" a topic or otherwise
	argue a point at Meeting for Worship.  More subtle forms of 
	disagreement, such as telling a related story and how it made 
	you feel bad, etc. are occasionally employed.

Subject: (3.2) Programmed Meetings

	A Quaker Church service is very similar in format to most
	Methodist or Baptist services, if a little more mellow.  
	However, while it is uncommon for members of the congregation
	to rise to speak, this is not unheard of, and there are often
	periods of silence.

Subject: (3.3) Children at Meeting for Worship

	Many visitors to meeting, especially those to unprogrammed or
	silent meetings, worry a lot about their children and whether
	the children are being quiet enough.  They should relax :-).
	While it would be appropriate to take your child out of meeting
	if the child is screaming or being noisy for long periods, the
	occasional noises of small children are generally welcomed.
	Some paper and crayons, or a book to read for older children is
	often helpful, too.

	Most children, especially those of visitors, have a tough time
	sitting silently for a full hour.  Fortunately most Meetings have
	some sort of "First Day School" or "Sunday school" for children.
	If you see an adult rising after the start of Meeting and all the
	children filing out, they're probably headed for the First Day

	Friends are generally quite tolerant of babies and their
	noises.  It should be considered normal at most unprogrammed
	meetings to breast feed babies during meeting.

Subject: (4) Meetings for Business

	"Quakers are peculiar, and our organizational arrangements 
	 are too.  We do not fit easily into any worldly model of
	 governance, not even simple democracy."
						-- Jim Nichols

	Groups of Friends who conduct business as a group are generally
	named by how often they meet, and the period between meetings is
	generally proportional to the size of the group.  (i.e. a group
	that meets monthly is a  "Monthly Meeting," a group that meets
	quarterly is a "Quarterly Meeting," etc.)

	Meetings for business (or more properly Meetings for Worship 
	with a Concern for Business) are held in the manner of a silent 
	meeting for worship, although there is a Clerk who attempts to 
	find and record the collectively acquired insight of the Meeting.  
	All decisions are made by finding the "Sense of the Meeting," 
	which is a statement that feels right to everyone in the meeting
	at that time.  These are generally recorded in the minutes of the
	meeting, after being approved.

	The Glasgo Quaker Meeting has a good writeup on this

Subject: (4.1) Monthly Meetings

	Local meetings that hold Meetings for Worship generally hold 
	meetings for business once a month, and are called "Monthly 
	Meetings."  The Monthly Meeting usually deals with membership, 
	marriages, paying rent, etc for the meeting facilities and/or 
	real estate, etc.  Monthly meetings sometimes have one or more 
	"Preparative Meetings", which do business with the monthly
	meeting, but meet elsewhere.

Subject: (4.2) Committees

	Since most Unprogrammed Friends' meetings don't have a paid 
	staff of any kind most activities are performed by various 
	Committees of the membership.  Most larger meetings have at 
	least 10 committees of varying description to maintain the 
	building, make or organize food, watch the finances, send 
	out a newsletter, etc.

	Committees often recommend items to the Monthly meeting for
	action, and are generally required to meet (at least)

Subject: (4.3) Quarterly/Regional Meetings

	Larger regional groups of Friends are usually groups of Monthly
	Meetings, which meet quarterly, and are often referred to as
	Quarterly Meetings or General Meetings.  Representatives from
	the various Monthly Meetings generally attend such meetings.
	Quarterly meetings are often places to discuss issues in
	preparation for Yearly Meetings.

Subject: (4.4) Yearly/General Meetings

	Even larger groups of Friends are also usually groups of Monthly
	Meetings representing several regions, and are referred to as 
	Yearly or General Meetings.  Representatives from the various 
	Monthly Meetings generally attend such meetings.

	Some meetings are members of more than one Yearly Meeting.

	There is no overall central organization which claims all
	Friends as members, although several organizations (e.g.
	Friends World Committee on Consultation) do provide services

Subject: (5) Beliefs of Friends
	Friends' beliefs are a little hard to quantify, since Friends
	do not believe in having a fixed Creed or Dogma, but rather
	in seeking for the leadings of God within ourselves.  However,
	some generalizations are possible, which are gone over below.

	It is interesting to note that many of these positions have
	evolved over time, and while they now seem like fairly 
	straightforward extensions of basic Quaker belief, they 
	involved much discussion and soul-searching in the past.

	Some issues are still evolving, and you will find that current 
	issues like same-gender relationships, abortion, etc. are topics 
	on which it is very difficult to achieve unity.  At present, I 
	suspect you can find Friends Meetings with nearly any viewpoint 
	in the spectrum of possibilities on these issues, and that any
	official position is very carefully worded.
Subject: (5.1) Christianity and Quaker Universalism

	The Religious Society of Friends is a Christian organization,
	in the sense that it is originally based on the teachings of 
	Jesus in the New Testament.  You will in general find some 
	disagreement among Friends about whether there was a Virgin 
	Birth, whether various miracles were supernatural occurances 
	or religious embellishments, whether Jesus was The Son of God, 
	or just one of God's children etc.  You will in general find 
	agreement that those differences are not important :-).

	We *can* all agree that certain things "feel Right," that there
	is a part of us that knows what right and wrong are, and that
	that part of us is the "Inner Light", or in some sense God.

	Friends have our own traditional Universalism, which is
	quite different from Unitarian Universalism.  One may find
	many expressions of our traditional Quaker Universalism in the
	writings of George Fox, Isaac Penington, Robert Barclay, William
	Penn, John Richardson, and other first- and second-generation
	Friends -- and in the writings of John Woolman, etc. -- and yes,
	in the writings of Joseph John Gurney too.  

	This traditional Quaker Universalism does not say that
	all religions are completely true, let alone that they are
	equally true.  But it affirms that, as all people have the Light
	(John 1:9), so they have it whether they consider themselves
	Christians or not; and people of all faiths and upbringings may
	give expression to the promptings of that Light in their words and
	deeds, so that, as a result, one finds the Light expressing itself
	from time to time through religious leaders within *all* faiths.
	Thus in a religion which overall contains many errors -- be it
	Buddhism or Hinduism or Protestantism or Catholicism -- there
	will nevertheless be some genuine and wonderful expressions of
	the Light.  One who knows Christ will recognize and honor these
	expressions of the Light, even as she recognizes and avoids the
	errors elsewhere in those religions.

	This is why, at Quaker Meetings, people occasionally refer to 
	the _Tao Te Ching_, the _Koran_, etc. at Meetings as well as 
	various translations of the _Bible_.  (and sometimes 
	_Winnie The Pooh_... :-))

	In some Yearly Meetings (largely those affiliated with FGC) the
	Society of Friends is considered a "Post Christian Religion",
	and folks who consider themselves everything from Agnostics to
	Hindus to Wiccans are considered members of the meeting, where in
	other Yearly Meetings the focus is fairly exclusively on Christ 
	and the Bible, and members consider themselves exclusively 

	In either case many Friends disagree strongly with some
	groups that call themselves "Christian", like the "Christian
	Coalition", and other so-called "Fundamentalist Christian" groups.
	Friends are fundamentalist; we've just picked a different set
	of fundamentals.

Subject: (5.2) Authority

	Friends generally have held that people are people; no one is 
	more "holy" than anyone else, (except *maybe* Christ,
	(See "Christianity")) and that everyone has equal access to the
	part of God in all of us.  Thus Friends have traditionally
	refused to use honorifics like "Your Honor," "Your Eminence," 

	The only authority a Meeting has is that its members all agree that
	its actions are in keeping with that of God of each of its members.
	This is of course the Highest Form of authority to a Friend.

	These beliefs about authority have a lot to do with Friends'
	beliefs about Marriage, War, etc. (below) and the reason
	Friends do not have "priests" that perform blessings,
	marriages, etc.

	Friends have also traditionally refused to use terms of royalty,
	or of office, like "Your Highness" or "Your Honor".  As
	Barclay writes (from Dean Freiday's edition, on p. 391):

	  2. It is not lawful for Christians to kneel before or
		 prostrate themselves to any man, or to bow the body
		 or uncover the head.

	The previous point also makes the same point as to "word 
	honor" in court, specifically the use of terms including
	"Your Honor."

	On p. 402 there is a more extensive discussion of Kneeling,
	Bowing, and Removing the Hat, with some Biblical references.
	A footnote quotes George Fox's Journal, as follows:

	  "When the Lord sent me forth into the world, he forbade me
	   to put off my hat to any, high or low...neither might I 
	   bow or scrape with my leg to any one."  G. Fox, Journal,
	   Bi-Centenary Edition, London, Headley, 1902, v. 1, p. 38.

	Finally, p. 404 remarks,
	  "Many of us have been badly beaten and buffeted about, and
	   we have even been imprisoned for several months for no
	   other reason except that we would not uncover our heads
	   or bow our bodies to satisfy the proud and unreasonable
	   whims of egotistical men. Certainly the innocent practice
	   of standing still and erect without taking off our hats
	   any more than our shoes does not show as much rudeness as
	   the beatings and knocking about we have had because of 
	   our practice."

Subject: (5.3) Marriage

	Officially, two Friends marry each other under the care of
	the meeting, but no person "marries" them, God does.  Most 
	meetings reserve the right to refuse to take a marriage under 
	their care if they feel the couple is not "clear" about their 
	intention to marry.  Generally all present at the ceremony
	sign the wedding certificate.

	In the USA there have been a *few* meetings which have performed 
	same-gender marriages; and in one or two states for a while some 
	of them were even legal.  This is a topic of much discussion in
	many meetings, and is not something you can assume any given meeting
	considers okay.  Also to my knowledge the states whose marriage 
	laws had "Quaker loopholes" allowing Meetings to perform same
	gender marriages have closed them.  On the other hand, several
	states are now considering allowing same-gender marriages...
	Folks interested in same-gender marriage may want to look at
	some of the Minutes on Marriage agreed to by meetings which have
	done so (See:

Subject: (5.4) War

	Friends have generally refused to fight in wars, in particular 
	refused the draft, since the mid to late 1600's.   As the 
	"George Fox Song" says:

		"If we give you a rifle 
			will you fight for the Lord?
		 But you can't kill the Devil 
			with a gun or a sword."
	Friends groups like the Friends Committee on National
	Legislation (FCNL) lobby heavily against military involvement
	and military spending along with their other priorities.

	Friends are also concerned about finding causes of war in our
	daily lives -- do you own something that someone else would 
	kill to have?

	Friends organizations (like the Friends Ambulance Unit in
	both World Wars) have attempted to reduce the suffering of
	wars, and Quaker House near the United Nations is active in
	various diplomatic efforts, allowing "off the record" 
	discussions between parties who don't officially recognize
	one another, etc.

Subject: (5.5) Oaths 

	Friends traditionally refuse to take oaths of any kind, including
	oaths of fealty, pledges of allegiance, etc. (Read the book of
	Matthew if you wonder why :-)) 

Subject: (5.6) The Death Penalty, the Prison System, etc.

	"Judge not, lest ye be judged," "Let that person among you
	who is without sin cast the first stone," ...

	Need I say more?  Okay, while early Friends (as in early 
	Pennsylvania law) had a death penalty for some crimes,
	most modern Friends organizations are very active in anti-
	death-penalty and prison reform/abolition groups, as much
	for pragmatic reasons as for moral ones.

Subject: (5.7) Rituals, sacraments, etc.

        Friends generally conduct very simple weddings and memorial
        services and do not outwardly observe baptism or the Lord's
        Supper.  Friends seek to experience the sacraments in an inward
        and continuing manner without symbols.  The general feeling is
        that rituals tend to become more important than the meaning they
        are intended to convey.

Subject: (5.8) Dress

	Many people, are under the impression that Quakers have rules
	about clothing, hats, bonnets, etc. similar to the standards 
	among the Amish, the Old Order Mennonites, and certain Orthodox 
	Jewish sects.  One explanation for this confusion is the image
	on the Quaker Oats(tm) logo (See (1.4) Oatmeal, Motor Oil...); 
	another is the traditional refusal of Friends to rise or doff 
	their hats to figures considered to be in authority.
	(See (5.2) Authority)

	While most Friends do dress less ostentatiously than the average, 
	this is more a reflection of the overall Quaker emphasis on the 
	inner spirit rather than outward appearances, not any sort of 
	enforced restriction on clothing.

Subject: (6) Terms, Acronyms etc.

		American (Canadian,...) Friends Service Committee 
		-- a national organization which works on projects 
		and programs reflecting traditional Friends' issues.
		Friends who are born to Quaker families and decide
		to stay with it are called "birthright" Friends,
		those who join later are "convinced"; the term
		"converted" is rarely if ever used.
		When it is clear to you that something is right.  
	Clearness Committee:
		A group formed to help someone decide if something
		is right.  Often formed to interview a couple 
		contemplating marriage for example.
	Faith and Practice:
		Title of a book published by several Yearly Meetings
		which describes "standard" practices for accepting
		new members, holding business meetings, etc. as well
		as a lot of the philosophy behind them.  A good
		source of Queries, and good Quakerly form letters.
		(See "Bibliography") There are many versions, most notably
		the Britain Yearly Meeting and Philadelphia Yearly Meeting
		versions. (Britain Yearly Meeting (formerly London Yearly 
		Meeting) historically had a separate "Church Government" 
		Friends Committee on National Legislation -- a 
		Lobbying group that works for legislation reflecting
		traditional Friends' issues.
		Friends General Conference/Friends United Meeting, are
		national organizations of Friends that provides support 
		services for Monthly and Yearly Meetings and which organize 
		yearly national gatherings.  FGC's membership is predomin-
		ately unprogrammed meetings, while FUM's membership is
		predominately programmed meetings.
		Friends World Committee on Consultation is sort of
		like FGC or FUM, but on a worldwide scale.
		Friends often speak of the Light Within, which is
		a term for that of God in each of us.  
		A good question to ask yourself, often from some
		published source, often a leading question; like
		"Do you seek to find that of God in those around
		you, especially those you disagree with?"
	Sense of the Meeting:
		A statement of what the group agrees with or is in
		unity with, or more correctly the idea that such a
		statment expresses.
	Weighty Friends:
		Folks who can be counted on to say something deep
		that really makes you think.  Especially someone
		good at finding the Sense of a Meeting and expressing 

Subject: (7) Speech mannerisms

Subject: (7.1) Thee and Thou (archaic)
	Among early Quakers it was traditional to call everyone and
	anyone thee and thou, including royalty and church officials,
	who were to be referred to in the plural in deference to their
	official Holier than Thou position.  This practice continued
	for some time after English speakers started calling *everyone*
	"you" rather than "thou."

	Only a few (usually older) Friends use thee and thou anymore.

Subject: (7.2) I have a Concern...

	Is the traditional method of bringing up an issue to a Meeting
	for business.  A much stronger statement than it sounds like,
	since one unsettled concern about something will stop it from
	being done.  Usage: "I have a concern that replacing this
	mailbox will hurt the baby birds nesting in the current

Subject: (7.3) Days of the Week

	Early Friends made a big deal out of removing names of
	Mythology figures (Greek, Roman, and Norse Gods) and such from
	their speech.  Thus the days of the week are referred to as
	"First Day" through "Seventh Day" instead of Sunday through
	Saturday, and "First Month" through "Twelfth Month" instead of
	January through December.  This notation is common in writings
	like _The Journal of John Woolman_ and other classic Friends

	Modern Friends are often not so picky, but Minutes of business
	meetings, etc. often still refer to the days numerically, and
	it is invariably called "First Day School" not "Sunday School"
	at Quaker meetings in the US.

	This can lead to some tricky phrasing when talking about the
	second Sunday of May, which is of course the second First Day
	of Fifth Month...

Subject: (7.4) Speaking Truth to Power

	Refers to the general concept of the child asking the Emperor 
	"why aren't you wearing any clothes?" that is, that the truth
	often helps those in power stop deluding themselves.

Subject: (7.5) Holding in the Light

	Thinking of someone or something while worshipping, in effect 
	praying for them silently.

Subject: (8) Where can I find...

Subject: (8.1) a local Quaker meeting

	One of the best places to look is in your local telephone
	directory; look for:
		Localtown Fellowship of Friends
		Localtown Friends Meeting/Church
		Friends Fellowship of Localtown
		Friends House
		Friends Meeting/Church of Localtown	
		Friends, Religious Society of
		Quaker Meeting of Localtown
		Localtown Quaker Meeting
		Religious Society of Friends
		Society of Friends
	(with local town names) in your local white pages, or in
	the yellow pages under "Churches".

	FGC now has to help people find
	unprogrammed meetings in the U.S. and Canada. It includes not only
	FGC-affiliated monthly meetings, but also those in Conservative and
	Independent yearly meetings (I've heard some talk of extending it
	even further but that's still just talk).

	If you're really stuck, try contacting:

		Chel Avery, Director
		Quaker Information Center
		1501 Cherry Street
		Philadelphia, PA  19102
		(215) 241-7024


		Friends Journal
		1216 Arch Street, Ste. 2A
		Philadelphia, PA  19107
		Phone: 215-563-8629
		Fax: 215-568-1377
		Email: FriendsJnl at aol dot com

	They probably have a meeting in your area on their
	mailing list.  They can also get you free introductory
	issues of Friends Journal. 

	or in the UK, try first:
	which has a postal-code search for local Meetings, or paper mail
	or e-mail to:

		Quaker Life
		Friends House
		Euston Road
		London NW1 2BJ
		<ql at quaker dot org uk>
	Or drop a note to 

		Friends World Committee
		1506 Race Street
		Philadelphia PA 19102 USA

	and ask them for a contact at your nearest Yearly 
	Meeting, who can probably point you to a nearby 
	Monthly Meeting.  

Subject: (8.2) Quaker publications

	Here are some bookstores that specialize in Quaker publications.
	The numbers are mainly listed as dialed from the USA/Canada.

        For things hard to find, Quakers Uniting in Publications
        (See: has a Quaker books in 
        print database.
	Barclay Press
	110 Elliott Rd.
	Newberg, OR, USA 97132 

	Friends' Book Shop
	Pendle Hill Bookstore
	Box J
	Wallingford PA, USA 19086 

	Friends United Press
	101-A Quaker Hill Dr.
	Richmond IN, USA, 47374 

	Friends General Conference Bookstore
	1216 Arch St., 2B,
	Philadelphia PA, USA, 19107

	Friends House,
	173-177 Euston Road,
	020 7663 1000 (+44  020 7663 1000 international)
	FAX 020 7663 1001 (+44  020 7663 1001 international)
        [microfilms also avaliable from the library there]

	George Fox College Bookstore
	414 N. Meridian
	Newberg OR, 97132

Subject: (8.3) Electronic publications

	Current information on several Quaker mailing lists is available
	on the web. (See

	There is a British list Quaker-B, send mail saying:

		subscribe Quaker-B <my-real name>

	to to subscribe.

	Quaker-Spectrum mailing list: One may subscribe by sending the 
	message "subscribe" to:

	Read soc.religion.quaker and/or bit.listserv.quaker-p on USENET news.

	Read the Quaker Electronic Archive (See http://www/

	A World-Wide-Web page is being maintained by Russ Nelson

Subject: (9) Bibliography

/* Additions from Friends on the 'net -- Marc */

* _A Certain Kind of Perfection_ Margery Post Abbott, Pendle Hill Publications

* _The People Called Quakers_, D. Elton Trueblood, Barclay Press

* _Quaker by Convincement_, Geoffrey Hubbard, Quaker Home Service, London

* _The Quaker Reader_, Jessamyn West (Ed.), Pendle Hill Press

* _Why Friends are Friends_, Jack Wilcuts, Barclay Press

* _J. Walter Malone: The Autobiography oF an Evangelical Quaker_, 
	Lanham, MD. Univesity Press of America, 1993

/* Written  3:44 pm  Nov  9, 1992 by jsax at igc dot apc dot org in igc:gen.quaker */
/* ---------- "BIBLIOGRAPHY OF QUAKER READINGS" ---------- */
Revised November 1992 by Joel GAzis-SAx
With Additions from Martin Kelly, 2004

* QUAKERS IN AMERICA, Thomas Hamm, Columbia UP, 2003

* FRIENDS FOR 350 YEARS, Howard Brinton, Pendle Hill, (previously
 FRIENDS FOR 300 YEARS) 1952.   
Combines history and interpretation in an excellent single volume 
on the essentials of Quakerism. 

* GUIDE TO QUAKER PRACTICE, Howard Brinton, Pendle Hill pamphlet 


* QUAKER SPIRITUALITY, ed. Douglas Steere, Paulist Press, 1984.

* BARCLAY'S APOLOGY IN MODERN ENGLISH, Dean Friday, editor, 1967.

* THE AMAZING FACT OF QUAKER WORSHIP, George H. Gorman, Swarthmore 
Lecture, 1973, Friends Home Service Committee, London. 

SOCIETY OF FRIENDS), Michael J. Sheeran, S.J., Philadelphia Yearly 
Meeting of Religious Society of Friends, 1983. 

Friends United Press, Richmond, Indiana, 1989. 

* WHAT IS QUAKERISM?: A PRIMER, George T. Peck, Pendle Hill 
Pamphlet #277. 

Friends General Conference, Philadelphia, 1984. 

Pacific Yearly Meeting of the Religious Society of Friends. 

Philadelphia Yearly Meeting of the Religious Society of Friends. 

FRIENDS, Britain Yearly Meeting. 
* THE BEGINNINGS OF QUAKERISM, William C. Braithwaite, Rowntree 
Series of Quaker Histories. 

Quaker Home Service, London, 1984. 

Hope Bacon, New Society Publishers, Philadelphia, 1985.  includes 
an introduction "The Quaker Contribution to Nonviolent Action." 

* THE QUAKER PEACE TESTIMONY:  1660 TO 1914, Peter Brock, Sessions 
Book Trust, York, 1990.



* APOCALYPSE OF THE WORD, Douglas Gwyn, Friends United Press 
(study guide available) 

* A TESTAMENT OF DEVOTION, Thomas R. Kelly, Harper and Bros., NY, 

Boulding, Fellowship Publications, 1945. 

* FRIENDLY STORY CARAVAN, Anna P. Broomell, Pendle Hill 

Richmond,  Friends United Meeting 1991 

Newton, Kansas, 1979. 

Brethren Press, Elgin, Ill., 1986. 

Oxford University Press, 1994
Marc Mengel <>

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