Loyalist Volunteer Force (LVF)
The Loyalist Volunteer Force (LVF) is an extreme loyalist group formed in 1996 as a faction of the mainstream loyalist Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF), though it did not emerge publicly until February, 1997. The LVF is composed largely of UVF hardliners who have sought to prevent a political settlement with Irish nationalists in Northern Ireland by attacking Catholic politicians, civilians, and Protestant politicians who endorse the Northern Ireland peace process. In October, 2001, the British Government ruled that the LVF had broken the cease-fire it declared in 1998. The LVF decommissioned a small but significant amount of weapons in December, 1998, but it has not repeated this gesture as of May, 2002. LVF participates in bombings, kidnappings, and close-quarter shooting attacks. LVF bombs often have contained Powergel commercial explosives, typical of many loyalist groups. LVF attacks have been particularly vicious: The group has murdered numerous Catholic civilians with no political or terrorist affiliations, including, in July 1997, an 18-year-old Catholic girl who had a Protestant boyfriend. The terrorists also have conducted successful attacks against Irish targets in Irish border towns. In 2000 and 2001, the LVF also engaged in a violent feud with other loyalists in which several individuals were killed.
LVF has approximately 150 activists who operate in Northern Ireland and Ireland.
█ FURTHER READING:
CDI (Center for Defense Information), Terrorism Project. CDI Fact Sheet: Current List of Designated Foreign Terrorist Organizations. March 27, 2003. < http://www.cdi.org/terrorism/terrorist.cfm > (April 17, 2003).
Central Intelligence Agency. World Factbook, 2002. < http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/ > (April 16, 2003).
Taylor, Francis X. U.S. Department of State. "Patterns of Global Terrorism 2001." Annual Report: On the Record Briefing. May 21, 2002 < http://www.state.gov/s/ct/rls/rm/10367.htm > (April 17,2003).
U.S. Department of State. Annual reports. < http://www.state.gov/www/global/terrorism/annual_reports.html > (April 16, 2003).