Terrorist Organization List, United States
The United States Secretary of State formally designates "Foreign Terrorist Organizations" (FTO) that threaten United States interests. Within the Department of State, the Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism is assigned the primary responsibility for monitoring available intelligence and public news accounts of terrorist activities so that they may advise the Secretary on decisions related to terrorism-related designations. The designation process, in part, focuses on groups who have recently engaged in terrorist attacks.
Although designations can be modified at any time (i.e., groups can be added or deleted from the list by the Secretary of State) designations normally expire in two years unless renewed. Changes in the list require a formal notification of Congress. Organizations have the right under U.S. law—should they choose to appear—of appealing an FTO designation to United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit within 30 days of such designation.
Impact of FTO designation. When an organization is designated as an FTO it becomes unlawful for a person in the United States (or U.S. jurisdictions) to knowingly provide "material support or resources" (e.g. money, aid, advice, training, etc.) to a designated FTO.
FTO members may not legally enter the U.S. or its territories, and may be deported upon discovery.
U.S. banks or other financial institutions that control accounts in which agents of FTOs have some interest must report account existence and activities to the Office of Foreign Assets Control of the U.S. Department of the Treasury.
Designated FTOs. The U.S. Department of State publishes a list of designated foreign terrorist organizations as a part of its report, Patterns of Global Terrorism , submitted annually to Congress.
Groups designated as foreign terrorist organizations by the U.S. Department of State, as of January 30, 2003, include the following organizations: "Abu Nidal Organization (ANO); Abu Sayyaf Group; Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigade; Armed Islamic Group (GIA); Asbat al-Ansar; Aum Shinrikyo; Basque Fatherland and Liberty (ETA); Communist Party of the Philippines/New People's Army (CPP/NPA); Gama'a al-Islamiyya (Islamic Group); HAMAS (Islamic Resistance Movement); Harakat ul-Mujahidin (HUM); Hizballah (Party of God); Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU); Jaish-e-Mohammed (JEM) (Army of Mohammed); Jemaah Islamiya organization (JI) al-Jihad (Egyptian Islamic Jihad); Kahane Chai (Kach); Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK); Lashkar-e Tayyiba (LT) (Army of the Righteous); Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE); Mujahedin-e Khalq Organization (MEK); National Liberation Army (ELN); Palestine Liberation Front (PLF); Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ); PFLP-General Command (PFLP-GC); Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP); al-Qaeda; Real IRA; Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC); Revolutionary Nuclei (formerly ELA); Revolutionary Organization 17 November; Revolutionary People's Liberation Army/Front (DHKP/C); Salafist Group for Call and Combat (GSPC); Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso, SL); United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia (AUC)."
█ FURTHER READING:
CDI (Center for Defense Information), Terrorism Project. CDI Fact Sheet: Current List of Designated Foreign Terrorist Organizations. March 27, 2003. < http://www.cdi.org/terrorism/terrorist.cfm > (April 17, 2003).
Central Intelligence Agency. World Factbook, 2002. < http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/ > (April 16, 2003).
Taylor, Francis X. U.S. Department of State. "Patterns of Global Terrorism 2001, Annual Report: On the Record Briefing." May 21, 2002 < http://www.state.gov/s/ct/rls/rm/10367.htm > (April 17, 2003).
U.S. Department of State. Annual Reports. < http://www.state.gov/www/global/terrorism/annual_reports.html > (April 16, 2003).