An e-bomb, or electronic bomb, is a non-explosive artillery shell that sends out an electromagnetic pulse (EMP) of enormous power, capable of permanently disabling mechanical and electronic systems. The concept developed in the 1920s, and was later recognized as an unintended consequence of nuclear explosions.


Echelon is the name for a global surveillance network consisting of ground stations, satellites, and other listening posts, which collectively intercept and analyze worldwide electronic communications. The signals intelligence agencies of five nations—the National Security Agency (NSA) of the United States, the Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) of the United Kingdom, the Communications Security Establishment (CSE) of Canada, the Defense Signals Directorate (DSD) of Australia, and the Government Communications and Security Bureau (GCSB) of New Zealand—all participate, with NSA as the controlling agency.

Economic Espionage

Economic espionage, sometimes known as industrial espionage, is spying conducted for the benefit of a commercial or industrial enterprise, typically to gain information not available through open channels. (By contrast, economic intelligence conducted on behalf of governments usually draws on information available through open channels.) Technologically advanced nations such as the United States are most vulnerable to economic espionage, which threatens hundreds of billions of dollars in U.S.

Economic Intelligence

Economic intelligence can be loosely defined as information gathered about materials and resources that are developed, produced, or managed outside the United States, and the interpretation and presentation of raw information or unpublished data to reports or analyses that inform policy makers and consumers.

Egypt, Intelligence and Security

Egypt's primary intelligence agency is the General Directorate for State Security Investigations (GDSSI). The Ministry of the Interior administers the GDSSI.

Eichmann, Adolf: Israeli Capture

Karl Adolf Eichmann (1906–1962) was the head of the German Gestapo Department of Jewish Affairs from 1941 to 1945. During World War II, Eichmann oversaw the deportation of European Jews to ghettos.

Eisenhower Administration (1953–1961), United States National Security Policy

To President Dwight D. Eisenhower, the national security of the United States could best be maintained by an interventionist international policy.

El Salvador, Intelligence and Security

El Salvador won its independence from Spain in 1821, and joined the Central American Federation. The nation left the Federation in 1839, establishing its own government.

Electromagnetic Pulse

Any nuclear explosion 25 miles (40 km) or higher above the ground produces a high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP), a short-lived, overlapping series of intense radio waves that blanket a large swath of ground. These radio waves can induce electrical currents in metallic objects and so cause damage to electrical and electronic equipment, including electrical power grids, telephone networks, radios, and computers.

Electromagnetic Spectrum

The electromagnetic spectrum consists of all the frequencies at which electromagnetic waves can occur, ordered from zero to infinity. Radio waves, visible light, and x rays are examples of electromagnetic waves at different frequencies.

Electromagnetic Weapons, Biochemical Effects

Electromagnetic weapons—also known as E-bombs—are designed to release a high-power flash of radio waves or microwaves. Depending on the energy of the electromagnetic pulse, effects can range from the disabling of electronic circuitry to physiological effects in those exposed to the electromagnetic pulse.

Electronic Communication Intercepts, Legal Issues

The legal issues surrounding the interception of electronic communications are many and varied, primarily because they arise in different contexts: criminal investigations, corporate espionage, employer-employee relationships, and the intelligence activities of the federal government conducted against foreign countries. In recent years, two primary issues have arisen.

Electronic Countermeasures

Electronic countermeasures (ECM), also known as electronic attack, is a component of electronic warfare (EW), the use or control of electromagnetic energy either in defense, or for the purposes of a military attack on an enemy. Its counterpart is electronic protection or electronic counter-countermeasures (ECCM)—efforts or equipment directed toward the protection of persons or material from the effects of electronic warfare.

Electronic Warfare

Electronic warfare, or EW, is the use or control of electro-magnetic energy either in defense, or for the purposes of a military attack on an enemy. There are three components of electronic warfare: electronic countermeasures or electronic attack, electronic counter-countermeasures or electronic protection, and electronic warfare support measures.

Electro-Optical Intelligence

Electro-optical "intelligence" involves the acquisition of data from the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum of wavelengths that contains ultraviolet radiation, visible light, and infrared radiation.


Diseases caused by microorganisms are a threat to national security. Even in countries with well-developed healthcare systems, a massive outbreak can strain healthcare infrastructure.

EM Wave Scanners

In order to observe phenomena that cannot be glimpsed through direct contact, for example, the activities of an isolated weapons-testing site in a hostile nation, it may be necessary to employ remote-sensing equipment and techniques. These typically involve views from the air or from space, which require the use of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) across a wide spectrum.

Emergency Response Teams

Emergency response teams are the front line of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Emergency Response Program, which is in turn at the center of the national infrastructure for responding to environmental hazards such as oil spills. The Emergency Response Program brings together a wide range of activities directed toward ensuring appropriate, timely responses in the event of an emergency involving the release of oil or hazardous substances.

Encryption of Data

Data are any useful information and encryption is any form of coding, ciphering, or secret writing. Encryption of data, therefore, includes any and all attempts to conceal, scramble, encode, or encipher any information.

Enduring Freedom, Operation

Operation Enduring Freedom was the initial United States military response to the attacks of September 11, 2001, in which almost 3,000 Americans and other nationalities were killed by members of the al-Qaeda terror network. When the Taliban, Islamist extremists who controlled Afghanistan, refused to surrender al-Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden, the United States launched its attack the following month on October 7.

Energy Directed Weapons

Weapons that use energy to disable or destroy equipment or people are referred to as energy directed weapons. Examples include lasers, high-power microwave weapons, and charged particle beam weapons.

Energy Regulatory Commission, United States Federal

The U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) is an independent regulatory agency within the Department of Energy (DOE) responsible for regulating energy utilities nationwide.

Energy Technologies

Energy technologies are techniques for moving energy from a source to a point of use, for transforming it from an original source-form to an end-use form, or both. They are often lumped into two groups, conventional and alternative.

Engraving and Printing, United States Bureau

The United States Bureau of Engraving and Printing (BEP) is the largest producer of security documents in the nation. Although it is most widely known for the production of Federal Reserve notes, paper currency is only one of many printed materials that originate from its facilities in Washington, D.C., and Fort Worth, Texas.

Engulf, Operation

Engulf was a series of operations whereby the British Security Service, MI5, intercepted Egyptian and French cipher transmissions during a period from the mid-1950s to the mid-1960s. The first major operation of Engulf took place during the Suez crisis of 1956, when a team led by British spymaster Peter Wright planted a bug in the cipher room of the Egyptian embassy in London.


Enigma was a ciphering (code communication) system used by the German military from 1926 until the end of World War II, and by several other nations for some years after. Enigma was the first mechanized message-encryption system to see wide use.

Entry-Exit Registration System, United States National Security

The U.S. National Security Entry-Exit Registration System (NEERS) is a program whereby persons whose nationality identifies them as a possible security risk are required to submit to control processes governed by the U.S.

Environmental Issues Impact on Security

The relationship between environmental issues and national security includes the possibility of conflict over scarce resources such as fresh water and arable land, the influence of global climate changes on the types and locations of future conflicts, and the degree to which the environmental consequences of domestic military and security activities should be open to public scrutiny. Although there is no standardized definition, aspects of national security that are driven by or that address environmental issues can be collectively described by the term environmental security.

Environmental Measurements Laboratory

The Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) is a research laboratory located in New York City, first established in 1947, that is operated by the United States government. Research at the facility is coordinated by the Science and Technology (S&T) Directorate of the Department of Homeland Security.

EPA (Environmental Protection Agency)

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was founded for the specific purpose of protecting human health and safeguarding the natural environment. Until the establishment of the EPA in 1970, there were no federal agencies or programs designed to deal with environmental pollution in the United States in a coordinated fashion.