Black Tom Explosion

The Black Tom explosion was the peak act of German sabotage on American soil during the First World War.

Bletchley Park

Bletchley Park was the headquarters of the British Military Intelligence Government Code and Cipher School during World War II. Located fifty miles north of London, on the grounds of the sprawling Victorian mansion for which it was named, Bletchley Park employed 12,000 code breakers and staff.

Bolivia, Intelligence and Security

Bolivia gained its independence from Spain in 1825. Since then, the nation has weathered nearly 200 political coups and other incidences of political upheaval.

Bomb Damage, Forensic Assessment

Just as fires and explosions are closely related phenomena in physical and chemical terms, bomb-damage assessment is an aspect of forensic science closely related to arson investigation. In both cases, authorities analyze a crime scene for telltale signs of the nature of the materials that facilitated the conflagration.

Bomb Detection Devices

When detonated in strategic, population-dense, or confined spaces, bombs are especially destructive. For example, a bomb planted by political terrorists in a suitcase was responsible for the explosion of Pan Am Flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland, on December 21, 1988, that claimed 270 lives.


A bombe was a mechanical device used for the rapid decryption and transcription of complex ciphers. Developed during World War II, the multiple bombes employed by British and United States military intelligence code breakers aided the allied war effort by providing access to German and Japanese military secrets.

Bosnia and Herzegovina, Intelligence and Security

Following World War I, the nations in the Balkan region were unified into a single state, known after 1929 as Yugoslavia. Tensions between the region's ethnic populations remained high, but the establishment of a dictatorship under Marshal Tito kept Yugoslavia united after World War II.

Botulinum Toxin

Botulinum toxin is among the most poisonous substances known. The toxin, which can be ingested or inhaled, and which disrupts transmission of nerve impulses to muscles, is naturally produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum.

Brain-Machine Interfaces

A brain-machine interface is the linkage of the brain to a mechanical device exterior to the body in such a manner that the device is controlled by natural signals from the brain. An important goal for developing such technology is to aid people who are paralyzed or otherwise physically impared.

Brain Wave Scanners

The term brain wave scanners, in the context of law enforcement, encompasses an array of research studies and technological developments undertaken with the aim of using electronic equipment to determine the truth or falsity of an individual's statements. While such a concept may sound farfetched at first glance, it is based not on subjective phenomena, but on apparently measurable brain states.

Brazil, Intelligence and Security

Brazil gained its independence from Portugal in 1822, seizing upon a period of European unrest to establish its own government. Since that time, the government of Brazil has been traditionally unstable, with large-scale landowners, the military, and democratic forces vying for political power.

British Terrorism Act

In July, 2000, the British Parliament passed the Terrorism Act, a lengthy piece of legislation that criminalized a number of activities associated with groups tied to terrorism. The act initially prescribed 14 groups, most of whom were involved in Northern Ireland's sectarian conflict.

Brookhaven National Laboratory

Founded in 1947, Brookhaven National Laboratory is operated for the U.S. Department of Energy by Brookhaven Science Associates, a non-profit research company.

Bubonic Plague

A concern of health and defense officials is the possible deliberate introduction of plague—or the exploitation of plague—as a terrorist weapon. Plague causing microorganisms are highly lethal, highly transmissible, and relatively easy to develop as terrorist weapons.

Bugs (Microphones) and Bug Detectors

A key part of intelligence gathering and surveillance is the installation of listening devices. The classic Cold War image of Soviet espionage agents secretly planting "bugs" in an office of the United States embassy is an accurate historical picture of the use of these listening devices.

Bush Administration (1989–1993), United States National Security Policy

The administration of President George H. W.

Bush Administration (2001–), United States National Security Policy

George W. Bush, transformed the national security system of the United States to combat the threat of global terrorism.

Cambodian Freedom Fighters (CFF)

Cambodian Freedom Fighters (CFF) also operates as, or is known as, the Cholana Kangtoap Serei Cheat Kampouchea.

Cambridge University Spy Ring

The Cambridge spy ring was a group of British young men recruited as Soviet spies in the 1930s. The group was known in Britain as the Cambridge spy ring, after the University where the men attended classes and were recruited for espionage.


Cameras have a number of applications in the world of security and espionage. Cameras can be used for conducting surveillance, for instance, an activity that may require neither proximity to the subject nor even a human operator.

Cameras, Miniature

Intelligence operatives frequently have a need for cameras that can be concealed, and while small size is not the only means to protect a camera from detection, it is certainly a significant one. Hence the value of small cameras such as the Minox, which could easily fit into the palm of a person's hand, as well as extremely small models no bigger than a thumb.

Canada, Counter-Terrorism Policy

Canada's measures to respond to or prevent terrorist activities have their origin in the October Crisis of 1970. At that time, a minister in the government of the Canadian province of Quebec and the British trade commissioner were kidnapped by members of a radical organization who advocated the separation of Quebec from Canada.

Canada, Intelligence and Security

As of July 1984, Canadian security and intelligence operations have been the responsibility of the Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS). The Canadian Security Intelligence Service Act legislated the formation of CSIS as a replacement for the Security Service, which was part of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP).

Canine Substance Detection

Canine substance detection involves the use of specially trained dogs, commonly golden or Labrador retrievers, for the detection of illegal substances.

Carter Adminstration (1977–1981), United States National Security Policy

While President Jimmy Carter notably became the first president to label access to Middle Eastern oil as a vital security interest, his single term in office is widely viewed with skepticism in terms of national security. Carter's micro-management and concomitant power struggles within the administration did little to arrest the sharp decline in American power and influence that occurred in the 1970s.

CDC (United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)

CDC is an acronym for Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The center, which is headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia, is one of the predominant public health institutions in the United States and in the world.


CERN, located along the French-Swiss border near the Swiss capital Geneva, is the world's largest particle-physics laboratory. (The acronym stands for Conseil Européenne pour la Recherche Nucléaire, French for CERN's original name, the European Council for Nuclear Research; since October 1954, despite retention of the old acronym, CERN's name has actually been Organisation Européenne pour la Recherche Nucléaire.) CERN was founded in 1954 and today is supported by a consortium of 20 European nations and by a number of "observer states," including Japan and the U.S.

Chechen-Russian Conflict

During the 1990s, westerners became aware of a seemingly incongruous conflict between the Russian Federation and Chechnya, a small breakaway republic along its southern border. In fact, Chechens had resisted Russian rule, sometimes actively and sometimes passively, for over two centuries.

Chemical and Biological Defense Information Analysis Center (CBIAC)

The Chemical and Biological Defense Information Analysis Center (CBIAC) is a civilian-operated institution that contracts with the United States Department of Defense (DOD) to provide information on chemical and biological warfare technology. Headquartered in Maryland, it has satellites throughout the United States.

Chemical and Biological Detection Technologies

A technician collects a sample from a laptop computer that will be analyzed by the Sabre 2000 trace detection instrument, which can detect traces of explosives, drugs, or chemical weapons. AP/WIDE WORLD PHOTOS.