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RFC 7131 - Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) History-Info Header


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Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)                         M. Barnes
Request for Comments: 7131
Category: Informational                                         F. Audet
ISSN: 2070-1721                                                    Skype
                                                             S. Schubert
                                                                     NTT
                                                           H. van Elburg
                                              Detecon International Gmbh
                                                             C. Holmberg
                                                                Ericsson
                                                              March 2014

Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) History-Info Header Call Flow Examples

Abstract

   This document describes use cases and documents call flows that
   require the History-Info header field to capture the Request-URIs as
   a Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Request is retargeted.  The use
   cases are described along with the corresponding call flow diagrams
   and messaging details.

Status of This Memo

   This document is not an Internet Standards Track specification; it is
   published for informational purposes.

   This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force
   (IETF).  It represents the consensus of the IETF community.  It has
   received public review and has been approved for publication by the
   Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG).  Not all documents
   approved by the IESG are a candidate for any level of Internet
   Standard; see Section 2 of RFC 5741.

   Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
   and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
   http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7131.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2014 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1. Overview ........................................................2
   2. Conventions and Terminology .....................................3
   3. Detailed Call Flows .............................................3
      3.1. Sequentially Forking (History-Info in Response) ............3
      3.2. History-Info with Privacy Header Field ....................11
      3.3. Privacy for a Specific History-Info Entry .................16
      3.4. Automatic Call Distribution ...............................20
      3.5. Determining the Alias Used ................................27
      3.6. PBX Voicemail Example .....................................29
      3.7. Consumer Voicemail Example ................................35
      3.8. GRUU ......................................................41
      3.9. Limited-Use Address .......................................44
      3.10. Service Invocation .......................................47
      3.11. Toll-Free Number .........................................48
   4. Security Considerations ........................................51
   5. Acknowledgements ...............................................51
   6. Informative References .........................................51

1.  Overview

   Many services that use SIP require the ability to determine why and
   how the call arrived at a specific application.  The use cases
   provided in this document illustrate the use of the History-Info
   header [RFC7044], for example, applications and common scenarios.
   The optional "rc" and "mp" header field parameters defined in
   [RFC7044] are required for several of the use cases.  Descriptions of
   the example use cases, call flow diagrams, and messaging details are
   provided.

2.  Conventions and Terminology

   The term "retarget" is used as defined in [RFC7044].  The terms
   "location service", "redirect", and "address-of-record (AOR)" are
   used consistent with the terminology in [RFC3261].

3.  Detailed Call Flows

   The scenarios in this section provide sample use cases for the
   History-Info header for informational purposes only.  They are not
   intended to be normative.  In many cases, only the relevant messaging
   details are included in the body of the call flow.

3.1.  Sequentially Forking (History-Info in Response)

   This scenario highlights an example where the History-Info in the
   response is useful to an application or user that originated the
   request.

   Alice sends a call to Bob via sip:example.com.  The proxy
   sip:example.com sequentially tries Bob on a SIP User Agent (UA) that
   has bound a contact with the sip:bob@example.com AOR, and then
   several alternate addresses (Office and Home) unsuccessfully before
   sending a response to Alice.  The hi-entry containing the initial
   contact is the hi-entry just prior to the first hi-entry tagged with
   an "rc" header field parameter.  In this example, the Office and Home
   are not the same AOR as sip:bob@example.com, but rather different
   AORs that have been configured as alternate addresses for Bob in the
   proxy.  In other words, Office and Home are not bound through SIP
   Registration with Bob's AOR.  This type of arrangement is common, for
   example, when a "routing" rule to a Public Switched Telephone Network
   (PSTN) number is manually configured in a proxy.  These hi-entries
   are identified by the index contained in the hi-target-param "mp"
   header field parameter in the hi-entries.

   This scenario illustrates that by providing the History-Info to
   Alice, the end-user, or an application at Alice could make a decision
   on how best to attempt finding Bob without sending multiple requests
   to the same destination.  Upon receipt of the response containing the
   History-Info entries, the Request-URIs for the History-Info entries
   tagged with an "mp" header field parameter are extracted.  Those
   Request-URIs can be compared to other URIs (if any) that might be
   attempted in order to establish the session with Bob.  This results
   in avoiding the sending of another INVITE to Bob's home phone.
   Without this mechanism, Alice might well attempt to reach Bob at his
   office phone, which would then retarget the request to Bob's home
   phone.  When that attempt failed, then Alice might attempt to reach
   Bob directly at his home phone, unknowingly for a third time.

     Alice   example.com            Bob     Office    Home

     |            |                  |        |        |
     | INVITE F1  |                  |        |        |
     |----------->|    INVITE F2     |        |        |
     |            |----------------->|        |        |
     | 100 Trying F3                 |        |        |
     |<-----------|  302 Move Temporarily F4  |        |
     |            |<-----------------|        |        |
     |            |   ACK F5         |        |        |
     |            |----------------->|        |        |
     |            |       INVITE F6           |        |
     |            |-------------------------->|        |
     |            |      180 Ringing F7       |        |
     |            |<--------------------------|        |
     |  180 Ringing F8                        |        |
     |<-----------|   retransmit INVITE       |        |
     |            |-------------------------->|        |
     |            |      ( timeout )          |        |
     |            |             INVITE F9              |
     |            |----------------------------------->|
     |            |           100 Trying F10           |
     |            |<-----------------------------------|
     |            |           486 Busy Here F11        |
     |            |<-----------------------------------|
     |  486 Busy Here F12                              |
     |<-----------|             ACK F13                |
     |            |----------------------------------->|
     |  ACK F14   |                                    |
     |----------->|                                    |

                 Figure 1: Example with Sequential Forking

   Message Details

   F1 INVITE Alice -> example.com

   INVITE sip:bob@example.com SIP/2.0
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP 192.0.2.3:5060;branch=z9hG4bK4321
   Max-Forwards: 70
   From: Alice <sip:alice@example.com>;tag=sr3dds
   To: Bob <sip:bob@example.com>
   Supported: histinfo
   Call-ID: 12345600@example.com
   CSeq: 1 INVITE
   History-Info: <sip:bob@example.com>;index=1
   Contact: Alice <sip:alice@192.0.2.3>
   Content-Type: application/sdp
   Content-Length: <appropriate value>

   [SDP Not Shown]

   F2 INVITE  example.com -> Bob

   INVITE sip:bob@192.0.2.4 SIP/2.0
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP proxy.example.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKx3st
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP 192.0.2.3:5060;branch=z9hG4bK4321
   Max-Forwards: 69
   From: Alice <sip:alice@example.com>;tag=sr3dds
   To: Bob <sip:bob@example.com>
   Supported: histinfo
   Call-ID: 12345600@example.com
   CSeq: 1 INVITE
   Record-Route: <sip:proxy.example.com;lr>
   History-Info: <sip:bob@example.com>;index=1
   History-Info: <sip:bob@192.0.2.4>;index=1.1;rc=1
   Contact: Alice <sip:alice@192.0.2.3>
   Content-Type: application/sdp
   Content-Length: <appropriate value>

   [SDP Not Shown]

   F3 100 Trying example.com -> Alice

   SIP/2.0 100 Trying
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP 192.0.2.3:5060;branch=z9hG4bK4321
   From: Alice <sip:alice@example.com>;tag=sr3dds
   To: Bob <sip:bob@example.com>
   Supported: histinfo
   Call-ID: 12345600@example.com
   CSeq: 1 INVITE
   Content-Length: 0

   F4 302 Moved Temporarily Bob -> example.com

   SIP/2.0 302 Moved Temporarily
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP proxy.example.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKx3st
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP 192.0.2.3:5060;branch=z9hG4bK4321
   From: Alice <sip:alice@example.com>;tag=sr3dds
   To: Bob <sip:bob@example.com>;tag=es43sd
   Supported: histinfo
   Call-ID: 12345600@example.com
   CSeq: 1 INVITE
   History-Info: <sip:bob@example.com>;index=1
   History-Info: <sip:bob@192.0.2.4>;index=1.1;rc=1
   Contact: <sip:office@example.com>;mp=1
   Content-Length: 0

   F5 ACK example.com -> Bob

   ACK sip:bob@example.com SIP/2.0
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP proxy.example.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKx3st
   Max-Forwards: 70
   From: Alice <sip:alice@example.com>;tag=sr3dds
   To: Bob <sip:bob@example.com>;tag=es43sd
   Call-ID: 12345600@example.com
   CSeq: 1 ACK
   Content-Length: 0

   F6 INVITE example.com -> office

   INVITE sip:office@192.0.2.5 SIP/2.0
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP proxy.example.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKx4st
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP 192.0.2.3:5060;branch=z9hG4bK4321
   Max-Forwards: 69
   From: Alice <sip:alice@example.com>;tag=sr3dds
   To: Bob <sip:bob@example.com>
   Supported: histinfo
   Call-ID: 12345600@example.com
   Record-Route: <sip:proxy.example.com;lr>
   History-Info: <sip:bob@example.com>;index=1
   History-Info: <sip:bob@192.0.2.4?Reason=SIP%3Bcause%3D302>;\
                 index=1.1;rc=1
   History-Info: <sip:office@example.com>;index=1.2;mp=1
   History-Info: <sip:office@192.0.2.5>;index=1.2.1;rc=1.2
   CSeq: 1 INVITE
   Contact: Alice <sip:alice@192.0.2.3>
   Content-Type: application/sdp
   Content-Length: <appropriate value>

   [SDP Not Shown]

   F7 180 Ringing office -> example.com

   SIP/2.0 180 Ringing
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP proxy.example.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKx4st
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP 192.0.2.3:5060;branch=z9hG4bK4321
   From: Alice <sip:alice@example.com>;tag=sr3dds
   To: Bob <sip:bob@example.com>;tag=53rdds
   Supported: histinfo
   Call-ID: 12345600@example.com
   Record-Route: <sip:proxy.example.com;lr>
   History-Info: <sip:bob@example.com>;index=1
   History-Info: <sip:bob@192.0.2.4?Reason=SIP%3Bcause%3D302>;\
                 index=1.1;rc=1
   History-Info: <sip:office@example.com>;index=1.2;mp=1
   History-Info: <sip:office@192.0.2.5>;index=1.2.1;rc=1.2
   CSeq: 1 INVITE
   Contact: Office <sip:office@192.0.2.5>
   Content-Length: 0

   F8 180 Ringing example.com -> Alice

   SIP/2.0 180 Ringing
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP 192.0.2.3:5060;branch=z9hG4bK4321
   From: Alice <sip:alice@example.com>;tag=sr3dds
   To: Bob <sip:bob@example.com>;tag=53rdds
   Supported: histinfo
   Call-ID: 12345600@example.com
   Record-Route: <sip:proxy.example.com;lr>
   History-Info: <sip:bob@example.com>;index=1
   History-Info: <sip:bob@192.0.2.4?Reason=SIP%3Bcause%3D302>;\
                 index=1.1;rc=1
   History-Info: <sip:office@example.com>;index=1.2;mp=1
   History-Info: <sip:office@192.0.2.5>;index=1.2.1;rc=1.2
   CSeq: 1 INVITE
   Contact: Office <sip:office@192.0.2.5>
   Content-Length: 0

   F9 INVITE example.com -> home

   INVITE sip:home@192.0.2.6 SIP/2.0
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP proxy.example.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKx5st
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP 192.0.2.3:5060;branch=z9hG4bK4321
   Max-Forwards: 69
   From: Alice <sip:alice@example.com>;tag=sr3dds
   To: Bob <sip:bob@example.com>
   Supported: histinfo
   Call-ID: 12345600@example.com
   Record-Route: <sip:proxy.example.com;lr>
   History-Info: <sip:bob@example.com>;index=1
   History-Info: <sip:bob@192.0.2.4?Reason=SIP%3Bcause%3D302>;\
                 index=1.1;rc=1
   History-Info: <sip:office@example.com?Reason=SIP%3Bcause%3D408>;\
                 index=1.2;mp=1
   History-Info: <sip:office@192.0.2.5?Reason=SIP%3Bcause%3D408>;\
                 index=1.2.1;rc=1.2
   History-Info: <sip:home@example.com>;index=1.3;mp=1
   History-Info: <sip:home@192.0.2.6>;index=1.3.1;rc=1.3
   CSeq: 1 INVITE
   Contact: Alice <sip:alice@192.0.2.3>
   Content-Type: application/sdp
   Content-Length: <appropriate value>

   [SDP Not Shown]

   F10 100 Trying home -> example.com

   SIP/2.0 100 Trying
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP proxy.example.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKx5st
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP 192.0.2.3:5060;branch=z9hG4bK4321
   From: Alice <sip:alice@example.com>;tag=sr3dds
   To: Bob <sip:bob@example.com>
   Call-ID: 12345600@example.com
   CSeq: 1 INVITE
   Content-Length: 0

   F11 486 Busy Here home -> example.com

   SIP/2.0  486 Busy Here
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP proxy.example.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKx5st
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP 192.0.2.3:5060;branch=z9hG4bK4321
   From: Alice <sip:alice@example.com>;tag=sr3dds
   To: Bob <sip:bob@example.com>;tag=55rdds
   Call-ID: 12345600@example.com
   History-Info: <sip:bob@example.com>;index=1
   History-Info: <sip:bob@192.0.2.4?Reason=SIP%3Bcause%3D302>;\
                 index=1.1;rc=1
   History-Info: <sip:office@example.com?Reason=SIP%3Bcause%3D408>;\
                 index=1.2;mp=1
   History-Info: <sip:office@192.0.2.5?Reason=SIP%3Bcause%3D408>;\
                 index=1.2.1;rc=1.2
   History-Info: <sip:home@example.com>;index=1.3;mp=1
   History-Info: <sip:home@192.0.2.6>;index=1.3.1;rc=1.3
   CSeq: 1 INVITE
   Content-Length: 0

   F12 486 Busy Here example.com -> Alice

   SIP/2.0  486 Busy Here
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP 192.0.2.3:5060;branch=z9hG4bK4321
   From: Alice <sip:alice@example.com>;tag=sr3dds
   To: Bob <sip:bob@example.com>;tag=55rdds
   Call-ID: 12345600@example.com
   History-Info: <sip:bob@example.com>;index=1
   History-Info: <sip:bob@192.0.2.4?Reason=SIP%3Bcause%3D302>;\
                 index=1.1;rc=1
   History-Info: <sip:office@example.com?Reason=SIP%3Bcause%3D408>;\
                 index=1.2;mp=1
   History-Info: <sip:office@192.0.2.5?Reason=SIP%3Bcause%3D408>;\
                 index=1.2.1;rc=1.2
   History-Info: <sip:home@example.com>;index=1.3;mp=1
   History-Info: <sip:home@192.0.2.6>;index=1.3.1;rc=1.3
   CSeq: 1 INVITE
   Content-Length: 0

   F13 ACK example.com -> home

   ACK sip:home@192.0.2.6 SIP/2.0
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP proxy.example.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKx5st
   Max-Forwards: 70
   From: Alice <sip:alice@example.com>;tag=sr3dds
   To: Bob <sip:bob@example.com>;tag=55rdds
   Call-ID: 12345600@example.com
   CSeq: 1 ACK
   Content-Length: 0

   F14 ACK Alice -> example.com

   ACK sip:bob@example.com SIP/2.0
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP 192.0.2.3:5060;branch=z9hG4bK4321
   Max-Forwards: 70
   From: Alice <sip:alice@example.com>;tag=sr3dds
   To: Bob <sip:bob@example.com>;tag=55rdds
   Call-ID: 12345600@example.com
   Route: <sip:proxy.example.com;lr>
   CSeq: 1 ACK
   Content-Length: 0

3.2.  History-Info with Privacy Header Field

   This is an example of the use of the Privacy header field with a
   value of "history" added by an intermediary.  The intermediary
   responsible for the biloxi.example.com domain adds a Privacy header
   field with a value of "history" indicating that all the History-Info
   header field information is anonymized outside the biloxi.example.com
   domain.

      Alice  atlanta.example.com  biloxi.example.com  Bob Work  Bob Home

      |             |                |                 |          |
      | INVITE F1   |                |                 |          |
      |------------>|                |                 |          |
      |             |                |                 |          |
      |             |   INVITE F2    |                 |          |
      |             |--------------->|                 |          |
      |             |                |                 |          |
      |             |                | INVITE F3       |          |
      |             |                |---------------->|          |
      |             |                |302 Move Temporarily F4     |
      |             |                |<----------------|          |
      |             |                |    ACK F5       |          |
      |             |                |---------------->|          |
      |             |                |                 |          |
      |             |                | INVITE F6       |          |
      |             |                |--------------------------->|
      |             |                |     200 F7      |          |
      |             |                |<---------------------------|
      |             |                |                 |          |
      |             |     200 F8     |                 |          |
      |             |<---------------|                 |          |
      |             |                |                 |          |
      |     200 F9  |                |                 |          |
      |<------------|                |                 |          |
      |             |                |                 |          |
      |             |       ACK      |                 |          |
      |---------------------------------------------------------->|
      |             |                |                 |          |

               Figure 2: Example with Privacy Header Fields

   Message Details

   F1 INVITE Alice -> atlanta.example.com

   INVITE sip:bob@biloxi.example.com;p=x SIP/2.0
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP 192.0.2.3:5060;branch=z9hG4bK4321
   Max-Forwards: 70
   From: Alice <sip:alice@atlanta.example.com>;tag=22
   To: Bob <sip:bob@biloxi.example.com>
   Supported: histinfo
   Privacy: history
   Call-ID: 12345600@atlanta.example.com
   CSeq: 1 INVITE
   History-Info: <sip:bob@biloxi.example.com;p=x>;index=1
   Contact: Alice <sip:alice@192.0.2.3>
   Content-Type: application/sdp
   Content-Length: <appropriate value>

   [SDP Not Shown]

   F2 INVITE  atlanta.example.com -> biloxi.example.com

   INVITE sip:bob@biloxi.example.com;p=x SIP/2.0
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP proxy.atlanta.example.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKbst2
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP 192.0.2.3:5060;branch=z9hG4bK4321
   Max-Forwards: 69
   From: Alice <sip:alice@atlanta.example.com>;tag=22
   To: Bob <sip:bob@biloxi.example.com>
   Supported: histinfo
   Call-ID: 12345600@atlanta.example.com
   CSeq: 1 INVITE
   History-Info: <sip:bob@biloxi.example.com;p=x>;index=1
   History-Info: <sip:bob@biloxi.example.com;p=x>;index=1.1
   Contact: Alice <sip:alice@192.0.2.3>
   Content-Type: application/sdp
   Content-Length: <appropriate value>

   [SDP Not Shown]

   F3 INVITE  biloxi.example.com -> Bob Work

   INVITE sip:bob@192.0.1.11 SIP/2.0
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP proxy.biloxi.example.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKgs33
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP proxy.atlanta.example.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKbst2;\
                  received=192.0.2.3
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP 192.0.2.3:5060;branch=z9hG4bK4321
   Max-Forwards: 68
   From: Alice <sip:alice@atlanta.example.com>;tag=22
   To: Bob <sip:bob@biloxi.example.com>
   Privacy: history
   Supported: histinfo
   Call-ID: 12345600@atlanta.example.com
   CSeq: 1 INVITE
   History-Info: <sip:bob@biloxi.example.com;p=x>;index=1
   History-Info: <sip:bob@biloxi.example.com;p=x>;index=1.1
   History-Info: <sip:bob@192.0.1.11>;index=1.1.1;rc=1.1
   Contact: Alice <sip:alice@192.0.2.3>
   Content-Type: application/sdp
   Content-Length: <appropriate value>

   [SDP Not Shown]

   F4 302 Moved Temporarily Bob Work -> biloxi.example.com

   SIP/2.0 302 Moved Temporarily
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP proxy.biloxi.example.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKgs33;\
                    received=192.0.2.102
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP proxy.atlanta.example.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKbst2;\
                  received=192.0.2.3
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP 192.0.2.3:5060;branch=z9hG4bK4321
   From: Alice <sip:alice@atlanta.example.com>;tag=22
   To: Bob <sip:bob@biloxi.example.com>;tag=11
   Privacy: history
   Supported: histinfo
   Call-ID: 12345600@atlanta.example.com
   CSeq: 1 INVITE
   History-Info: <sip:bob@biloxi.example.com;p=x>;index=1
   History-Info: <sip:bob@biloxi.example.com;p=x>;index=1.1
   History-Info: <sip:bob@192.0.1.11>;index=1.1.1;rc=1.1
   Contact: Bob Home <sip:bob@192.0.1.15>
   Content-Type: application/sdp
   Content-Length: <appropriate value>

   [SDP Not Shown]

   F5 ACK  biloxi.example.com -> Bob Work

   ACK sip:bob@192.0.1.11 SIP/2.0
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP proxy.biloxi.example.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKgs33
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP proxy.atlanta.example.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKbst2;\
                  received=192.0.2.3
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP 192.0.2.3:5060;branch=z9hG4bK4321
   Max-Forwards: 68
   From: Alice <sip:alice@atlanta.example.com>;tag=22
   To: Bob <sip:bob@biloxi.example.com>;tag=11
   Call-ID: 12345600@atlanta.example.com
   CSeq: 1 ACK
   Content-Length: <appropriate value>

   [SDP Not Shown]

   F6 INVITE  biloxi.example.com -> Bob Home

   INVITE sip:bob@192.0.1.15 SIP/2.0
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP proxy.biloxi.example.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKgs32
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP proxy.atlanta.example.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKbst2;\
                  received=192.0.2.3
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP 192.0.2.3:5060;branch=z9hG4bK4321
   Max-Forwards: 68
   From: Alice <sip:alice@atlanta.example.com>;tag=22
   To: Bob <sip:bob@biloxi.example.com>
   Privacy: history
   Supported: histinfo
   Call-ID: 12345600@atlanta.example.com
   CSeq: 1 INVITE
   History-Info: <sip:bob@biloxi.example.com;p=x>;index=1
   History-Info: <sip:bob@biloxi.example.com;p=x>;index=1.1
   History-Info: <sip:bob@192.0.1.11?Reason=SIP%3Bcause%3D302>;\
                   index=1.1.1;rc=1
   History-Info: <sip:bob@192.0.1.15>;index=1.1.2
   Contact: Alice <sip:alice@192.0.2.3>
   Content-Type: application/sdp
   Content-Length: <appropriate value>

   [SDP Not Shown]

   F7 200 OK  Bob -> biloxi.example.com

   SIP/2.0 200 OK
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP proxy.biloxi.example.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKgs32;\
                  received=192.0.2.101
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP proxy.atlanta.example.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKbst2;\
                  received=192.0.2.3
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP 192.0.2.3:5060;branch=z9hG4bK4321
   From: Alice <sip:alice@atlanta.example.com>;tag=22
   To: Bob <sip:bob@biloxi.example.com>;tag=33
   Privacy: history
   Supported: histinfo
   Call-ID: 12345600@atlanta.example.com
   CSeq: 1 INVITE
   History-Info: <sip:bob@biloxi.example.com;p=x>;index=1
   History-Info: <sip:bob@biloxi.example.com;p=x>;index=1.1
   History-Info: <sip:bob@192.0.1.11?Reason=SIP%3Bcause%3D302>;\
                   index=1.1.1;rc=1
   History-Info: <sip:bob@192.0.1.15>;index=1.1.2;rc=1.1
   Content-Type: application/sdp
   Content-Length: <appropriate value>

   [SDP Not Shown]

   F8 200 OK  biloxi.example.com -> atlanta.example.com

   SIP/2.0 200 OK
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP proxy.atlanta.example.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKbst2;\
                  received=192.0.2.3
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP 192.0.2.3:5060;branch=z9hG4bK4321
   From: Alice <sip:alice@atlanta.example.com>;tag=22
   To: Bob <sip:bob@biloxi.example.com>;tag=33
   Privacy: history
   Supported: histinfo
   Call-ID: 12345600@atlanta.example.com
   CSeq: 1 INVITE
   History-Info: <sip:anonymous@anonymous.invalid>;index=1
   History-Info: <sip:anonymous@anonymous.invalid>;index=1.1
   History-Info: <sip:anonymous@anonymous.invalid>;index=1.1.1;rc=1
   History-Info: <sip:anonymous@anonymous.invalid>;index=1.1.2;rc=1.1
   Contact: Bob <sip:bob@192.0.1.11>
   Content-Type: application/sdp
   Content-Length: <appropriate value>

   [SDP Not Shown]

   F9 200 OK  atlanta.example.com -> Alice

   SIP/2.0 200 OK
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP 192.0.2.3:5060;branch=z9hG4bK4321
   From: Alice <sip:alice@atlanta.example.com>;tag=22
   To: Bob <sip:bob@biloxi.example.com>;tag=33
   Privacy: history
   Supported: histinfo
   Call-ID: 12345600@atlanta.example.com
   CSeq: 1 INVITE
   History-Info: <sip:anonymous@anonymous.invalid>;index=1
   History-Info: <sip:anonymous@anonymous.invalid>;index=1.1
   History-Info: <sip:anonymous@anonymous.invalid>;index=1.1.1;rc=1
   History-Info: <sip:anonymous@anonymous.invalid>;index=1.1.2;rc=1.1
   Contact: Bob <sip:bob@192.0.1.11>
   Content-Type: application/sdp
   Content-Length: <appropriate value>

   [SDP Not Shown]

3.3.  Privacy for a Specific History-Info Entry

   This example provides a basic call scenario similar to Section 3.2;
   however, due to local policy at sip:biloxi.example.com, only the
   final hi-entry in the History-Info, which is Bob's local URI,
   contains a privacy header field with a priv-value of "history", thus
   providing Alice with some information about the history of the
   request, but anonymizing Bob's local URI.

   Alice   atlanta.example.com  biloxi.example.com   Bob
   |                |                |                |
   |   INVITE F1    |                |                |
   |--------------->|                |                |
   |                |                |                |
   |                |   INVITE F2    |                |
   |                |--------------->|                |
   |                |                |                |
   |                |                | INVITE F3      |
   |                |                |--------------->|
   |                |                |                |
   |                |                |     200 F4     |
   |                |                |<---------------|
   |                |                |                |
   |                |     200 F5     |                |
   |                |<---------------|                |
   |                |                |                |
   |     200 F6     |                |                |
   |<---------------|                |                |
   |                |                |                |
   |                |       ACK      |                |
   |------------------------------------------------->|
   |                |                |                |

       Figure 3: Example with Privacy Header Field for Specific URI

   Message Details

   F1 INVITE Alice -> atlanta.example.com

   INVITE sip:bob@biloxi.example.com;p=x SIP/2.0
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP 192.0.2.3:5060;branch=z9hG4bK4321
   Max-Forwards: 70
   From: Alice <sip:alice@atlanta.example.com>;tag=22
   To: Bob <sip:bob@biloxi.example.com>
   Supported: histinfo
   Call-ID: 12345600@atlanta.example.com
   CSeq: 1 INVITE
   History-Info: <sip:bob@biloxi.example.com;p=x>;index=1
   Contact: Alice <sip:alice@192.0.2.3>
   Content-Type: application/sdp
   Content-Length: <appropriate value>

   [SDP Not Shown]

   F2 INVITE  atlanta.example.com -> biloxi.example.com

   INVITE sip:bob@biloxi.example.com;p=x SIP/2.0
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP proxy.atlanta.example.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKbst2
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP 192.0.2.3:5060;branch=z9hG4bK4321
   Max-Forwards: 69
   From: Alice <sip:alice@atlanta.example.com>;tag=22
   To: Bob <sip:bob@biloxi.example.com>
   Supported: histinfo
   Call-ID: 12345600@atlanta.example.com
   CSeq: 1 INVITE
   History-Info: <sip:bob@biloxi.example.com;p=x>;index=1
   History-Info: <sip:bob@biloxi.example.com;p=x>;index=1.1;np=1
   Contact: Alice <sip:alice@192.0.2.3>
   Content-Type: application/sdp
   Content-Length: <appropriate value>

   [SDP Not Shown]

   F3 INVITE  biloxi.example.com -> Bob

   INVITE sip:bob@192.0.1.11 SIP/2.0
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP proxy.biloxi.example.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKeset
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP proxy.atlanta.example.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKbst2;\
                  received=192.0.2.101
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP 192.0.2.3:5060;branch=z9hG4bK4321
   Max-Forwards: 68
   From: Alice <sip:alice@atlanta.example.com>;tag=22
   To: Bob <sip:bob@biloxi.example.com>
   Supported: histinfo
   Call-ID: 12345600@atlanta.example.com
   CSeq: 1 INVITE
   History-Info: <sip:bob@biloxi.example.com;p=x>;index=1
   History-Info: <sip:bob@biloxi.example.com;p=x>;index=1.1;np=1
   History-Info: <sip:bob@192.0.1.11?Privacy=history>;index=1.1.1;rc=1.1
   Contact: Alice <sip:alice@192.0.2.3>
   Content-Type: application/sdp
   Content-Length: <appropriate value>

   [SDP Not Shown]

   F4 200 OK  Bob -> biloxi.example.com

   SIP/2.0 200 OK
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP proxy.biloxi.example.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKeset;\
                  received=192.0.2.5
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP proxy.atlanta.example.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKbst2;\
                  received=192.0.2.101
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP 192.0.2.3:5060;branch=z9hG4bK4321
   From: Alice <sip:alice@atlanta.example.com>;tag=22
   To: Bob <sip:bob@biloxi.example.com>;tag=33
   Supported: histinfo
   Call-ID: 12345600@atlanta.example.com
   CSeq: 1 INVITE
   History-Info: <sip:bob@biloxi.example.com;p=x>;index=1
   History-Info: <sip:bob@biloxi.example.com;p=x>;index=1.1;np=1
   History-Info: <sip:bob@192.0.1.11?Privacy=history>;index=1.1.1;rc=1.1
   Contact: Bob <sip:bob@192.0.1.11>
   Content-Type: application/sdp
   Content-Length: <appropriate value>

   [SDP Not Shown]

   F5 200 OK  biloxi.example.com -> atlanta.example.com

   SIP/2.0 200 OK
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP proxy.atlanta.example.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKbst2;\
                  received=192.0.2.101
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP 192.0.2.3:5060;branch=z9hG4bK4321
   From: Alice <sip:alice@atlanta.example.com>;tag=22
   To: Bob <sip:bob@biloxi.example.com>;tag=33
   Supported: histinfo
   Call-ID: 12345600@atlanta.example.com
   CSeq: 1 INVITE
   History-Info: <sip:bob@biloxi.example.com;p=x>;index=1
   History-Info: <sip:bob@biloxi.example.com;p=x>;index=1.1;np=1
   History-Info: <sip:anonymous@anonymous.invalid>;index=1.1.1;rc=1.1
   Contact: Bob <sip:bob@192.0.1.11>
   Content-Type: application/sdp
   Content-Length: <appropriate value>

   [SDP Not Shown]

   F6 200 OK  atlanta.example.com -> Alice

   SIP/2.0 200 OK
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP 192.0.2.3:5060;branch=z9hG4bK4321
   From: Alice <sip:alice@atlanta.example.com>;tag=22
   To: Bob <sip:bob@biloxi.example.com>;tag=33
   Supported: histinfo
   Call-ID: 12345600@atlanta.example.com
   CSeq: 1 INVITE
   History-Info: <sip:bob@biloxi.example.com;p=x>;index=1
   History-Info: <sip:bob@biloxi.example.com;p=x>;index=1.1;np=1
   History-Info: <sip:anonymous@anonymous.invalid>;index=1.1.1;rc=1.1
   Contact: Bob <sip:bob@192.0.1.11>
   Content-Type: application/sdp
   Content-Length: <appropriate value>

   [SDP Not Shown]

3.4.  Automatic Call Distribution

   This scenario highlights an example of an Automatic Call Distribution
   service, where the agents are divided into groups based upon the type
   of customers they handle.  In this example, the Gold customers are
   given higher priority than Silver customers, so a Gold call would get
   serviced even if all the agents servicing the Gold group were busy,
   by retargeting the request to the Silver Group for delivery to an
   agent.  Upon receipt of the call at the agent assigned to handle the
   incoming call, based upon the History-Info header in the message, the
   application at the agent can provide an indication that this is a
   Gold call by extracting the hi-entry associated with the incoming
   request, which is determined by locating the hi-entry whose index is
   reflected in the first hi-entry with a hi-target of "mp".  In the
   example, this would be the hi-entry referenced by the value of the
   first "mp" header field parameter, i.e., the hi-entry containing an
   index of "1".  An application can also determine how many groups from
   which the call may have overflowed before reaching the agent, etc.,
   and present the information to the agent so that the call can be
   handled appropriately, i.e., "I'm so sorry for the delay, blah, blah,
   blah..."

   For scenarios whereby calls might overflow from the Silver to the
   Gold, clearly the alternate group identification, internal routing,
   or actual agent that handles the call should not be sent to UA1.
   Thus, for this scenario, one would expect that the proxy would not
   support the sending of the History-Info in the response, even if
   requested by Alice or the proxy could anonymize the Silver related
   hi-entries by adding privacy in the Silver hi-entries.

   As with the other examples, this is not a complete prescription of
   how one would do this type of service but an example of a subset of
   processing that might be associated with such a service.  In
   addition, this example does not address any aspects of agent
   availability resulting in the call being sent to an agent in another
   group, which might also be done via a SIP interface.

   Alice       example.com     Gold          Silver       Agent

   |              |              |             |            |
   | INVITE F1    |              |             |            |
   |------------->|              |             |            |
   |              |              |             |            |
   |              |  INVITE F2   |             |            |
   |              |------------->|             |            |
   |              |              |             |            |
   |              |  302 Moved Temporarily F3  |            |
   |              |<-------------|             |            |
   |              |              |             |            |
   |              |      ACK     |             |            |
   |              |------------->|             |            |
   |              |              |             |            |
   |              |  INVITE F4   |             |            |
   |              |--------------------------->|            |
   |              |              |             |            |
   |              |              |             | INVITE F5  |
   |              |              |             |----------->|
   |              |              |             |            |
   |              |              |             |  200 OK F6 |
   |              |              |             |<-----------|
   |              |              |             |            |
   |              |         200 OK F7          |            |
   |              |<---------------------------|            |
   |              |              |             |            |
   |  200 OK F8   |              |             |            |
   |<-------------|              |             |            |
   |              |              |             |            |
   |                         ACK F9                         |
   |------------------------------------------------------->|

           Figure 4: Example for Automatic Call Distribution

   Message Details

   F1 INVITE Alice -> example.com

   INVITE sip:Gold@example.com SIP/2.0
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP 192.0.2.3:5060;branch=z9hG4bK42t2
   Max-Forwards: 70
   From: Alice <sip:alice@example.com>;tag=1235
   To: Gold Member Assistance <sip:Gold@example.com>
   Supported: histinfo
   Call-ID: 12345600@example.com
   CSeq: 1 INVITE
   History-Info: <sip:Gold@example.com>;index=1
   Contact: Alice <sip:alice@192.0.2.3>
   Content-Type: application/sdp
   Content-Length: <appropriate value>

   [SDP Not Shown]

   F2 INVITE example.com -> Gold.example.com

   INVITE sip:Gold@gold.example.com SIP/2.0
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP proxy.example.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK12s4
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP 192.0.2.3:5060;branch=z9hG4bK42t2
   Max-Forwards: 69
   From: Alice <sip:alice@example.com>;tag=1235
   To: Gold Member Assistance <sip:Gold@example.com>
   Supported: histinfo
   Call-ID: 12345600@example.com
   CSeq: 1 INVITE
   History-Info: <sip:Gold@example.com>;index=1
   History-Info: <sip:Gold@gold.example.com>;rc=1;index=1.1
   Contact: Alice <sip:alice@192.0.2.3>
   Content-Type: application/sdp
   Content-Length: <appropriate value>

   [SDP Not Shown]

   F3 302 Moved Temporarily Gold.example.com -> example.com

   SIP/2.0 302 Moved Temporarily
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP proxy.example.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK12s4;\
                  received=192.0.2.101
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP 192.0.2.3:5060;branch=z9hG4bK42t2
   From: Alice <sip:alice@example.com>;tag=1235
   To: Gold Member Assistance <sip:Gold@example.com>;tag=kkaz-
   Supported: histinfo
   Call-ID: 12345600@example.com
   CSeq: 1 INVITE
   History-Info: <sip:Gold@example.com>;index=1
   History-Info: <sip:Gold@gold.example.com>;rc=1;index=1.1
   Contact: <sip:Silver@example.com>;mp=1
   Content-Type: application/sdp
   Content-Length: <appropriate value>

   [SDP Not Shown]

   F4 INVITE example.com -> Silver.example.com

   INVITE sip:Silver@example.com SIP/2.0
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP proxy.example.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK45q2
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP 192.0.2.3:5060;branch=z9hG4bK42t2
   Max-Forwards: 69
   From: Alice <sip:alice@example.com>;tag=1235
   To: Gold Member Assistance <sip:Gold@example.com>
   Supported: histinfo
   Call-ID: 12345600@example.com
   CSeq: 1 INVITE
   History-Info: <sip:Gold@example.com>;index=1
   History-Info: <sip:Gold@gold.example.com?Reason=SIP%3Bcause%3D302>;\
                   rc=1;index=1.1
   History-Info: <sip:Silver@example.com>;index=1.2;mp=1
   History-Info: <sip:Silver@silver.example.com>;index=1.2.1;rc=1.2
   Contact: Alice <sip:alice@192.0.2.3>
   Content-Type: application/sdp
   Content-Length: <appropriate value>

   [SDP Not Shown]

   F5 INVITE Silver.example.com -> Agent

   INVITE sip:Silver@192.0.2.7 SIP/2.0
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP silver.example.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKerxs
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP proxy.example.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK45q2;\
                  received=192.0.2.101
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP 192.0.2.3:5060;branch=z9hG4bK42t2
   Max-Forwards: 68
   From: Alice <sip:alice@example.com>;tag=1235
   To: Gold Member Assistance <sip:Gold@example.com>
   Supported: histinfo
   Call-ID: 12345600@example.com
   CSeq: 1 INVITE
   History-Info: <sip:Gold@example.com>;index=1
   History-Info: <sip:Gold@gold.example.com?Reason=SIP%3Bcause%3D302>;\
                   rc=1;index=1.1
   History-Info: <sip:Silver@example.com>;index=1.2;mp=1
   History-Info: <sip:Silver@silver.example.com>;index=1.2.1;rc=1.2
   History-Info: <sip:Silver@192.0.2.7>;index=1.2.1.1;rc=1.2.1
   Contact: Alice <sip:alice@192.0.2.3>
   Content-Type: application/sdp
   Content-Length: <appropriate value>

   [SDP Not Shown]

   F6 200 OK Agent -> Silver.example.com

   SIP/2.0 200 OK
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP silver.example.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKerxs;\
                   received=192.0.2.5
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP proxy.example.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK45q2;\
                   received=192.0.2.101
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP 192.0.2.3:5060;branch=z9hG4bK42t2
   From: Alice <sip:alice@example.com>;tag=1235
   To: Gold Member Assistance <sip:Gold@example.com>;tag=2325
   Supported: histinfo
   Call-ID: 12345600@example.com
   CSeq: 1 INVITE
   History-Info: <sip:Gold@example.com>;index=1
   History-Info: <sip:Gold@gold.example.com?Reason=SIP%3Bcause%3D302>;\
                   rc=1;index=1.1
   History-Info: <sip:Silver@example.com>;index=1.2;mp=1
   History-Info: <sip:Silver@silver.example.com>;index=1.2.1;rc=1.2
   History-Info: <sip:Silver@192.0.2.7>;index=1.2.1.1;rc=1.2.1
   Contact: Agent <sip:Silver@192.0.2.7>
   Content-Type: application/sdp
   Content-Length: <appropriate value>

   [SDP Not Shown]

   F7 200 OK Silver.example.com -> example.com

   SIP/2.0 200 OK
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP proxy.example.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK45q2;\
                   received=192.0.2.101
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP 192.0.2.3:5060;branch=z9hG4bK42t2
   From: Alice <sip:alice@example.com>;tag=1235
   To: Gold Member Assistance <sip:Gold@example.com>;tag=2325
   Supported: histinfo
   Call-ID: 12345600@example.com
   CSeq: 1 INVITE
   History-Info: <sip:Gold@example.com>;index=1
   History-Info: <sip:Gold@gold.example.com?Reason=SIP%3Bcause%3D302>;\
                   rc=1;index=1.1
   History-Info: <sip:Silver@example.com>;index=1.2;mp=1
   History-Info: <sip:Silver@silver.example.com>;index=1.2.1;rc=1.2
   History-Info: <sip:Silver@192.0.2.7>;index=1.2.1.1;rc=1.2.1
   Contact: Agent <sip:Silver@192.0.2.7>
   Content-Type: application/sdp
   Content-Length: <appropriate value>

   [SDP Not Shown]

   F8 200 OK example.com -> Alice

   SIP/2.0 200 OK
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP 192.0.2.3:5060;branch=z9hG4bK42t2
   From: Alice <sip:alice@example.com>;tag=1235
   To: Gold Member Assistance <sip:Gold@example.com>;tag=2325
   Supported: histinfo
   Call-ID: 12345600@example.com
   CSeq: 1 INVITE
   History-Info: <sip:Gold@example.com>;index=1
   History-Info: <sip:Gold@gold.example.com?Reason=SIP%3Bcause%3D302>;\
                   rc=1;index=1.1
   History-Info: <sip:Silver@example.com>;index=1.2;mp=1
   History-Info: <sip:Silver@silver.example.com>;index=1.2.1;rc=1.2
   History-Info: <sip:Silver@192.0.2.7>;index=1.2.1.1;rc=1.2.1
   Contact: Agent <sip:Silver@192.0.2.7>
   Content-Type: application/sdp
   Content-Length: <appropriate value>

   [SDP Not Shown]

   F9 ACK Alice -> Agent

   ACK sip:Silver@192.0.2.7 SIP/2.0
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP 192.0.2.3:5060;branch=z9hG4bK42t3
   Max-Forwards: 70
   From: Alice <sip:alice@example.com>;tag=1235
   To: Gold Member Assistance <sip:Gold@example.com>;tag=2325
   Supported: histinfo
   Call-ID: 12345600@example.com
   CSeq: 1 ACK
   Contact: Alice <sip:alice@192.0.2.3>
   Content-Type: application/sdp
   Content-Length: <appropriate value>

   [SDP Not Shown]

   The first hi-entry with the "mp" header field parameter contains an
   "mp" header field parameter value of 1, which points to the original-
   target, which allows the operator to identify that the call was from
   the Gold customer.

3.5.  Determining the Alias Used

   SIP UAs are associated with an AOR.  It is possible for a single UA
   to actually have multiple AORs associated with it.  One common usage
   for this is aliases.  For example, a user might have an AOR of
   sip:john@example.com but also have the AORs
   sip:john.smith@example.com and sip:jsmith@example.com.  Rather than
   registering against each of these AORs individually, the user would
   register against just one of them, and the home proxy would
   automatically accept incoming calls for any of the aliases, treating
   them identically and ultimately forwarding them towards the UA.  This
   is common practice in the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS), where it is
   called "implicit registration" and each alias is called a "public
   user identity (PUID)".

   It is a common requirement for a User Agent Server (UAS), on receipt
   of a call, to know which of its aliases was used to reach it.  This
   knowledge can be used to choose ringtones to play, determine call
   treatment, and so on.  For example, a user might give out one alias
   to friends and family only, resulting in a special ring that alerts
   the user to the importance of the call.

   The following call flow and example messages show how History-Info
   can be used to find out the alias used to reach the callee.  The
   alias for the call is determined by hi-entry with the index that
   matches the value of the last hi-entry with an "rc" header field
   parameter in the Request received.

          Alice             example.com             John
          |                     | REGISTER F1         |
          |                     |<--------------------|
          |                     | 200 OK F2           |
          |                     |-------------------->|
          | INVITE F3           |                     |
          |-------------------->|                     |
          |                     | INVITE F4           |
          |                     |-------------------->|
                       * Rest of flow not shown *

                        Figure 5: Alias Example

   Message Details

   F1 REGISTER John -> example.com

   REGISTER sip:example.com SIP/2.0
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP 192.0.2.1;branch=z9hG4bKnashds7
   Max-Forwards: 70
   From: John <sip:john@example.com>;tag=a73kszlfl
   To: John <sip:john@example.com>
   Supported: histinfo
   Call-ID: 1j9FpLxk3uxtm8tn@192.0.2.1
   CSeq: 1 REGISTER
   Contact: <sip:john@192.0.2.1>
   Content-Length: 0

   F2 200 OK example.com -> John

   SIP/2.0 200 OK
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP 192.0.2.1;branch=z9hG4bKnashds7
   From: John <sip:john@example.com>;tag=a73kszlfl
   To: John <sip:john@example.com>;tag=d2dstee2
   Call-ID: 1j9FpLxk3uxtm8tn@192.0.2.1
   CSeq: 1 REGISTER
   Contact: <sip:john@192.0.2.1>;expires=3600
   Content-Length: 0

   F3 INVITE Alice -> example.com

   INVITE sip:john.smith@example.com SIP/2.0
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP 192.0.2.3:5060;branch=z9hG4bK42t2
   Max-Forwards: 70
   From: Alice <sip:alice@example.com>;tag=a73kszlfl
   To: John <sip:john.smith@example.com>
   Supported: histinfo
   Call-ID: 12345600@example.com
   CSeq: 1 INVITE
   History-Info: <sip:john.smith@example.com>;index=1
   Contact: Alice <sip:alice@192.0.2.3>
   Content-Type: application/sdp
   Content-Length: <appropriate value>

   [SDP Not Shown]

   F4 INVITE example.com -> John

   INVITE sip:john@192.0.2.1 SIP/2.0
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP proxy.example.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK12s4
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP 192.0.2.3:5060;branch=z9hG4bK42t2
   Max-Forwards: 69
   From: Alice <sip:alice@example.com>;tag=a73kszlfl
   To: John <sip:john.smith@example.com>
   Supported: histinfo
   Call-ID: 12345600@example.com
   CSeq: 1 INVITE
   Record-Route: <sip:proxy.example.com;lr>
   History-Info: <sip:john.smith@example.com>;index=1
   History-Info: <sip:john@192.0.2.1>;index=1.1;rc=1
   Contact: Alice <sip:alice@192.0.2.3>
   Content-Type: application/sdp
   Content-Length: <appropriate value>

   [SDP Not Shown]

   The last hi-entry with the "rc" header field parameter references the
   source of retargeting pointing at the alias AOR, which in the example
   is "john.smith@example.com".

3.6.  PBX Voicemail Example

   A typical use case for voicemail is one whereby the original called
   party is not reachable and the call arrives at a voicemail system.
   In some cases, multiple alternate destinations may be tried without
   success.  The voicemail system typically requires the original called
   party information to determine the appropriate mailbox so an
   appropriate greeting can be provided and the appropriate party
   notified of the message.

   In this example, Alice calls Bob, whose SIP client is forwarded to
   Carol.  Carol does not answer the call; thus, it is forwarded to a VM
   (voicemail) server (VMS).  In order to determine the appropriate
   mailbox to use for this call, the VMS needs the original target for
   the request.  The original target is determined by finding the first
   hi-entry tagged with "rc" or "mp" and using the hi-entry referenced
   by the index of "rc" or "mp" header field parameter as the target for
   determining the appropriate mailbox.  This hi-entry is used to
   populate the "target" URI parameter as defined in [RFC4458].  The
   reason associated with the first hi-entry tagged with "rc" or "mp"
   (i.e., 302) could be used to provide a customized voicemail greeting
   and is used to populate the "cause" URI parameter as defined in
   [RFC4458].  Note that some VMSs may also (or instead) use the

   information available in the History-Info headers for custom handling
   of the VM based on how and why the call arrived at the VMS.

   Furthermore, it is the proxy forwarding the call to the VMS that
   determines the target of the voicemail; it is the proxy that sets the
   target of voicemail, which is also the entity that utilizes [RFC7044]
   to find the target that is usually based on local policy installed by
   the user or an administrator.

   Alice      example.com       Bob          Carol        VM

   | INVITE F1    |              |             |          |
   |------------->|              |             |          |
   |              | INVITE  F2   |             |          |
   |              |------------->|             |          |
   |              |              |             |          |
   |  100 Trying  |              |             |          |
   |<-------------| 302 Moved Temporarily F3   |          |
   |              |<-------------|             |          |
   |              |              |             |          |
   |              |      ACK     |             |          |
   |              |------------->|             |          |
   |              |              |             |          |
   |              | INVITE F4    |             |          |
   |              |--------------------------->|          |
   |              |              |             |          |
   |              |         180 Ringing  F5    |          |
   |              |<---------------------------|          |
   |              |              |             |          |
   | 180 Ringing  |              |             |          |
   |<-------------|              |             |          |
   |              |              |             |          |
   |              |       (timeout)            |          |
   |              |              |             |          |
   |              | INVITE  F6   |             |          |
   |              |-------------------------------------->|
   |              |              |             |          |
   |              |               200 OK  F7              |
   |              |<--------------------------------------|
   |   200 OK     |              |             |          |
   |<-------------|              |             |          |
   |              |              |             |          |
   |                         ACK                          |
   |----------------------------------------------------->|

                 Figure 6: Enterprise Voicemail Example

   Message Details

   F1 INVITE Alice -> example.com

   INVITE sip:bob@example.com SIP/2.0
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP  192.0.2.3:5060;branch=z9hG4bK42t2
   Max-Forwards: 70
   From: Alice <sip:alice@example.com>;tag=kkaz-
   To: Bob <sip:bob@example.com>
   Supported: histinfo
   Call-ID: 12345600@example.com
   CSeq: 1 INVITE
   History-Info: <sip:bob@example.com>;index=1
   Contact: Alice <sip:alice@192.0.2.3>
   Content-Length: <appropriate value>

   [SDP Not Shown]

   F2 INVITE example.com -> Bob

   INVITE sip:bob@192.0.2.5 SIP/2.0
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP proxy.example.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK12s4
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP 192.0.2.3:5060;branch=z9hG4bK42t2
   Max-Forwards: 69
   From: Alice <sip:alice@example.com>;tag=kkaz-
   To: Bob <sip:bob@example.com>
   Supported: histinfo
   Call-ID: 12345600@example.com
   CSeq: 1 INVITE
   History-Info: <sip:bob@example.com>;index=1
   History-Info: <sip:bob@192.0.2.5>;index=1.1;rc=1
   Contact: Alice <sip:alice@192.0.2.3>
   Content-Type: application/sdp
   Content-Length: <appropriate value>

   [SDP Not Shown]

   F3 302 Moved Temporarily Bob -> example.com

   SIP/2.0 302 Moved Temporarily
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP proxy.example.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK12s4;\
                    received=192.0.2.101
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP 192.0.2.3:5060;branch=z9hG4bK42t2
   From: Alice <sip:alice@example.com>;tag=kkaz-
   To: Bob <sip:bob@example.com>;tag=2g22d-lnf
   Supported: histinfo
   Call-ID: 12345600@example.com
   CSeq: 1 INVITE
   History-Info: <sip:bob@example.com>;index=1
   History-Info: <sip:bob@192.0.2.5>;index=1.1;rc=1
   Contact: <sip:carol@example.com>;mp=1
   Content-Type: application/sdp
   Content-Length: <appropriate value>

   [SDP Not Shown]

   F4 INVITE example.com -> Carol

   INVITE sip:carol@192.0.2.4 SIP/2.0
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP proxy.example.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK4522
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP 192.0.2.3:5060;branch=z9hG4bK42t2
   Max-Forwards: 69
   From: Alice <sip:alice@example.com>;tag=kkaz-
   To: Bob <sip:bob@example.com>
   Supported: histinfo
   Call-ID: 12345600@example.com
   CSeq: 1 INVITE
   History-Info: <sip:bob@example.com>;index=1
   History-Info: <sip:bob@192.0.2.5?Reason=SIP%3Bcause%3D302>;\
                      index=1.1;rc=1
   History-Info: <sip:carol@example.com;cause=480>;index=1.2;mp=1
   History-Info: <sip:carol@192.0.2.4;cause=480>;index=1.2.1;rc=1.2
   Contact: Alice <sip:alice@192.0.2.3>
   Content-Type: application/sdp
   Content-Length: <appropriate value>

   [SDP Not Shown]

   F5 180 Ringing Carol -> example.com

   SIP/2.0 180 Ringing
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP proxy.example.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK4522;\
                    received=192.0.2.101
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP 192.0.2.3:5060;branch=z9hG4bK42t2
   From: Alice <sip:alice@example.com>;tag=kkaz-
   To: Bob <sip:bob@example.com>;tag=setss3x
   Supported: histinfo
   Call-ID: 12345600@example.com
   CSeq: 1 INVITE
   History-Info: <sip:bob@example.com>;index=1
   History-Info: <sip:bob@192.0.2.5?Reason=SIP%3Bcause%3D302>;\
                      index=1.1;rc=1
   History-Info: <sip:carol@example.com;cause=480>;index=1.2;mp=1
   History-Info: <sip:carol@192.0.2.4;cause=480>;index=1.2.1;rc=1.2
   Contact: <sip:carol@192.0.2.4>
   Content-Type: application/sdp
   Content-Length: <appropriate value>

   [SDP Not Shown]

   F6 INVITE example.com -> VM

   INVITE sip:vm@192.0.2.6;target=sip:bob%40example.com;cause=480\
                        SIP/2.0
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP proxy.example.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK4523
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP 192.0.2.3:5060;branch=z9hG4bK42t2
   Max-Forwards: 69
   From: Alice <sip:alice@example.com>;tag=kkaz-
   To: Bob <sip:bob@example.com>
   Supported: histinfo
   Call-ID: 12345600@example.com
   CSeq: 1 INVITE
   History-Info: <sip:bob@example.com>;index=1
   History-Info: <sip:bob@192.0.2.5?Reason=SIP%3Bcause%3D302>;\
                       index=1.1;rc=1
   History-Info: <sip:carol@example.com;cause=480?Reason=SIP%3Bcause%3D\
                 408>;index=1.2;mp=1
   History-Info: <sip:carol@192.0.2.4;cause=480?Reason=SIP%3Bcause%3D\
                 408>;index=1.2.1;rc=1.2
   History-Info: <sip:vm@example.com;\
                       target=sip:bob%40example.com;cause=480>;\
                       index=1.3;mp=1
   History-Info: <sip:vm@192.0.2.6;\
                       target=sip:bob%40example.com;cause=480>;\
                       index=1.3.1;rc=1.3
   Contact: Alice <sip:alice@192.0.2.3>
   Content-Type: application/sdp
   Content-Length: <appropriate value>

   [SDP Not Shown]

   F7 200 OK VM -> example.com

   SIP/2.0 200 OK
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP proxy.example.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK4523;\
                    received=192.0.2.101
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP 192.0.2.3:5060;branch=z9hG4bK42t2
   From: Alice <sip:alice@example.com>;tag=kkaz-
   To: Bob <sip:bob@example.com>;tag=3dweggs
   Supported: histinfo
   Call-ID: 12345600@example.com
   CSeq: 1 INVITE
   History-Info: <sip:bob@example.com>;index=1
   History-Info: <sip:bob@192.0.2.5?Reason=SIP%3Bcause%3D302>;\
                      index=1.1;rc=1
   History-Info: <sip:carol@example.com;cause=480?Reason=SIP%3Bcause%3D\
                 408>;index=1.2;mp=1
   History-Info: <sip:carol@192.0.2.4;cause=480?Reason=SIP%3Bcause%3D\
                 408>;index=1.2.1;rc=1.2
   History-Info: <sip:vm@example.com;\
                      target=sip:bob%40example.com;cause=480>;\
                      index=1.3;mp=1
   History-Info: <sip:vm@192.0.2.6;\
                      target=sip:bob%40example.com;cause=480>;\
                      index=1.3.1;rc=1.3
   Contact: <sip:vm@192.0.2.6>
   Content-Type: application/sdp
   Content-Length: <appropriate value>

   [SDP Not Shown]

   The VMS can look at the last hi-entry and find the target of the
   mailbox by looking at the URI entry in the "target" URI parameter in
   the hi-entry.

3.7.  Consumer Voicemail Example

   In the case of a consumer, when the call is retargeted, it is usually
   to another administrative domain.  The voicemail system in these
   environments typically requires the last-called-party information to
   determine the appropriate mailbox so an appropriate greeting can be
   provided and the appropriate party notified of the message.

   In this example, Alice calls Bob, but Bob has temporarily forwarded
   his phone to Carol (she is his wife).  Carol does not answer the
   call; thus, it is forwarded to a VMS.  In order to determine the
   appropriate mailbox to use for this call, the VMS needs the
   appropriate target for the request.  The last target is determined by
   finding the hi-entry referenced by the index of last hi-entry tagged

   with "mp" for determining the appropriate mailbox.  This hi-entry is
   used to populate the "target" URI parameter as defined in [RFC4458].
   Note that some VMSs may also (or instead) use the information
   available in the History-Info headers for custom handling of the VM
   in terms of how and why the called arrived at the VMS.

   Alice      example.com       Bob          Carol        VM

   | INVITE F1    |              |             |          |
   |------------->|              |             |          |
   |              | INVITE  F2   |             |          |
   |              |------------->|             |          |
   |              |              |             |          |
   |  100 Trying  |              |             |          |
   |<-------------| 302 Moved Temporarily F3   |          |
   |              |<-------------|             |          |
   |              |              |             |          |
   |              |      ACK     |             |          |
   |              |------------->|             |          |
   |              |              |             |          |
   |              | INVITE F4    |             |          |
   |              |--------------------------->|          |
   |              |              |             |          |
   |              |         180 Ringing  F5    |          |
   |              |<---------------------------|          |
   |              |              |             |          |
   | 180 Ringing  |              |             |          |
   |<-------------|              |             |          |
   |              |              |             |          |
   |              |       (timeout)            |          |
   |              |              |             |          |
   |              | INVITE  F6   |             |          |
   |              |-------------------------------------->|
   |              |              |             |          |
   |              |               200 OK  F7              |
   |              |<--------------------------------------|
   |   200 OK     |              |             |          |
   |<-------------|              |             |          |
   |              |              |             |          |
   |                         ACK                          |
   |----------------------------------------------------->|

                  Figure 7: Consumer Voicemail Example

   Message Details

   F1 INVITE Alice -> example.com

   INVITE sip:bob@example.com SIP/2.0
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP  192.0.2.3:5060;branch=z9hG4bK42t2
   Max-Forwards: 70
   From: Alice <sip:alice@example.com>;tag=kkaz-
   To: Bob <sip:bob@example.com>
   Supported: histinfo
   Call-ID: 12345600@example.com
   CSeq: 1 INVITE
   History-Info: <sip:bob@example.com>;index=1
   Contact: Alice <sip:alice@192.0.2.3>
   Content-Length: <appropriate value>

   [SDP Not Shown]

   F2 INVITE example.com -> Bob

   INVITE sip:bob@192.0.2.5 SIP/2.0
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP proxy.example.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK12s4
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP 192.0.2.3:5060;branch=z9hG4bK42t2
   Max-Forwards: 69
   From: Alice <sip:alice@example.com>;tag=kkaz-
   To: Bob <sip:bob@example.com>
   Supported: histinfo
   Call-ID: 12345600@example.com
   CSeq: 1 INVITE
   History-Info: <sip:bob@example.com>;index=1
   History-Info: <sip:bob@192.0.2.5>;index=1.1;rc=1
   Contact: Alice <sip:alice@192.0.2.3>
   Content-Type: application/sdp
   Content-Length: <appropriate value>

   [SDP Not Shown]

   F3 302 Moved Temporarily Bob -> example.com

   SIP/2.0 302 Moved Temporarily
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP proxy.example.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK12s4;\
           received=192.0.2.101
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP 192.0.2.3:5060;branch=z9hG4bK42t2
   From: Alice <sip:alice@example.com>;tag=kkaz-
   To: Bob <sip:bob@example.com>;tag=224ls3s-t
   Supported: histinfo
   Call-ID: 12345600@example.com
   CSeq: 1 INVITE
   History-Info: <sip:bob@example.com>;index=1
   History-Info: <sip:bob@192.0.2.5>;index=1.1;rc=1
   Contact: <sip:carol@example.com>;mp=1
   Content-Type: application/sdp
   Content-Length: <appropriate value>

   [SDP Not Shown]

   F4 INVITE example.com -> Carol

   INVITE sip:carol@192.0.2.4 SIP/2.0
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP proxy.example.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK24s5
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP 192.0.2.3:5060;branch=z9hG4bK42t2
   Max-Forwards: 69
   From: Alice <sip:alice@example.com>;tag=kkaz-
   To: Bob <sip:bob@example.com>
   Supported: histinfo
   Call-ID: 12345600@example.com
   CSeq: 1 INVITE
   History-Info: <sip:bob@example.com>;index=1
   History-Info: <sip:bob@192.0.2.5?Reason=SIP%3Bcause%3D302\
                 %3Btext%3D%22Moved%20Temporarily%22>\
                 ;index=1.1;rc=1
   History-Info: <sip:carol@example.com>;index=1.2;mp=1
   History-Info: <sip:carol@192.0.2.4>;index=1.2.1;rc=1.2
   Contact: Alice <sip:alice@192.0.2.3>
   Content-Type: application/sdp
   Content-Length: <appropriate value>

   [SDP Not Shown]

   F5 180 Ringing Carol -> example.com

   SIP/2.0 180 Ringing
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP proxy.example.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK24s5;\
           received=192.0.2.101
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP 192.0.2.3:5060;branch=z9hG4bK42t2
   From: Alice <sip:alice@example.com>;tag=kkaz-
   To: Bob <sip:bob@example.com>;tag=setss3x
   Supported: histinfo
   Call-ID: 12345600@example.com
   CSeq: 1 INVITE
   History-Info: <sip:bob@example.com>;index=1
   History-Info: <sip:bob@192.0.2.5?Reason=SIP%3Bcause%3D302\
                 %3Btext%3D%22Moved%20Temporarily%22>;\
                 index=1.1;rc=1
   History-Info: <sip:carol@example.com>;index=1.2;mp=1
   History-Info: <sip:carol@192.0.2.4>;index=1.2.1;rc=1.2
   Contact: <sip:carol@192.0.2.4>
   Content-Type: application/sdp
   Content-Length: <appropriate value>

   [SDP Not Shown]

   F6 INVITE example.com -> VM

   INVITE sip:vm@192.0.2.6;target=sip:carol%40example.com SIP/2.0
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP proxy.example.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKbbg4
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP 192.0.2.3:5060;branch=z9hG4bK42t2
   Max-Forwards: 69
   From: Alice <sip:alice@example.com>;tag=kkaz-
   To: Bob <sip:bob@example.com>
   Supported: histinfo
   Call-ID: 12345600@example.com
   CSeq: 1 INVITE
   History-Info: <sip:bob@example.com>;index=1
   History-Info: <sip:bob@192.0.2.5?Reason=SIP%3Bcause%3D302\
                 %3Btext%3D%22Moved%20Temporarily%22>;\
                 index=1.1;rc=1
   History-Info: <sip:carol@example.com>;\
                 index=1.2;mp=1
   History-Info: <sip:carol@192.0.2.4?Reason=SIP%3Bcause%3D408>;\
                 index=1.2.1;rc=1.2
   History-Info: <sip:vm@example.com;target=sip:carol%40example.com;\
                 cause=408>;index=1.2.2;mp=1.2
   History-Info: <sip:vm@192.0.2.5;target=sip:carol%40example.com;\
                 cause=408>;index=1.2.2.1;rc=1.2.2
   Contact: Alice <sip:alice@192.0.2.3>
   Content-Type: application/sdp
   Content-Length: <appropriate value>

   [SDP Not Shown]

   F7 200 OK VM -> example.com

   SIP/2.0 200 OK
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP proxy.example.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bKbbg4
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP 192.0.2.3:5060;branch=z9hG4bK42t2
   From: Alice <sip:alice@example.com>;tag=kkaz-
   To: Bob <sip:bob@example.com>;tag=3dweggs
   Supported: histinfo
   Call-ID: 12345600@example.com
   CSeq: 1 INVITE
   History-Info: <sip:bob@example.com>;index=1
   History-Info: <sip:bob@192.0.2.5?Reason=SIP%3Bcause%3D302\
                 %3Btext%3D%22Moved%20Temporarily%22>;\
                 index=1.1;rc=1
   History-Info: <sip:carol@example.com>;\
                 index=1.2;mp=1
   History-Info: <sip:carol@192.0.2.4?Reason=SIP%3Bcause%3D408>;\
                 index=1.2.1;rc=1.2
   History-Info: <sip:vm@example.com;target=sip:carol%40example.com;\
                 cause=408>;index=1.2.2;mp=1.2
   History-Info: <sip:vm@192.0.2.5;target=sip:carol%40example.com;\
                 cause=408>;index=1.2.2.1;rc=1.2.2
   Contact: <sip:carol@192.0.2.5>
   Content-Type: application/sdp
   Content-Length: <appropriate value>

   [SDP Not Shown]

   The VMS can look at the last hi-entry and find the target of the
   mailbox by looking for the "target" URI parameter in the hi-entry and
   the reason by the "cause" URI parameter in the same hi-entry.

3.8.  GRUU

   A variation on the problem in Section 3.5 occurs with Globally
   Routable User Agent URI (GRUU) [RFC5627].  A GRUU is a URI assigned
   to a UA instance that has many of the same properties as the AOR but
   causes requests to be routed only to that specific instance.  It is
   desirable for a UA to know whether it was reached because a
   correspondent sent a request to its GRUU or to its AOR.  This can be
   used to drive differing authorization policies on whether the request
   should be accepted or rejected, for example.  However, like the AOR
   itself, the GRUU is lost in translation at the home proxy.  Thus, the
   UAS cannot know whether it was contacted via the GRUU or its AOR.

   The following call flow and example messages show how History-Info
   can be used to find out the GRUU used to reach the callee.

   While a GRUU is comprised of an AOR with a URI parameter, as defined
   in [RFC5627], the GRUU construct itself is not an AOR.  Thus, the
   retargeting of a request based on a GRUU does not result in the
   addition of an "rc" header field parameter to the hi-entry containing
   the GRUU.  The lack of an "rc" header field parameter in the hi-
   entries can be a hint that the source of retargeting is a GRUU.
   However, to ensure this is the case, the UAS needs to search for a
   "gr" parameter in the hi-entry prior to the last hi-entry.  If there
   is a GRUU, the URI will always be prior to the last hi-entry as the
   GRUU does not allow multiple instance to be mapped to a contact
   address.

          Alice             example.com             John
          |                     | REGISTER F1         |
          |                     |<--------------------|
          |                     | 200 OK F2           |
          |                     |-------------------->|
          | INVITE F3           |                     |
          |-------------------->|                     |
          |                     | INVITE F4           |
          |                     |-------------------->|
                       * Rest of flow not shown *

                         Figure 8: GRUU Example

   Message Details

   F1 REGISTER John -> example.com

   REGISTER sip:example.com SIP/2.0
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP 192.0.2.1;branch=z9hG4bKnashds7
   Max-Forwards: 70
   From: John <sip:John@example.com>;tag=a73kszlfl
   Supported: gruu
   To: John <sip:john@example.com>
   Call-ID: 1j9FpLxk3uxtm8tn@192.0.2.1
   CSeq: 1 REGISTER
   Contact: <sip:john@192.0.2.1>;+sip.instance=\
       <urn:uuid:f81d4fae-7dec-11d0-a765-00a0c91e6bf6>
   Content-Length: 0

   [SDP Not Shown]

   F2 200 OK example.com -> John

   SIP/2.0 200 OK
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP 192.0.2.1;branch=z9hG4bKnashds7
   From: John <sip:john@example.com>;tag=a73kszlfl
   To: John <sip:john@example.com> ;tag=b88sn
   Call-ID: 1j9FpLxk3uxtm8tn@192.0.2.1
   CSeq: 1 REGISTER
   Contact: <sip:john@192.0.2.1>;\
       pub-gruu="sip:john@example.com;\
       gr=urn:uuid:f81d4fae-7dec-11d0-a765-00a0c91e6bf6";\
       temp-gruu=\
       "sip:tgruu.7hs==jd7vnzga5w7fajsc7-ajd6fabz0f8g5@example.com;\
     gr";+sip.instance=\
       "<urn:uuid:f81d4fae-7dec-11d0-a765-00a0c91e6bf6>";\
       expires=3600
     Content-Length: 0

   [SDP Not Shown]

   Assuming Alice has knowledge of a GRUU either through
   prior communication or through other means such as presence
   places a call to John's GRUU.

   F3 INVITE Alice -> example.com

   INVITE sip:john@example.com;\
       gr=urn:uuid:f81d4fae-7dec-11d0-a765-00a0c91e6bf6 SIP/2.0
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP  192.0.2.3:5060;branch=z9hG4bK42t2
   Max-Forwards: 70
   From: Alice <sip:alice@example.com>;tag=kkaz-
   To: <sip:john@example.com;\
       gr=urn:uuid:f81d4fae-7dec-11d0-a765-00a0c91e6bf6>
   Supported: gruu, histinfo
   Call-ID: 12345600@example.com
   CSeq: 1 INVITE
   History-Info: <sip:john@example.com;\
       gr=urn:uuid:f81d4fae-7dec-11d0-a765-00a0c91e6bf6>;index=1
   Contact: Alice <sip:alice@192.0.2.3>
   Content-Length: <appropriate value>

   [SDP Not Shown]

   F4 INVITE example.com -> John

   INVITE sip:john@192.0.2.1 SIP/2.0
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP proxy.example.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK12s4
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP 192.0.2.3:5060;branch=z9hG4bK42t2
   Max-Forwards: 69
   From: Alice <sip:alice@example.com>;tag=kkaz-
   To: <sip:john@example.com;\
       gr=urn:uuid:f81d4fae-7dec-11d0-a765-00a0c91e6bf6>
   Supported: gruu, histinfo
   Call-ID: 12345600@example.com
   CSeq: 1 INVITE
   Record-Route: <sip:proxy.example.com;lr>
   History-Info: <sip:john@example.com;\
       gr=urn:uuid:f81d4fae-7dec-11d0-a765-00a0c91e6bf6>;index=1
   History-Info: <sip:john@192.0.2.1>;index=1.1;rc=1
   Contact: Alice <sip:alice@192.0.2.3>
   Content-Type: application/sdp
   Content-Length: <appropriate value>

   [SDP Not Shown]

   By analyzing the entry referenced by the entry with the last "rc",
   one can realize that the URI used to reach the device was GRUU by
   finding the "gr" parameter.

3.9.  Limited-Use Address

   A limited-use address is a SIP URI that is minted on-demand, and
   passed out to a small number (usually one) of remote correspondents.
   Incoming calls targeted to that limited-use address are accepted as
   long as the UA still desires communications from the remote target.
   Should they no longer wish to be bothered by that remote
   correspondent, the URI is invalidated so that future requests
   targeted to it are rejected.

   Limited-use addresses are used in battling voice spam [RFC5039].  The
   easiest way to provide them would be for a UA to be able to take its
   AOR and "mint" a limited-use address by appending additional
   parameters to the URI.  It could then give out the URI to a
   particular correspondent and remember that URI locally.  When an
   incoming call arrives, the UAS would examine the parameter in the URI
   and determine whether or not the call should be accepted.
   Alternatively, the UA could push authorization rules into the
   network, so that it need not even see incoming requests that are to
   be rejected.

   This approach, especially when executed on the UA, requires that
   parameters attached to the AOR, but not used by the home proxy in
   processing the request, survive the translation at the home proxy and
   be presented to the UA.  This will not be the case with the logic in
   RFC 3261, since the Request-URI is replaced by the registered
   contact, and any such parameters are lost.

   Using the History-Info, John's UA can easily see if the call was
   addressed to its AOR, GRUU, or a temp-GRUU and treat the call
   accordingly by looking for a "gr" tag in the hi-entry prior to the
   last hi-entry.

          Alice             example.com             John
          |                     | REGISTER F1         |
          |                     |<--------------------|
          |                     | 200 OK F2           |
          |                     |-------------------->|
          | INVITE F3           |                     |
          |-------------------->|                     |
          |                     | INVITE F4           |
          |                     |-------------------->|
                       * Rest of flow not shown *

                 Figure 9: Limited-Use Address Example

   Message Details

   F1 REGISTER John -> example.com

   REGISTER sip:example.com SIP/2.0
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP 192.0.2.1;branch=z9hG4bKnashds7
   Max-Forwards: 70
   From: John <sip:John@example.com>;tag=a73kszlfl
   Supported: gruu
   To: John <sip:john@example.com>
   Call-ID: 1j9FpLxk3uxtm8tn@192.0.2.1
   CSeq: 1 REGISTER
   Contact: <sip:john@192.0.2.1>;\
     +sip.instance="<urn:uuid:f81d4fae-7dec-11d0-a765-00a0c91e6bf6>"
   Content-Length: 0

   F2 200 OK example.com -> John

   SIP/2.0 200 OK
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP 192.0.2.1;branch=z9hG4bKnashds7
   From: John <sip:john@example.com>;tag=a73kszlfl
   To: John <sip:john@example.com> ;tag=b88sn
   Call-ID: 1j9FpLxk3uxtm8tn@192.0.2.1
   CSeq: 1 REGISTER
   Contact: <sip:john@192.0.2.1>;\
     pub-gruu="sip:john@example.com;\
     gr=urn:uuid:f81d4fae-7dec-11d0-a765-00a0c91e6bf6";\
     temp-gruu=\
     "sip:tgruu.7hs==jd7vnzga5w7fajsc7-ajd6fabz0f8g5@example.com;gr";\
     +sip.instance="<urn:uuid:f81d4fae-7dec-11d0-a765-00a0c91e6bf6>";\
     expires=3600
   Content-Length: 0

    Assuming Alice has knowledge of a temp-GRUU, she places a
    call to the temp-GRUU.

   F3 INVITE Alice -> example.com

   INVITE sip:tgruu.7hs==jd7vnzga5w7fajsc7-ajd6fabz0f8g5@example.com;\
       gr SIP/2.0
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP 192.0.2.3:5060;branch=z9hG4bK42t2
   Max-Forwards: 70
   From: Alice <sip:alice@example.com>;tag=kkaz-
   To: <sip:tgruu.7hs==jd7vnzga5w7fajsc7-ajd6fabz0f8g5@example.com\
    ;gr>
   Supported: gruu, histinfo
   Call-ID: 12345600@example.com
   CSeq: 1 INVITE
   History-Info: \
    <sip:tgruu.7hs==jd7vnzga5w7fajsc7-ajd6fabz0f8g5@example.com;gr>\
    ;index=1
   Contact: Alice <sip:alice@192.0.2.3>
   Content-Length: <appropriate value>

   F4 INVITE example.com -> John

   INVITE sip:john@192.0.2.1 SIP/2.0
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP proxy.example.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK12s4
   Via: SIP/2.0/UDP 192.0.2.3:5060;branch=z9hG4bK42t2
   Max-Forwards: 69
   From: Alice <sip:alice@example.com>;tag=kkaz-
   To: <sip:tgruu.7hs==jd7vnzga5w7fajsc7-ajd6fabz0f8g5@example.com\
    ;gr>
   Supported: gruu, histinfo
   Call-ID: 12345600@example.com
   CSeq: 1 INVITE
   Record-Route: <sip:proxy.example.com;lr>
   History-Info: \
    <sip:tgruu.7hs==jd7vnzga5w7fajsc7-ajd6fabz0f8g5@example.com;gr>\
    ;index=1
   History-Info: <sip:john@192.0.2.1>;index=1.1;rc=1
   Contact: Alice <sip:alice@192.0.2.3>
   Content-Type: application/sdp
   Content-Length: <appropriate value>

   By analyzing the entry referenced by the entry with the last "rc",
   one can realize that the URI used to reach the device was GRUU by
   finding the "gr" parameter.

3.10.  Service Invocation

   Several SIP specifications have been developed that make use of
   complex URIs to address services within the network rather than
   subscribers.  The URIs are complex because they contain numerous
   parameters that control the behavior of the service.  Examples of
   this include the specification that first introduced the concept,
   [RFC3087], control of network announcements and Interactive Voice
   Response (IVR) with SIP URI [RFC4240], and control of voicemail
   access with SIP URI [RFC4458].

   A common problem with all of these mechanisms is that once a proxy
   has decided to rewrite the Request-URI to point to the service, it
   cannot be sure that the Request-URI will not be destroyed by a
   downstream proxy that decides to forward the request in some way, and
   does so by rewriting the Request-URI.

   Section 3.6 shows how History-Info can be used to invoke a service.

3.11.  Toll-Free Number

   Toll-free numbers, also known in the United States as 800 or 8xx
   numbers, are telephone numbers that are free for users to call.

   In the telephone network, toll-free numbers are just aliases to
   actual numbers that are used for routing of the call.  In order to
   process the call in the PSTN, a switch will perform a query (using a
   protocol called Transaction Capabilities Application Part (TCAP)),
   which will return either a phone number or the identity of a carrier
   which can handle the call.

   There has been recent work on allowing such PSTN translation services
   to be accessed by SIP proxy servers through IP querying mechanisms.
   For example, ENUM [RFC6117] has already been proposed as a mechanism
   for performing Number Portability (NP) queries [RFC4769].  Using it
   for 8xx number translations is a logical next step.

   The new target from translating the 8xx number may be in the PSTN or
   in the SIP network.  If the new target is an entity in the PSTN, the
   proper treatment in the PSTN (and in particular, correct
   reconciliation of billing records) requires that the call be marked
   with both the originating number (8xx number) and the new target
   number, History-info would come in play here to assure original 8xx
   number is not lost.

   Although not required to have both the originating number (8xx
   number) and the new target in the SIP network, an enterprise or user
   who utilize the 8xx service can benefit by knowing whether the call
   came in via an 8xx number in order to treat the call differently (for
   example, to play a special announcement), but if the original
   Request-URI is lost through translation, there is no way to tell if
   the call came in via 8xx number.  History-Info again would come in
   play here.

   Similar problems arise with other "special" numbers and services used
   in the PSTN, such as operator services, pay/premium numbers (9xx
   numbers in the United States), and short service codes such as 311.

   To find the service number, the UAS can extract the hi-entry whose
   index matches the value of the first hi-entry with an "mp" tag.
   Technically, the call can be forwarded to these "special" numbers
   from non-special numbers; however, that is uncommon based on the way
   these services authorize translations.

   This example call flow shows a UAC that does not support History-
   Info.

         Alice      Toll-Free Service   Atlanta.com          John
          |                |              |                   |
          |    INVITE F1   |              |                   |
          |--------------->|   INVITE F2  |                   |
          |                |------------->|                   |
          |                |              |  INVITE F3        |
          |                |              |------------------>|

                       * Rest of flow not shown *

                   Figure 10: Service Number Example

   Message Details

   F1 INVITE 192.0.2.1 -> Toll-Free Service

   INVITE sip:+18005551002@example.com;user=phone  SIP/2.0
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP 192.0.2.1:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf
   From: Alice <sip:+15551001@example.com;user=phone>;tag=9fxced76sl
   To: <sip:+18005551002@example.com;user=phone>
   Call-ID: c3x842276298220188511
   CSeq: 1 INVITE
   Max-Forwards: 70
   Contact: <sip:alice@192.0.2.1>
   Content-Type: application/sdp
   Content-Length: <appropriate value>

   [SDP Not Shown]

   F2 INVITE Toll-Free Service -> Atlanta.com

   INVITE sip:+15555551002@atlanta.com SIP/2.0
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP 192.0.2.4:5060;branch=z9hG4bK-ik8
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP 192.0.2.1:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf
   From: Alice <sip:+15551001@example.com;user=phone>;tag=9fxced76sl
   To: <sip:+18005551002@example.com;user=phone>
   Call-ID: c3x842276298220188511
   CSeq: 1 INVITE
   Max-Forwards: 69
   Supported: histinfo
   History-Info: <sip:+18005551002@example.com;user=phone>;index=1
   History-Info: <sip:+15555551002@atlanta.com>;index=1.1;mp=1
   Contact: <sip:alice@192.0.2.1>
   Content-Type: application/sdp
   Content-Length: <appropriate value>

   [SDP Not Shown]

   F3 INVITE Atlanta.com -> John

   INVITE sip:john@198.51.100.2 SIP/2.0
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP 198.51.100.1:5060;branch=z9hG4bKpxk7g
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP 192.0.2.4:5060;branch=z9hG4bK-ik8
   Via: SIP/2.0/TCP 192.0.2.1:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf
   From: Alice <sip:+15551001@example.com;user=phone>;tag=9fxced76sl
   To: <sip:+18005551002@example.com;user=phone>
   Call-ID: c3x842276298220188511
   CSeq: 1 INVITE
   Max-Forwards: 68
   Supported: histinfo
   History-Info: <sip:+18005551002@example.com;user=phone>;index=1
   History-Info: <sip:+15555551002@atlanta.com>;index=1.1;mp=1
   History-Info: <sip:john@atlanta.com>;index=1.1.1;rc=1.1
   History-Info: <sip:john@198.51.100.2>;index=1.1.1.1;rc=1.1.1
   Contact: <sip:alice@192.0.2.1>
   Content-Type: application/sdp
   Content-Length: <appropriate value>

   [SDP Not Shown]

4.  Security Considerations

   The security considerations for the History-Info header field are
   specified in [RFC7044].

5.  Acknowledgements

   Jonathan Rosenberg, et al produced the document that provided
   additional use cases precipitating the requirement for the new
   "target" parameter in the History-Info header field and the new SIP/
   SIPS URI parameter.  Hadriel Kaplan provided some comments.

   Brett Tate, Roland Jesske, Laura Liess, Scott Godin, Dale Worley, and
   Marianne Mohali provided extensive review and comments on call flows,
   message examples, and text.

6.  Informative References

   [RFC3261]  Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., Camarillo, G., Johnston,
              A., Peterson, J., Sparks, R., Handley, M., and E.
              Schooler, "SIP: Session Initiation Protocol", RFC 3261,
              June 2002.

   [RFC5627]  Rosenberg, J., "Obtaining and Using Globally Routable User
              Agent URIs (GRUUs) in the Session Initiation Protocol
              (SIP)", RFC 5627, October 2009.

   [RFC3087]  Campbell, B. and R. Sparks, "Control of Service Context
              using SIP Request-URI", RFC 3087, April 2001.

   [RFC4240]  Burger, E., Van Dyke, J., and A. Spitzer, "Basic Network
              Media Services with SIP", RFC 4240, December 2005.

   [RFC5039]  Rosenberg, J. and C. Jennings, "The Session Initiation
              Protocol (SIP) and Spam", RFC 5039, January 2008.

   [RFC4458]  Jennings, C., Audet, F., and J. Elwell, "Session
              Initiation Protocol (SIP) URIs for Applications such as
              Voicemail and Interactive Voice Response (IVR)", RFC 4458,
              April 2006.

   [RFC6117]  Hoeneisen, B., Mayrhofer, A., and J. Livingood, "IANA
              Registration of Enumservices: Guide, Template, and IANA
              Considerations", RFC 6117, March 2011.

   [RFC4769]  Livingood, J. and R. Shockey, "IANA Registration for an
              Enumservice Containing Public Switched Telephone Network
              (PSTN) Signaling Information", RFC 4769, November 2006.

   [RFC7044]  Barnes, M., Audet, F., Schubert, S., van Elburg, J., and
              C. Holmberg, "An Extension to the Session Initiation
              Protocol (SIP) for Request History Information", RFC 7044,
              February 2014.

Authors' Addresses

   Mary Barnes
   TX
   US

   EMail: mary.ietf.barnes@gmail.com

   Francois Audet
   Skype

   EMail: francois.audet@skype.net

   Shida Schubert
   NTT
   Tokyo
   Japan

   EMail: shida@ntt-at.com

   Hans Erik van Elburg
   Detecon International Gmbh
   Oberkasseler str. 2
   Bonn
   Germany

   EMail: ietf.hanserik@gmail.com

   Christer Holmberg
   Ericsson
   Hirsalantie 11, Jorvas
   Finland

   EMail: christer.holmberg@ericsson.com

 

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