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RFC 6870 - Pseudowire Preferential Forwarding Status Bit


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Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)                     P. Muley, Ed.
Request for Comments: 6870                              M. Aissaoui, Ed.
Updates: 4447                                             Alcatel-Lucent
Category: Standards Track                                  February 2013
ISSN: 2070-1721

             Pseudowire Preferential Forwarding Status Bit

Abstract

   This document describes a mechanism for signaling the active and
   standby status of redundant Pseudowires (PWs) between their
   termination points.  A set of Redundant PWs is configured between
   Provider Edge (PE) nodes in single-segment pseudowire (SS-PW)
   applications or between Terminating Provider Edge (T-PE) nodes in
   Multi-Segment Pseudowire (MS-PW) applications.

   In order for the PE/T-PE nodes to indicate the preferred PW to use
   for forwarding PW packets to one another, a new status bit is
   defined.  This bit indicates a Preferential Forwarding status with a
   value of active or standby for each PW in a redundant set.

   In addition, a second status bit is defined to allow peer PE nodes to
   coordinate a switchover operation of the PW.

   Finally, this document updates RFC 4447 by adding details to the
   handling of the PW status code bits in the PW Status TLV.

Status of This Memo

   This is an Internet Standards Track document.

   This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force
   (IETF).  It represents the consensus of the IETF community.  It has
   received public review and has been approved for publication by the
   Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG).  Further information on
   Internet Standards is available in Section 2 of RFC 5741.

   Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
   and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
   http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6870.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2013 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1. Introduction ....................................................4
      1.1. Requirements Language ......................................4
   2. Motivation and Scope ............................................4
   3. Terminology .....................................................7
   4. PE Architecture .................................................9
   5. Modes of Operation ..............................................9
      5.1. Independent Mode ...........................................9
      5.2. Master/Slave Mode .........................................12
   6. PW State Transition Signaling Procedures .......................14
      6.1. PW Standby Notification Procedures in Independent Mode ....14
      6.2. PW Standby Notification Procedures in Master/Slave Mode ...15
           6.2.1. PW State Machine ...................................16
      6.3. Coordination of PW Switchover .............................17
           6.3.1. Procedures at the Requesting Endpoint ..............18
           6.3.2. Procedures at the Receiving Endpoint ...............20
   7. Status Mapping .................................................20
      7.1. AC Defect State Entry/Exit ................................21
      7.2. PW Defect State Entry/Exit ................................21
   8. Applicability and Backward Compatibility .......................21
   9. Security Considerations ........................................22
   10. MIB Considerations ............................................22
   11. IANA Considerations ...........................................22
      11.1. Status Code for PW Preferential Forwarding Status ........22
      11.2. Status Code for PW Request Switchover Status .............23
   12. Contributors ..................................................23
   13. Acknowledgments ...............................................24
   14. References ....................................................24
      14.1. Normative References .....................................24
      14.2. Informative References ...................................24
    Appendix A. Applications of PW Redundancy Procedures .............26
      A.1. One Multi-Homed CE with Single SS-PW Redundancy ...........26
      A.2. Multiple Multi-Homed CEs with SS-PW Redundancy ............28
      A.3. Multi-Homed CE with MS-PW Redundancy ......................30
      A.4. Multi-Homed CE with MS-PW Redundancy and S-PE Protection ..31
      A.5. Single-Homed CE with MS-PW Redundancy .....................32
      A.6. PW Redundancy between H-VPLS MTU-s and PE-rs ..............33

1.  Introduction

   This document provides the extensions to the Pseudowire (PW) control
   plane to support the protection schemes of the PW redundancy
   applications described in RFC 6718, "Pseudowire (PW) Redundancy" [8].

   It specifies a new PW status bit as well as the procedures Provider
   Edge (PE) nodes follow to notify one another of the Preferential
   Forwarding state of each PW in the redundant set, i.e., active or
   standby.  This status bit is different from the PW status bits
   already defined in RFC 4447, the pseudowire setup and maintenance
   protocol [2].  In addition, this document specifies a second status
   bit to allow peer PE nodes to coordinate a switchover operation of
   the PW from active to standby, or vice versa.

   As a result of the introduction of these new status bits, this
   document updates RFC 4447 by clarifying the rules for processing
   status bits not originally defined in RFC 4447.  It also updates RFC
   4447 by defining that a status bit can indicate a status other than a
   fault or can indicate an instruction to the peer PE.  See more
   details in Section 8.

   Section 15 shows in detail how the mechanisms described in this
   document are used to achieve the desired protection schemes of the
   applications described in [8].

1.1.  Requirements Language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [1].

2.  Motivation and Scope

   The PW setup and maintenance protocol defines the following status
   codes in the PW Status TLV to indicate the state for an attachment
   circuit (AC) and a PW [7]:

   0x00000000 - Pseudowire forwarding (clear all failures)

   0x00000001 - Pseudowire Not Forwarding

   0x00000002 - Local Attachment Circuit (ingress) Receive Fault

   0x00000004 - Local Attachment Circuit (egress) Transmit Fault

   0x00000008 - Local PSN-facing PW (ingress) Receive Fault

   0x00000010 - Local PSN-facing PW (egress) Transmit Fault

   The applications defined in [8] allow the provisioning of a primary
   PW and one or many secondary backup PWs in the same Virtual Private
   Wire Service (VPWS) or Virtual Private LAN Service (VPLS).  The
   objective of PW redundancy is to maintain end-to-end connectivity for
   the emulated service by activating the correct PW whenever an AC, a
   PE, or a PW fails.  The correct PW means the one that provides the
   end-to-end connectivity from Customer Edge (CE) to CE such that
   packets continue to flow.

   A PE node makes a selection of which PW to activate at any given time
   for the purpose of forwarding user packets.  This selection takes
   into account the local state of the PW and AC, as well as the remote
   state of the PW and AC as indicated in the PW status bits it received
   from the peer PE node.

   In the absence of faults, all PWs are up both locally and remotely,
   and a PE node needs to select a single PW to which to forward user
   packets.  This is referred to as the active PW.  All other PWs will
   be in standby and must not be used to forward user packets.

   In order for both ends of the service to select the same PW for
   forwarding user packets, this document defines a new status bit: the
   Preferential Forwarding status bit.  It also defines the procedures
   the PE nodes follow to indicate the Preferential Forwarding state of
   a PW to its peer PE node.

   In addition, a second status bit is defined to allow peer PE nodes to
   coordinate a switchover operation of the PW if required by the
   application.  This is known as the Request Switchover status bit.

   Together, the mechanisms described in this document achieve the
   following protection capabilities defined in [8]:

      a. A 1:1 protection in which a specific subset of a path for an
         emulated service, consisting of a standby PW and/or AC,
         protects another specific subset of a path for the emulated
         service, consisting of an active PW and/or AC.  An active PW
         can forward data traffic and control plane traffic, such as
         Operations, Administration, and Maintenance (OAM) packets.  A
         standby PW does not carry data traffic.

      b. An N:1 protection scheme in which N specific subsets of a path
         for an emulated service, consisting each of a standby PW and/or
         AC, protect a specific subset of a path for the emulated
         service, consisting of an active PW and/or AC.

      c. A mechanism to allow PW endpoints to coordinate the switchover
         to a given PW by using an explicit request/acknowledgment
         switchover procedure.  This mechanism is complementary to the
         independent mode of operation and is described in Section 6.3.
         6.3.  This mechanism can be invoked manually by the user,
         effectively providing a manual switchover capability.  It can
         also be invoked automatically to resolve a situation where the
         PW endpoints could not match the two directions of the PW.

      d. A locally configured precedence to govern the selection of a PW
         when more than one PW qualifies for the active state, as
         defined in Sections 5.1. and 5.2.  The PW with the lowest
         precedence value has the highest priority.  Precedence may be
         configured via, for example, a local configuration parameter at
         the PW endpoint.

      e. By configuration, implementations can designate one PW in the
         1:1 or N:1 protection as a primary PW and the remaining as
         secondary PWs.  If more than one PW qualifies for the active
         state, as defined in Sections 5.1 and 5.2, a PE node selects
         the primary PW in preference to a secondary PW.  In other
         words, the primary PW has implicitly the lowest precedence
         value.  Furthermore, a PE node reverts to the primary PW
         immediately after it comes back up or after the expiration of a
         delay effectively achieving revertive protection switching.

   1+1 protection (in which one specific subset of a path for an
   emulated service, consisting of a standby PW and/or AC, protects
   another specific subset of a path for the emulated service and in
   which traffic is permanently duplicated at the ingress node on both
   the currently active and standby subsets of the paths) is not
   supported.

   The above protection schemes are provided using the following
   operational modes:

      1. An independent mode of operation in which each PW endpoint node
         uses its own local rule to select which PW it intends to
         activate at any given time, and advertises that PW to the
         remote endpoints.  Only a PW that is up and that indicated
         active status bit locally and remotely is in the active state
         and can be used to forward data packets.  This is described in
         Section 5.1.

      2. A master/slave mode in which one PW endpoint, the master
         endpoint, selects and dictates to the other endpoint(s), the
         slave endpoint(s), which PW to activate.  This is described in
         Section 5.2.

   Note that this document specifies the mechanisms to support PW
   redundancy where a set of redundant PWs terminate on either a PE, in
   the case of an SS-PW, or on a T-PE, in the case of an MS-PW.  PW
   redundancy scenarios where the redundant set of PW segments
   terminates on a Switching Provider Edge (S-PE) are for further study.

3. Terminology

   Pseudowire (PW): A mechanism that carries the essential elements of
         an emulated service from one PE to one or more other PEs over a
         Public Service Network (PSN) [9].

   Single-Segment Pseudowire (SS-PW): A PW set up directly between two
         T-PE devices.  The PW label is unchanged between the
         originating and terminating PEs [6].

   Multi-Segment Pseudowire (MS-PW): A static or dynamically configured
         set of two or more contiguous PW segments that behave and
         function as a single point-to-point PW.  Each end of an MS-PW,
         by definition, terminates on a T-PE [6].

   Up PW: A PW that has been configured (label mapping exchanged between
         PEs) and is not showing any of the PW or AC status bits
         specified in [7].  Such a PW is available for forwarding
         traffic [8].

   Down PW: A PW that either has not been fully configured or has been
         configured and is showing any of the PW or AC status bits
         specified in [7]; such a PW is not available for forwarding
         traffic [8].

   Active PW:  An up PW used for forwarding user, OAM, and control plane
         traffic [8].

   Standby PW: An up PW that is not used for forwarding user traffic but
         may forward OAM and specific control plane traffic [8].

   Primary PW: The PW that a PW endpoint activates in preference to any
         other PW when more than one PW qualifies for active state.
         When the primary PW comes back up after a failure and qualifies
         for active state, the PW endpoint always reverts to it.  The
         designation of primary is performed by local configuration for
         the PW at the PE and is only required when revertive protection
         switching is used [8].

   Secondary PW: When it qualifies for active state, a secondary PW is
         only selected if no primary PW is configured or if the
         configured primary PW does not qualify for active state (e.g.,

         is down).  By default, a PW in a redundancy PW set is
         considered secondary.  There is no revertive mechanism among
         secondary PWs [8].

   PW Precedence: This is a configuration local to the PE that dictates
         the order in which a forwarder chooses to use a PW when
         multiple PWs all qualify for the active state.  Note that a PW
         that has been configured as primary has, implicitly, the lowest
         precedence value.

   PW Endpoint: A PE where a PW terminates on a point where Native
         Service Processing is performed, e.g., an SS-PW PE, an MS-PW
         T-PE, a Hierarchical VPLS (H-VPLS) MTU-s, or PE-rs [8].

   Provider Edge (PE): A device that provides PWE3 to a CE [9].

   PW Terminating Provider Edge (T-PE): A PE where the customer-facing
         ACs are bound to a PW forwarder.  A terminating PE is present
         in the first and last segments of an MS-PW.  This incorporates
         the functionality of a PE as defined in RFC 3985 [6].

   PW Switching Provider Edge (S-PE): A PE capable of switching the
         control and data planes of the preceding and succeeding PW
         segments in an MS-PW.  The S-PE terminates the PSN tunnels of
         the preceding and succeeding segments of the MS-PW.  Therefore,
         it includes a PW switching point for an MS-PW.  A PW switching
         point is never the S-PE and the T-PE for the same MS-PW.  A PW
         switching point runs necessary protocols to set up and manage
         PW segments with other PW switching points and terminating PEs.
         An S-PE can exist anywhere a PW must be processed or policy
         applied.  Therefore, it is not limited to the edge of a
         provider network [6].

   MTU-s: A hierarchical virtual private LAN service Multi-Tenant Unit
         switch, as defined in RFC 4762 [3].

   PE-rs: A routing and bridging capable PE as defined in RFC 4762 [3].

   FEC: Forwarding Equivalence Class.

   OAM: Operations, Administration, and Maintenance.

   VCCV: Virtual Connection Connectivity Verification.

   This document uses the term 'PE' to be synonymous with both PEs as
   per RFC 3985 [9] and T-PEs as per RFC 5659 [6].

   This document uses the term 'PW' to be synonymous with both PWs as
   per RFC 3985 [9] and SS-PWs, MS-PWs, and PW segments as per RFC 5659
   [6].

4.  PE Architecture

   Figure 1 shows the PE architecture for PW redundancy, when more than
   one PW in a redundant set is associated with a single AC.  This is
   based on the architecture in Figure 4b of RFC 3985 [9].  The
   forwarder selects which of the redundant PWs to use based on the
   criteria described in this document.

              +----------------------------------------+
              |                PE Device               |
              +----------------------------------------+
     Single   |                 |        Single        | PW Instance
      AC      |                 +      PW Instance     X<===========>
              |                 |                      |
              |                 |----------------------|
      <------>o                 |        Single        | PW Instance
              |    Forwarder    +      PW Instance     X<===========>
              |                 |                      |
              |                 |----------------------|
              |                 |        Single        | PW Instance
              |                 +      PW Instance     X<===========>
              |                 |                      |
              +----------------------------------------+

               Figure 1. PE Architecture for PW Redundancy

5.  Modes of Operation

   There are two modes of operation for the use of the PW Preferential
   Forwarding status bits:

   o  independent mode

   o  master/slave mode

5.1.  Independent Mode

   PW endpoint nodes independently select which PWs are eligible to
   become active and which are not.  They advertise the corresponding
   active or standby Preferential Forwarding status for each PW.  Each
   PW endpoint compares local and remote status bits and uses the PW

   that is up at both endpoints and that advertised active Preferential
   Forwarding status at both the local and remote endpoints.

   In this mode of operation, the Preferential Forwarding status
   indicates the preferred forwarding state of each endpoint but the
   actual forwarding state of the PW is the result of the comparison of
   the local and remote forwarding status bits.

   If more than one PW qualifies for the active state, each PW endpoint
   MUST implement a common mechanism to choose the PW for forwarding.
   The default mechanism MUST be supported by all implementations, and
   it operates as follows:

   1. For a PW using the PWid ID Forwarding Equivalence Class (PWid FEC)
      [2], the PW with the lowest PWid value is selected.

   2. For a PW using the Generalized PWid FEC [2], each PW in a
      redundant set is uniquely identified at each PE using the
      following triplet: AGI::SAII::TAII.  The unsigned integer form of
      the concatenated word can be used in the comparison.  However, the
      Source Attachment Individual Identifier (SAII) and Target
      Attachment Individual Identifier (TAII) values as seen on a PE
      node are the mirror values of what the peer PE node sees.  So that
      both PE nodes compare the same value, the PE with the lowest
      system IP address MUST use the unsigned integer form of
      AGI::SAII::TAII, while the PE with the highest system IP address
      MUST use the unsigned integer form of AGI::TAII::SAII.  This way,
      both PE nodes will compare the same values.  The PW that
      corresponds to the minimum of the compared values across all PWs
      in the redundant set is selected.

      In the case where the system IP address is not known, it is
      RECOMMENDED to implement the active PW selection mechanism
      described next.

      In the case of segmented PW, the operator needs to make sure that
      the PWid or AGI::SAII::TAII of the redundant PWs within the first
      and last segment are ordered consistently such that the same end-
      to-end MS-PW gets selected.  Otherwise, it is RECOMMENDED to
      implement the active PW selection mechanism described next.

   The PW endpoints MAY also implement the following active PW selection
   mechanism:

   1. If the PW endpoint is configured with the precedence parameter on
      each PW in the redundant set, it selects the PW with the lowest
      configured precedence value.

   2. If the PW endpoint is configured with one PW as primary and one or
      more PWs as secondary, it selects the primary PW in preference to
      all secondary PWs.  If a primary PW is not available, it selects
      the secondary PW with the lowest precedence value.  If the primary
      PW becomes available, a PW endpoint reverts to it immediately or
      after the expiration of a configurable delay.

   3. This active PW selection mechanism assumes the precedence
      parameter values are configured consistently at both PW endpoints
      and that unique values are assigned to the PWs in the same
      redundant set to achieve tiebreaking using this mechanism.

   There are scenarios with dual-homing of a CE to PE nodes where each
   PE node needs to advertise active Preferential Forwarding status on
   more than one PW in the redundant set.  However, a PE MUST always
   select a single PW for forwarding using the above active PW selection
   algorithm.  An example of such a case is described in 15.2.

   There are scenarios where each PE needs to advertise active
   Preferential Forwarding status on a single PW in the redundant set.
   In order to ensure that both PE nodes make the same selection, they
   MUST use the above active PW selection algorithm to determine the PW
   eligible for active state.  An example of such a case is described in
   15.5.

   In steady state with consistent configuration, a PE will always find
   an active PW.  However, it is possible that such a PW is not found
   due to a misconfiguration.  In the event that an active PW is not
   found, a management notification SHOULD be generated.  If a
   management notification for failure to find an active PW was
   generated and an active PW is subsequently found, a management
   notification SHOULD be generated, so clearing the previous failure
   indication.  Additionally, a PE MAY use the request switchover
   procedures described in Section 6.3 to have both PE nodes switch to a
   common PW.

   There may also be transient conditions where endpoints do not share a
   common view of the active/standby state of the PWs.  This could be
   caused by propagation delay of the Targeted Label Distribution
   Protocol (T-LDP) status messages between endpoints.  In this case,
   the behavior of the receiving endpoint is outside the scope of this
   document.

   Thus, in this mode of operation, the following definition of active
   and standby PW states apply:

   o  Active State

   A PW is considered to be in active state when the PW labels are
   exchanged between its two endpoints and the status bits exchanged
   between the endpoints indicate the PW is up and its Preferential
   Forwarding status is active at both endpoints.  In this state user
   traffic can flow over the PW in both directions.  As described in
   Section 5.1, the PE nodes MUST implement a common mechanism to select
   one PW for forwarding in case multiple PWs qualify for the active
   state.

   o  Standby State

   A PW is considered to be in standby state when the PW labels are
   exchanged between its two endpoints, but the Preferential Forwarding
   status bits exchanged indicate the PW Preferential Forwarding status
   is standby at one or both endpoints.  In this state, the endpoints
   MUST NOT forward data traffic over the PW but MAY allow PW OAM
   packets, e.g., Virtual Connection Connectivity Verification (VCCV)
   packets [11], to be sent and received in order to test the liveliness
   of standby PWs.  The endpoints of the PW MAY also allow the
   forwarding of specific control plane packets of applications using
   the PW.  The specification of applications and the allowed control
   plane packets are outside the scope of this document.  If the PW is a
   spoke in H-VPLS, any Media Access Control (MAC) addresses learned via
   the PW SHOULD be flushed when it transitions to standby state,
   according to the procedures in RFC 4762 [3] and in [10].

5.2.  Master/Slave Mode

   One endpoint node of the redundant set of PWs is designated the
   master and is responsible for selecting which PW both endpoints must
   use to forward user traffic.

   The master indicates the forwarding state in the PW Preferential
   Forwarding status bit.  The other endpoint node, the slave, MUST
   follow the decision of the master node based on the received status
   bits.  In other words, the Preferential Forwarding status bit sent by
   the master node indicates the actual forwarding state of the PW at
   the master node.

   There is a single PE master PW endpoint node and one or many PE PW
   endpoint slave nodes.  The assignment of master/slave roles to the PW
   endpoints is performed by local configuration.  Note that the
   behavior described in this section assumes correct configuration of

   the master and slave endpoints.  This document does not define a
   mechanism to detect errors in the configuration, and misconfiguration
   might lead to protection switchover failing to work correctly.
   Furthermore, this document does not specify the procedures for a
   backup master node.  In deployments where PE node protection is
   required, it is recommended to use the independent mode of operation
   as in the application described in Section 15.2.

   One endpoint of the PW, the master, actively selects which PW to
   activate and uses it for forwarding user traffic.  This status is
   indicated to the slave node by setting the Preferential Forwarding
   status bit in the status bit TLV to active.  It does not forward user
   traffic to any other of the PW's in the redundant set to the slave
   node and indicates this by setting the Preferential Forwarding status
   bit in the status bit TLV to standby for those PWs.  The master node
   MUST ignore any PW Preferential Forwarding status bits received from
   the slave nodes.

   If more than one PW qualifies for the active state, the master PW
   endpoint node selects one.  There is no requirement to specify a
   default active PW selection mechanism in this case; however, for
   consistency across implementations, the master PW endpoint SHOULD
   implement the default active PW selection mechanism described in
   Section 5.1.

   If the master PW endpoint implements the active PW selection
   mechanism based on primary/secondary and precedence parameters, it
   MUST comply with the following behavior:

   1. If the PW endpoint is configured with the precedence parameter on
      each PW in the redundant set, it MUST select the PW with the
      lowest configured precedence value.

   2. If the PW endpoint is configured with one PW as primary and one or
      more PWs as secondary, it MUST select the primary PW in preference
      to all secondary PWs.  If a primary PW is not available, it MUST
      use the secondary PW with the lowest precedence value.  If the
      primary PW becomes available, a PW endpoint MUST revert to it
      immediately or after the expiration of a configurable delay.

   The slave endpoint(s) are required to act on the status bits received
   from the master.  When the received status bit transitions from
   active to standby, a slave node MUST stop forwarding over the
   previously active PW.  When the received status bit transitions from
   standby to active for a given PW, the slave node MUST start
   forwarding user traffic over this PW.

   In this mode of operation, the following definition of active and
   standby PW states apply:

   o  Active State

   A PW is considered to be in active state when the PW labels are
   exchanged between its two endpoints, and the status bits exchanged
   between the endpoints indicate the PW is up at both endpoints, and
   the Preferential Forwarding status at the master endpoint is active.
   In this state, user traffic can flow over the PW in both directions.

   o  Standby State

   A PW is considered to be in standby state when the PW labels are
   exchanged between its two endpoints, and the status bits exchanged
   between the endpoints indicate the Preferential Forwarding status at
   the master endpoint is standby.  In this state, the endpoints MUST
   NOT forward data traffic over the PW but MAY allow PW OAM packets,
   e.g., VCCV, to be sent and received.  The endpoints of the PW MAY
   also allow the forwarding of specific control plane packets of
   applications using the PW.  The specification of applications and the
   allowed control plane packets are outside the scope of this document.
   If the PW is a spoke in H-VPLS, any MAC addresses learned via the PW
   SHOULD be flushed when it transitions to standby state according to
   the procedures in RFC 4762 [3] and [10].

6.  PW State Transition Signaling Procedures

   This section describes the extensions to PW status signaling and the
   processing rules for these extensions.  It defines a new PW
   Preferential Forwarding status bit that is to be used with the PW
   Status TLV specified in RFC 4447 [2].

   The PW Preferential Forwarding bit, when set, is used to signal
   either the preferred or actual active/standby forwarding state of the
   PW by one PE to the far-end PE.  The actual semantics of the value
   being signaled vary according to whether the PW is acting in
   master/slave or independent mode.

6.1.  PW Standby Notification Procedures in Independent Mode

   PEs that contain PW endpoints independently select which PW they
   intend to use for forwarding, depending on the specific application
   (example applications are described in [8]).  They advertise the
   corresponding preferred active/standby forwarding state for each PW.
   An active Preferential Forwarding state is indicated by clearing the
   PW Preferential Forwarding status bit in the PW Status TLV.  A
   standby Preferential Forwarding state is indicated by setting the PW

   Preferential Forwarding status bit in the PW Status TLV.  This
   advertisement occurs in both the initial label mapping message and in
   a subsequent notification message when the forwarding state
   transitions as a result of a state change in the specific
   application.

   Each PW endpoint compares the updated local and remote status and
   effectively activates the PW, which is up at both endpoints and which
   shows both local active and remote active Preferential Forwarding
   states.  The PE nodes MUST implement a common mechanism to select one
   PW for forwarding in case multiple PWs qualify for the active state,
   as explained in Section 5.1.

   When a PW is in active state, the PEs can forward user packets, OAM
   packets, and other control plane packets over the PW.

   When a PW is in standby state, the PEs MUST NOT forward user packets
   over the PW but MAY forward PW OAM packets and specific control plane
   packets.

   For MS-PWs, S-PEs MUST relay the PW status notification containing
   both the existing status bits and the new Preferential Forwarding
   status bits between ingress and egress PWs as per the procedures
   defined in [4].

6.2.  PW Standby Notification Procedures in Master/Slave Mode

   Whenever the master PW endpoint selects or deselects a PW for
   forwarding user traffic at its end, it explicitly notifies the event
   to the remote slave endpoint.  The slave endpoint carries out the
   corresponding action on receiving the PW state change notification.

   If the PW Preferential Forwarding bit in PW Status TLV received by
   the slave is set, it indicates that the PW at the master end is not
   used for forwarding and is thus kept in the standby state.  The PW
   MUST NOT be used for forwarding at slave endpoint.  Clearing the PW
   Preferential Forwarding bit in PW Status TLV indicates that the PW at
   the master endpoint is used for forwarding and is in active state,
   and the receiving slave endpoint MUST activate the PW if it was
   previously not used for forwarding.

   When this mechanism is used, a common Group ID in the PWid FEC
   element or a PW Grouping ID TLV in the Generalized PWid FEC element,
   as defined in [2], MAY be used to signal PWs in groups in order to
   minimize the number of LDP status messages that MUST be sent.  When
   PWs are provisioned with such grouping, a termination point sends a
   single "wildcard" notification message to denote this change in
   status for all affected PWs.  This status message contains either the

   PWid FEC TLV with only the Group ID or the Generalized PWid FEC TLV
   with only the PW Grouping ID TLV.  As mentioned in [2], the Group ID
   field of the PWid FEC element, or the PW Grouping ID TLV in the
   Generalized PWid FEC element, can be used to send status notification
   for an arbitrary set of PWs.

   For MS-PWs, S-PEs MUST relay the PW status notification containing
   both the existing and the new Preferential Forwarding status bits
   between ingress and egress PW segments, as per the procedures defined
   in [4].

6.2.1.  PW State Machine

   It is convenient to describe the PW state change behavior in terms of
   a state machine (Table 1).  The PW state machine is explained in
   detail in the two defined states, and the behavior is presented as a
   state transition table.  The same state machine is applicable to PW
   groups.

      STATE         EVENT                                  NEW STATE

      ACTIVE        PW put in standby (master)             STANDBY
                    Action: Transmit PW Preferential
                            Forwarding bit set

                    Receive PW Preferential Forwarding     STANDBY
                       bit set   (slave)
                    Action: Stop forwarding over PW

                    Receive PW Preferential Forwarding     ACTIVE
                       bit set but bit not supported
                    Action: None

                    Receive PW Preferential Forwarding     ACTIVE
                       bit clear
                    Action: None.

      STANDBY       PW activated (master)                  ACTIVE
                    Action: Transmit PW Preferential
                      Forwarding bit clear

                    Receive PW Preferential Forwarding     ACTIVE
                       bit clear (slave)
                    Action: Activate PW

                    Receive PW Preferential Forwarding     STANDBY
                       bit clear but bit not supported
                    Action: None

                    Receive PW Preferential Forwarding     STANDBY
                       bit set
                    Action: None

        Table 1.  PW State Transition Table in Master/Slave Mode

6.3.  Coordination of PW Switchover

   There are PW redundancy applications that require that PE nodes
   coordinate the switchover to a PW such that both endpoints will
   forward over the same PW at any given time.  One such application for
   redundant MS-PW is identified in [8].  Multiple MS-PWs are configured
   between a pair of T-PE nodes.  The paths of these MS-PWs are diverse
   and are switched at different S-PE nodes.  Only one of these MS-PWs
   is active at any given time.  The others are put in standby.  The
   endpoints follow the independent mode procedures to use the PW, which
   is both up and for which both endpoints advertise an active
   Preferential Forwarding status bit.

   The trigger for sending a request to switchover by one endpoint of
   the MS-PW can be an operational event.  For example, a failure that
   causes the endpoints to be unable to find a common PW for which both
   endpoints advertise an active Preferential Forwarding status bit.
   The other trigger is the execution of an administrative maintenance
   operation by the network operator in order to move the traffic away
   from the nodes or links currently used by the active PW.

   Unlike the case of a master/slave mode of operation, the endpoint
   requesting the switchover requires explicit acknowledgment from the
   peer endpoint that the request can be honored before it switches to
   another PW.  Furthermore, any of the endpoints can make the request
   to switch over.

   This document specifies a second status bit that is used by a PE to
   request that its peer PE switch over to use a different active PW.
   This bit is referred to as the Request Switchover status bit.  The
   Preferential Forwarding status bit continues to be used by each
   endpoint to indicate its current local settings of the active/standby
   state of each PW in the redundant set.  In other words, as in the
   independent mode, it indicates to the far-end which of the PWs is
   being used to forward packets and which is being put in standby.  It
   can thus be used as a way for the far-end to acknowledge the
   requested switchover operation.

   A PE MAY support the Request Switchover bit.  A PE that receives the
   Request Switchover bit and that does not support it will ignore it.

   If the Request Switchover bit is supported by both sending and
   receiving PEs, the following procedures MUST be followed by both
   endpoints of a PW to coordinate the switchover of the PW.

   S-PEs nodes MUST relay the PW status notification containing the
   existing status bits, as well as the new Preferential Forwarding and
   Request Switchover status bits between ingress and egress PW segments
   as per the procedures defined in [4].

6.3.1.  Procedures at the Requesting Endpoint

   a. The requesting endpoint sends a Status TLV in the LDP notification
      message with the Request Switchover bit set on the PW to which it
      desires to switch.

   b. The endpoint does not activate, forwarding on that PW at this
      point in time.  It MAY, however, enable receiving on that PW.
      Thus, the Preferential Forwarding status bit still reflects the
      currently used PW.

   c. The requesting endpoint starts a timer while waiting for the
      remote endpoint to acknowledge the request.  This timer SHOULD be
      configurable with a default value of 3 seconds.

   d. If, while waiting for the acknowledgment, the requesting endpoint
      receives a request from its peer to switch over to the same or a
      different PW, it MUST perform the following:

         i. If its address is higher than that of the peer, this
            endpoint ignores the request and continues to wait for the
            acknowledgment from its peer.

        ii. If its system IP address is lower than that of its peer, it
            aborts the timer and immediately starts the procedures of
            the receiving endpoint in Section 6.3.2.

   e. If, while waiting for the acknowledgment, the requesting endpoint
      receives a status notification message from its peer with the
      Preferential Forwarding status bit cleared in the requested PW, it
      MUST treat this as an explicit acknowledgment of the request and
      MUST perform the following:

         i. Abort the timer.

        ii. Activate the PW.

       iii. Send an update status notification message with the
            Preferential Forwarding status bit and the Request
            Switchover bit clear on the newly active PW and send an
            update status notification message with the Preferential
            Forwarding status bit set in the previously active PW.

   f. If, while waiting for the acknowledgment, the requesting endpoint
      detects that the requested PW went into down state locally, and
      could use an alternate PW that is up, it MUST perform the
      following:

         i. Abort the timer.

        ii. Issue a new request to switchover to the alternate PW.

       iii. Restart the timer.

   g. If, while waiting for the acknowledgment, the requesting endpoint
      detects that the requested PW went into the down state locally,
      and could not use an alternate PW that is up, it MUST perform the
      following:

         i. Abort the timer.

        ii. Send an update status notification message with the
            Preferential Forwarding status bit unchanged and the Request
            Switchover bit reset for the requested PW.

   h. If, while waiting for the acknowledgment, the timer expires, the
      requesting endpoint MUST assume that the request was rejected and
      MAY issue a new request.

   i. If the requesting node receives the acknowledgment after the
      request expired, it will treat it as if the remote endpoint
      unilaterally switched between the PWs without issuing a request.
      In that case, it MAY issue a new request and follow the requesting
      endpoint procedures to synchronize which PW to use for the
      transmit and receive directions of the emulated service.

6.3.2. Procedures at the Receiving Endpoint

   a. Upon receiving a status notification message with the Request
      Switchover bit set on a PW different from the currently active
      one, and the requested PW is up, the receiving endpoint MUST
      perform the following:

         i. Activate the PW.

        ii. Send an update status notification message with the
            Preferential Forwarding status bit clear and the Request
            Switchover bit reset on the newly active PW , and send an
            update status notification message with the Preferential
            Forwarding status bit set in the previously active PW.

       iii. Upon receiving a status notification message with the
            Request Switchover bit set on a PW, which is different from
            the currently active PW but is down, the receiving endpoint
            MUST ignore the request.

7.  Status Mapping

   The generation and processing of the PW Status TLV MUST follow the
   procedures in RFC 4447 [2].  The PW Status TLV is sent on the active
   PW and standby PWs to make sure the remote AC and PW states are
   always known to the local PE node.

   The generation and processing of PW Status TLV by an S-PE node in a
   MS-PW MUST follow the procedures in [4].

   The procedures for determining and mapping PW and AC states MUST
   follow the rules in [5] with the following modifications.

7.1.  AC Defect State Entry/Exit

   A PE enters the AC receive (or transmit) defect state for a PW
   service when one or more of the conditions specified for this PW
   service in [5] are met.

   When a PE enters the AC receive (or transmit) defect state for a PW,
   it MUST send a forward (reverse) defect indication to the remote
   peers over all PWs in the redundant set that are associated with this
   AC.

   When a PE exits the AC receive (or transmit) defect state for a PW
   service, it MUST clear the forward (or reverse) defect indication to
   the remote peers over all PWs in the redundant set that are
   associated with this AC.

7.2.  PW Defect State Entry/Exit

   A PE enters the PW receive (or transmit) defect state for a PW
   service when one or more of the conditions specified in Section 8.3.1
   (Section 8.3.2) in [5] are met for each of the PWs in the redundant
   set.

   When a PE enters the PW receive (or transmit) defect state for a PW
   service associated with an AC, it MUST send a reverse (or forward)
   defect indication over one or more of the PWs in the redundant set
   associated with the same AC if the PW failure was detected by this PE
   without receiving a forward defect indication from the remote PE [5].

   When a PE exits the PW receive (or transmit) defect state for a PW,
   it MUST clear the reverse (or forward) defect indication over any PW
   in the redundant associated with the same AC set if applicable.

8.  Applicability and Backward Compatibility

   The mechanisms defined in this document are to be used in
   applications where standby state signaling of a PW or PW group is
   required.  Both PWid FEC and Generalized PWid FEC are supported.  All
   PWs that are part of a redundant set MUST use the same FEC type.
   When the set uses the PWid FEC element, each PW is uniquely
   identified by its PW ID.  When the redundant set uses the Generalized

   PWid FEC element, each PW MUST have a unique identifier that consists
   of the triplet AGI::SAII::TAII.

   A PE implementation that uses the mechanisms described in this
   document MUST negotiate the use of PW Status TLV between its T-LDP
   peers, as per RFC 4447 [2].  If the PW Status TLV is found to be not
   supported by either of its endpoints after status negotiation
   procedures, then the mechanisms specified in this document cannot be
   used.

   A PE implementation that is compliant with RFC 4447 [2] and that does
   not support the generation or processing of the Preferential
   Forwarding status bit or of the Request Switchover status bit MUST
   ignore these status bits if they are set by a peer PE.  This document
   in fact updates RFC 4447 by prescribing the same behavior for any
   status bit not originally defined in RFC 4447.

   Finally, this document updates RFC 4447 by defining that a status bit
   can indicate a status other than a fault or can indicate an
   instruction to the peer PE.  As a result, a PE implementation
   compliant to RFC 4447 MUST process each status bit it supports when
   set according to the rules specific to that status bit.

9.  Security Considerations

   LDP extensions/options that protect PWs must be implemented because
   the status bits defined in this document have the same security
   considerations as the PW setup and maintenance protocol defined in
   RFC 4447 [2].  It should be noted that the security of a PW redundant
   set is only as good as the weakest security on any of its members.

10.  MIB Considerations

   New MIB objects for the support of PW redundancy will be defined in a
   separate document.

11.  IANA Considerations

   This document defines the following PW status codes for the PW
   redundancy application.  IANA has allocated these from the
   "Pseudowire Status Codes Registry".

11.1.  Status Code for PW Preferential Forwarding Status

   0x00000020 When the bit is set, it indicates PW forwarding standby".

              When the bit is cleared, it indicates PW forwarding
              active".

11.2.  Status Code for PW Request Switchover Status

   0x00000040 When the bit is set, it represents Request Switchover to
              this PW.

              When the bit is cleared, it represents no specific action.

12.  Contributors

   The editors would like to thank Matthew Bocci, Pranjal Kumar Dutta,
   Giles Heron, Marc Lasserre, Luca Martini, Thomas Nadeau, Jonathan
   Newton, Hamid Ould-Brahim, Olen Stokes, and Daniel Cohn who made a
   contribution to the development of this document.

   Matthew Bocci
   Alcatel-Lucent
   EMail: matthew.bocci@alcatel-lucent.com

   Pranjal Kumar Dutta
   Alcatel-Lucent
   EMail: pranjal.dutta@alcatel-lucent.com

   Giles Heron
   Cisco Systems, Inc.
   giles.heron@gmail.com

   Marc Lasserre
   Alcatel-Lucent
   EMail: marc.lasserre@alcatel-lucent.com

   Luca Martini
   Cisco Systems, Inc.
   EMail: lmartini@cisco.com

   Thomas Nadeau
   Juniper Networks
   EMail: tnadeau@lucidvision.com

   Jonathan Newton
   Cable & Wireless Worldwide
   EMail: Jonathan.Newton@cw.com

   Hamid Ould-Brahim
   EMail: ouldh@yahoo.com

   Olen Stokes
   Extreme Networks
   EMail: ostokes@extremenetworks.com

   Daniel Cohn
   Orckit
   daniel.cohn.ietf@gmail.com.

13.  Acknowledgments

   The authors would like to thank the following individuals for their
   valuable comments and suggestions, which improved the document both
   technically and editorially:

   Vach Kompella, Kendall Harvey, Tiberiu Grigoriu, John Rigby,
   Prashanth Ishwar, Neil Hart, Kajal Saha, Florin Balus, Philippe
   Niger, Dave McDysan, Roman Krzanowski, Italo Busi, Robert Rennison,
   and Nicolai Leymann.

14.  References

14.1.  Normative References

   [1]   Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
         Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [2]   Martini, L., Ed., Rosen, E., El-Aawar, N., Smith, T., and G.
         Heron, "Pseudowire Setup and Maintenance Using the Label
         Distribution Protocol (LDP)", RFC 4447, April 2006.

   [3]   Lasserre, M., Ed., and V. Kompella, Ed., "Virtual Private LAN
         Service (VPLS) Using Label Distribution Protocol (LDP)
         Signaling", RFC 4762, January 2007.

   [4]   Martini, L., Metz, C., Nadeau, T., Bocci, M., and M. Aissaoui,
         "Segmented Pseudowire", RFC 6073, January 2011.

   [5]   Aissaoui, M., Busschbach, P., Martini, L., Morrow, M., Nadeau,
         T., and Y(J). Stein, "Pseudowire (PW) Operations,
         Administration, and Maintenance (OAM) Message Mapping", RFC
         6310, July 2011.

14.2.  Informative References

   [6]   Bocci, M. and S. Bryant, "An Architecture for Multi-Segment
         Pseudowire Emulation Edge-to-Edge", RFC 5659, October 2009.

   [7]   Martini, L., "IANA Allocations for Pseudowire Edge to Edge
         Emulation (PWE3)", BCP 116, RFC 4446, April 2006.

   [8]   Muley, P., Aissaoui, M., and M. Bocci, "Pseudowire Redundancy",
         RFC 6718, August 2012.

   [9]   Bryant, S., Ed., and P. Pate, Ed., "Pseudo Wire Emulation Edge-
         to-Edge (PWE3) Architecture", RFC 3985, March 2005.

   [10]  Dutta, P., Balus, F., Calvignac, G., and O. Stokes "LDP
         Extensions for Optimized MAC Address Withdrawal in H-VPLS",
         Work in Progress, October 2011.

   [11]  Nadeau, T., Ed., and C. Pignataro, Ed., "Pseudowire Virtual
         Circuit Connectivity Verification (VCCV): A Control Channel for
         Pseudowires", RFC 5085, December 2007.

Appendix A.  Applications of PW Redundancy Procedures

   This section shows how the mechanisms described in this document are
   used to achieve the desired protection behavior for some of the
   applications described in "PW Redundancy" [8].

A.1.  One Multi-Homed CE with Single SS-PW Redundancy

   The following figure illustrates an application of SS-PW redundancy.

         |<-------------- Emulated Service ---------------->|
         |                                                  |
         |          |<------- Pseudowire  ------>|          |
         |          |                            |          |
         |          |    |<-- PSN Tunnels-->|    |          |
         |          V    V                  V    V          |
         V    AC    +----+                  +----+     AC   V
   +-----+    |     | PE1|==================|    |     |    +-----+
   |     |----------|....|...PW1.(active)...|....|----------|     |
   |     |          |    |==================|    |          | CE2 |
   | CE1 |          +----+                  |PE2 |          |     |
   |     |          +----+                  |    |          +-----+
   |     |          |    |==================|    |
   |     |----------|....|...PW2.(standby)..|    |
   +-----+    |     | PE3|==================|    |
              AC    +----+                  +----+

          Figure 2.  Multi-Homed CE with SS-PW Redundancy

   The application in Figure 2 makes use of the independent mode of
   operation.

   CE1 is dual-homed to PE1 and to PE3 by attachment circuits.  The
   method for dual-homing of CE1 to PE1 and to PE3 nodes and the
   protocols used are outside the scope of this document (see [8]).

   In this example, the AC from CE1 to PE1 is active, while the AC from
   CE1 to PE3 is standby, as determined by the redundancy protocol
   running on the ACs.  Thus, in normal operation, PE1 and PE3 will
   advertise an active and standby Preferential Forwarding status bit,
   respectively, to PE2, reflecting the forwarding state of the two ACs
   to CE1 as determined by the AC dual-homing protocol.  PE2 advertises
   a Preferential Forwarding status bit of active on both PW1 and PW2,
   since the AC to CE2 is single-homed.  As both the local and remote
   UP/DOWN status and Preferential Forwarding status for PW1 are up and
   active, traffic is forwarded over PW1 in both directions.

   On failure of the AC between CE1 and PE1, the forwarding state of the
   AC on PE3 transitions to active.  PE3 then announces the newly
   changed Preferential Forwarding status bit of active to PE2.  PE1
   will advertise a PW status notification message, indicating that the
   AC between CE1 and PE1 is down.  PE2 matches the local and remote
   Preferential Forwarding status of active and status of "Pseudowire
   forwarding" and selects PW2 as the new active PW to which to send
   traffic.

   On failure of the PE1 node, PE3 will detect it and will transition
   the forwarding state of its AC to active.  The method by which PE3
   detects that PE1 is down is outside the scope of this document.  PE3
   then announces the newly changed Preferential Forwarding status bit
   of active to PE2.  PE3 and PE2 match the local and remote
   Preferential Forwarding status of active and UP/DOWN status
   "Pseudowire forwarding" and select PW2 as the new active PW to which
   to send traffic.  Note that PE2 may have detected that the PW to PE1
   went down via T-LDP Hello timeout or via other means.  However, it
   will not be able to forward user traffic until it receives the
   updated status bit from PE3.

   Note that, in this example, the receipt of the AC status on the
   CE1-PE1 link is normally sufficient for PE2 to switch to PW2.
   However, the operator may want to trigger the switchover of the PW
   for administrative reasons, e.g., maintenance; thus, the use of the
   Preferential Forwarding status bit is required to notify PE2 to
   trigger the switchover.

   Note that the primary/secondary procedures do not apply in this case
   as the PW Preferential Forwarding status is driven by the AC
   forwarding state, as determined by the AC dual-homing protocol used.

A.2.  Multiple Multi-Homed CEs with SS-PW Redundancy

             |<-------------- Emulated Service ---------------->|
             |                                                  |
             |          |<------- Pseudowire  ------>|          |
             |          |                            |          |
             |          |    |<-- PSN Tunnels-->|    |          |
             |          V    V    (not shown)   V    V          |
             V    AC    +----+                  +----+     AC   V
       +-----+    |     |....|.......PW1........|....|     |    +-----+
       |     |----------| PE1|......   .........| PE3|----------|     |
       | CE1 |          +----+      \ /  PW3    +----+          | CE2 |
       |     |          +----+       X          +----+          |     |
       |     |          |    |....../ \..PW4....|    |          |     |
       |     |----------| PE2|                  | PE4|--------- |     |
       +-----+    |     |....|.....PW2..........|....|     |    +-----+
                  AC    +----+                  +----+    AC

            Figure 3. Multiple Multi-Homed CEs with SS-PW Redundancy

   The application in Figure 3 makes use of the independent mode of
   operation.

   CE1 is dual-homed to PE1 and PE2.  CE2 is dual-homed to PE3 and PE4.
   The method for dual-homing and the used protocols are outside the
   scope of this document.  Note that the PSN tunnels are not shown in
   this figure for clarity.  However, it can be assumed that each of the
   PWs shown is encapsulated in a separate PSN tunnel.

   Assume that the AC from CE1 to PE1 is active and from CE1 to PE2 it
   is standby; furthermore, assume that the AC from CE2 to PE3 is
   standby and from CE2 to PE4 it is active.  The method of deriving the
   active/standby status of the AC is outside the scope of this
   document.

   PE1 advertises the Preferential Forwarding status active and UP/DOWN
   status "Pseudowire forwarding" for pseudowires PW1 and PW4 connected
   to PE3 and PE4.  This status reflects the forwarding state of the AC
   attached to PE1.  PE2 advertises Preferential Forwarding status
   standby and UP/DOWN status "Pseudowire forwarding" for pseudowires
   PW2 and PW3 to PE3 and PE4.  PE3 advertises Preferential Forwarding
   status standby and UP/DOWN status "Pseudowire forwarding" for
   pseudowires PW1 and PW3 to PE1 and PE2.  PE4 advertises the
   Preferential Forwarding status active and UP/DOWN status "Pseudowire
   forwarding" for pseudowires PW2 and PW4 to PE2 and PE1, respectively.
   Thus, by matching the local and remote Preferential Forwarding status
   of active and UP/DOWN status of

   "Pseudowire forwarding" of pseudowires, the PE nodes determine which
   PW should be in the active state.  In this case, it is PW4 that will
   be selected.

   On failure of the AC between CE1 and PE1, the forwarding state of the
   AC on PE2 is changed to active.  PE2 then announces the newly changed
   Preferential Forwarding status bit of active to PE3 and PE4.  PE1
   will advertise a PW status notification message, indicating that the
   AC between CE1 and PE1 is down.  PE2 and PE4 match the local and
   remote Preferential Forwarding status of active and UP/DOWN status
   "Pseudowire forwarding" and select PW2 as the new active PW to which
   to send traffic.

   On failure of the PE1 node, PE2 will detect the failure and will
   transition the forwarding state of its AC to active.  The method by
   which PE2 detects that PE1 is down is outside the scope of this
   document.  PE2 then announces the newly changed Preferential
   Forwarding status bit of active to PE3 and PE4.  PE2 and PE4 match
   the local and remote Preferential Forwarding status of active and
   UP/DOWN status "Pseudowire forwarding" and select PW2 as the new
   active PW to which to send traffic.  Note that PE3 and PE4 may have
   detected that the PW to PE1 went down via T-LDP Hello timeout or via
   other means.  However, they will not be able to forward user traffic
   until they have received the updated status bit from PE2.

   Because each dual-homing algorithm running on the two node sets,
   i.e., {CE1, PE1, PE2} and {CE2, PE3, PE4}, selects the active AC
   independently, there is a need to signal the active status of the AC
   such that the PE nodes can select a common active PW for end-to-end
   forwarding between CE1 and CE2 as per the procedures in the
   independent mode.

   Note that no primary/secondary procedures, as defined in Sections 5.1
   and 5.2, apply in this use case as the active/standby status is
   driven by the AC forwarding state, as determined by the AC dual-
   homing protocol used.

A.3.  Multi-Homed CE with MS-PW Redundancy

   The following figure illustrates an application of MS-PW redundancy.

       Native   |<-----------Pseudowire ------------->| Native
       Service  |                                     | Service
        (AC)    |     |<-PSN1-->|     |<-PSN2-->|     |  (AC)
          |     V     V         V     V         V     V   |
          |     +-----+         +-----+         +-----+   |
   +----+ |     |T-PE1|=========|S-PE1|=========|T-PE2|   |   +----+
   |    |-------|......PW1-Seg1.......|PW1-Seg2.......|-------|    |
   |    |       |     |=========|     |=========|     |       |    |
   | CE1|       +-----+         +-----+         +-----+       |    |
   |    |         |.|           +-----+         +-----+       | CE2|
   |    |         |.|===========|     |=========|     |       |    |
   |    |         |.....PW2-Seg1......|.PW2-Seg2......|-------|    |
   +----+         |=============|S-PE2|=========|T-PE4|   |   +----+
                                +-----+         +-----+   AC

              Figure 4.  Multi-Homed CE with MS-PW Redundancy

   The application in Figure 4 makes use of the independent mode of
   operation.  It extends the application described in Section 15.1.
   15.1 of this document and in [8] by adding a pair of S-PE nodes to
   switch the segments of PW1 and PW2.

   CE2 is dual-homed to T-PE2 and T-PE4.  PW1 and PW2 are used to extend
   the resilient connectivity all the way to T-PE1.  PW1 has two
   segments and is an active pseudowire, while PW2 has two segments and
   is a standby pseudowire.  This application requires support for MS-PW
   with segments of the same type as described in [4].

   The operation in this case is the same as in the case of SS-PW, as
   described in Section 15.1.  The only difference is that the S-PE
   nodes need to relay the PW status notification containing both the
   UP/DOWN and forwarding status to the T-PE nodes.

A.4.  Multi-Homed CE with MS-PW Redundancy and S-PE Protection

   The following figure illustrates an application of MS-PW redundancy
   with 1:1 PW protection.

       Native   |<-----------Pseudowire ------------->|  Native
       Service  |                                     |  Service
        (AC)    |     |<-PSN1-->|     |<-PSN2-->|     |   (AC)
          |     V     V         V     V         V     V    |
          |                     +-----+                    |
          |       |=============|     |=============|      |
          |       |.....PW3-Seg1......|.PW3-Seg2....|      |
          |       |.|===========|S-PE3|===========|.|      |
          |       |.|           +-----+           |.|      |
          |     +-----+         +-----+         +-----+    |
   +----+ |     |T-PE1|=========|S-PE1|=========|T-PE2|    |  +----+
   |    |-------|......PW1-Seg1.......|PW1-Seg2.......|-------|    |
   |    |       |     |=========|     |=========|     |       |    |
   | CE1|       +-----+         +-----+         +-----+       |    |
   |    |       |.| |.|         +-----+         +-----+       | CE2|
   |    |       |.| |.|=========|     |=========|     |       |    |
   |    |       |.| |...PW2-Seg1......|.PW2-Seg2......|-------|    |
   +----+       |.| |===========|S-PE2|=========|T-PE4|    |  +----+
                |.|             +-----+         +-----+    AC
                |.|             +-----+           |.|
                |.|=============|     |===========|.|
                |.......PW4-Seg1......|.PW4-Seg2....|
                |===============|S-PE4|=============|
                                +-----+

      Figure 5.  Multi-Homed CE with MS-PW Redundancy and Protection

   The application in Figure 5 makes use of the independent mode of
   operation.

   CE2 is dual-homed to T-PE2 and T-PE4.  The PW pairs {PW1,PW3} and
   {PW2,PW4} are used to extend the resilient connectivity all the way
   to T-PE1, like in the case in Section 15.3, with the addition that
   this setup provides for S-PE node protection.

   CE1 is connected to T-PE1 while CE2 is dual-homed to T-PE2 and T-PE4.
   There are four segmented PWs.  PW1 and PW2 are primary PWs and are
   used to support CE2 multi-homing.  PW3 and PW4 are secondary PWs and
   are used to support 1:1 PW protection.  PW1, PW2, PW3, and PW4 have
   two segments and they are switched at S-PE1, S-PE2, S-PE3, and S-PE4,
   respectively.

   It is possible that S-PE1 coincides with S-PE4 and/or SP-2 coincides
   with S-PE3, in particular, where the two PSN domains are
   interconnected via two nodes.  However, Figure 5 shows four separate
   S-PE nodes for clarity.

   The behavior of this setup is exactly the same as the setup in
   Section 15.3 except that T-PE1 will always see a pair of PWs eligible
   for the active state, for example, the pair {PW1,PW3} when the AC
   between CE2 and T-PE2 is in active state.  Thus, it is important that
   both T-PE1 and T-PE2 implement a common mechanism to choose one the
   two PWs for forwarding, as explained in Section 5.1.  Similarly,
   T-PE1 and T-PE4 must use the same mechanism to select among the pair
   {PW2,PW4} when the AC between CE2 and T-PE4 is in active state.

A.5.  Single-Homed CE with MS-PW Redundancy

   The following is an application of the independent mode of operation,
   along with the request switchover procedures in order to provide N:1
   PW protection.  A revertive behavior to a primary PW is shown as an
   example of configuring and using the primary/secondary procedures
   described in Sections 5.1. and 5.2.

       Native   |<------------Pseudowire ------------>|  Native
       Service  |                                     |  Service
        (AC)    |     |<-PSN1-->|     |<-PSN2-->|     |  (AC)
          |     V     V         V     V         V     V   |
          |     +-----+         +-----+         +-----+   |
   +----+ |     |T-PE1|=========|S-PE1|=========|T-PE2|   |   +----+
   |    |-------|......PW1-Seg1.......|.PW1-Seg2......|-------|    |
   | CE1|       |     |=========|     |=========|     |       | CE2|
   |    |       +-----+         +-----+         +-----+       |    |
   +----+        |.||.|                          |.||.|       +----+
                 |.||.|         +-----+          |.||.|
                 |.||.|=========|     |========== .||.|
                 |.||...PW2-Seg1......|.PW2-Seg2...||.|
                 |.| ===========|S-PE2|============ |.|
                 |.|            +-----+             |.|
                 |.|============+-----+============= .|
                 |.....PW3-Seg1.|     | PW3-Seg2......|
                  ==============|S-PE3|===============
                                |     |
                                +-----+

             Figure 6.  Single-Homed CE with MS-PW Redundancy

   CE1 is connected to PE1 in provider edge 1 and CE2 to PE2 in provider
   edge 2, respectively.  There are three segmented PWs:  a primary PW,
   PW1, is switched at S-PE1 and has the lowest precedence value of

   zero; a secondary PW, PW2, which is switched at S-PE2 and has a
   precedence of 1; and another secondary PW, PW3, which is switched at
   S-PE3 and has a precedence of 2.

   The precedence is locally configured at the endpoints of the PW,
   i.e., T-PE1 and T-PE2.  The lower the precedence value, the higher
   the priority.

   T-PE1 and T-PE2 will select the PW they intend to activate based on
   their local and remote UP/DOWN state, as well as the local precedence
   configuration.  In this case, they will both advertise Preferential
   Forwarding status bit of active on PW1 and of standby on PW2 and PW3
   using priority derived from local precedence configuration.  Assuming
   all PWs are up, T-PE1 and T-PE2 will use PW1 to forward user packets.

   If PW1 fails, then the T-PE detecting the failure will send a status
   notification to the remote T-PE with a Local PSN-facing PW (ingress)
   Receive Fault bit set, a Local PSN-facing PW (egress) Transmit Fault
   bit set, or a Pseudowire Not Forwarding bit set.  In addition, it
   will set the Preferential Forwarding status bit on PW1 to standby.
   It will also advertise the Preferential Forwarding status bit on PW2
   as active, as it has the next-lowest precedence value.  T-PE2 will
   also perform the same steps as soon as it is informed of the failure
   of PW1.  Both T-PE nodes will perform a match on the Preferential
   Forwarding status of active and UP/DOWN status of "Pseudowire
   forwarding" and will use PW2 to forward user packets.

   However, this does not guarantee that the T-PEs will choose the same
   PW from the redundant set to forward on, for a given emulated
   service, at all times.  This may be due to a mismatch of the
   configuration of the PW precedence in each T-PE.  This may also be
   due to a failure that caused the endpoints to not be able to match
   the active Preferential Forwarding status bit and UP/DOWN status
   bits.  In this case, T-PE1 and/or T-PE2 can invoke the request
   switchover/acknowledgment procedures to synchronize the choice of PW
   to forward on in both directions.

   The trigger for sending a request to switch over can also be the
   execution of an administrative maintenance operation by the network
   operator in order to move the traffic away from the T-PE/S-PE
   nodes/links to be serviced.

   In case the Request Switchover is sent by both endpoints
   simultaneously, both T-PEs send status notification with the newly
   selected PW with Request Switchover bit set, waiting for a response
   from the other endpoint.  In such a situation, the T-PE with greater

   system address request is given precedence.  This helps in
   synchronizing PWs in the event of mismatch of precedence
   configuration as well.

   On recovery of the primary PW, PW1 is selected to forward traffic and
   the secondary PW, PW2, is set to standby.

A.6.  PW Redundancy between H-VPLS MTU-s and PE-rs

   The following figure illustrates the application of use of PW
   redundancy in H-VPLS for the purpose of dual-homing an MTU-s node to
   PE nodes using PW spokes.  This application makes use of the
   master/slave mode of operation.

                                       PE1-rs
                                     +--------+
                                     |  VSI   |
                     Active PW       |   --   |
                      Group..........|../  \..|.
     CE-1                 .          |  \  /  | .
      \                  .           |   --   |  .
       \                .            +--------+   .
        \   MTU-s      .                  .        .     PE3-rs
         +--------+   .                   .         . +--------+
         |   VSI  |  .                    .  H-VPlS  .|  VSI   |
         |   -- ..|..                     .   Core    |.. --   |
         |  /  \  |                       .    PWs    |  /  \  |
         |  \  /..|..                     .           |  \  /  |
         |   --   |  .                    .          .|.. --   |
         +--------+   .                   .         . +--------+
        /              .                  .        .
       /                .            +--------+   .
      /                  .           |  VSI   |  .
     CE-2                 .          |   --   | .
                           ..........|../  \..|.
                     Standby PW      |  \  /  |
                      Group          |   --   |
                                     +--------+
                                      PE2-rs

          A.6.  Multi-Homed MTU-s in H-VPLS Core

   MTU-s is dual-homed to PE1-rs and PE2-rs.  The primary spoke PWs from
   MTU-s are connected to PE1-rs, while the secondary PWs are connected
   to PE2.  PE1-rs and PE2-rs are connected to H-VPLS core on the other
   side of the network.  MTU-s communicates to PE1-rs and PE2-rs the
   forwarding status of its member PWs for a set of Virtual Switch
   Instances (VSIs) having common status active/standby.  It may be

   signaled using PW grouping with a common group-id in the PWid FEC
   element or Grouping TLV in the Generalized PWid FEC element, as
   defined in [2] to scale better.  MTU-s derives the status of the PWs
   based on local policy configuration.  In this example, the
   primary/secondary procedures as defined in Section 5.2 are used, but
   this can be based on any other policy.

   Whenever MTU-s performs a switchover, it sends a wildcard
   notification message to PE2-rs for the previously standby PW group
   containing PW Status TLV with PW Preferential Forwarding bit cleared.
   On receiving the notification, PE-2rs unblocks all member PWs
   identified by the PW group and the state of the PW group changes from
   standby to active.  All procedures described in Section 6.2 are
   applicable.

   The use of the Preferential Forwarding status bit in master/slave
   mode is similar to Topology Change Notification in the IEEE Ethernet
   Bridges controlled by Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP) but is
   restricted over a single hop.  When these procedures are implemented,
   PE-rs devices are aware of switchovers at MTU-s and could generate
   MAC Withdraw messages to trigger MAC flushing within the H-VPLS full
   mesh.  By default, MTU-s devices should still trigger MAC Withdraw
   messages, as currently defined in [3], to prevent two copies of MAC
   Withdraws being sent: one by MTU-s and another one by PE-rs nodes.
   Mechanisms to disable a MAC Withdraw trigger in certain devices is
   out of the scope of this document.

Authors' Addresses

   Praveen Muley
   Alcatel-lucent
   701 E. Middlefield Road
   Mountain View, CA, 94043, USA

   EMail: praveen.muley@alcatel-lucent.com

   Mustapha Aissaoui
   Alcatel-lucent
   600 March Rd
   Kanata, ON, Canada K2K 2E6

   EMail: mustapha.aissaoui@alcatel-lucent.com

 

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