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RFC 6834 - Locator/ID Separation Protocol (LISP) Map-Versioning


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Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)                        L. Iannone
Request for Comments: 6834                             Telecom ParisTech
Category: Experimental                                         D. Saucez
ISSN: 2070-1721                                   INRIA Sophia Antipolis
                                                          O. Bonaventure
                                        Universite catholique de Louvain
                                                            January 2013

          Locator/ID Separation Protocol (LISP) Map-Versioning

Abstract

   This document describes the LISP (Locator/ID Separation Protocol)
   Map-Versioning mechanism, which provides in-packet information about
   Endpoint ID to Routing Locator (EID-to-RLOC) mappings used to
   encapsulate LISP data packets.  The proposed approach is based on
   associating a version number to EID-to-RLOC mappings and the
   transport of such a version number in the LISP-specific header of
   LISP-encapsulated packets.  LISP Map-Versioning is particularly
   useful to inform communicating Ingress Tunnel Routers (ITRs) and
   Egress Tunnel Routers (ETRs) about modifications of the mappings used
   to encapsulate packets.  The mechanism is transparent to
   implementations not supporting this feature, since in the LISP-
   specific header and in the Map Records, bits used for Map-Versioning
   can be safely ignored by ITRs and ETRs that do not support the
   mechanism.

Status of This Memo

   This document is not an Internet Standards Track specification; it is
   published for examination, experimental implementation, and
   evaluation.

   This document defines an Experimental Protocol for the Internet
   community.  This document is a product of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  It represents the consensus of the IETF
   community.  It has received public review and has been approved for
   publication by the Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG).  Not
   all documents approved by the IESG are a candidate for any level of
   Internet Standard; see Section 2 of RFC 5741.

   Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
   and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
   http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6834.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2013 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
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   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
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   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1. Introduction ....................................................3
   2. Requirements Notation ...........................................4
   3. Definitions of Terms ............................................4
   4. EID-to-RLOC Map-Version Number ..................................4
      4.1. The Null Map-Version .......................................5
   5. Dealing with Map-Version Numbers ................................6
      5.1. Handling Destination Map-Version Number ....................7
      5.2. Handling Source Map-Version Number .........................9
   6. LISP Header and Map-Version Numbers ............................10
   7. Map Record and Map-Version .....................................11
   8. Benefits and Case Studies for Map-Versioning ...................12
      8.1. Map-Versioning and Unidirectional Traffic .................12
      8.2. Map-Versioning and Interworking ...........................12
           8.2.1. Map-Versioning and Proxy-ITRs ......................13
           8.2.2. Map-Versioning and LISP-NAT ........................13
           8.2.3. Map-Versioning and Proxy-ETRs ......................14
      8.3. RLOC Shutdown/Withdraw ....................................14
      8.4. Map-Version for Lightweight LISP Implementation ...........15
   9. Incremental Deployment and Implementation Status ...............15
   10. Security Considerations .......................................16
      10.1. Map-Versioning against Traffic Disruption ................16
      10.2. Map-Versioning against Reachability Information DoS ......17
   11. Open Issues and Considerations ................................17
      11.1. Lack of Synchronization among ETRs .......................17
   12. Acknowledgments ...............................................19
   13. References ....................................................19
      13.1. Normative References .....................................19
      13.2. Informative References ...................................19
   Appendix A. Estimation of Time before Map-Version Wrap-Around .....21

1.  Introduction

   This document describes the Map-Versioning mechanism used to provide
   information on changes in the EID-to-RLOC (Endpoint ID to Routing
   Locator) mappings used in the LISP (Locator/ID Separation Protocol
   [RFC6830]) context to perform packet encapsulation.  The mechanism is
   totally transparent to xTRs (Ingress and Egress Tunnel Routers) not
   supporting such functionality.  It is not meant to replace any
   existing LISP mechanisms but rather to extend them by providing new
   functionalities.  If for any unforeseen reason a normative conflict
   between this document and the LISP main specifications is found, the
   latter ([RFC6830]) has precedence over this document.

   The basic mechanism is to associate a Map-Version number to each LISP
   EID-to-RLOC mapping and transport such a version number in the LISP-
   specific header.  When a mapping changes, a new version number is
   assigned to the updated mapping.  A change in an EID-to-RLOC mapping
   can be a change in the RLOCs set, by adding or removing one or more
   RLOCs, but it can also be a change in the priority or weight of one
   or more RLOCs.

   When Map-Versioning is used, LISP-encapsulated data packets contain
   the version number of the two mappings used to select the RLOCs in
   the outer header (i.e., both source and destination).  These version
   numbers are encoded in the 24 low-order bits of the first longword of
   the LISP header and indicated by a specific bit in the flags (first 8
   high-order bits of the first longword of the LISP header).  Note that
   not all packets need to carry version numbers.

   When an ITR (Ingress Tunnel Router) encapsulates a data packet, with
   a LISP header containing the Map-Version numbers, it puts in the
   LISP-specific header two version numbers:

   1.  The version number assigned to the mapping (contained in the
       EID-to-RLOC Database) used to select the source RLOC.

   2.  The version number assigned to the mapping (contained in the
       EID-to-RLOC Cache) used to select the destination RLOC.

   This operation is two-fold.  On the one hand, it enables the ETR
   (Egress Tunnel Router) receiving the packet to know if the ITR has
   the latest version number that any ETR at the destination EID site
   has provided to the ITR in a Map-Reply.  If this is not the case, the
   ETR can send to the ITR a Map-Request containing the updated mapping
   or solicit a Map-Request from the ITR (both cases are already defined
   in [RFC6830]).  In this way, the ITR can update its EID-to-RLOC
   Cache.  On the other hand, it enables an ETR receiving such a packet

   to know if it has in its EID-to-RLOC Cache the latest mapping for the
   source EID (in the case of bidirectional traffic).  If this is not
   the case, a Map-Request can be sent.

   Issues and concerns about the deployment of LISP for Internet traffic
   are discussed in [RFC6830].  Section 11 provides additional issues
   and concerns raised by this document.  In particular, Section 11.1
   provides details about the ETRs' synchronization issue in the context
   of Map-Versioning.

2.  Requirements Notation

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

3.  Definitions of Terms

   This document uses terms already defined in the main LISP
   specification [RFC6830].  Here, we define the terms that are specific
   to the Map-Versioning mechanism.  Throughout the whole document, Big
   Endian bit ordering is used.

   Map-Version number:  An unsigned 12-bit integer is assigned to an
      EID-to-RLOC mapping, not including the value 0 (0x000).

   Null Map-Version:  The 12-bit null value of 0 (0x000) is not used as
      a Map-Version number.  It is used to signal that no Map-Version
      number is assigned to the EID-to-RLOC mapping.

   Source Map-Version number:  This Map-Version number of the
      EID-to-RLOC mapping is used to select the source address (RLOC)
      of the outer IP header of LISP-encapsulated packets.

   Destination Map-Version number:  This Map-Version number of the
      EID-to-RLOC mapping is used to select the destination address
      (RLOC) of the outer IP header of LISP-encapsulated packets.

4.  EID-to-RLOC Map-Version Number

   The EID-to-RLOC Map-Version number consists of an unsigned 12-bit
   integer.  The version number is assigned on a per-mapping basis,
   meaning that different mappings have a different version number,
   which is also updated independently.  An update in the version number
   (i.e., a newer version) consists of incrementing by one the older
   version number.  Appendix A contains a rough estimation of the
   wrap-around time for the Map-Version number.

   The space of version numbers has a circular order where half of the
   version numbers are greater (i.e., newer) than the current
   Map-Version number and the other half of the version numbers are
   smaller (i.e., older) than the current Map-Version number.  In a more
   formal way, assuming that we have two version numbers V1 and V2 and
   that the numbers are expressed in N bits, the following steps MUST be
   performed (in the same order as shown below) to strictly define their
   order:

   1.  V1 = V2 : The Map-Version numbers are the same.

   2.  V2 > V1 : if and only if

          V2 > V1 AND (V2 - V1) <= 2**(N-1)

          OR

          V1 > V2 AND (V1 - V2) > 2**(N-1)

   3.  V1 > V2 : otherwise.

   Using 12 bits, as defined in this document, and assuming a
   Map-Version value of 69, Map-Version numbers in the range
   [70; 69 + 2048] are greater than 69, while Map-Version numbers in the
   range [69 + 2049; (69 + 4096) mod 4096] are smaller than 69.

   Map-Version numbers are assigned to mappings by configuration.  The
   initial Map-Version number of a new EID-to-RLOC mapping SHOULD be
   assigned randomly, but it MUST NOT be set to the Null Map-Version
   value (0x000), because the Null Map-Version number has a special
   meaning (see Section 4.1).

   Upon reboot, an ETR will use mappings configured in its EID-to-RLOC
   Database.  If those mappings have a Map-Version number, it will be
   used according to the mechanisms described in this document.  ETRs
   MUST NOT automatically generate and assign Map-Version numbers to
   mappings in the EID-to-RLOC Database.

4.1.  The Null Map-Version

   The value 0x000 (zero) is not a valid Map-Version number indicating
   the version of the EID-to-RLOC mapping.  Such a value is used for
   special purposes and is named the Null Map-Version number.

   The Null Map-Version MAY appear in the LISP-specific header as either
   a Source Map-Version number (cf. Section 5.2) or a Destination
   Map-Version number (cf. Section 5.1).  When the Source Map-Version
   number is set to the Null Map-Version value, it means that no map

   version information is conveyed for the source site.  This means that
   if a mapping exists for the source EID in the EID-to-RLOC Cache, then
   the ETR MUST NOT compare the received Null Map-Version with the
   content of the EID-to-RLOC Cache.  When the Destination Map-Version
   number is set to the Null Map-Version value, it means that no map
   version information is conveyed for the destination site.  This means
   that the ETR MUST NOT compare the value with the Map-Version number
   of the mapping for the destination EID present in the EID-to-RLOC
   Database.

   The other use of the Null Map-Version number is in the Map Records,
   which are part of the Map-Request, Map-Reply, and Map-Register
   messages (defined in [RFC6830]).  Map Records that have a Null
   Map-Version number indicate that there is no Map-Version number
   associated with the mapping.  This means that LISP-encapsulated
   packets destined to the EID-Prefix referred to by the Map Record MUST
   either not contain any Map-Version numbers (V-bit set to 0) or, if
   they contain Map-Version numbers (V-bit set to 1), then the
   destination Map-Version number MUST be set to the Null Map-Version
   number.  Any value different from zero means that Map-Versioning is
   supported and MAY be used.

   The fact that the 0 value has a special meaning for the Map-Version
   number implies that, when updating a Map-Version number because of a
   change in the mapping, if the next value is 0, then the Map-Version
   number MUST be incremented by 2 (i.e., set to 1, which is the next
   valid value).

5.  Dealing with Map-Version Numbers

   The main idea of using Map-Version numbers is that whenever there is
   a change in the mapping (e.g., adding/removing RLOCs, a change in the
   weights due to Traffic Engineering policies, or a change in the
   priorities) or a LISP site realizes that one or more of its own RLOCs
   are not reachable anymore from a local perspective (e.g., through
   IGP, or policy changes) the LISP site updates the mapping, also
   assigning a new Map-Version number.

   To each mapping, a version number is associated and changes each time
   the mapping is changed.  Note that Map-Versioning does not introduce
   new problems concerning the coordination of different ETRs of a
   domain.  Indeed, ETRs belonging to the same LISP site must return for
   a specific EID-Prefix the same mapping, including the same
   Map-Version number.  In principle, this is orthogonal to whether or
   not Map-Versioning is used.  The synchronization problem and its
   implication on the traffic are out of the scope of this document (see
   Section 11).

   In order to announce in a data-driven fashion that the mapping has
   been updated, Map-Version numbers used to create the outer IP header
   of the LISP-encapsulated packet are embedded in the LISP-specific
   header.  This means that the header needs to contain two Map-Version
   numbers:

   o  The Source Map-Version number of the EID-to-RLOC mapping in the
      EID-to-RLOC Database used to select the source RLOC.

   o  The Destination Map-Version number of the EID-to-RLOC mapping in
      the EID-to-RLOC Cache used to select the destination RLOC.

   By embedding both the Source Map-Version number and the Destination
   Map-Version number, an ETR receiving a LISP packet with Map-Version
   numbers can perform the following checks:

   1.  The ITR that has sent the packet has an up-to-date mapping in its
       EID-to-RLOC Cache for the destination EID and is performing
       encapsulation correctly.

   2.  In the case of bidirectional traffic, the mapping in the local
       ETR EID-to-RLOC Cache for the source EID is up to date.

   If one or both of the above conditions do not hold, the ETR can send
   a Map-Request either to make the ITR aware that a new mapping is
   available (see Section 5.1) or to update the mapping in the local
   EID-to-RLOC Cache (see Section 5.2).

5.1.  Handling Destination Map-Version Number

   When an ETR receives a packet, the Destination Map-Version number
   relates to the mapping for the destination EID for which the ETR is
   an RLOC.  This mapping is part of the ETR EID-to-RLOC Database.
   Since the ETR is authoritative for the mapping, it has the correct
   and up-to-date Destination Map-Version number.  A check on this
   version number can be done, where the following cases can arise:

   1.  The packet arrives with the same Destination Map-Version number
       stored in the EID-to-RLOC Database.  This is the regular case.
       The ITR sending the packet has in its EID-to-RLOC Cache an
       up-to-date mapping.  No further actions are needed.

   2.  The packet arrives with a Destination Map-Version number greater
       (i.e., newer) than the one stored in the EID-to-RLOC Database.
       Since the ETR is authoritative on the mapping, meaning that the
       Map-Version number of its mapping is the correct one, this
       implies that someone is not behaving correctly with respect to

       the specifications.  In this case, the packet carries a version
       number that is not valid; otherwise, the ETR would have the same
       number, and the packet SHOULD be silently dropped.

   3.  The packets arrive with a Destination Map-Version number smaller
       (i.e., older) than the one stored in the EID-to-RLOC Database.
       This means that the ITR sending the packet has an old mapping in
       its EID-to-RLOC Cache containing stale information.  The ETR MAY
       choose to normally process the encapsulated datagram according to
       [RFC6830]; however, the ITR sending the packet has to be informed
       that a newer mapping is available.  This is done with a
       Map-Request message sent back to the ITR.  The Map-Request will
       either trigger a Map-Request back using the Solicit-Map-Request
       (SMR) bit or it will piggyback the newer mapping.  These are not
       new mechanisms; how to use the SMR bit or how to piggyback
       mappings in Map-Request messages is already described in
       [RFC6830], while their security is discussed in [LISP-THREATS].
       These Map-Request messages should be rate-limited
       (rate-limitation policies are also described in [RFC6830]).  The
       feature introduced by Map-Version numbers is the possibility of
       blocking traffic not using the latest mapping.  Indeed, after a
       certain number of retries, if the Destination Map-Version number
       in the packets is not updated, the ETR MAY drop packets with a
       stale Map-Version number while strongly reducing the rate of
       Map-Request messages.  This is because either the ITR is refusing
       to use the mapping for which the ETR is authoritative, or (worse)
       it might be some form of attack.  Another case might be that the
       control plane is experiencing transient failures, so the
       Map-Requests cannot reach that ITR.  By continually sending
       Map-Requests at a very low rate, it is possible to recover from
       this situation.

   The rule in the third case MAY be more restrictive.  If the mapping
   has been the same for a period of time as long as the Time to Live
   (TTL) (defined in [RFC6830]) of the previous version of the mapping,
   all packets arriving with an old Map-Version SHOULD be silently
   dropped right away without issuing any Map-Request.  Such action is
   permitted because if the new mapping with the updated version number
   has been unchanged for at least the same time as the TTL of the older
   mapping, all the entries in the EID-to-RLOC Caches of ITRs must have
   expired.  Hence, all ITRs sending traffic should have refreshed the
   mapping according to [RFC6830].  If packets with old Map-Version
   numbers are still received, then either someone has not respected the
   TTL or it is a form of spoof/attack.  In both cases, this is not
   valid behavior with respect to the specifications and the packet
   SHOULD be silently dropped.

   LISP-encapsulated packets with the V-bit set, when the original
   mapping in the EID-to-RLOC Database has the version number set to the
   Null Map-Version value, MAY be silently dropped.  As explained in
   Section 4.1, if an EID-to-RLOC mapping has a Null Map-Version, it
   means that ITRs, using the mapping for encapsulation, MUST NOT use a
   Map-Version number in the LISP-specific header.

   For LISP-encapsulated packets with the V-bit set, when the original
   mapping in the EID-to-RLOC Database has the version number set to a
   value different from the Null Map-Version value, a Destination
   Map-Version number equal to the Null Map-Version value means that the
   Destination Map-Version number MUST be ignored.

5.2.  Handling Source Map-Version Number

   When an ETR receives a packet, the Source Map-Version number relates
   to the mapping for the source EID for which the ITR that sent the
   packet is authoritative.  If the ETR has an entry in its EID-to-RLOC
   Cache for the source EID, then a check can be performed and the
   following cases can arise:

   1.  The packet arrives with the same Source Map-Version number as
       that stored in the EID-to-RLOC Cache.  This is the correct
       regular case.  The ITR has in its EID-to-RLOC Cache an up-to-date
       copy of the mapping.  No further actions are needed.

   2.  The packet arrives with a Source Map-Version number greater
       (i.e., newer) than the one stored in the local EID-to-RLOC Cache.
       This means that the ETR has in its EID-to-RLOC Cache a mapping
       that is stale and needs to be updated.  A Map-Request SHOULD be
       sent to get the new mapping for the source EID.  This is a normal
       Map-Request message sent through the mapping system and MUST
       respect the specifications in [RFC6830], including rate-
       limitation policies.

   3.  The packet arrives with a Source Map-Version number smaller
       (i.e., older) than the one stored in the local EID-to-RLOC Cache.
       Such a case is not valid with respect to the specifications.
       Indeed, if the mapping is already present in the EID-to-RLOC
       Cache, this means that an explicit Map-Request has been sent and
       a Map-Reply has been received from an authoritative source.
       Assuming that the mapping system is not corrupted, the
       Map-Version in the EID-to-RLOC Cache is the correct one, while
       the one carried by the packet is stale.  In this situation, the
       packet MAY be silently dropped.

   If the ETR does not have an entry in the EID-to-RLOC Cache for the
   source EID (e.g., in the case of unidirectional traffic), then the
   Source Map-Version number can be safely ignored.

   For LISP-encapsulated packets with the V-bit set, if the Source
   Map-Version number is the Null Map-Version value, it means that the
   Source Map-Version number MUST be ignored.

6.  LISP Header and Map-Version Numbers

   In order for the versioning approach to work, the LISP-specific
   header has to carry both the Source Map-Version number and
   Destination Map-Version number.  This is done by setting the V-bit in
   the LISP-specific header as defined in [RFC6830] Section 5.3.  When
   the V-bit is set, the low-order 24 bits of the first longword are
   used to transport both the source and destination Map-Version
   numbers.  In particular, the first 12 bits are used for the Source
   Map-Version number and the second 12 bits for the Destination
   Map-Version number.

   Below is an example of a LISP header carrying version numbers in the
   case of IPv4-in-IPv4 encapsulation.  The same setting can be used for
   any other case (IPv4-in-IPv6, IPv6-in-IPv4, and IPv6-in-IPv6).

        0                   1                   2                   3
        0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     / |N|L|E|V|I|flags|  Source Map-Version   |Destination Map-Version|
   LISP+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     \ |                 Instance ID/Locator-Status-Bits               |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Source Map-Version number (12 bits):  Map-Version of the mapping used
      by the ITR to select the RLOC present in the 'Source Routing
      Locator' field.  Section 5.2 describes how to set this value on
      transmission and handle it on reception.

   Destination Map-Version number (12 bits):  Map-Version of the mapping
      used by the ITR to select the RLOC present in the 'Destination
      Routing Locator' field.  Section 5.1 describes how to set this
      value on transmission and handle it on reception.

   This document only specifies how to use the low-order 24 bits of the
   first longword of the LISP-specific header when the V-bit is set to
   1.  All other cases, including the bit fields of the rest of the
   LISP-specific header and the whole LISP packet format, are specified
   in [RFC6830].  Not all of the LISP-encapsulated packets need to carry

   version numbers.  When Map-Version numbers are carried in these
   packets, the V-bit MUST be set to 1.  All permissible combinations of
   the flags when the V-bit is set to 1 are described in [RFC6830].

7.  Map Record and Map-Version

   To accommodate the proposed mechanism, the Map Records that are
   transported in Map-Request/Map-Reply/Map-Register messages need to
   carry the Map-Version number as well.  For this purpose, the 12 bits
   before the 'EID-Prefix-AFI' field in the Record that describes a
   mapping are used.  This is defined in Section 6.1.4 of [RFC6830] and
   reported here as an example.

        0                   1                   2                   3
        0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-> +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |   |                          Record  TTL                          |
   |   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   R   | Locator Count | EID mask-len  | ACT |A|      Reserved         |
   e   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   c   | Rsvd  |  Map-Version Number   |       EID-Prefix-AFI          |
   o   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   r   |                          EID-Prefix                           |
   d   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  /|    Priority   |    Weight     |  M Priority   |   M Weight    |
   | L +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   | o |        Unused Flags     |L|p|R|           Loc-AFI             |
   | c +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  \|                             Locator                           |
   +-> +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Map-Version Number:  Map-Version of the mapping contained in the
      Record.  As explained in Section 4.1, this field can be zero (0),
      meaning that no Map-Version is associated to the mapping; hence,
      packets that are LISP encapsulated using this mapping MUST NOT
      contain Map-Version numbers in the LISP-specific header, and the
      V-bit MUST be set to 0.

   This packet format works perfectly with xTRs that do not support
   Map-Versioning, since they can simply ignore those bits.

8.  Benefits and Case Studies for Map-Versioning

   In the following sections, we provide more discussion on various
   aspects and uses of Map-Versioning.  Security observations are
   grouped in Section 10.

8.1.  Map-Versioning and Unidirectional Traffic

   When using Map-Versioning, the LISP-specific header carries two
   Map-Version numbers, for both source and destination mappings.  This
   can raise the question on what will happen in the case of
   unidirectional flows, for instance, in the case presented in
   Figure 1, since the LISP specification does not mandate that the ETR
   have a mapping for the source EID.

             +-----------------+            +-----------------+
             | Domain A        |            | Domain B        |
             |       +---------+            +---------+       |
             |       | ITR A   |----------->| ETR B   |       |
             |       +---------+            +---------+       |
             |                 |            |                 |
             +-----------------+            +-----------------+

           Figure 1: Unidirectional Traffic between LISP Domains

   In the case of the ITR, the ITR is able to put both the source and
   destination version number in the LISP header, since the Source
   Map-Version number is in the ITR's database, while the Destination
   Map-Version number is in the ITR's cache.

   In the case of the ETR, the ETR simply checks only the Destination
   Map-Version number in the same way as that described in Section 5,
   ignoring the Source Map-Version number.

8.2.  Map-Versioning and Interworking

   Map-Versioning is compatible with the LISP interworking between LISP
   and non-LISP sites as defined in [RFC6832].  LISP interworking
   defines three techniques to make LISP sites and non-LISP sites,
   namely Proxy-ITR, LISP-NAT, and Proxy-ETR.  The following text
   describes how Map-Versioning relates to these three mechanisms.

8.2.1.  Map-Versioning and Proxy-ITRs

   The purpose of the Proxy-ITR (PITR) is to encapsulate traffic
   originating in a non-LISP site in order to deliver the packet to one
   of the ETRs of the LISP site (cf. Figure 2).  This case is very
   similar to the unidirectional traffic case described in Section 8.1;
   hence, similar rules apply.

        +----------+                             +-------------+
        | LISP     |                             | non-LISP    |
        | Domain A |                             | Domain B    |
        |  +-------+        +-----------+        |             |
        |  | ETR A |<-------| Proxy-ITR |<-------|             |
        |  +-------+        +-----------+        |             |
        |          |                             |             |
        +----------+                             +-------------+

   Figure 2: Unidirectional Traffic from Non-LISP Domain to LISP Domain

   The main difference is that a Proxy-ITR does not have any mapping,
   since it just encapsulates packets arriving from the non-LISP site
   and thus cannot provide a Source Map-Version.  In this case, the
   Proxy-ITR will just put the Null Map-Version value as the Source
   Map-Version number, while the receiving ETR will ignore the field.

   With this setup, LISP Domain A is able to check whether or not the
   PITR is using the latest mapping.  If this is not the case, the
   mapping for LISP Domain A on the PITR can be updated using one of the
   mechanisms defined in [RFC6830] and [RFC6832].

8.2.2.  Map-Versioning and LISP-NAT

   The LISP-NAT mechanism is based on address translation from
   non-routable EIDs to routable EIDs and does not involve any form of
   encapsulation.  As such, Map-Versioning does not apply in this case.

8.2.3.  Map-Versioning and Proxy-ETRs

   The purpose of the Proxy-ETR (PETR) is to decapsulate traffic
   originating in a LISP site in order to deliver the packet to the
   non-LISP site (cf. Figure 3).  One of the main reasons to deploy
   PETRs is to bypass uRPF (Unicast Reverse Path Forwarding) checks on
   the provider edge.

         +----------+                             +-------------+
         | LISP     |                             | non-LISP    |
         | Domain A |                             | Domain B    |
         |  +-------+        +-----------+        |             |
         |  | ITR A |------->| Proxy-ETR |------->|             |
         |  +-------+        +-----------+        |             |
         |          |                             |             |
         +----------+                             +-------------+

   Figure 3: Unidirectional Traffic from LISP Domain to Non-LISP Domain

   A Proxy-ETR does not have any mapping, since it just decapsulates
   packets arriving from the LISP site.  In this case, the ITR will just
   put the Null Map-Version value as the Destination Map-Version number,
   while the receiving Proxy-ETR will ignore the field.

   With this setup, the Proxy-ETR is able to check whether or not the
   mapping has changed.  If this is the case, the mapping for LISP
   Domain A on the PETR can be updated using one of the mechanisms
   defined in [RFC6830] and [RFC6832].

8.3.  RLOC Shutdown/Withdraw

   Map-Versioning can also be used to perform a graceful shutdown or
   withdraw of a specific RLOC.  This is achieved by simply issuing a
   new mapping, with an updated Map-Version number where the specific
   RLOC to be shut down is withdrawn or announced as unreachable (via
   the R-bit in the Map Record; see [RFC6830]), but without actually
   turning it off.

   Once no more traffic is received by the RLOC, it can be shut down
   gracefully, because all sites actively using the mapping have
   updated it.

   It should be pointed out that for frequent up/down changes such a
   mechanism should not be used, since this can generate excessive load
   on the mapping system.

8.4.  Map-Version for Lightweight LISP Implementation

   The use of Map-Versioning can help in developing a lightweight
   implementation of LISP.  However, this comes with the price of not
   supporting the Locator-Status-Bit, which is useful in some contexts.

   In the current LISP specifications, the set of RLOCs must always be
   maintained ordered and consistent with the content of the
   Locator-Status-Bits (see Section 6.5 of [RFC6830]).  With
   Map-Versioning, such types of mechanisms can be avoided.  When a new
   RLOC is added to a mapping, it is not necessary to "append" new
   Locators to the existing ones as explained in Section 6.5 of
   [RFC6830].  A new mapping with a new Map-Version number will be
   issued, and since the old Locators are still valid, the transition
   will occur with no disruptions.  The same applies for the case where
   an RLOC is withdrawn.  There is no need to maintain holes in the list
   of Locators, as is the case when using Locator-Status-Bits, for sites
   that are not using the RLOC that has been withdrawn; in this case,
   the transition will occur with no disruptions.

   All of these operations, as already stated, do not need to maintain
   any consistency among Locator-Status-Bits and in the way that the
   RLOCs are stored in the EID-to-RLOC Cache.

   Further, Map-Versioning can be used as a substitute for the "clock
   sweep" operation described in Section 6.6.1 of [RFC6830].  Indeed,
   every LISP site communicating to a specific LISP site that has
   updated the mapping will be informed of the available new mapping in
   a data-driven manner.

   Note that what is proposed in this section is just an example and
   MUST NOT be considered as specifications for a lightweight LISP
   implementation.  If the IETF decides to undertake such work, it will
   be documented elsewhere.

9.  Incremental Deployment and Implementation Status

   Map-Versioning can be incrementally deployed without any negative
   impact on existing LISP elements (e.g., xTRs, Map-Servers,
   Proxy-ITRs, etc.).  Any LISP element that does not support
   Map-Versioning can safely ignore Map-Version numbers carried in the
   LISP header.  Further, there is no need of any specific mechanism to
   discover whether or not an xTR supports Map-Versioning.  This
   information is already included in the Map Record.

   Map-Versioning is currently implemented in OpenLISP [OPENLISP].

   Note that the reference document for LISP implementations and
   interoperability tests remains [RFC6830].

10.  Security Considerations

   Map-Versioning does not introduce any security issues concerning both
   the data plane and the control plane.  On the contrary, as described
   below, if Map-Versioning may also be used to update mappings in the
   case of change in the reachability information (i.e., instead of the
   Locator-Status-Bits), it is possible to reduce the effects of some
   DoS or spoofing attacks that can happen in an untrusted environment.

   Robustness of the Map-Versioning mechanism leverages on a trusted
   Mapping Distribution System.  A thorough security analysis of LISP is
   documented in [LISP-THREATS].

10.1.  Map-Versioning against Traffic Disruption

   An attacker can try to disrupt ongoing communications by creating
   LISP-encapsulated packets with wrong Locator-Status-Bits.  If the xTR
   blindly trusts the Locator-Status-Bits, it will change the
   encapsulation accordingly, which can result in traffic disruption.

   This does not happen in the case of Map-Versioning.  As described in
   Section 5, upon a version number change the xTR first issues a
   Map-Request.  The assumption is that the mapping distribution system
   is sufficiently secure that Map-Request and Map-Reply messages and
   their content can be trusted.  Security issues concerning specific
   mapping distribution systems are out of the scope of this document.
   In the case of Map-Versioning, the attacker should "guess" a valid
   version number that triggers a Map-Request as described in Section 5;
   otherwise, the packet is simply dropped.  Nevertheless, guessing a
   version number that generates a Map-Request is easy; hence, it is
   important to follow the rate-limitation policies described in
   [RFC6830] in order to avoid DoS attacks.

   Note that a similar level of security can be obtained with
   Locator-Status-Bits by simply making it mandatory to verify any
   change through a Map-Request.  However, in this case
   Locator-Status-Bits lose their meaning, because it does not matter
   anymore which specific bits have changed; the xTR will query the
   mapping system and trust the content of the received Map-Reply.
   Furthermore, there is no way to perform filtering as in
   Map-Versioning in order to drop packets that do not carry a valid
   Map-Version number.  In the case of Locator-Status-Bits, any random
   change can trigger a Map-Request (unless rate limitation is enabled,
   which raises another type of attack as discussed in Section 10.2).

10.2.  Map-Versioning against Reachability Information DoS

   Attackers can try to trigger a large amount of Map-Requests by simply
   forging packets with random Map-Versions or random
   Locator-Status-Bits.  In both cases, the Map-Requests are
   rate-limited as described in [RFC6830].  However, in contrast to the
   Locator-Status-Bit, where there is no filtering possible, in the case
   of Map-Versioning it is possible to filter invalid version numbers
   before triggering a Map-Request, thus helping to reduce the effects
   of DoS attacks.  In other words, the use of Map-Versioning enables a
   fine control on when to update a mapping or when to notify someone
   that a mapping has been updated.

   It is clear that Map-Versioning does not protect against DoS and DDoS
   attacks, where an xTR loses processing power when doing checks on the
   LISP header of packets sent by attackers.  This is independent of
   Map-Versioning and is the same for Locator-Status-Bits.

11.  Open Issues and Considerations

   There are a number of implications of the use of Map-Versioning that
   are not yet completely explored.  Among these are:

   o  Performance of the convergence time when an EID-to-RLOC mapping
      changes, i.e., how much time is needed to update mappings in the
      EID-to-RLOC Cache of the ITRs currently sending traffic to ETRs
      for the EID whose mapping has been changed.

   o  Support for ETR synchronization.  The implications that a
      temporary lack of synchronization may have on the traffic are yet
      to be fully explored.  Details on how to maintain synchronization
      are presented in Section 6.6 of [RFC6830].  Section 11.1 discusses
      the issue in further detail with respect to the Map-Versioning
      mechanism.

   The authors expect that experimentation will help assess the
   performance and limitations of the Map-Versioning mechanism.  Issues
   and concerns about the deployment of LISP for Internet traffic are
   discussed in [RFC6830].

11.1.  Lack of Synchronization among ETRs

   Even without Map-Versioning, LISP ([RFC6830]) requires ETRs to
   announce the same mapping for the same EID-Prefix to a requester.
   The implications that a temporary lack of synchronization may have on
   the traffic are yet to be fully explored.

   Map-Versioning does not require additional synchronization mechanisms
   as compared to the normal functioning of LISP without Map-Versioning.
   Clearly, all the ETRs have to reply with the same Map-Version number;
   otherwise, there can be an inconsistency that creates additional
   control traffic, instabilities, and traffic disruptions.  It is the
   same without Map-Versioning, with ETRs that have to reply with the
   same mapping; otherwise, the same problems can arise.

   There are two ways Map-Versioning is helpful with respect to the
   synchronization problem.  On the one hand, assigning version numbers
   to mappings helps in debugging, since quick checks on the consistency
   of the mappings on different ETRs can be done by looking at the
   Map-Version number.  On the other hand, Map-Versioning can be used to
   control the traffic toward ETRs that announce the latest mapping.

   As an example, let's consider the topology of Figure 4 where ITR A.1
   of Domain A is sending unidirectional traffic to Domain B, while A.2
   of Domain A exchanges bidirectional traffic with Domain B.  In
   particular, ITR A.2 sends traffic to ETR B, and ETR A.2 receives
   traffic from ITR B.

            +-----------------+              +-----------------+
            | Domain A        |              | Domain B        |
            |       +---------+              |                 |
            |       | ITR A.1 |---           |                 |
            |       +---------+    \         +---------+       |
            |                 |      ------->| ETR B   |       |
            |                 |      ------->|         |       |
            |       +---------+    /         |         |       |
            |       | ITR A.2 |---      -----| ITR B   |       |
            |       |         |       /      +---------+       |
            |       | ETR A.2 |<-----        |                 |
            |       +---------+              |                 |
            |                 |              |                 |
            +-----------------+              +-----------------+

                        Figure 4: Example Topology

   Obviously, in the case of Map-Versioning, both ITR A.1 and ITR A.2 of
   Domain A must use the same value; otherwise, the ETR of Domain B will
   start to send Map-Requests.

   The same problem can, however, arise without Map-Versioning, for
   instance, if the two ITRs of Domain A send different
   Locator-Status-Bits.  In this case, either the traffic is disrupted
   if ETR B trusts the Locator-Status-Bits, or if ETR B does not trust
   the Locator-Status-Bits it will start sending Map-Requests to confirm
   each change in reachability.

   So far, LISP does not provide any specific synchronization mechanism
   but assumes that synchronization is provided by configuring the
   different xTRs consistently (see Section 6.6 in [RFC6830]).  The same
   applies for Map-Versioning.  If in the future any synchronization
   mechanism is provided, Map-Versioning will take advantage of it
   automatically, since it is included in the Record format, as
   described in Section 7.

12.  Acknowledgments

   The authors would like to thank Alia Atlas, Jesper Skriver, Pierre
   Francois, Noel Chiappa, and Dino Farinacci for their comments and
   review.

   This work has been partially supported by the INFSO-ICT-216372
   TRILOGY Project (http://www.trilogy-project.org).

13.  References

13.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC6830]  Farinacci, D., Fuller, V., Meyer, D., and D. Lewis, "The
              Locator/ID Separation Protocol (LISP)", RFC 6830,
              January 2013.

   [RFC6832]  Lewis, D., Meyer, D., Farinacci, D., and V. Fuller,
              "Interworking between Locator/ID Separation Protocol
              (LISP) and Non-LISP Sites", RFC 6832, January 2013.

13.2.  Informative References

   [LISP-THREATS]
              Saucez, D., Iannone, L., and O. Bonaventure, "LISP Threats
              Analysis", Work in Progress, October 2012.

   [OPENLISP] Iannone, L., Saucez, D., and O. Bonaventure, "Implementing
              the Locator/ID Separation Protocol: Design and
              experience", Computer Networks Vol. 55, Number 4,
              Pages 948-958, March 2011.

Appendix A.  Estimation of Time before Map-Version Wrap-Around

   This section proposes an estimation of the wrap-around time for the
   12-bit size of the Map-Version number.

   Using a granularity of seconds and assuming as worst case that a new
   version is issued each second, it takes slightly more than 1 hour
   before the version wraps around.  Note that the granularity of
   seconds is in line with the rate-limitation policy for Map-Request
   messages, as proposed in the LISP main specifications ([RFC6830]).

   Alternatively, a granularity of minutes can also be used, as for the
   TTL of the Map-Reply ([RFC6830]).  In this case, the worst-case
   scenario is when a new version is issued every minute, leading to a
   much longer time before wrap-around.  In particular, when using
   12 bits, the wrap-around time is almost 3 days.

   For general information, Figure 5 below provides a rough estimation
   of the time before wrap-around in the worst-case scenario,
   considering different sizes (length in bits) of the Map-Version
   number and different time granularities.

   Since even in the case of a high mapping change rate (1 per second)
   the wrap-around time using 12 bits is far larger than any reasonable
   Round-Trip Time (RTT), there is no risk of race conditions.

      +---------------+--------------------------------------------+
      |Version Number |           Time before Wrap-Around          |
      |  Size (bits)  +---------------------+----------------------+
      |               |Granularity: Minutes | Granularity: Seconds |
      |               | (mapping changes    | (mapping changes     |
      |               |  every 1 minute)    |  every 1 second)     |
      +-------------------------------------+----------------------+
      |          32   |   8171   years      |  136   years         |
      |          30   |   2042   years      |   34   years         |
      |          24   |     31   years      |  194   days          |
      |          16   |     45   days       |   18   hours         |
      |          15   |     22   days       |    9   hours         |
      |          14   |     11   days       |    4   hours         |
      |          13   |      5.6 days       |    2.2 hours         |
      |          12   |      2.8 days       |    1.1 hours         |
      +---------------+---------------------+----------------------+

              Figure 5: Estimation of Time before Wrap-Around

Authors' Addresses

   Luigi Iannone
   Telecom ParisTech

   EMail: luigi.iannone@telecom-paristech.fr

   Damien Saucez
   INRIA Sophia Antipolis
   2004 route des Lucioles - BP 93
   Sophia Antipolis
   France

   EMail: damien.saucez@inria.fr

   Olivier Bonaventure
   Universite catholique de Louvain
   Place St. Barbe 2
   Louvain-la-Neuve
   Belgium

   EMail: olivier.bonaventure@uclouvain.be

 

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