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RFC 6611 - Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6) Bootstrapping for the Integrated


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Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)                 K. Chowdhury, Ed.
Request for Comments: 6611                     Radio Mobile Access, Inc.
Category: Standards Track                                       A. Yegin
ISSN: 2070-1721                                                  Samsung
                                                                May 2012

     Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6) Bootstrapping for the Integrated Scenario

Abstract

   Mobile IPv6 bootstrapping can be categorized into two primary
   scenarios: the split scenario and the integrated scenario.  In the
   split scenario, the mobile node's mobility service is authorized by a
   different service authorizer than the network access authorizer.  In
   the integrated scenario, the mobile node's mobility service is
   authorized by the same service authorizer as the network access
   service authorizer.  This document defines a method for home agent
   information discovery for the integrated scenario.

Status of This Memo

   This is an Internet Standards Track document.

   This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force
   (IETF).  It represents the consensus of the IETF community.  It has
   received public review and has been approved for publication by the
   Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG).  Further information on
   Internet Standards is available in Section 2 of RFC 5741.

   Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
   and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
   http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6611.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2012 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
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   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

   This document may contain material from IETF Documents or IETF
   Contributions published or made publicly available before November
   10, 2008.  The person(s) controlling the copyright in some of this
   material may not have granted the IETF Trust the right to allow
   modifications of such material outside the IETF Standards Process.
   Without obtaining an adequate license from the person(s) controlling
   the copyright in such materials, this document may not be modified
   outside the IETF Standards Process, and derivative works of it may
   not be created outside the IETF Standards Process, except to format
   it for publication as an RFC or to translate it into languages other
   than English.

Table of Contents

   1. Introduction and Scope ..........................................2
   2. Terminology .....................................................3
   3. Assumptions and Conformance .....................................4
   4. Solution Overview ...............................................5
      4.1. Logical View of the Integrated Scenario ....................5
      4.2. Bootstrapping Message Sequence .............................6
           4.2.1. Home Agent Allocation in the MSP ....................7
           4.2.2. Home Agent Allocation in the ASP ....................9
      4.3. Bootstrapping Message Sequence: Fallback Case .............10
      4.4. HoA and IKEv2 SA Bootstrapping in the Integrated
           Scenario ..................................................10
   5. Security Considerations ........................................10
   6. Acknowledgements ...............................................11
   7. Contributors ...................................................11
   8. References .....................................................11
      8.1. Normative References ......................................11
      8.2. Informative References ....................................12

1.  Introduction and Scope

   The Mobile IPv6 protocol [RFC6275] requires the mobile node to have
   the following information:

   o  the Home Address (HoA),

   o  the home agent address, and

   o  the cryptographic materials for establishing an IPsec security
      association with the home agent.

   The cryptographic materials need to be established prior to
   initiating the registration process.  The mechanism via which the
   mobile node obtains this information is called "Mobile IPv6
   bootstrapping".  In order to allow a flexible deployment model for
   Mobile IPv6, it is desirable to define a bootstrapping mechanism for
   the mobile node to acquire these parameters dynamically.  [RFC4640]
   describes the problem statement for Mobile IPv6 bootstrapping.  It
   also defines the bootstrapping scenarios based on the relationship
   between the entity that authenticates and authorizes the mobile node
   for network access (i.e., the Access Service Authorizer, ASA) and the
   entity that authenticates and authorizes the mobile node for mobility
   service (i.e., the Mobility Service Authorizer, MSA).  The scenario
   in which the Access Service Authorizer is not the Mobility Service
   Authorizer is called the "split" scenario.  The bootstrapping
   solution for the split scenario is defined in [RFC5026].  The
   scenario in which the Access Service Authorizer is also the Mobility
   Service Authorizer is called the "integrated" scenario.  This
   document defines a bootstrapping solution for the integrated
   scenario.

   [RFC5026] identifies four different components of the bootstrapping
   problem: home agent address discovery, HoA assignment, IPsec Security
   Association [RFC4301] setup, and Authentication and Authorization
   with the MSA.  This document defines a mechanism for home agent
   address discovery.  The other components of bootstrapping are as per
   [RFC5026].

   In the integrated scenario, the bootstrapping of the home agent
   information can be achieved via DHCPv6.  This document defines the
   MIPv6 bootstrapping procedures for the integrated scenario.  It
   enables home agent assignment in the integrated scenario by utilizing
   DHCP and Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting (AAA)
   protocols.  The specification utilizes DHCP and AAA options and
   attribute-value pairs (AVPs) that are defined in [RFC6610] and
   [RFC5447].  This document specifies the interworking among Mobile
   Node (MN), Network Access Server (NAS), DHCP, and AAA entities for
   the bootstrapping procedure in the integrated scenario.

2.  Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

   General mobility terminology can be found in [RFC3753].  The
   following additional terms, as defined in [RFC4640], are used in this
   document:

   Access Service Authorizer (ASA): A network operator that
   authenticates a mobile node and establishes the mobile node's
   authorization to receive Internet service.

   Access Service Provider (ASP): A network operator that provides
   direct IP packet forwarding to and from the mobile node.

   Mobility Service Authorizer (MSA): A service provider that authorizes
   Mobile IPv6 service.

   Mobility Service Provider (MSP): A service provider that provides
   Mobile IPv6 service.  An MSP is called a "home MSP" when MSP == MSA.
   In this document, the term MSP means a Mobility Service Provider that
   has a roaming relationship with the MSA but it is not the MSA.

   Split Scenario: A scenario where the mobility service and the network
   access service are authorized by different entities.

   Integrated Scenario: A scenario where the mobility service and the
   network access service are authorized by the same entity.

3.  Assumptions and Conformance

   The following assumptions are made in this document:

   (a)  MSA == ASA.

   (b)  MSA and MSP have a roaming relationship.

   (c)  DHCP relay and NAS are either co-located or there is a mechanism
        to transfer received AAA information from the NAS to the DHCP
        relay.

           Note: If assignment of a home agent in the home MSP is not
           required by a deployment, co-location of the NAS and the DHCP
           relay functions or a mechanism to transfer received AAA
           information from the NAS to the DHCP relay won't be
           necessary.  In such a case, only the implementation of the
           options and procedures defined in [RFC6610] should suffice.

   (d)  The NAS shall support MIPv6-specific AAA attributes as specified
        in [RFC5447].

   (e)  The AAA server in the home domain (AAAH) used for network access
        authentication (ASA) has access to the same database as the AAAH
        used for the mobility service authentication (MSA).

   If home agent assignment is required only in the ASP by the
   deployment, a minimal implementation of this specification MAY only
   support the delivery of information from the DHCP server to the DHCP
   client through [RFC6610].  However, if home agent assignment in the
   MSP is required by the deployment, an implementation conforming to
   this specification SHALL be able to transfer the information received
   from the AAA server to the NAS, and from the NAS to the DHCP relay
   function.  This can be achieved either by co-locating the NAS and the
   DHCP relay functions or via an interface between these functions.
   The details of this interface are out of the scope of this
   specification.

4.  Solution Overview

4.1.  Logical View of the Integrated Scenario

   In the integrated scenario, the mobile node utilizes the network
   access authentication process to bootstrap Mobile IPv6.  It is
   assumed that the access service authorizer is mobility service aware.
   This allows for Mobile IPv6 bootstrapping at the time of access
   authentication and authorization.  Also, the mechanism defined in
   this document requires the NAS to support MIP6-specific AAA
   attributes and a co-located DHCP relay agent.

   Figure 1 shows the AAA infrastructure with a AAA client (NAS), a AAA
   proxy in the visited network (AAAV), and a AAA server in the home
   network (AAAH).

                                      |
                  ASP(/MSP)           |   ASA/MSA(/MSP)
                                      |
                                      |
                  +-------+           |        +-------+
                  |       |           |        |       |
                  |AAAV   |-----------|--------|AAAH   |
                  |       |           |        |       |
                  +-------+           |        +-------+
                      |               |
                      |               |
                      |               |
                      |               |
                  +-----+    +------+ |
      +----+      | NAS/|    |DHCP  | |
      | MN |------|DHCP |----|Server| |
      +----+      |Relay|    |      | |
                  +-----+    +------+ |
                                      |
                                      |
                  +--------+          |      +--------+
                  | HA     |          |      | HA     |
                  | in ASP |          |      |in MSP  |
                  +--------+          |      +--------+

      Figure 1: Integrated Scenario, Network Diagram with DHCP Server

   The user's home network authorizes the mobile node for network access
   and mobility services.  Note that usage of a home agent with the
   mobile node might be selected in the access service provider's
   network or alternatively in the mobility service provider's network.

   The MSP may be co-located with the ASP, or the ASA/MSA, or
   independent of the two.

   The mobile node interacts with the DHCP server via the relay agent
   after the network access authentication as part of the mobile node
   configuration procedure.

4.2.  Bootstrapping Message Sequence

   In this case, the mobile node is able to acquire the home agent
   address via a DHCPv6 query.  In the integrated scenario, the ASA and
   the MSA are the same; it can be safely assumed that the AAAH used for
   network access authentication (ASA) has access to the same database
   as the AAAH used for the mobility service authentication (MSA).
   Hence, the same AAAH can authorize the mobile node for network access

   and mobility service at the same time.  When the MN performs Mobile
   IPv6 registration, the AAAH ensures that the MN is accessing the
   assigned home agent for that MSP.

   Figure 2 shows the message sequence for home agent allocation in both
   scenarios -- HA in the ASP (which is co-located with the MSP), or HA
   in an MSP that is separate from ASP and possibly from the ASA/MSA as
   well.

                                         |
                 --------------ASP------>|<--ASA+MSA--
                                         |
   +----+        +------+      +-------+   +-----+
   |    |        |      |      |       |   |     |
   | MN/|        |NAS/  |      | DHCP  |   |AAAH |
   |User|        |DHCP  |      | Server|   |     |
   |    |        |relay |      |       |   |     |
   +----+        +------+      +-------+   +-----+
     |               |             |          |
     |     1         |          1  |          |
     |<------------->|<---------------------->|
     |               |             |          |
     |               |             |          |
     |     2         |             |          |
     |-------------->|             |          |
     |               |             |          |
     |               |       3     |          |
     |               |------------>|          |
     |               |             |          |
     |               |       4     |          |
     |               |<------------|          |
     |               |             |          |
     |     5         |             |          |
     |<--------------|             |          |
     |               |             |          |

           Figure 2: Message Sequence for Home Agent Allocation

4.2.1.  Home Agent Allocation in the MSP

   This section describes a scenario where the home agent is allocated
   in the mobile node's MSP network(s) that is (are) not co-located with
   the ASP.  In order to provide the mobile node with information about
   the assigned home agent, the AAAH conveys the assigned home agent's
   information to the NAS via a AAA protocol, e.g., [RFC5447].

   Figure 2 shows the message sequence for home agent allocation.  In
   the scenario with HA in the MSP, the following details apply.

   (1)  The mobile node executes the network access authentication
        procedure (e.g., IEEE 802.11i/802.1X), and it interacts with the
        NAS.  The NAS is in the ASP, and it interacts with the AAAH,
        which is in the ASA/MSA, to authenticate the mobile node.  In
        the process of authorizing the mobile node, the AAAH verifies in
        the AAA profile that the mobile node is allowed to use the
        Mobile IPv6 service.  The AAAH assigns a home agent in the home
        MSP, and it assigns one or more home agents in other authorized
        MSPs and returns this information to the NAS.  The NAS may keep
        the received information for a configurable duration, or it may
        keep the information for as long as the MN is connected to the
        NAS.

   (2)  The mobile node sends a DHCPv6 Information-request message
        [RFC3315] to the All_DHCP_Relay_Agents_and_Servers multicast
        address.  In this message, the mobile node (DHCP client) SHALL
        include the following:

        *  the Option Code for the Visited Home Network Information
           option [RFC6610] in the OPTION_ORO.

        *  Client Home Network ID FQDN option identifying the MSP.

        *  the OPTION_CLIENTID to identify itself to the DHCP server

   (3)  The relay agent intercepts the Information Request from the
        mobile node and forwards it to the DHCP server.  The relay agent
        also includes the received home agent information from the AAAH
        in the Relay-Supplied Options option [RFC6610].  If a NAS
        implementation does not store the received information as long
        as the MN's session remains in the ASP, and if the MN delays
        sending a DHCP request, the NAS/DHCP relay does not include the
        Relay-Supplied Options option in the Relay Forward message.

   (4)  The DHCP server:

        *  identifies the client by looking at the DHCP Unique
           Identifier (DUID) for the client in the OPTION_CLIENTID.

        *  determines that the mobile node is requesting home agent
           information in the MSP by looking at the Home Network ID FQDN
           option.

        *  determines that the home agent is allocated by the AAAH by
           looking at the Relay-Supplied Options option.

        *  extracts the allocated home agent information from the Relay-
           Supplied Options option and includes it in the Identified
           Home Network Information option [RFC6610] in the Reply
           Message.  If the requested information is not available in
           the DHCP server, it follows the behavior described in
           [RFC6610].

   (5)  The relay agent relays the Reply Message from the DHCP server to
        the mobile node.  At this point, the mobile node has the home
        agent information that it requested.

4.2.2.  Home Agent Allocation in the ASP

   This section describes a scenario where the mobile node requests home
   agent allocation in the ASP by setting the id-type field to zero in
   the Home Network Identifier Option [RFC6610] in the DHCPv6 request
   message.  In this scenario, the ASP becomes the MSP for the duration
   of the network access authentication session.

   Figure 2 shows the message sequence for home agent allocation.  In
   the scenario with HA in the ASP, the following details apply.

   (1)  The mobile node executes the network access authentication
        procedure (e.g., IEEE 802.11i/802.1X) and interacts with the
        NAS.  The NAS is in the ASP, and it interacts with the AAAH,
        which is in the ASA/MSA, to authenticate the mobile node.  In
        the process of authorizing the mobile node, the AAAH verifies in
        the AAA profile that the mobile node is allowed to use the
        Mobile IPv6 services.  The AAAH assigns a home agent in the home
        MSP, and it assigns one or more home agents in other authorized
        MSPs and returns this information to the NAS.  Note that the
        AAAH is not aware of the fact that the mobile node prefers a
        home agent allocation in the ASP.  Therefore, the assigned home
        agent may not be used by the mobile node.  This leaves the
        location of the mobility anchor point decision to the mobile
        node.

   (2)  The mobile node sends a DHCPv6 Information Request message
        [RFC3315] to the All_DHCP_Relay_Agents_and_Servers multicast
        address.  In this message, the mobile node (DHCP client) SHALL
        include the following:

        *  the Option Code for the Home Network Identifier Option
           [RFC6610] in the OPTION_ORO.

        *  the OPTION_CLIENTID to identify itself to the DHCP server.

   (3)  The relay agent (which is the NAS) intercepts the Information
        Request from the mobile node and forwards it to the DHCP server.
        The relay agent also includes the received AAA AVP from the AAAH
        in the Relay-Supplied Options option [RFC6610].

   (4)  The DHCP server identifies the client by looking at the DUID for
        the client in the OPTION_CLIENTID.  The DHCP server also
        determines that the mobile node is requesting home agent
        information in the ASP by looking at the Visited Home Network
        Information option.  If configured to do so, the DHCP server
        allocates a home agent from its configured list of home agents
        and includes it in the Visited Home Network Information Option
        [RFC6610] in the Reply Message.  Note that in this case, the
        DHCP server does not use the received information in the Relay-
        Supplied Options option.

   (5)  The relay agent relays the Reply Message from the DHCP server to
        the mobile node.  At this point, the mobile node has the home
        agent information that it requested.

4.3.  Bootstrapping Message Sequence: Fallback Case

   In the fallback case, the mobile node is not able to acquire the home
   agent information via DHCPv6.  The mobile node MAY perform DNS
   queries to discover the home agent address as defined in [RFC5026].
   To perform DNS-based home agent discovery, the mobile node needs to
   know the DNS server address.  The details of how the MN is configured
   with the DNS server address are outside the scope of this document.

4.4.  HoA and IKEv2 SA Bootstrapping in the Integrated Scenario

   In the integrated scenario, the HoA, IPsec Security Association
   setup, and Authentication and Authorization with the MSA are
   bootstrapped via the same mechanism as described in the bootstrapping
   solution for the split scenario [RFC5026].

5.  Security Considerations

   The transport of the assigned home agent information via the AAA
   infrastructure (i.e., from the AAA server to the AAA client) to the
   NAS may only be integrity protected as per standard Diameter or other
   AAA protocol security mechanisms.  No additional security
   considerations are imposed by the usage of this document.  The
   security mechanisms provided by [RFC3588] are applicable for this
   purpose.  This document does not introduce any new security issues to
   Mobile IPv6.

6.  Acknowledgements

   The authors would like to thank Kilian Weniger, Vidya Narayanan, and
   George Tsirtsis for their review and comments.  Thanks to Alfred
   Hoenes for thorough review and valuable suggestions to improve the
   readability of the document.

7.  Contributors

   This contribution is a joint effort of the bootstrapping solution
   design team of the MEXT WG.  The contributors include Jari Arkko,
   Julien Bournelle, Kuntal Chowdhury, Vijay Devarapalli, Gopal Dommety,
   Gerardo Giaretta, Junghoon Jee, James Kempf, Alpesh Patel, Basavaraj
   Patil, Hannes Tschofenig, and Alper Yegin.

   The design team members can be reached at the following email
   addresses:

      Jari Arkko            jari.arkko@kolumbus.fi
      Julien Bournelle      julien.bournelle@orange-ftgroup.com
      Kuntal Chowdhury      kc@radiomobiles.com
      Vijay Devarapalli     Vijay.Devarapalli@AzaireNet.com
      Gopal Dommety         dommety@yahoo.com
      Gerardo Giaretta      gerardog@qualcomm.com
      Junghoon Jee          jhjee@etri.re.kr
      James Kempf           kempf@docomolabs-usa.com
      Alpesh Patel          alpesh@cisco.com
      Basavaraj Patil       basavaraj.patil@nsn.com
      Hannes Tschofenig     hannes.tschofenig@nsn.com
      Alper Yegin           alper.yegin@yegin.org

8.  References

8.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC3315]  Droms, R., Bound, J., Volz, B., Lemon, T., Perkins, C.,
              and M. Carney, "Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for
              IPv6 (DHCPv6)", RFC 3315, July 2003.

   [RFC3588]  Calhoun, P., Loughney, J., Guttman, E., Zorn, G., and J.
              Arkko, "Diameter Base Protocol", RFC 3588, September 2003.

   [RFC5026]  Giaretta, G., Kempf, J., and V. Devarapalli, "Mobile IPv6
              Bootstrapping in Split Scenario", RFC 5026, October 2007.

   [RFC5447]  Korhonen, J., Bournelle, J., Tschofenig, H., Perkins, C.,
              and K. Chowdhury, "Diameter Mobile IPv6: Support for
              Network Access Server to Diameter Server Interaction",
              RFC 5447, February 2009.

   [RFC6275]  Perkins, C., Johnson, D., and J. Arkko, "Mobility Support
              in IPv6", RFC 6275, July 2011.

   [RFC6610]  Jang, H., Yegin, A., Chowdhury, K., Choi, J., and T.
              Lemon, "DHCP Option for Home Agent Discovery in Mobile
              IPv6 (MIPv6)", RFC 6610, May 2012.

8.2.  Informative References

   [RFC3753]  Manner, J. and M. Kojo, "Mobility Related Terminology",
              RFC 3753, June 2004.

   [RFC4301]  Kent, S. and K. Seo, "Security Architecture for the
              Internet Protocol", RFC 4301, December 2005.

   [RFC4640]  Patel, A. and G. Giaretta, "Problem Statement for
              bootstrapping Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6)", RFC 4640,
              September 2006.

Authors' Addresses

   Kuntal Chowdhury (editor)
   Radio Mobile Access, Inc.
   100 Ames Pond Dr.
   Tewksbury MA 01876

   EMail: kc@radiomobiles.com

   Alper Yegin
   Samsung
   Istanbul
   Turkey

   EMail: alper.yegin@yegin.org

 

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