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RFC 6195 - Domain Name System (DNS) IANA Considerations

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Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)                   D. Eastlake 3rd
Request for Comments: 6195                                        Huawei
BCP: 42                                                       March 2011
Obsoletes: 5395
Updates: 1183, 3597
Category: Best Current Practice
ISSN: 2070-1721

              Domain Name System (DNS) IANA Considerations


   This document specifies Internet Assigned Number Authority (IANA)
   parameter assignment considerations for the allocation of Domain Name
   System (DNS) resource record types, CLASSes, operation codes, error
   codes, DNS protocol message header bits, and AFSDB resource record

Status of This Memo

   This memo documents an Internet Best Current Practice.

   This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force
   (IETF).  It represents the consensus of the IETF community.  It has
   received public review and has been approved for publication by the
   Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG).  Further information on
   BCPs is available in Section 2 of RFC 5741.

   Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
   and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2011 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1. Introduction ....................................................2
      1.1. Terminology ................................................3
   2. DNS Query/Response Headers ......................................3
      2.1. One Spare Bit? .............................................4
      2.2. OpCode Assignment ..........................................4
      2.3. RCODE Assignment ...........................................4
   3. DNS Resource Records ............................................6
      3.1. RRTYPE IANA Considerations .................................7
           3.1.1. DNS RRTYPE Allocation Policy ........................8
           3.1.2. DNS RRTYPE Expert Guidelines ........................9
           3.1.3. Special Note on the OPT RR ..........................9
           3.1.4. The AFSDB RR Subtype Field .........................10
      3.2. RR CLASS IANA Considerations ..............................10
      3.3. Label Considerations ......................................12
           3.3.1. Label Types ........................................12
           3.3.2. Label Contents and Use .............................12
   4. Security Considerations ........................................13
   5. IANA Considerations ............................................13
   Appendix A. RRTYPE Allocation Template ............................14
   Appendix B. Changes from RFC 5395 .................................15
   Normative References ..............................................15
   Informative References ............................................16

1.  Introduction

   The Domain Name System (DNS) provides replicated distributed secure
   hierarchical databases that store "resource records" (RRs) under
   domain names.  DNS data is structured into CLASSes and zones that can
   be independently maintained.  Familiarity with  [RFC1034], [RFC1035],
   [RFC2136], [RFC2181], and [RFC4033] is assumed.

   This document provides, either directly or by reference, the general
   IANA parameter assignment considerations that apply across DNS query
   and response headers and all RRs.  There may be additional IANA
   considerations that apply to only a particular RRTYPE or
   query/response OpCode.  See the specific RFC defining that RRTYPE or
   query/response OpCode for such considerations if they have been
   defined, except for AFSDB RR considerations [RFC1183], which are
   included herein.  This RFC obsoletes [RFC5395]; however, the only
   significant change is the change to the public review mailing list to

   IANA currently maintains a web page of DNS parameters available from

1.1.  Terminology

   "Standards Action", "IETF Review", "Specification Required", and
   "Private Use" are as defined in [RFC5226].

2.  DNS Query/Response Headers

   The header for DNS queries and responses contains field/bits in the
   following diagram taken from [RFC2136] and [RFC5395]:

                                           1  1  1  1  1  1
             0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  0  1  2  3  4  5
            |                      ID                       |
            |QR|   OpCode  |AA|TC|RD|RA| Z|AD|CD|   RCODE   |
            |                QDCOUNT/ZOCOUNT                |
            |                ANCOUNT/PRCOUNT                |
            |                NSCOUNT/UPCOUNT                |
            |                    ARCOUNT                    |

   The ID field identifies the query and is echoed in the response so
   they can be matched.

   The QR bit indicates whether the header is for a query or a response.

   The AA, TC, RD, RA, AD, and CD bits are each theoretically meaningful
   only in queries or only in responses, depending on the bit.  However,
   some DNS implementations copy the query header as the initial value
   of the response header without clearing bits.  Thus, any attempt to
   use a "query" bit with a different meaning in a response or to define
   a query meaning for a "response" bit is dangerous, given existing
   implementation.  Such meanings may only be assigned by a Standards

   The unsigned integer fields query count (QDCOUNT), answer count
   (ANCOUNT), authority count (NSCOUNT), and additional information
   count (ARCOUNT) express the number of records in each section for all
   OpCodes except Update [RFC2136].  These fields have the same
   structure and data type for Update but are instead the counts for the
   zone (ZOCOUNT), prerequisite (PRCOUNT), update (UPCOUNT), and
   additional information (ARCOUNT) sections.

2.1.  One Spare Bit?

   There have been ancient DNS implementations for which the Z bit being
   on in a query meant that only a response from the primary server for
   a zone is acceptable.  It is believed that current DNS
   implementations ignore this bit.

   Assigning a meaning to the Z bit requires a Standards Action.

2.2.  OpCode Assignment

   Currently, DNS OpCodes are assigned as follows:

      OpCode Name                              Reference

       0     Query                             [RFC1035]
       1     IQuery  (Inverse Query, Obsolete) [RFC3425]
       2     Status                            [RFC1035]
       3     available for assignment
       4     Notify                            [RFC1996]
       5     Update                            [RFC2136]
      6-15   available for assignment

      New OpCode assignments require a Standards Action as modified by

2.3.  RCODE Assignment

      It would appear from the DNS header above that only four bits of
      RCODE, or response/error code, are available.  However, RCODEs can
      appear not only at the top level of a DNS response but also inside
      OPT RRs [RFC2671], TSIG RRs [RFC2845], and TKEY RRs [RFC2930].
      The OPT RR provides an 8-bit extension resulting in a 12-bit RCODE
      field, and the TSIG and TKEY RRs have a 16-bit RCODE field.

      Error codes appearing in the DNS header and in these three RR
      types all refer to the same error code space with the single
      exception of error code 16, which has a different meaning in the
      OPT RR than in other contexts.  This duplicate assignment was
      accidental.  See table below.

          RCODE   Name    Description                        Reference
           0    NoError   No Error                           [RFC1035]
           1    FormErr   Format Error                       [RFC1035]
           2    ServFail  Server Failure                     [RFC1035]
           3    NXDomain  Non-Existent Domain                [RFC1035]
           4    NotImp    Not Implemented                    [RFC1035]
           5    Refused   Query Refused                      [RFC1035]
           6    YXDomain  Name Exists when it should not     [RFC2136]
           7    YXRRSet   RR Set Exists when it should not   [RFC2136]
           8    NXRRSet   RR Set that should exist does not  [RFC2136]
           9    NotAuth   Server Not Authoritative for zone  [RFC2136]
          10    NotZone   Name not contained in zone         [RFC2136]
          11 - 15         Available for assignment
          16    BADVERS   Bad OPT Version                    [RFC2671]
          16    BADSIG    TSIG Signature Failure             [RFC2845]
          17    BADKEY    Key not recognized                 [RFC2845]
          18    BADTIME   Signature out of time window       [RFC2845]
          19    BADMODE   Bad TKEY Mode                      [RFC2930]
          20    BADNAME   Duplicate key name                 [RFC2930]
          21    BADALG    Algorithm not supported            [RFC2930]
          22    BADTRUC   Bad Truncation                     [RFC4635]
          23 - 3,840
      0x0017 - 0x0F00     Available for assignment

       3,841 - 4,095
      0x0F01 - 0x0FFF     Private Use

       4,096 - 65,534
      0x1000 - 0xFFFE     Available for assignment

      0xFFFF              Reserved, can only be allocated by a
                          Standards Action.

      Since it is important that RCODEs be understood for
      interoperability, assignment of a new RCODE in the ranges listed
      above as "Available for assignment" requires an IETF Review.

3.  DNS Resource Records

      All RRs have the same top-level format, shown in the figure below
      taken from [RFC1035].

                                      1  1  1  1  1  1
        0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  0  1  2  3  4  5
      |                                               |
      /                                               /
      /                      NAME                     /
      /                                               /
      |                      TYPE                     |
      |                     CLASS                     |
      |                      TTL                      |
      |                                               |
      |                   RDLENGTH                    |
      /                     RDATA                     /
      /                                               /

   NAME is an owner name, i.e., the name of the node to which this
   resource record pertains.  NAMEs are specific to a CLASS as described
   in Section 3.2.  NAMEs consist of an ordered sequence of one or more
   labels, each of which has a label type [RFC1035] [RFC2671].

   TYPE is a 2-octet unsigned integer containing one of the RRTYPE
   codes.  See Section 3.1.

   CLASS is a 2-octet unsigned integer containing one of the RR CLASS
   codes.  See Section 3.2.

   TTL is a 4-octet (32-bit) unsigned integer that specifies, for data
   TYPEs, the number of seconds that the resource record may be cached
   before the source of the information should again be consulted.  Zero
   is interpreted to mean that the RR can only be used for the
   transaction in progress.

   RDLENGTH is an unsigned 16-bit integer that specifies the length in
   octets of the RDATA field.

   RDATA is a variable-length string of octets that constitutes the
   resource.  The format of this information varies according to the
   TYPE and, in some cases, the CLASS of the resource record.

3.1.  RRTYPE IANA Considerations

   There are three subcategories of RRTYPE numbers: data TYPEs, QTYPEs,
   and Meta-TYPEs.

   Data TYPEs are the means of storing data.  QTYPES can only be used in
   queries.  Meta-TYPEs designate transient data associated with a
   particular DNS message and, in some cases, can also be used in
   queries.   Thus far, data TYPEs have been assigned from 1 upward,
   plus the block from 100 through 103, and from 32,768 upward, while Q
   and Meta-TYPEs have been assigned from 255 downward except for the
   OPT Meta-RR, which is assigned TYPE 41.  There have been DNS
   implementations that made caching decisions based on the top bit of
   the bottom byte of the RRTYPE.

   There are currently three Meta-TYPEs assigned: OPT [RFC2671], TSIG
   [RFC2845], and TKEY [RFC2930].  There are currently five QTYPEs
   assigned: * (ALL), MAILA, MAILB, AXFR, and IXFR.

   RRTYPEs have mnemonics that must be completely disjoint from the
   mnemonics used for CLASSes and that must match the following regular


   Considerations for the allocation of new RRTYPEs are as follows:


   0x0000 - RRTYPE zero is used as a special indicator for the SIG (0)
            RR [RFC2931] [RFC4034] and in other circumstances, and it
            must never be allocated for ordinary use.

        1 - 127
   0x0001 - 0x007F - Remaining RRTYPEs in this range are assigned for
            data TYPEs by the DNS RRTYPE Allocation Policy as specified
            in Section 3.1.1.

      128 - 255
   0x0080 - 0x00FF - Remaining RRTYPEs in this range are assigned for Q
            and Meta-TYPEs by the DNS RRTYPE Allocation Policy as
            specified in Section 3.1.1.

      256 - 61,439
   0x0100 - 0xEFFF - Remaining RRTYPEs in this range are assigned for
            data RRTYPEs by the DNS RRTYPE Allocation Policy as
            specified in Section 3.1.1.  (32,768 and 32,769 (0x8000 and
            0x8001) have been assigned.)

   61,440 - 65,279
   0xF000 - 0xFEFF - Reserved for future use.  IETF Review required to
            define use.

   65,280 - 65,534
   0xFF00 - 0xFFFE - Private Use.

   0xFFFF - Reserved, can only be assigned by a Standards Action.

3.1.1.  DNS RRTYPE Allocation Policy

   Parameter values specified in Section 3.1 above, as assigned based on
   DNS RRTYPE Allocation Policy, are allocated by Expert Review if they
   meet the two requirements listed below.  There will be a pool of a
   small number of Experts appointed by the IESG.  Each application will
   be ruled on by an Expert selected by IANA.  In any case where the
   selected Expert is unavailable or states they have a conflict of
   interest, IANA may select another Expert from the pool.

   Some guidelines for the Experts are given in Section 3.1.2.  RRTYPEs
   that do not meet the requirements below may nonetheless be allocated
   by a Standards Action as modified by [RFC4020].

   1.  A complete template as specified in Appendix A has been posted
       for three weeks to the dnsext@ietf.org mailing list before the
       Expert Review decision.

       Note that partially completed or draft templates may be posted
       directly by the applicant for comment and discussion, but the
       formal posting to start the three-week period is made by the

   2.  The RR for which an RRTYPE code is being requested is either (a)
       a data TYPE that can be handled as an Unknown RR as described in
       [RFC3597] or (b) a Meta-TYPE whose processing is optional, i.e.,
       it is safe to simply discard RRs with that Meta-TYPE in queries
       or responses.

      Note that such RRs may include additional section processing,
      provided such processing is optional.

   After the applicant posts their formal application with their
   template as specified in Appendix A, IANA appoints an Expert and the
   template is posted, with an indication that it is a formal
   application, to the dnsext@ietf.org mailing list.  No less than three
   weeks and no more than six weeks after this posting to
   dnsext@ietf.org, the selected Expert shall post a message, explicitly
   accepting or rejecting the application, to IANA, dnsext@ietf.org, and
   the email address provided by the applicant.  If the Expert does not
   post such a message, the application shall be considered rejected but
   may be resubmitted to IANA.  IANA should report non-responsive
   Experts to the IESG.

   IANA shall maintain a public archive of approved templates.

3.1.2.  DNS RRTYPE Expert Guidelines

   The selected DNS RRTYPE Expert is required to monitor discussion of
   the proposed RRTYPE, which may occur on the dnsext@ietf.org mailing
   list, and may consult with other technical experts as necessary.  The
   Expert should normally reject any RRTYPE allocation request that
   meets one or more of the following criteria:

   1.  Was documented in a manner that was not sufficiently clear to
       evaluate or implement.

   2.  The proposed RRTYPE or RRTYPEs affect DNS processing and do not
       meet the criteria in point 2 of Section 3.1.1 above.

   3.  The documentation of the proposed RRTYPE or RRTYPEs is
       incomplete.  (Additional documentation can be provided during the
       public comment period or by the Expert.)

   4.  Application use as documented makes incorrect assumptions about
       DNS protocol behavior, such as wild cards, CNAME, DNAME, etc.

   5.  An excessive number of RRTYPE values is being requested when the
       purpose could be met with a smaller number or with Private Use

3.1.3.  Special Note on the OPT RR

    The OPT (OPTion) RR (RRTYPE 41) and its IANA considerations are
    specified in [RFC2671].  Its primary purpose is to extend the
    effective field size of various DNS fields including RCODE, label
    type, OpCode, flag bits, and RDATA size.  In particular, for
    resolvers and servers that recognize it, it extends the RCODE field
    from 4 to 12 bits.

3.1.4.  The AFSDB RR Subtype Field

    The AFSDB RR [RFC1183] is a CLASS-insensitive RR that has the same
    RDATA field structure as the MX RR [RFC1035], but the 16-bit
    unsigned integer field at the beginning of the RDATA is interpreted
    as a subtype as follows:


   0x0000 - Reserved; allocation requires a Standards Action.

   0x0001 - Andrews File Service v3.0 Location Service [RFC1183].

   0x0002 - DCE/NCA root cell directory node [RFC1183].

        3 - 65,279
   0x0003 - 0xFEFF - Allocation by IETF Review.

   65,280 - 65,534
   0xFF00 - 0xFFFE - Private Use.

   0xFFFF - Reserved; allocation requires a Standards Action.

3.2.  RR CLASS IANA Considerations

   There are currently two subcategories of DNS CLASSes: normal, data-
   containing classes and QCLASSes that are only meaningful in queries
   or updates.

   DNS CLASSes have been little used but constitute another dimension of
   the DNS distributed database.  In particular, there is no necessary
   relationship between the name space or root servers for one data
   CLASS and those for another data CLASS.  The same DNS NAME can have
   completely different meanings in different CLASSes.  The label types
   are the same, and the null label is usable only as root in every
   CLASS.  As global networking and DNS have evolved, the IN, or
   Internet, CLASS has dominated DNS use.

   As yet, there has not been a requirement for "meta-CLASSes".  That
   would be a CLASS to designate transient data associated with a
   particular DNS message, which might be usable in queries.  However,
   it is possible that there might be a future requirement for one or
   more "meta-CLASSes".

   CLASSes have mnemonics that must be completely disjoint from the
   mnemonics used for RRTYPEs and that must match the following regular


   The current CLASS assignments and considerations for future
   assignments are as follows:


   0x0000 - Reserved; assignment requires a Standards Action.

   0x0001 - Internet (IN).

   0x0002 - Available for assignment by IETF Review as a data CLASS.

   0x0003 - Chaos (CH) [Moon1981].

   0x0004 - Hesiod (HS) [Dyer1987].

        5 - 127
   0x0005 - 0x007F - Available for assignment by IETF Review for data
            CLASSes only.

      128 - 253
   0x0080 - 0x00FD - Available for assignment by IETF Review for
            QCLASSes and meta-CLASSes only.

   0x00FE - QCLASS NONE [RFC2136].

   0x00FF - QCLASS * (ANY) [RFC1035].

      256 - 32,767
   0x0100 - 0x7FFF - Assigned by IETF Review.

   32,768 - 57,343
   0x8000 - 0xDFFF - Assigned for data CLASSes only, based on
            Specification Required as defined in [RFC5226].

   57,344 - 65,279
   0xE000 - 0xFEFF - Assigned for QCLASSes and meta-CLASSes only, based
            on Specification Required as defined in [RFC5226].

   65,280 - 65,534
   0xFF00 - 0xFFFE - Private Use.

   0xFFFF - Reserved; can only be assigned by a Standards Action.

3.3.  Label Considerations

   DNS NAMEs are sequences of labels [RFC1035].

3.3.1.  Label Types

   At the present time, there are two categories of label types: data
   labels and compression labels.  Compression labels are pointers to
   data labels elsewhere within an RR or DNS message and are intended to
   shorten the wire encoding of NAMEs.

   The two existing data label types are sometimes referred to as Text
   and Binary.  Text labels can, in fact, include any octet value
   including zero-value octets, but many current uses involve only
   [US-ASCII].  For retrieval, Text labels are defined to treat ASCII
   upper and lower case letter codes as matching [RFC4343].  Binary
   labels are bit sequences [RFC2673].  The Binary label type is
   Experimental [RFC3363].

   IANA considerations for label types are given in [RFC2671].

3.3.2.  Label Contents and Use

   The last label in each NAME is "ROOT", which is the zero-length
   label.  By definition, the null or ROOT label cannot be used for any
   other NAME purpose.

   NAMEs are local to a CLASS.  The Hesiod [Dyer1987] and Chaos
   [Moon1981] CLASSes are for essentially local use.  The IN, or
   Internet, CLASS is thus the only DNS CLASS in global use on the
   Internet at this time.

   A somewhat out-of-date description of name allocation in the IN Class
   is given in [RFC1591].  Some information on reserved top-level domain
   names is in BCP 32 [RFC2606].

4.  Security Considerations

   This document addresses IANA considerations in the allocation of
   general DNS parameters, not security.  See [RFC4033], [RFC4034], and
   [RFC4035] for secure DNS considerations.

5.  IANA Considerations

   This document consists entirely of DNS IANA Considerations.

   IANA has established a process for accepting Appendix A templates and
   selecting an Expert from those appointed to review such template form
   applications.  IANA archives and makes available all approved RRTYPE
   allocation templates.  It is the duty of the applicant to post the
   formal application template to the dns-rrtype-applications@ietf.org
   mailing list, which IANA will monitor.  The dnsext@ietf.org mailing
   list is for community discussion and comment.  See Section 3.1 and
   Appendix A for more details.

Appendix A.  RRTYPE Allocation Template


   When ready for formal consideration, this template is to be submitted
   to IANA for processing by emailing the template to

   A. Submission Date:

   B. Submission Type:
      [ ] New RRTYPE
      [ ] Modification to existing RRTYPE

   C. Contact Information for submitter (will be publicly posted):
         Email Address:
         International telephone number:
         Other contact handles:

   D. Motivation for the new RRTYPE application.
      Please keep this part at a high level to inform the Expert and
      reviewers about uses of the RRTYPE.  Most reviewers will be DNS
      experts that may have limited knowledge of your application space.

   E. Description of the proposed RR type.
      This description can be provided in-line in the template, as an
      attachment, or with a publicly available URL.

   F. What existing RRTYPE or RRTYPEs come closest to filling that need
      and why are they unsatisfactory?

   G. What mnemonic is requested for the new RRTYPE (optional)?
      Note: this can be left blank and the mnemonic decided after the
      template is accepted.

   H. Does the requested RRTYPE make use of any existing IANA registry
      or require the creation of a new IANA sub-registry in DNS
      Parameters?  If so, please indicate which registry is to be used
      or created.  If a new sub-registry is needed, specify the
      allocation policy for it and its initial contents.  Also include
      what the modification procedures will be.

   I. Does the proposal require/expect any changes in DNS
      servers/resolvers that prevent the new type from being processed
      as an unknown RRTYPE (see [RFC3597])?

   J. Comments:

Appendix B.  Changes From RFC 5395

   Replaced "namedroppers@ops.ietf.org" with "dnsext@ietf.org".

   Dropped description of changes from RFC 2929 to RFC 5395 since those
   changes have already happened, and we don't need to do them again.

   Updated the boilerplate text.

   Fixed Section 5 to say that it is the duty of the applicant, not the
   expert, to post the application to dns-rrtype-applications@ietf.org.

   Changed the regular expression for RRTYPE and CLASS names so as to
   prohibit trailing hyphen ("-") and require a minimum length of 2

   Made a number of minor editorial and typos fixes.

Normative References

   [RFC1034]  Mockapetris, P., "Domain names - concepts and facilities",
              STD 13, RFC 1034, November 1987.

   [RFC1035]  Mockapetris, P., "Domain names - implementation and
              specification", STD 13, RFC 1035, November 1987.

   [RFC1996]  Vixie, P., "A Mechanism for Prompt Notification of Zone
              Changes (DNS NOTIFY)", RFC 1996, August 1996.

   [RFC2136]  Vixie, P., Ed., Thomson, S., Rekhter, Y., and J. Bound,
              "Dynamic Updates in the Domain Name System (DNS UPDATE)",
              RFC 2136, April 1997.

   [RFC2181]  Elz, R. and R. Bush, "Clarifications to the DNS
              Specification", RFC 2181, July 1997.

   [RFC2671]  Vixie, P., "Extension Mechanisms for DNS (EDNS0)", RFC
              2671, August 1999.

   [RFC2845]  Vixie, P., Gudmundsson, O., Eastlake 3rd, D., and B.
              Wellington, "Secret Key Transaction Authentication for DNS
              (TSIG)", RFC 2845, May 2000.

   [RFC2930]  Eastlake 3rd, D., "Secret Key Establishment for DNS (TKEY
              RR)", RFC 2930, September 2000.

   [RFC3425]  Lawrence, D., "Obsoleting IQUERY", RFC 3425, November

   [RFC3597]  Gustafsson, A., "Handling of Unknown DNS Resource Record
              (RR) Types", RFC 3597, September 2003.

   [RFC4020]  Kompella, K. and A. Zinin, "Early IANA Allocation of
              Standards Track Code Points", BCP 100, RFC 4020, February

   [RFC4033]  Arends, R., Austein, R., Larson, M., Massey, D., and S.
              Rose, "DNS Security Introduction and Requirements", RFC
              4033, March 2005.

   [RFC4034]  Arends, R., Austein, R., Larson, M., Massey, D., and S.
              Rose, "Resource Records for the DNS Security Extensions",
              RFC 4034, March 2005.

   [RFC4035]  Arends, R., Austein, R., Larson, M., Massey, D., and S.
              Rose, "Protocol Modifications for the DNS Security
              Extensions", RFC 4035, March 2005.

   [RFC4635]  Eastlake 3rd, D., "HMAC SHA (Hashed Message Authentication
              Code, Secure Hash Algorithm) TSIG Algorithm Identifiers",
              RFC 4635, August 2006.

   [RFC5226]  Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an
              IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 5226,
              May 2008.

   [US-ASCII] ANSI, "USA Standard Code for Information Interchange",
              X3.4, American National Standards Institute: New York,

Informative References

   [Dyer1987] Dyer, S., and F. Hsu, "Hesiod", Project Athena Technical
              Plan - Name Service, April 1987.

   [Moon1981] Moon, D., "Chaosnet", A.I. Memo 628, Massachusetts
              Institute of Technology Artificial Intelligence
              Laboratory, June 1981.

   [RFC1183]  Everhart, C., Mamakos, L., Ullmann, R., and P.
              Mockapetris, "New DNS RR Definitions", RFC 1183, October

   [RFC1591]  Postel, J., "Domain Name System Structure and Delegation",
              RFC 1591, March 1994.

   [RFC2606]  Eastlake 3rd, D. and A. Panitz, "Reserved Top Level DNS
              Names", BCP 32, RFC 2606, June 1999.

   [RFC2673]  Crawford, M., "Binary Labels in the Domain Name System",
              RFC 2673, August 1999.

   [RFC2931]  Eastlake 3rd, D., "DNS Request and Transaction Signatures
              ( SIG(0)s )", RFC 2931, September 2000.

   [RFC3363]  Bush, R., Durand, A., Fink, B., Gudmundsson, O., and T.
              Hain, "Representing Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6)
              Addresses in the Domain Name System (DNS)", RFC 3363,
              August 2002.

   [RFC4343]  Eastlake 3rd, D., "Domain Name System (DNS) Case
              Insensitivity Clarification", RFC 4343, January 2006.

   [RFC5395]  Eastlake 3rd, D., "Domain Name System (DNS) IANA
              Considerations", BCP 42, RFC 5395, November 2008.

Author's Address

   Donald E. Eastlake 3rd
   Huawei Technologies
   155 Beaver Street
   Milford, MA 01757 USA

   Phone: +1-508-333-2270
   EMail: d3e3e3@gmail.com


User Contributions:

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