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RFC 5826 - Home Automation Routing Requirements in Low-Power and


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Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)                         A. Brandt
Request for Comments: 5826                                      J. Buron
Category: Informational                              Sigma Designs, Inc.
ISSN: 2070-1721                                                 G. Porcu
                                                          Telecom Italia
                                                              April 2010

  Home Automation Routing Requirements in Low-Power and Lossy Networks

Abstract

   This document presents requirements specific to home control and
   automation applications for Routing Over Low power and Lossy (ROLL)
   networks.  In the near future, many homes will contain high numbers
   of wireless devices for a wide set of purposes.  Examples include
   actuators (relay, light dimmer, heating valve), sensors (wall switch,
   water leak, blood pressure), and advanced controllers (radio-
   frequency-based AV remote control, central server for light and heat
   control).  Because such devices only cover a limited radio range,
   routing is often required.  The aim of this document is to specify
   the routing requirements for networks comprising such constrained
   devices in a home-control and automation environment.

Status of This Memo

   This document is not an Internet Standards Track specification; it is
   published for informational purposes.

   This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force
   (IETF).  It represents the consensus of the IETF community.  It has
   received public review and has been approved for publication by the
   Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG).  Not all documents
   approved by the IESG are a candidate for any level of Internet
   Standard; see Section 2 of RFC 5741.

   Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
   and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
   http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5286.

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   document authors.  All rights reserved.

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Table of Contents

   1. Introduction ....................................................3
      1.1. Terminology ................................................4
      1.2. Requirements Language ......................................6
   2. Home Automation Applications ....................................6
      2.1. Lighting Application in Action .............................6
      2.2. Energy Conservation and Optimizing Energy Consumption ......6
      2.3. Moving a Remote Control Around .............................7
      2.4. Adding a New Module to the System ..........................7
      2.5. Controlling Battery-Operated Window Shades .................8
      2.6. Remote Video Surveillance ..................................8
      2.7. Healthcare .................................................9
           2.7.1. At-Home Health Reporting ...........................10
           2.7.2. At-Home Health Monitoring ..........................10
      2.8. Alarm Systems .............................................10
   3. Unique Routing Requirements of Home Automation Applications ....11
      3.1. Constraint-Based Routing ..................................12
      3.2. Support of Mobility .......................................12
      3.3. Scalability ...............................................13
      3.4. Convergence Time ..........................................13
      3.5. Manageability .............................................14
      3.6. Stability .................................................14
   4. Traffic Pattern ................................................14
   5. Security Considerations ........................................15
   6. Acknowledgments ................................................16
   7. References .....................................................16
      7.1. Normative References ......................................16
      7.2. Informative References ....................................17

1.  Introduction

   This document presents requirements specific to home control and
   automation applications for Routing Over Low power and Lossy (ROLL)
   networks.  In the near future, many homes will contain high numbers
   of wireless devices for a wide set of purposes.  Examples include
   actuators (relay, light dimmer, heating valve), sensors (wall switch,
   water leak, blood pressure), and advanced controllers.  Basic home-
   control modules such as wall switches and plug-in modules may be
   turned into an advanced home automation solution via the use of an
   IP-enabled application responding to events generated by wall
   switches, motion sensors, light sensors, rain sensors, and so on.

   Network nodes may be sensors and actuators at the same time.  An
   example is a wall switch for replacement in existing homes.  The push
   buttons may generate events for a controller node or for activating
   other actuator nodes.  At the same time, a built-in relay may act as
   actuator for a controller or other remote sensors.

   Because ROLL nodes only cover a limited radio range, routing is often
   required.  These devices are usually highly constrained in terms of
   resources such as battery and memory and operate in unstable
   environments.  Persons moving around in a house, opening or closing a
   door, or starting a microwave oven affect the reception of weak radio
   signals.  Reflection and absorption may cause a reliable radio link
   to turn unreliable for a period of time and then become reusable
   again, thus the term "lossy".  All traffic in a ROLL network is
   carried as IPv6 packets.

   The connected home area is very much consumer oriented.  The
   implication on network nodes is that devices are very cost sensitive,
   which leads to resource-constrained environments having slow CPUs and
   small memory footprints.  At the same time, nodes have to be
   physically small, which puts a limit to the physical size of the
   battery, and thus, the battery capacity.  As a result, it is common
   for battery-operated, sensor-style nodes to shut down radio and CPU
   resources for most of the time.  The radio tends to use the same
   power for listening as for transmitting.

   Although this document focuses its text on radio-based wireless
   networks, home-automation networks may also operate using a variety
   of links, such as IEEE 802.15.4, Bluetooth, Low-Power WiFi, wired or
   other low-power PLC (Power-Line Communication) links.  Many such low-
   power link technologies share similar characteristics with low-power
   wireless and this document should be regarded as applying equally to
   all such links.

   Section 2 describes a few typical use cases for home automation
   applications.  Section 3 discusses the routing requirements for
   networks comprising such constrained devices in a home network
   environment.  These requirements may be overlapping requirements
   derived from other application-specific routing requirements
   presented in [BUILDING-REQS], [RFC5673], and [RFC5548].

   A full list of requirements documents may be found in Section 7.

1.1.  Terminology

   ROLL:          Routing Over Low-power and Lossy networks.  A ROLL
                  node may be classified as a sensor, actuator, or
                  controller.

   Actuator:      Network node that performs some physical action.
                  Dimmers and relays are examples of actuators.  If
                  sufficiently powered, actuator nodes may participate
                  in routing network messages.

   Border router: Infrastructure device that connects a ROLL network to
                  the Internet or some backbone network.

   Channel:       Radio frequency band used to carry network packets.

   Controller:    Network node that controls actuators.  Control
                  decisions may be based on sensor readings, sensor
                  events, scheduled actions, or incoming commands from
                  the Internet or other backbone networks.  If
                  sufficiently powered, controller nodes may participate
                  in routing network messages.

   Downstream:    Data direction traveling from a Local Area Network
                  (LAN) to a Personal Area Network (PAN) device.

   DR:            Demand-Response.  The mechanism of users adjusting
                  their power consumption in response to the actual
                  pricing of power.

   DSM:           Demand-Side Management.  Process allowing power
                  utilities to enable and disable loads in consumer
                  premises.  Where DR relies on voluntary action from
                  users, DSM may be based on enrollment in a formal
                  program.

   LLNs:          Low-Power and Lossy Networks.

   LAN:           Local Area Network.

   PAN:           Personal Area Network.  A geographically limited
                  wireless network based on, e.g., 802.15.4 or Z-Wave
                  radio.

   PDA            Personal Digital Assistant.  A small, handheld
                  computer.

   PLC            Power-Line Communication.

   RAM            Random Access Memory.

   Sensor:        Network node that measures some physical parameter
                  and/or detects an event.  The sensor may generate a
                  trap message to notify a controller or directly
                  activate an actuator.  If sufficiently powered, sensor
                  nodes may participate in routing network messages.

   Upstream:      Data direction traveling from a PAN to a LAN device.

   Refer to the ROLL terminology reference document [ROLL-TERM] for a
   full list of terms used in the IETF ROLL WG.

1.2.  Requirements Language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

2.  Home Automation Applications

   Home automation applications represent a special segment of networked
   devices with its unique set of requirements.  Historically, such
   applications used wired networks or power-line communication (PLC)
   but wireless solutions have emerged, allowing existing homes to be
   upgraded more easily.

   To facilitate the requirements discussion in Section 3, this section
   lists a few typical use cases of home automation applications.  New
   applications are being developed at a high pace and this section does
   not mean to be exhaustive.  Most home automation applications tend to
   be running some kind of command/response protocol.  The command may
   come from several places.

2.1.  Lighting Application in Action

   A lamp may be turned on, not only by a wall switch but also by a
   movement sensor.  The wall-switch module may itself be a push-button
   sensor and an actuator at the same time.  This will often be the case
   when upgrading existing homes as existing wiring is not prepared for
   automation.

   One event may cause many actuators to be activated at the same time.

   Using the direct analogy to an electronic car key, a house owner may
   activate the "leaving home" function from an electronic house key,
   mobile phone, etc.  For the sake of visual impression, all lights
   should turn off at the same time; at least, it should appear to
   happen at the same time.

2.2.  Energy Conservation and Optimizing Energy Consumption

   In order to save energy, air conditioning, central heating, window
   shades, etc., may be controlled by timers, motion sensors, or
   remotely via Internet or cell.  Central heating may also be set to a
   reduced temperature during nighttime.

   The power grid may experience periods where more wind-generated power
   is produced than is needed.  Typically this may happen during night
   hours.

   In periods where electricity demands exceed available supply,
   appliances such as air conditioning, climate-control systems, washing
   machines, etc., can be turned off to avoid overloading the power
   grid.

   This is known as Demand-Side Management (DSM).  Remote control of
   household appliances is well-suited for this application.

   The start/stop decision for the appliances can also be regulated by
   dynamic power pricing information obtained from the electricity
   utility companies.  This method, called Demand-Response (DR), works
   by motivation of users via pricing, bonus points, etc.  For example,
   the washing machine and dish washer may just as well work while power
   is cheap.  The electric car should also charge its batteries on cheap
   power.

   In order to achieve effective electricity savings, the energy
   monitoring application must guarantee that the power consumption of
   the ROLL devices is much lower than that of the appliance itself.

   Most of these appliances are mains powered and are thus ideal for
   providing reliable, always-on routing resources.  Battery-powered
   nodes, by comparison, are constrained routing resources and may only
   provide reliable routing under some circumstances.

2.3.  Moving a Remote Control Around

   A remote control is a typical example of a mobile device in a home
   automation network.  An advanced remote control may be used for
   dimming the light in the dining room while eating and later on,
   turning up the music while doing the dishes in the kitchen.  Reaction
   must appear to be instant (within a few hundred milliseconds) even
   when the remote control has moved to a new location.  The remote
   control may be communicating to either a central home automation
   controller or directly to the lamps and the media center.

2.4.  Adding a New Module to the System

   Small-size, low-cost modules may have no user interface except for a
   single button.  Thus, an automated inclusion process is needed for
   controllers to find new modules.  Inclusion covers the detection of
   neighbors and the assignment of a unique node ID.  Inclusion should
   be completed within a few seconds.

   For ease of use in a consumer application space such as home control,
   nodes may be included without having to type in special codes before
   inclusion.  One way to achieve an acceptable balance between security
   and convenience is to block inclusion during normal operation,
   explicitly enable inclusion support just before adding a new module,
   and disable it again just after adding a new module.

   For security considerations, refer to Section 5.

   If assignment of unique addresses is performed by a central
   controller, it must be possible to route the inclusion request from
   the joining node to the central controller before the joining node
   has been included in the network.

2.5.  Controlling Battery-Operated Window Shades

   In consumer premises, window shades are often battery-powered as
   there is no access to mains power over the windows.  For battery
   conservation purposes, such an actuator node is sleeping most of the
   time.  A controller sending commands to a sleeping actuator node via
   ROLL devices will have no problems delivering the packet to the
   nearest powered router, but that router may experience a delay until
   the next wake-up time before the command can be delivered.

2.6.  Remote Video Surveillance

   Remote video surveillance is a fairly classic application for home
   networking.  It provides the ability for the end-user to get a video
   stream from a web cam reached via the Internet.  The video stream may
   be triggered by the end-user after receiving an alarm from a sensor
   (movement or smoke detector) or the user simply wants to check the
   home status via video.

   Note that in the former case, more than likely, there will be a form
   of inter-device communication: upon detecting some movement in the
   home, the movement sensor may send a request to the light controller
   to turn on the lights, to the Web Cam to start a video stream that
   would then be directed to the end-user's cell phone or Personal
   Digital Assistant (PDA) via the Internet.

   In contrast to other applications, e.g., industrial sensors, where
   data would mainly be originated by a sensor to a sink and vice versa,
   this scenario implicates a direct inter-device communication between
   ROLL devices.

2.7.  Healthcare

   By adding communication capability to devices, patients and elderly
   citizens may be able to do simple measurements at home.

   Thanks to online devices, a doctor can keep an eye on the patient's
   health and receive warnings if a new trend is discovered by automated
   filters.

   Fine-grained, daily measurements presented in proper ways may allow
   the doctor to establish a more precise diagnosis.

   Such applications may be realized as wearable products that
   frequently do a measurement and automatically deliver the result to a
   data sink locally or over the Internet.

   Applications falling in this category are referred to as at-home
   health reporting.  Whether measurements are done in a fixed interval
   or they are manually activated, they leave all processing to the
   receiving data sink.

   A more active category of applications may send an alarm if some
   alarm condition is triggered.  This category of applications is
   referred to as at-home health monitoring.  Measurements are
   interpreted in the device and may cause reporting of an event if an
   alarm is triggered.

   Many implementations may overlap both categories.

   Since wireless and battery operated systems may never reach 100%
   guaranteed operational time, healthcare and security systems will
   need a management layer implementing alarm mechanisms for low
   battery, report activity, etc.

   For instance, if a blood pressure sensor did not report a new
   measurement, say five minutes after the scheduled time, some
   responsible person must be notified.

   The structure and performance of such a management layer is outside
   the scope of the routing requirements listed in this document.

2.7.1.  At-Home Health Reporting

   Applications might include:

   o Temperature
   o Weight
   o Blood pressure
   o Insulin level

   Measurements may be stored for long-term statistics.  At the same
   time, a critically high blood pressure may cause the generation of an
   alarm report.  Refer to Section 2.7.2.

   To avoid a high number of request messages, nodes may be configured
   to autonomously do a measurement and send a report in intervals.

2.7.2.  At-Home Health Monitoring

   An alarm event may become active, e.g., if the measured blood
   pressure exceeds a threshold or if a person falls to the ground.
   Alarm conditions must be reported with the highest priority and
   timeliness.

   Applications might include:

   o Temperature
   o Weight
   o Blood pressure
   o Insulin level
   o Electrocardiogram (ECG)
   o Position tracker

2.8.  Alarm Systems

   A home security alarm system is comprised of various sensors
   (vibration, fire, carbon monoxide, door/window, glass-break,
   presence, panic button, etc.).

   Some smoke alarms are battery powered and at the same time mounted in
   a high place.  Battery-powered safety devices should only be used for
   routing if no other alternatives exist to avoid draining the battery.
   A smoke alarm with a drained battery does not provide a lot of
   safety.  Also, it may be inconvenient to change the batteries in a
   smoke alarm.

   Alarm system applications may have both a synchronous and an
   asynchronous behavior; i.e., they may be periodically queried by a
   central control application (e.g., for a periodical refreshment of
   the network state) or send a message to the control application on
   their own initiative.

   When a node (or a group of nodes) identifies a risk situation (e.g.,
   intrusion, smoke, fire), it sends an alarm message to a central
   controller that could autonomously forward it via the Internet or
   interact with other network nodes (e.g., try to obtain more detailed
   information or ask other nodes close to the alarm event).

   Finally, routing via battery-powered nodes may be very slow if the
   nodes are sleeping most of the time (they could appear unresponsive
   to the alarm detection).  To ensure fast message delivery and avoid
   battery drain, routing should be avoided via sleeping devices.

3.  Unique Routing Requirements of Home Automation Applications

   Home automation applications have a number of specific routing
   requirements related to the set of home networking applications and
   the perceived operation of the system.

   The relations of use cases to requirements are outlined in the table
   below:

   +------------------------------+-----------------------------+
   | Use case                     | Requirement                 |
   +------------------------------+-----------------------------+
   |2.1. Lighting Application in  |3.2. Support of Mobility     |
   |Action                        |3.3. Scalability             |
   +------------------------------+-----------------------------+
   |2.2. Energy Conservation and  |3.1. Constraint-Based Routing|
   |Optimizing Energy Consumption |                             |
   +------------------------------+-----------------------------+
   |2.3. Moving a Remote Control  |3.2. Support of Mobility     |
   |Around                        |3.4. Convergence Time        |
   +------------------------------+-----------------------------+
   |2.4. Adding a New Module to   |3.4. Convergence Time        |
   |the System                    |3.5. Manageability           |
   +------------------------------+-----------------------------+
   |2.7. Healthcare               |3.1. Constraint-Based Routing|
   |                              |3.2. Support of Mobility     |
   |                              |3.4. Convergence Time        |
   +------------------------------+-----------------------------+
   |2.8. Alarm Systems            |3.3. Scalability             |
   |                              |3.4. Convergence Time        |
   +------------------------------+-----------------------------+

3.1.  Constraint-Based Routing

   For convenience and low-operational costs, power consumption of
   consumer products must be kept at a very low level to achieve a long
   battery lifetime.  One implication of this fact is that Random Access
   Memory (RAM) is limited and it may even be powered down, leaving only
   a few 100 bytes of RAM alive during the sleep phase.

   The use of battery-powered devices reduces installation costs and
   does enable installation of devices even where main power lines are
   not available.  On the other hand, in order to be cost effective and
   efficient, the devices have to maximize the sleep phase with a duty
   cycle lower than 1%.

   Some devices only wake up in response to an event, e.g., a push
   button.

   Simple battery-powered nodes such as movement sensors on garage doors
   and rain sensors may not be able to assist in routing.  Depending on
   the node type, the node never listens at all, listens rarely, or
   makes contact on demand to a pre-configured target node.  Attempting
   to communicate with such nodes may at best require a long time before
   getting a response.

   Other battery-powered nodes may have the capability to participate in
   routing.  The routing protocol SHOULD route via mains-powered nodes
   if possible.

   The routing protocol MUST support constraint-based routing taking
   into account node properties (CPU, memory, level of energy, sleep
   intervals, safety/convenience of changing battery).

3.2.  Support of Mobility

   In a home environment, although the majority of devices are fixed
   devices, there is still a variety of mobile devices, for example, a
   remote control is likely to move.  Another example of mobile devices
   is wearable healthcare devices.

   While healthcare devices delivering measurement results can tolerate
   route discovery times measured in seconds, a remote control appears
   unresponsive if using more than 0.5 seconds to, e.g., pause the
   music.

   On more rare occasions, receiving nodes may also have moved.
   Examples include a safety-off switch in a clothes iron, a vacuum
   cleaner robot, or the wireless chime of doorbell set.

   Refer to Section 3.4 for routing protocol convergence times.

   A non-responsive node can either be caused by 1) a failure in the
   node, 2) a failed link on the path to the node, or 3) a moved node.
   In the first two cases, the node can be expected to reappear at
   roughly the same location in the network, whereas it can return
   anywhere in the network in the latter case.

3.3.  Scalability

   Looking at the number of wall switches, power outlets, sensors of
   various natures, video equipment, and so on in a modern house, it
   seems quite realistic that hundreds of devices may form a home-
   automation network in a fully populated "smart" home, and a large
   proportion of those may be low-power devices.  Moving towards
   professional-building automation, the number of such devices may be
   in the order of several thousands.

   The routing protocol needs to be able to support a basic home
   deployment and so MUST be able to support at least 250 devices in the
   network.  Furthermore, the protocol SHOULD be extensible to support
   more sophisticated and future deployments with a larger number of
   devices.

3.4.  Convergence Time

   A wireless home automation network is subject to various
   instabilities due to signal strength variation, moving persons, and
   the like.

   Measured from the transmission of a packet, the following convergence
   time requirements apply.

   The routing protocol MUST converge within 0.5 seconds if no nodes
   have moved (see Section 3.2 for motivation).

   The routing protocol MUST converge within four seconds if nodes have
   moved to re-establish connectivity within a time that a human
   operator would find tolerable as, for example, when moving a remote
   control unit.

   In both cases, "converge" means "the originator node has received a
   response from the destination node".  The above-mentioned convergence
   time requirements apply to a home control network environment of up
   to 250 nodes with up to four repeating nodes between source and
   destination.

3.5.  Manageability

   The ability of the home network to support auto-configuration is of
   the utmost importance.  Indeed, most end-users will not have the
   expertise and the skills to perform advanced configuration and
   troubleshooting.  Thus, the routing protocol designed for home-
   automation networks MUST provide a set of features including zero-
   configuration of the routing protocol for a new node to be added to
   the network.  From a routing perspective, zero-configuration means
   that a node can obtain an address and join the network on its own,
   almost without human intervention.

3.6.  Stability

   If a node is found to fail often compared to the rest of the network,
   this node SHOULD NOT be the first choice for routing of traffic.

4.  Traffic Pattern

   Depending on the design philosophy of the home network, wall switches
   may be configured to directly control individual lamps or
   alternatively, all wall switches send control commands to a central
   lighting control computer, which again sends out control commands to
   relevant devices.

   In a distributed system, the traffic tends to be multipoint-to-
   multipoint.  In a centralized system, it is a mix of multipoint-to-
   point and point-to-multipoint.

   Wall switches only generate traffic when activated, which typically
   happens from one to ten times per hour.

   Remote controls have a similar transmit pattern to wall switches but
   may be activated more frequently in some deployments.

   Temperature/air and pressure/rain sensors send frames when queried by
   the user or can be preconfigured to send measurements at fixed
   intervals (typically minutes).  Motion sensors typically send a frame
   when motion is first detected and another frame when an idle period
   with no movement has elapsed.  The highest transmission frequency
   depends on the idle period used in the sensor.  Sometimes, a timer
   will trigger a frame transmission when an extended period without
   status change has elapsed.

   All frames sent in the above examples are quite short, typically less
   than five bytes of payload.  Lost frames and interference from other
   transmitters may lead to retransmissions.  In all cases,
   acknowledgment frames with a size of a few bytes are used.

5.  Security Considerations

   As is the case with every network, LLNs are exposed to routing
   security threats that need to be addressed.  The wireless and
   distributed nature of these networks increases the spectrum of
   potential routing security threats.  This is further amplified by the
   resource constraints of the nodes, thereby preventing resource-
   intensive routing security approaches from being deployed.  A viable
   routing security approach SHOULD be sufficiently lightweight that it
   may be implemented across all nodes in a LLN.  These issues require
   special attention during the design process, so as to facilitate a
   commercially attractive deployment.

   An attacker can snoop, replay, or originate arbitrary messages to a
   node in an attempt to manipulate or disable the routing function.

   To mitigate this, the LLN MUST be able to authenticate a new node
   prior to allowing it to participate in the routing decision process.
   The routing protocol MUST support message integrity.

   A further example of routing security issues that may arise is the
   abnormal behavior of nodes that exhibit an egoistic conduct, such as
   not obeying network rules or forwarding no or false packets.

   Other important issues may arise in the context of denial-of-service
   (DoS) attacks, malicious address space allocations, advertisement of
   variable addresses, a wrong neighborhood, etc.  The routing
   protocol(s) SHOULD support defense against DoS attacks and other
   attempts to maliciously or inadvertently cause the mechanisms of the
   routing protocol(s) to over-consume the limited resources of LLN
   nodes, e.g., by constructing forwarding loops or causing excessive
   routing protocol overhead traffic, etc.

   The properties of self-configuration and self-organization that are
   desirable in a LLN introduce additional routing security
   considerations.  Mechanisms MUST be in place to deny any node that
   attempts to take malicious advantage of self-configuration and self-
   organization procedures.  Such attacks may attempt, for example, to
   cause DoS, drain the energy of power-constrained devices, or to
   hijack the routing mechanism.  A node MUST authenticate itself to a
   trusted node that is already associated with the LLN before the
   former can take part in self-configuration or self-organization.  A
   node that has already authenticated and associated with the LLN MUST
   deny, to the maximum extent possible, the allocation of resources to
   any unauthenticated peer.  The routing protocol(s) MUST deny service
   to any node that has not clearly established trust with the HC-LLN.

   In a home-control environment, it is considered unlikely that a
   network is constantly being snooped and at the same time, ease of use
   is important.  As a consequence, the network key MAY be exposed for
   short periods during inclusion of new nodes.

   Electronic door locks and other critical applications SHOULD apply
   end-to-end application security on top of the network transport
   security.

   If connected to a backbone network, the LLN SHOULD be capable of
   limiting the resources utilized by nodes in said backbone network so
   as not to be vulnerable to DoS.  This should typically be handled by
   border routers providing access from a backbone network to resources
   in the LLN.

   With low-computation power and scarce energy resources, LLNs' nodes
   may not be able to resist any attack from high-power malicious nodes
   (e.g., laptops and strong radios).  However, the amount of damage
   generated to the whole network SHOULD be commensurate with the number
   of nodes physically compromised.  For example, an intruder taking
   control over a single node SHOULD NOT be able to completely deny
   service to the whole network.

   In general, the routing protocol(s) SHOULD support the implementation
   of routing security best practices across the LLN.  Such an
   implementation ought to include defense against, for example,
   eavesdropping, replay, message insertion, modification, and man-in-
   the-middle attacks.

   The choice of the routing security solutions will have an impact on
   the routing protocol(s).  To this end, routing protocol(s) proposed
   in the context of LLNs MUST support authentication and integrity
   measures and SHOULD support confidentiality (routing security)
   measures.

6.  Acknowledgments

   J. P. Vasseur, Jonathan Hui, Eunsook "Eunah" Kim, Mischa Dohler, and
   Massimo Maggiorotti are gratefully acknowledged for their
   contributions to this document.

7.  References

7.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]       Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
                   Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

7.2.  Informative References

   [BUILDING-REQS] Martocci, J., Ed., De Mil, P., Vermeylen, W., and N.
                   Riou, "Building Automation Routing Requirements in
                   Low Power and Lossy Networks", Work in Progress,
                   January 2010.

   [RFC5548]       Dohler, M., Ed., Watteyne, T., Ed., Winter, T., Ed.,
                   and D. Barthel, Ed., "Routing Requirements for Urban
                   Low-Power and Lossy Networks", RFC 5548, May 2009.

   [RFC5673]       Pister, K., Ed., Thubert, P., Ed., Dwars, S., and T.
                   Phinney, "Industrial Routing Requirements in Low-
                   Power and Lossy Networks", RFC 5673, October 2009.

   [ROLL-TERM]     Vasseur, JP. "Terminology in Low power And Lossy
                   Networks", Work in Progress, October 2009.

Authors' Addresses

   Anders Brandt
   Sigma Designs, Inc.
   Emdrupvej 26
   Copenhagen, DK-2100
   Denmark

   EMail: abr@sdesigns.dk

   Jakob Buron
   Sigma Designs, Inc.
   Emdrupvej 26
   Copenhagen, DK-2100
   Denmark

   EMail: jbu@sdesigns.dk

   Giorgio Porcu
   Telecom Italia
   Piazza degli Affari, 2
   20123 Milan
   Italy

   EMail: gporcu@gmail.com

 

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