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RFC 5634 - Quick-Start for the Datagram Congestion Control Proto


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Network Working Group                                       G. Fairhurst
Request for Comments: 5634                               A. Sathiaseelan
Category: Experimental                            University of Aberdeen
                                                             August 2009

    Quick-Start for the Datagram Congestion Control Protocol (DCCP)

Abstract

   This document specifies the use of the Quick-Start mechanism by the
   Datagram Congestion Control Protocol (DCCP).  DCCP is a transport
   protocol that allows the transmission of congestion-controlled,
   unreliable datagrams.  DCCP is intended for applications such as
   streaming media, Internet telephony, and online games.  In DCCP, an
   application has a choice of congestion control mechanisms, each
   specified by a Congestion Control Identifier (CCID).  This document
   specifies general procedures applicable to all DCCP CCIDs and
   specific procedures for the use of Quick-Start with DCCP CCID 2, CCID
   3, and CCID 4.  Quick-Start enables a DCCP sender to cooperate with
   Quick-Start routers along the end-to-end path to determine an allowed
   sending rate at the start of a connection and, at times, in the
   middle of a DCCP connection (e.g., after an idle or application-
   limited period).  The present specification is provided for use in
   controlled environments, and not as a mechanism that would be
   intended or appropriate for ubiquitous deployment in the global
   Internet.

Status of This Memo

   This memo defines an Experimental Protocol for the Internet
   community.  It does not specify an Internet standard of any kind.
   Discussion and suggestions for improvement are requested.
   Distribution of this memo is unlimited.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2009 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

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   This document may contain material from IETF Documents or IETF
   Contributions published or made publicly available before November
   10, 2008.  The person(s) controlling the copyright in some of this
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   modifications of such material outside the IETF Standards Process.
   Without obtaining an adequate license from the person(s) controlling
   the copyright in such materials, this document may not be modified
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   it for publication as an RFC or to translate it into languages other
   than English.

Table of Contents

   1. Introduction ....................................................3
      1.1. Terminology ................................................4
   2. Quick-Start for DCCP ............................................5
      2.1. Sending a Quick-Start Request for a DCCP Flow ..............5
           2.1.1. The Quick-Start Interval ............................5
      2.2. Receiving a Quick-Start Request for a DCCP Flow ............6
           2.2.1. The Quick-Start Response Option .....................7
      2.3. Receiving a Quick-Start Response ...........................8
           2.3.1. The Quick-Start Mode ................................8
           2.3.2. The Quick-Start Validation Phase ....................9
      2.4. Procedure When No Response to a Quick-Start Request .......10
      2.5. Procedure When a Packet Is Dropped While Using
           Quick-Start ...............................................11
      2.6. Interactions with Mobility and Signaled Path Changes ......11
      2.7. Interactions with Path MTU Discovery ......................12
      2.8. Interactions with Middleboxes .............................12
   3. Mechanisms for Specific CCIDs ..................................13
      3.1. Quick-Start for CCID 2 ....................................13
           3.1.1. The Quick-Start Request for CCID 2 .................13
           3.1.2. Sending a Quick-Start Response with CCID 2 .........13
           3.1.3. Using the Quick-Start Response with CCID 2 .........13
           3.1.4. Quick-Start Validation Phase for CCID 2 ............14
           3.1.5. Reported Loss or Congestion While Using
                  Quick-Start ........................................14
           3.1.6. CCID 2 Feedback Traffic on the Reverse Path ........15
      3.2. Quick-Start for CCID 3 ....................................15
           3.2.1. The Quick-Start Request for CCID 3 .................15
           3.2.2. Sending a Quick-Start Response with CCID 3 .........15
           3.2.3. Using the Quick-Start Response with CCID 3 .........16
           3.2.4. Quick-Start Validation Phase for CCID 3 ............17
           3.2.5. Reported Loss or Congestion during the
                  Quick-Start Mode or Validation Phase ...............17
           3.2.6. CCID 3 Feedback Traffic on the Reverse Path ........18

      3.3. Quick-Start for CCID 4 ....................................18
           3.3.1. The Quick-Start Request for CCID 4 .................18
           3.3.2. Sending a Quick-Start Response with CCID 4 .........18
           3.3.3. Using the Quick-Start Response with CCID 4 .........18
           3.3.4. Reported Loss or Congestion While Using
                  Quick-Start ........................................19
           3.3.5. CCID 4 Feedback Traffic on the Reverse Path ........19
   4. Discussion of Issues ...........................................19
      4.1. Overrun and the Quick-Start Validation Phase ..............19
      4.2. Experimental Status .......................................19
   5. IANA Considerations ............................................20
   6. Acknowledgments ................................................20
   7. Security Considerations ........................................20
   8. References .....................................................21
      8.1. Normative References ......................................21
      8.2. Informative References ....................................21

1.  Introduction

   The Datagram Congestion Control Protocol (DCCP) [RFC4340] is a
   transport protocol for congestion-controlled, unreliable datagrams,
   intended for applications such as streaming media, Internet
   telephony, and online games.

   In DCCP, an application has a choice of congestion control
   mechanisms, each specified by a Congestion Control Identifier (CCID)
   [RFC4340].  There are general procedures applicable to all DCCP CCIDs
   that are described in Section 2, and details that relate to how
   individual CCIDs should operate, which are described in Section 3.
   This separation of CCID-specific and DCCP general functions is in the
   spirit of the modular approach adopted by DCCP.

   Quick-Start [RFC4782] is an experimental mechanism for transport
   protocols specified for use in controlled environments.  The current
   specification of this mechanism is not intended or appropriate for
   ubiquitous deployment in the global Internet.

   Quick-Start is designed for use between end hosts within the same
   network or on Internet paths that include IP routers.  It works in
   cooperation with routers, allowing a sender to determine an allowed
   sending rate at the start and at times in the middle of a data
   transfer (e.g., after an idle or application-limited period).

   This document assumes the reader is familiar with RFC 4782 [RFC4782],
   which specifies the use of Quick-Start with IP and with TCP.  Section
   7 of RFC 4782 also provides guidelines for the use of Quick-Start

   with other transport protocols, including DCCP.  This document
   provides answers to some of the issues that were raised by RFC 4782
   and provides a definition of how Quick-Start must be used with DCCP.

   In using Quick-Start, the sending DCCP end host indicates the desired
   sending rate in bytes per second, using a Quick-Start option in the
   IP header of a DCCP packet.  Each Quick-Start-capable router along
   the path could, in turn, either approve the requested rate, reduce
   the requested rate, or indicate that the Quick-Start Request is not
   approved.

   If the Quick-Start Request is approved (possibly with a reduced rate)
   by all the routers along the path, then the DCCP receiver returns an
   appropriate Quick-Start Response.  On receipt of this, the sending
   end host can send at up to the approved rate for a period determined
   by the method specified for each DCCP CCID, and not exceeding three
   round-trip times.  Subsequent transmissions will be governed by the
   default CCID congestion control mechanisms for the connection.  If
   the Quick-Start Request is not approved, then the sender must use the
   default congestion control mechanisms.

   DCCP receivers are not required to acknowledge individual packets (or
   pairs of segments) as in TCP.  CCID 2 [RFC4341] allows much less
   frequent feedback.  Rate-based protocols (e.g., TCP-Friendly Rate
   Control (TFRC) [RFC5348], CCID 3 [RFC4342]) have a different feedback
   mechanism than that of TCP.  With rate-based protocols, feedback may
   be sent less frequently (e.g., once per Round-Trip Time (RTT)).  In
   such cases, a sender using Quick-Start needs to implement a different
   mechanism to determine whether the Quick-Start sending rate has been
   sustained by the network.  This introduces a new mechanism called the
   Quick-Start Validation Phase (Section 2.3).

   In addition, this document defines two more general enhancements that
   refine the use of Quick-Start after a flow has started (expected to
   be more common in applications using DCCP).  These are the Quick-
   Start Interval (Section 2.1.2), and the reaction to mobility triggers
   (Section 2.6).

1.1.  Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

2.  Quick-Start for DCCP

   Unless otherwise specified, DCCP end hosts follow the procedures
   specified in Section 4 of [RFC4782], following the use specified for
   Quick-Start with TCP.

2.1.  Sending a Quick-Start Request for a DCCP Flow

   A DCCP sender MAY use a Quick-Start Request during the start of a
   connection, when the sender would prefer to have a larger initial
   rate than allowed by standard mechanisms (e.g., [RFC5348] or
   [RFC3390]).

   A Quick-Start Request MAY also be used once a DCCP flow is connected
   (i.e., in the middle of a DCCP flow).  In standard operation, DCCP
   CCIDs can constrain the sending rate (or window) to less than that
   desired (e.g., when an application increases the rate at which it
   wishes to send).  A DCCP sender that has data to send after an idle
   period or application-limited period (i.e., where the sender has
   transmitted at less than the allowed sending rate) can send a Quick-
   Start Request using the procedures defined in Section 3.

   Quick-Start Requests will be more effective if the Quick-Start Rate
   is not larger than necessary.  Each requested Quick-Start Rate that
   has been approved, but was not fully utilized, takes away from the
   bandwidth pool maintained by Quick-Start routers that would be
   otherwise available for granting successive requests [RFC4782].

   In contrast to most TCP applications, many DCCP applications have the
   notion of a natural media rate that they wish to achieve.  For
   example, during the initial connection, a host may request a Quick-
   Start Rate equal to the media rate of the application, appropriately
   increased to account for the size of packet headers.  (Note that
   Quick-Start only provides a course-grain indication of the desired
   rate that is expected to be sent in the next RTT.)

   When sending a Quick-Start Request, the DCCP sender SHOULD send the
   Quick-Start Request using a packet that requires an acknowledgement,
   such as a DCCP-Request, DCCP-Response, or DCCP-Data.

2.1.1.  The Quick-Start Interval

   Excessive use of the Quick-Start mechanism is undesirable.  This
   document defines an enhancement to RFC 4782 to update the use of
   Quick-Start after a DCCP flow has started, by introducing the concept
   of the Quick-Start Interval.  The Quick-Start Interval specifies a
   period of time during which a Quick-Start Request SHOULD NOT be sent.
   The Quick-Start Interval is measured from the time of transmission of

   the previous Quick-Start Request (Section 2.1).  The Quick-Start
   Interval MAY be overridden as a result of a network path change
   (Section 2.6).

   When a connection is established, the Quick-Start Interval is
   initialized to the Initial_QSI.  The Initial_QSI MUST be at least 6
   seconds (larger values are permitted).  This value was chosen so that
   it is sufficiently large to prevent excessive router processing over
   typical Internet paths.  Quick-Start routers that track per-flow
   state MAY penalize senders by suspending Quick-Start processing of
   flows that make Quick-Start Requests for the same flow with an
   interval less than 6 seconds.

   When the first Quick-Start Request is sent, the Quick-Start Interval
   is set to:

   Quick-Start Interval = Initial_QSI;

   After sending each subsequent Quick-Start Request, the Quick-Start
   Interval is then recalculated as:

   Quick-Start Interval = max(Quick-Start Interval * 2, 4 * RTT);

   Each unsuccessful Quick-Start Request therefore results in the
   Quick-Start Interval being doubled (resulting in an exponential
   back-off).  The maximum time the sender can back off is 64 seconds.
   When the back-off calculation results in a larger value, the sender
   MUST NOT send any further Quick-Start Requests for the remainder of
   the DCCP connection (i.e., the sender ceases to use Quick-Start).

   Whenever a Quick-Start Request is approved (at any rate), the Quick-
   Start Interval is reset to the Initial_QSI.

2.2.  Receiving a Quick-Start Request for a DCCP Flow

   The procedure for processing a received Quick-Start Request is
   normatively defined in [RFC4782] and summarized in this paragraph.
   An end host that receives an IP packet containing a Quick-Start
   Request passes the Quick-Start Request, along with the value in the
   IP Time to Live (TTL) field, to the receiving DCCP layer.  If the
   receiving host is willing to permit the Quick-Start Request, it
   SHOULD respond immediately by sending a packet that carries the
   Quick-Start Response option in the DCCP header of the corresponding
   feedback packet (e.g., using a DCCP-Ack packet or in a DCCP-DataAck
   packet).

   The Rate Request field in the Quick-Start Response option is set to
   the received value of the Rate Request in the Quick-Start option or
   to a lower value if the DCCP receiver is only willing to allow a
   lower Rate Request.  Where information is available (e.g., knowledge
   of the local Layer 2 interface speed), a Quick-Start receiver SHOULD
   verify that the received rate does not exceed its expected receive
   link capacity.  The TTL Diff field in the Quick-Start Response is set
   to the difference between the received IP TTL value (Hop Limit field
   in IPv6) and the Quick-Start TTL value.  The Quick-Start Nonce in the
   Response is set to the received value of the Quick-Start Nonce in the
   Quick-Start option (or IPv6 Header Extension).

   The Quick-Start Response MUST NOT be resent if it is lost in the
   network [RFC4782].  Packet loss could be an indication of congestion
   on the return path; in which case, it is better not to approve the
   Quick-Start Request.

   If an end host receives an IP packet with a Quick-Start Request with
   a requested rate of zero, then this host SHOULD NOT send a Quick-
   Start Response [RFC4782].

2.2.1.  The Quick-Start Response Option

   The Quick-Start Response message must be carried by the transport
   protocol using Quick-Start.  This section defines a DCCP Header
   option used to carry the Quick-Start Response.  This header option is
   REQUIRED for end hosts to utilize the Quick-Start mechanism with DCCP
   flows.  The format resembles that defined for TCP [RFC4782].

   0                   1                   2                   3
   0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Type=45      |  Length=8     | Resv. | Rate  |   TTL Diff    |
   |               |               |       |Request|               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                     Quick-Start Nonce                     | R |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

                Figure 1.  The Quick-Start Response Option

   The first byte of the Quick-Start Response option contains the option
   kind, identifying the DCCP option (45).

   The second byte of the Quick-Start Response option contains the
   option length in bytes.  The length field MUST be set to 8 bytes.

   The third byte of the Quick-Start Response option contains a four-
   bit Reserved field, and the four-bit allowed Rate Request, formatted
   as in the IP Quick-Start Rate Request option [RFC4782].

   The fourth byte of the DCCP Quick-Start Response option contains the
   TTL Diff.  The TTL Diff contains the difference between the IP TTL
   and Quick-Start TTL fields in the received Quick-Start Request
   packet, as calculated in [RFC4782].

   Bytes 5-8 of the DCCP option contain the 30-bit Quick-Start Nonce and
   a 2-bit Reserved field [RFC4782].

2.3.  Receiving a Quick-Start Response

   On reception of a Quick-Start Response packet, the sender MUST report
   the approved rate, by sending a Quick-Start Report of Approved Rate
   [RFC4782].  This report includes the Rate Report field set to the
   Approved Rate, and the QS Nonce set to the QS Nonce value sent in the
   Quick-Start Request.

   The Quick-Start Report of Approved Rate is sent as an IPv4 option or
   IPv6 header extension using the first Quick-Start Packet or sent as
   an option using a DCCP control packet if there are no DCCP-Data
   packets pending transmission.

   The Quick-Start Interval is also reset (as described in Section
   2.1.1).

   Reception of a Quick-Start Response packet that approves a rate
   higher than the current rate results in the sender entering the
   Quick-Start Mode.

2.3.1.  The Quick-Start Mode

   While a sender is in the Quick-Start Mode, all sent packets are known
   as Quick-Start Packets [RFC4782].  The Quick-Start Packets MUST be
   sent at a rate not greater than the rate specified in the Quick-
   Start Response.  The Quick-Start Mode continues for a period up to
   one RTT (shorter, if a feedback message arrives acknowledging the
   receipt of one or more Quick-Start Packets).

   The procedure following exit of the Quick-Start Mode is specified in
   the following paragraphs.  Note that this behavior is CCID-specific
   and the details for each current CCID are described in Section 3.

2.3.2.  The Quick-Start Validation Phase

   After transmitting a set of Quick-Start Packets in the Quick-Start
   Mode (and providing that no loss or congestion is reported), the
   sender enters the Quick-Start Validation Phase.  This phase persists
   for a period during which the sender seeks to affirm that the
   capacity used by the Quick-Start Packets did not introduce
   congestion.  This phase is introduced, because unlike TCP, DCCP
   senders do not necessarily receive frequent feedback that would
   indicate the congestion state of the forward path.

   While in the Quick-Start Validation Phase, the sender is tentatively
   permitted to continue sending using the Quick-Start rate.  This phase
   normally concludes when the sender receives feedback that includes an
   acknowledgment that all Quick-Start Packets were received.

   However, the duration of the Quick-Start Validation Phase MUST NOT
   exceed the Quick-Start Validation Time (a maximum of 2 RTTs).
   Implementations may set a timer (initialized to the Quick-Start
   Validation Time) to detect the end of this phase.  There may be scope
   for optimization of timer resources in an implementation, since the
   Quick-Start Validation period temporarily enforces more strict
   monitoring of acknowledgements than normally used in a CCID (e.g., an
   implementation may consider using a common timer resource for Quick-
   Start Validation and a nofeedback timer).

   An example sequence of packet exchanges showing Quick-Start with DCCP
   is shown in Figure 2.

                      DCCP Sender                     DCCP Receiver
   Quick-Start      +----------------------------------------------+
   Request/Response | Quick-Start Request -->                      |
                    |                    <-- Quick-Start Response  |
                    | Quick-Start Approve -->                      |
                    +----------------------------------------------+
                    +----------------------------------------------+
   Quick-Start      | Quick-Start Packets -->                      |
   Mode             | Quick-Start Packets -->                      |
                    |                  <-- Feedback A from Receiver|
                    |               (acknowledging first QS Packet)|
                    +----------------------------------------------+
                    +----------------------------------------------
   Quick-Start      | Packets -->                                  |
   Validation Phase |                  <-- Feedback B from Receiver|
                    |                (acknowledging all QS Packets)|
                    +----------------------------------------------
                    +----------------------------------------------+
   DCCP             | Packets -->                                  |
   Congestion       |                  <-- Feedback C from Receiver|
   Control          |                                              |

           Figure 2.  The Quick-Start Mode and Validation Phase

   On conclusion of the Validation Phase (Feedback B in the above
   figure), the sender expects to receive assurance that it may safely
   use the current rate.  A sender that completes the Quick-Start
   Validation Phase with no reported packet loss or congestion stops
   using the Quick-Start rate and continues to adjust its rate using the
   standard congestion control mechanisms.  For example, if the DCCP
   sender was in slow-start prior to the Quick-Start Request, and no
   packets were lost or ECN-marked (Explicit Congestion Notification)
   since that time, then the sender continues in slow-start after
   exiting Quick-Start Mode until the sender sees a packet loss, or
   congestion is reported.

2.4.  Procedure When No Response to a Quick-Start Request

   As in TCP, if a Quick-Start Request is dropped (i.e., the Request or
   Response is not delivered by the network) the DCCP sender MUST revert
   to the congestion control mechanisms it would have used if the
   Quick-Start Request had not been approved.  The connection is not
   permitted to send a subsequent Quick-Start Request before expiry of
   the current Quick-Start Interval (Section 2.1.1).

2.5.  Procedure When a Packet Is Dropped While Using Quick-Start

   A lost or ECN-marked packet is an indication of potential network
   congestion.  The behavior of a DCCP sender following a lost or ECN-
   marked Quick-Start Packet or a lost feedback packet is specific to a
   particular CCID (see Section 3).

2.6.  Interactions with Mobility and Signaled Path Changes

   The use of Quick-Start may assist end hosts in determining when it is
   appropriate to increase their rate following an explicitly signaled
   change of the network path.

   When an end host receives a signal from an upstream link/network
   notifying it of a path change, the change could simultaneously impact
   more than one flow, and may affect flows between multiple endpoints.
   Senders should avoid responding immediately, since this could result
   in unwanted synchronization of signaling messages, and control loops
   (e.g., a synchronized attempt to probe for a larger congestion
   window), which may negatively impact the performance of the network
   and transport sessions.  In Quick-Start, this could increase the rate
   of Quick-Start Requests, possibly incurring additional router load,
   and may result in some requests not being granted.  A sender must
   ensure this does not generate an excessive rate of Quick-Start
   Requests by using the method below:

   A sender that has explicit information that the network path has
   changed (e.g., a mobile IP binding update [RFC3344], [RFC3775])
   SHOULD reset the Quick-Start Interval to its initial value (specified
   in Section 2.1.1).

   The sender MAY also send a Quick-Start Request to determine a new
   safe transmission rate, but must observe the following rules:

   - It MUST NOT send a Quick-Start Request within a period less than
     the initial Quick-Start Interval (Initial_QSI) since it previously
     sent a Quick-Start Request.  That is, it must wait for at least a
     period of Initial_QSI after the previous request, before sending a
     new Quick-Start Request.

   - If it has not sent a Quick-Start Request within the previous
     Initial_QSI period, it SHOULD defer sending a Quick-Start Request
     for a randomly chosen period between 0 and the Initial_QSI value in
     seconds.  The random period should be statistically independent
     between different hosts and between different connections on the
     same host.  This delay is to mitigate the effect on router load of
     synchronized responses by multiple connections in response to a
     path change that affects multiple connections.

   Hosts do not generally have sufficient information to choose an
   appropriate randomization interval.  This value was selected to
   ensure randomization of requests over the Quick-Start Interval.  In
   networks where a large number of senders may potentially be impacted
   by the same signal, a larger value may be desirable (or methods may
   be used to control this effect in the path change signaling).

2.7.  Interactions with Path MTU Discovery

   DCCP implementations are encouraged to support Path MTU Discovery
   (PMTUD) when applications are able to use a DCCP packet size that
   exceeds the default Path MTU [RFC4340], [RFC4821].  Quick-Start
   Requests SHOULD NOT be sent with packets that are used as a PMTUD
   Probe Packet, since these packets could be lost in the network
   increasing the probability of loss of the request.  It may therefore
   be preferable to separately negotiate the PMTU and the use of Quick-
   Start.

   The DCCP protocol is datagram-based and therefore the size of the
   segments that are sent is a function of application behavior as well
   as being constrained by the largest supported Path MTU.

2.8.  Interactions with Middleboxes

   A Quick-Start Request is carried in an IPv4 packet option or IPv6
   extension header [RFC4782].  Interactions with network devices
   (middleboxes) that inspect or modify IP options could therefore lead
   to discard, ICMP error, or DCCP-Reset when attempting to forward
   packets carrying a Quick-Start Request.

   If a DCCP sender sends a DCCP-Request that also carries a Quick-
   Start Request, and does not receive a DCCP-Response to the packet,
   the DCCP sender SHOULD resend the DCCP-Request packet without
   including a Quick-Start Request.

   Similarly, if a DCCP sender receives a DCCP-Reset in response to a
   DCCP-Request packet that also carries a Quick-Start Request, then the
   DCCP sender SHOULD resend the DCCP-Request packet without the Quick-
   Start Request.  The DCCP sender then ceases to use the Quick-Start
   Mechanism for the remainder of the connection.

   A DCCP sender that uses a Quick-Start Request within an established
   connection and does not receive a response will treat this as non-
   approval of the request.  Successive unsuccessful attempts will
   result in an exponential increase in the Quick-Start Interval
   (Section 2.1.1).  If this grows to a value exceeding 64 seconds, the
   DCCP sender ceases to use the Quick-Start Mechanism for the remainder
   of the connection.

3.  Mechanisms for Specific CCIDs

   The following sections specify the use of Quick-Start with DCCP CCID
   2, CCID 3, and for DCCP with TFRC-SP as specified in CCID 4.

3.1.  Quick-Start for CCID 2

   This section describes the Quick-Start mechanism to be used with DCCP
   CCID 2 [RFC4341].  CCID 2 uses a TCP-like congestion control
   mechanism.

3.1.1.  The Quick-Start Request for CCID 2

   A Quick-Start Request MAY be sent to allow the sender to determine if
   it is safe to use a larger initial cwnd.  This permits a faster
   start-up of a new CCID 2 flow.

   A Quick-Start Request MAY also be sent for an established connection
   to request a higher sending rate after an idle period or
   application-limited period (described in Section 2.1).  This allows a
   receiver to use a larger cwnd than allowed with standard operation.

   A Quick-Start Request that follows a reported loss or congestion
   event MUST NOT request a Quick-Start rate that exceeds the largest
   congestion window achieved by the CCID 2 connection since the last
   packet drop (translated to a sending rate).

3.1.2.  Sending a Quick-Start Response with CCID 2

   A receiver processing a Quick-Start Request uses the method described
   in Section 2.3.  On receipt of a Quick-Start Request, the receiver
   MUST send a Quick-Start Response (even if a receiver is constrained
   by the ACK Ratio).

3.1.3.  Using the Quick-Start Response with CCID 2

   On receipt of a valid Quick-Start Response option, the sender MUST
   send a Quick-Start Approved option [RFC4782] (see Section 2.3).

   If the approved Quick-Start rate is less than current sending rate,
   the sender does not enter the Quick-Start Mode, and continues using
   the procedure defined in CCID 2.

   If the approved Quick-Start rate at the sender exceeds the current
   sending rate, the sender enters the Quick-Start Mode and continues in
   the Quick-Start Mode for a maximum period of one RTT.

   The sender sets its Quick-Start cwnd (QS_cwnd) as follows:

      QS_cwnd = (R * T) / (s + H)                          (1)

   where R is the Rate Request in bytes per second, T is the measured
   round-trip path delay (RTT), s is the packet size, and H is the
   estimated DCCP/IP header size in bytes (e.g., 32 bytes for DCCP
   layered directly over IPv4, but larger when using IPsec or IPv6).

   A CCID 2 sender MAY then increase its cwnd to the QS_cwnd.  The cwnd
   should not be reduced (i.e., a QS_cwnd lower than cwnd should be
   ignored, since the CCID 2 congestion control method already permits
   this rate).  CCID 2 is not a rate-paced protocol.  Therefore, if the
   QS_cwnd is used, the sending host MUST implement a suitable method to
   pace the rate at which the Quick-Start Packets are sent until it
   receives a DCCP-ACK for a packet sent during the Quick-Start Mode
   [RFC4782].  The sending host SHOULD also record the previous cwnd and
   note that the new cwnd has been determined by Quick-Start, rather by
   other means (e.g., by setting a flag to indicate that it is in Quick-
   Start Mode).

   When the sender receives the first DCCP-ACK to a packet sent in the
   Quick-Start Mode, it leaves the Quick-Start Mode and enters the
   Validation Phase.

3.1.4.  Quick-Start Validation Phase for CCID 2

   A CCID 2 sender MAY continue to send at the paced Quick-Start Rate
   while in the Validation Phase.  It leaves the Validation Phase on
   receipt of an ACK that acknowledges the last Quick-Start Packet, or
   if the validation phase persists for a period that exceeds the
   Quick-Start Validation Time of 1 RTT.  It MUST then reduce the cwnd
   to the actual flight size (the current amount of unacknowledged data
   sent) [RFC4782] and uses the congestion control methods specified for
   CCID 2.

3.1.5.  Reported Loss or Congestion While Using Quick-Start

   A sender in the Quick-Start Mode (or Validation Phase) that detects
   congestion (e.g., receives a feedback packet that reports new packet
   loss or a packet with a congestion marking), MUST immediately leave
   the Quick-Start Mode (or Validation Phase).  It then resets the cwnd
   to half the recorded previous cwnd and enters the congestion
   avoidance phase described in [RFC4341].

   In the absence of any feedback at the end of the Validation period,
   the sender resets the cwnd to half the recorded previous cwnd and
   enters the congestion avoidance phase.

3.1.6.  CCID 2 Feedback Traffic on the Reverse Path

   A CCID 2 receiver sends feedback for groups of received packets
   [RFC4341].  Approval of a higher transmission rate using Quick-Start
   will increase control traffic on the reverse path.  A return path
   that becomes congested could have a transient negative impact on
   other traffic flows sharing the return link.  The lower rate of
   feedback will then limit the achievable rate in the forward
   direction.

3.2.  Quick-Start for CCID 3

   This section describes the Quick-Start mechanism to be used with DCCP
   CCID 3 [RFC4342].  The rate-based congestion control mechanism used
   by CCID 3 leads to specific issues that are addressed by Quick-Start
   in this section.

3.2.1.  The Quick-Start Request for CCID 3

   A Quick-Start Request MAY be sent to allow the sender to determine if
   it is safe to use a larger initial sending rate.  This permits a
   faster start-up of a new CCID 3 flow.

   A Quick-Start Request MAY also be sent to request a higher sending
   rate after an idle period (in which the nofeedback timer expires
   [RFC5348]) or an application-limited period (described in Section
   2.1).  This allows a receiver to increase the sending rate faster
   than allowed with standard operation (i.e., faster than twice the
   rate reported by a CCID 3 receiver in the most recent feedback
   message).

   The requested rate specified in a Quick-Start Request MUST NOT exceed
   the TFRC-controlled sending rate [RFC4342] when this is bounded by
   the current loss event rate (if any), either from calculation at the
   sender or from feedback received from the receiver.  CCID 3 considers
   this rate is a safe response in the presence of expected congestion.

3.2.2.  Sending a Quick-Start Response with CCID 3

   When processing a received Quick-Start Request, the receiver uses the
   method described in Section 2.3.  In addition, if a CCID 3 receiver
   uses the window counter to send periodic feedback messages, then the
   receiver sets its local variable last_counter to the value of the
   window counter reported by the segment containing the Quick-Start
   Request.  The next feedback message would then be sent when the
   window_counter is greater or equal to last_counter + 4.  If the CCID
   3 receiver uses a feedback timer to send period feedback messages,
   then the receiver MUST reset the CCID 3 feedback timer, causing the

   feedback to be sent as soon as possible.  This helps to align the
   timing of feedback to the start and end of the period in which
   Quick-Start Packets are sent, and will normally result in feedback at
   a time that is approximately the end of the period when Quick-Start
   Packets are received.

3.2.3.  Using the Quick-Start Response with CCID 3

   On receipt of a valid Quick-Start Response option, the sender MUST
   send a Quick-Start Approved option [RFC4782] (see Section 2.3).  The
   sender then uses one of three procedures:

   * If the approved Quick-Start rate is less than the current sending
     rate, the sender does not enter the Quick-Start Mode and continues
     using the procedure defined in CCID 3.

   * If loss or congestion is reported after sending the Quick-Start
     Request, the sender also does not enter the Quick-Start Mode and
     continues using the procedure defined in CCID 3.

   * If the approved Quick-Start rate exceeds the current sending rate,
     the sender enters the Quick-Start Mode and continues in the Quick-
     Start Mode for a maximum period of 1 RTT.  The sender sets its
     Quick-Start sending rate (QS_sendrate) as follows:

      QS_sendrate = R * s/(s + H);                                (2)

     where R the Rate Request in bytes per second, s is the packet size
     [RFC4342], and H the estimated DCCP/IP header size in bytes (e.g.,
     32 bytes for IPv4).  A CCID 3 host MAY then increase its sending
     rate to the QS_sendrate.  The rate should not be reduced.

     CCID 3 is a rate-paced protocol.  Therefore, if the QS_sendrate is
     used, the sending host MUST pace the rate at which the Quick-Start
     Packets are sent over the next RTT.  The sending host SHOULD also
     record the previous congestion-controlled rate and note that the
     new rate has been determined by Quick-Start rather by other means
     (e.g., by setting a flag to indicate that it is in the Quick-Start
     Mode).

   The sender exits the Quick-Start Mode after either:

   * Receipt of a feedback packet acknowledging one or more Quick-Start
     Packets,

   * A period of 1 RTT after receipt of a Quick-Start Response, or

   * Detection of a loss or congestion event (see Section 3.2.5).

3.2.4.  Quick-Start Validation Phase for CCID 3

   After transmitting a set of Quick-Start Packets in the Quick Start
   Mode (and providing that no loss or congestion marking is reported),
   the sender enters the Quick-Start Validation Phase.  A sender that
   receives feedback that reports a loss or congestion event MUST follow
   the procedures described in Section 3.2.5.

   The sender MUST exit the Quick-Start Validation Phase on receipt of
   feedback that acknowledges all packets sent in the Quick-Start Mode
   (i.e., all Quick-Start Packets) or if the Validation Phase persists
   for a period that exceeds the Quick-Start Validation Time of two
   RTTs.

   A sender that completes the Quick-Start Validation Phase with no
   reported packet loss or congestion stops using the QS_sendrate and
   MUST recalculate a suitable sending rate using the standard
   congestion control mechanisms [RFC4342].

   If no feedback is received within the Quick-Start Validation Phase,
   the sender MUST return to the minimum of the recorded original rate
   (at the start of the Quick-Start Mode) and one half of the
   QS_sendrate.  The nofeedback timer is also reset.

3.2.5.  Reported Loss or Congestion during the Quick-Start Mode or
        Validation Phase

   A sender in the Quick-Start Mode or Validation Phase that detects
   congestion (e.g., receives a feedback packet that reports new packet
   loss or a packet with a congestion marking) MUST immediately leave
   the Quick-Start Mode or Validation Phase and enter the congestion
   avoidance phase [RFC4342].  This implies re-calculating the sending
   rate, X, as required by RFC 4342:

      X = max(min(X_calc, 2*X_recv), s/t_mbi);

   where X_calc is the transmit rate calculated by the throughput
   equation, X_recv is the reported receiver rate, s is the packet size
   and t_mbi is the maximum back-off interval of 64 seconds.

   The current specification of TFRC [RFC5348], which obsoletes RFC
   3448, uses a set of X_recv values and uses the maximum of the set
   during application-limited intervals.  This calculates the sending
   rate, X as:

      X = max(min(X_calc, recv_limit),s/t_mbi);

   where recv_limit could be max(X_recv_set) or 2*max(X_recv_set)
   depending on whether there was a new loss event during a data-
   limited interval, or no loss event during an application-limited
   interval respectively.  When the sender is not application-limited,
   the recv_limit is set to 2*max(X_recv_set).

   A sender using RFC 4342 updated by [RFC5348], calculates the sending
   rate, X, using the above formula normatively defined in [RFC5348].

3.2.6.  CCID 3 Feedback Traffic on the Reverse Path

   A CCID 3 receiver sends feedback at least once each RTT [RFC4342].
   Use of Quick-Start is therefore not expected to significantly
   increase control traffic on the reverse path.

3.3.  Quick-Start for CCID 4

   This section describes the Quick-Start mechanism to be used when DCCP
   uses TFRC-SP [RFC4828] in place of TFRC [RFC5348], as specified in
   CCID 4 [RFC5622].  CCID 4 is similar to CCID 3 except that a sender
   using CCID 4 is limited to a maximum of 100 packets/second.

   The Quick-Start procedure defined below therefore resembles that for
   CCID 3.

3.3.1.  The Quick-Start Request for CCID 4

   The procedure for sending a Quick-Start Request using CCID 4 is the
   same as for CCID 3, defined in Section 3.2.1.  In addition, the
   requested rate MUST be less than or equal to the equivalent of a
   sending rate of 100 packets per second [RFC4828].  CCID 4 [RFC4828]
   specifies that the allowed sending rate derived from the TCP
   throughput equation is reduced by a factor that accounts for packet
   header size.

3.3.2.  Sending a Quick-Start Response with CCID 4

   This procedure is the same as for CCID 3, defined in Section 3.2.2.

3.3.3.  Using the Quick-Start Response with CCID 4

   This procedure is the same as for CCID 3, defined in Sections 3.2.3,
   3.2.4, and 3.2.5, except that the congestion control procedures is
   updated to use TFRC-SP [RFC4828].

   A CCID 4 sender does not need to account for headers a second time
   when translating the approved Quick-Start rate into an allowed
   sending rate (as described in Section 5 of [RFC5622].

3.3.4.  Reported Loss or Congestion While Using Quick-Start

   This procedure is the same as for CCID 3, defined in Section 3.2.5,
   except that the congestion control procedures is updated to use
   TFRC-SP [RFC4828].

3.3.5.  CCID 4 Feedback Traffic on the Reverse Path

   A CCID 4 receiver sends feedback at least once each RTT.  Use of
   Quick-Start is therefore not expected to significantly increase
   control traffic on the reverse path.

4.  Discussion of Issues

   The considerations for using Quick-Start with DCCP are not
   significantly different to those for Quick-Start with TCP.  The
   document does not modify the router behavior specified for Quick-
   Start.

4.1.  Overrun and the Quick-Start Validation Phase

   The less frequent feedback of DCCP raises an issue in that a sender
   using Quick-Start may continue to use the rate specified by a Quick-
   Start Response for a period that exceeds one path round trip time
   (i.e., that which TCP would have used).  This overrun is a result of
   the less frequent feedback interval used by DCCP (i.e., CCID 2 may
   delay feedback by at most one half cwnd and CCID 3 and CCID 4 provide
   feedback at least once per RTT).  In the method specified by this
   document, the Quick-Start Validation Phase bounds this overrun to be
   not more than an additional two RTTs.

   The selected method was chosen as a compromise that reflects the need
   to terminate quickly following the loss of a feedback packet, and the
   need to allow sufficient time for end host and router processing, as
   well as the different perceptions of the path RTT held at the sender
   and receiver.  Any reported loss or congestion results in immediate
   action without waiting for completion of the Quick-Start Validation
   period.

4.2.  Experimental Status

   There are many cases in which Quick-Start Requests would not be
   approved [RFC4782].  These include communication over paths
   containing routers, IP tunnels, MPLS paths, and the like, that do not
   support Quick-Start.  These cases also include paths with routers or
   middleboxes that drop packets containing IP options (or IPv6
   extensions).  Quick-Start Requests could be difficult to approve over
   paths that include multi-access Layer-2 networks.

   Transient effects could arise when the transport protocol packets
   associated with a connection are multiplexed over multiple parallel
   (sometimes known as alternative) links or network-layer paths, and
   Quick-Start is used, since it will be effective on only one of the
   paths, but could lead to increased traffic on all paths.

   A CCID 2 sender using Quick-Start can increase the control traffic on
   the reverse path, which could have a transient negative impact on
   other traffic flows sharing the return link (Section 3.1.6).  The
   lower rate of feedback will then limit the achievable rate in the
   forward direction.

   [RFC4782] also describes environments where the Quick-Start mechanism
   could fail with false positives, with the sender incorrectly assuming
   that the Quick-Start Request had been approved by all of the routers
   along the path.  As a result of these concerns, and as a result of
   the difficulties and the seeming absence of motivation for routers,
   such as core routers, to deploy Quick-Start, Quick-Start has been
   proposed as a mechanism that could be of use in controlled
   environments, and not as a mechanism that would be intended or
   appropriate for ubiquitous deployment in the global Internet.

   Further experimentation would be required to confirm the deployment
   of Quick-Start and to investigate performance issues that may arise,
   prior to any recommendation for use over the general Internet.

5.  IANA Considerations

   IANA has assigned a DCCP Option Type (45) from the DCCP Option Types
   Registry.  This Option is applicable to all CCIDs and is known as the
   "Quick-Start Response" Option and is defined in Section 2.2.1.  It
   specifies a length value in the format used for options numbered
   32-128.

6.  Acknowledgments

   The author gratefully acknowledges the previous work by Sally Floyd
   to identify issues that impact Quick-Start for DCCP, and her comments
   to improve this document.  We also acknowledge comments and
   corrections from Pasi Sarolahti, Vincent Roca, Mark Allman, Michael
   Scharf, and others in the IETF DCCP Working Group (WG).

7.  Security Considerations

   Security issues are discussed in [RFC4782].  Middlebox deployment
   issues are also highlighted in Section 2.8.  No new security issues
   are raised within this document.

8.  References

8.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC4340]  Kohler, E., Handley, M., and S. Floyd, "Datagram
              Congestion Control Protocol (DCCP)", RFC 4340, March 2006.

   [RFC4341]  Floyd, S. and E. Kohler, "Profile for Datagram Congestion
              Control Protocol (DCCP) Congestion Control ID 2: TCP-like
              Congestion Control", RFC 4341, March 2006.

   [RFC4342]  Floyd, S., Kohler, E., and J. Padhye, "Profile for
              Datagram Congestion Control Protocol (DCCP) Congestion
              Control ID 3: TCP-Friendly Rate Control (TFRC)", RFC 4342,
              March 2006.

   [RFC4782]  Floyd, S., Allman, M., Jain, A., and P. Sarolahti,
              "Quick-Start for TCP and IP", RFC 4782, January 2007.

   [RFC4828]  Floyd, S. and E. Kohler, "TCP Friendly Rate Control
              (TFRC): The Small-Packet (SP) Variant", RFC 4828, April
              2007.

   [RFC5348]  Floyd, S., Handley, M., Padhye, J., and J. Widmer, "TCP
              Friendly Rate Control (TFRC): Protocol Specification", RFC
              5348, September 2008.

   [RFC5622]  Floyd, S., and E. Kohler, "Profile for Datagram Congestion
              Control Protocol (DCCP) Congestion ID 4: TCP-Friendly Rate
              Control for Small Packets (TFRC-SP)", RFC 5622, August
              2009.

8.2.  Informative References

   [RFC3344]  Perkins, C., Ed., "IP Mobility Support for IPv4", RFC
              3344, August 2002.

   [RFC3775]  Johnson, D., Perkins, C., and J. Arkko, "Mobility Support
              in IPv6", RFC 3775, June 2004.

   [RFC3390]  Allman, M., Floyd, S., and C. Partridge, "Increasing TCP's
              Initial Window", RFC 3390, October 2002.

   [RFC4821]  Mathis, M. and J. Heffner, "Packetization Layer Path MTU
              Discovery", RFC 4821, March 2007.

Authors' Addresses

   Godred Fairhurst
   School of Engineering
   University of Aberdeen
   Aberdeen, AB24 3UE
   Scotland, UK

   EMail: gorry@erg.abdn.ac.uk
   URI: http://www.erg.abdn.ac.uk/users/gorry

   Arjuna Sathiaseelan
   School of Engineering
   University of Aberdeen
   Aberdeen, AB24 3UE
   Scotland, UK

   EMail: arjuna@erg.abdn.ac.uk
   URI: http://www.erg.abdn.ac.uk/users/arjuna

 

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