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RFC 5461 - TCP's Reaction to Soft Errors


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Network Working Group                                            F. Gont
Request for Comments: 5461                                       UTN/FRH
Category: Informational                                    February 2009

                     TCP's Reaction to Soft Errors

Status of This Memo

   This memo provides information for the Internet community.  It does
   not specify an Internet standard of any kind.  Distribution of this
   memo is unlimited.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2009 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents (http://trustee.ietf.org/
   license-info) in effect on the date of publication of this document.
   Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights
   and restrictions with respect to this document.

Abstract

   This document describes a non-standard, but widely implemented,
   modification to TCP's handling of ICMP soft error messages that
   rejects pending connection-requests when those error messages are
   received.  This behavior reduces the likelihood of long delays
   between connection-establishment attempts that may arise in a number
   of scenarios, including one in which dual-stack nodes that have IPv6
   enabled by default are deployed in IPv4 or mixed IPv4 and IPv6
   environments.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  Error Handling in TCP  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
     2.1.  Reaction to ICMP Error Messages That Indicate Hard
           Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     2.2.  Reaction to ICMP Error Messages That Indicate Soft
           Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   3.  Problems That May Arise from TCP's Reaction to Soft Errors . .  5
     3.1.  General Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     3.2.  Problems That May Arise with Dual-Stack IPv6 on by
           Default  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   4.  Deployed Workarounds for Long Delays between
       Connection-Establishment Attempts  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     4.1.  Context-Sensitive ICMP/TCP Interaction . . . . . . . . . .  7
     4.2.  Context-Sensitive ICMP/TCP Interaction with Repeated
           Confirmation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   5.  Possible Drawbacks of Changing ICMP Semantics  . . . . . . . .  9
     5.1.  Non-Deterministic Transient Network Failures . . . . . . .  9
     5.2.  Deterministic Transient Network Failures . . . . . . . . . 10
     5.3.  Non-Compliant Network Address Translators (NATs) . . . . . 10
   6.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   7.  Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
   8.  Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
   9.  References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     9.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     9.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

1.  Introduction

   The handling of network failures can be separated into two different
   actions: fault isolation and fault recovery.  Fault isolation
   consists of the actions that hosts and routers take to determine that
   there is a network failure.  Fault recovery, on the other hand,
   consists of the actions that hosts and routers perform in an attempt
   to survive a network failure [RFC0816].

   In the Internet architecture, the Internet Control Message Protocol
   (ICMP) [RFC0792] is one fault isolation technique to report network
   error conditions to the hosts sending datagrams over the network.

   When a host is notified of a network error, its network stack will
   attempt to continue communications, if possible, in the presence of
   the network failure.  The fault recovery strategy may depend on the
   type of network failure taking place and the time at which the error
   condition is detected.

   This document analyzes the problems that may arise due to TCP's fault
   recovery reactions to ICMP soft errors.  It analyzes the problems
   that may arise when a host tries to establish a TCP connection with a
   multihomed host that has some unreachable addresses.  Additionally,
   it analyzes the problems that may arise in the specific scenario
   where dual-stack nodes that have IPv6 enabled by default are deployed
   in IPv4 or mixed IPv4 and IPv6 environments.

   Finally, we document a modification to TCP's reaction to ICMP
   messages indicating soft errors during connection startup that has
   been implemented in a variety of TCP/IP stacks to help overcome the
   problems outlined below.  We stress that this modification runs
   contrary to the standard behavior and this document unambiguously
   does not change the standard reaction.

   [Gont] describes alternative approaches for dealing with the problem
   of long delays between connection-establishment attempts in TCP.

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

2.  Error Handling in TCP

   Network errors can be divided into soft and hard errors.  Soft errors
   are considered to be transient network failures that are likely to be
   solved in the near term.  Hard errors, on the other hand, are
   considered to reflect network error conditions that are unlikely to
   be solved in the near future.

   The Host Requirements RFC [RFC1122] states, in Section 4.2.3.9, that
   the ICMP messages that indicate soft errors are ICMP "Destination
   Unreachable" codes 0 (network unreachable), 1 (host unreachable), and
   5 (source route failed); ICMP "Time Exceeded" codes 0 (time to live
   exceeded in transit) and 1 (fragment reassembly time exceeded); and
   ICMP "Parameter Problem".  Even though ICMPv6 did not exist when
   [RFC1122] was written, one could extrapolate the concept of soft
   errors to ICMPv6 "Destination Unreachable" codes 0 (no route to
   destination) and 3 (address unreachable); ICMPv6 "Time Exceeded"
   codes 0 (hop limit exceeded in transit) and 1 (fragment reassembly
   time exceeded); and ICMPv6 "Parameter Problem" codes 0 (erroneous
   header field encountered), 1 (unrecognized Next Header type
   encountered), and 2 (unrecognized IPv6 option encountered) [RFC4443].

   +----------------------------------+--------------------------------+
   |               ICMP               |             ICMPv6             |
   +----------------------------------+--------------------------------+
   |  Destination Unreachable (codes  | Destination Unreachable (codes |
   |           0, 1, and 5)           |            0 and 3)            |
   +----------------------------------+--------------------------------+
   |   Time Exceeded (codes 0 and 1)  |  Time Exceeded (codes 0 and 1) |
   +----------------------------------+--------------------------------+
   |         Parameter Problem        | Parameter Problem (codes 0, 1, |
   |                                  |             and 2)             |
   +----------------------------------+--------------------------------+

        Table 1: Extrapolating the concept of soft errors to ICMPv6

   When there is a network failure that is not signaled to the sending
   host, such as a gateway corrupting packets, TCP's fault recovery
   action is to repeatedly retransmit the corresponding data until
   either they get acknowledged or the connection times out.

   In the case that a host does receive an ICMP error message referring
   to an ongoing TCP connection, the IP layer will pass this message up
   to the corresponding TCP instance to raise awareness of the network
   failure [RFC1122].  TCP's reaction to ICMP messages will depend on
   the type of error being signaled.

2.1.  Reaction to ICMP Error Messages That Indicate Hard Errors

   When receiving an ICMP error message that indicates a hard error
   condition, compliant TCP implementations will simply abort the
   corresponding connection, regardless of the connection state.

   The Host Requirements RFC [RFC1122] states, in Section 4.2.3.9, that
   TCP SHOULD abort connections when receiving ICMP error messages that
   indicate hard errors.  This policy is based on the premise that, as

   hard errors indicate network error conditions that will not change in
   the near term, it will not be possible for TCP to usefully recover
   from this type of network failure.

   It should be noted that virtually none of the current TCP
   implementations follow the advice in [RFC1122], and they do not abort
   the corresponding connection when an ICMP hard error is received for
   a connection that is in any of the synchronized states
   [ICMP-ATTACKS].

2.2.  Reaction to ICMP Error Messages That Indicate Soft Errors

   If an ICMP error message is received that indicates a soft error, TCP
   will repeatedly retransmit the corresponding data until either they
   get acknowledged or the connection times out.  In addition, the TCP
   sender may record the information for possible later use (see
   [Stevens], pp. 317-319).

   The Host Requirements RFC [RFC1122] states, in Section 4.2.3.9, that
   TCP MUST NOT abort connections when receiving ICMP error messages
   that indicate soft errors.  This policy is based on the premise that,
   as soft errors are transient network failures that will hopefully be
   solved in the near term, one of the retransmissions will succeed.

   When the connection timer expires and an ICMP soft error message has
   been received before the timeout, TCP can use this information to
   provide the user with a more specific error message (see [Stevens],
   pp. 317-319).

   This reaction to soft errors exploits a valuable feature of the
   Internet -- that, for many network failures, the network can be
   dynamically reconstructed without any disruption of the endpoints.

3.  Problems That May Arise from TCP's Reaction to Soft Errors

3.1.  General Discussion

   Even though TCP's fault recovery strategy in the presence of soft
   errors allows for TCP connections to survive transient network
   failures, there are scenarios in which this policy may cause
   undesirable effects.

   For example, consider a scenario in which an application on a local
   host is trying to communicate with a destination whose name resolves
   to several IP addresses.  The application on the local host will try
   to establish a connection with the destination host, usually cycling
   through the list of IP addresses until one succeeds [RFC1123].
   Suppose that some (but not all) of the addresses in the returned list

   are permanently unreachable.  If such a permanently unreachable
   address is the first in the list, the application will likely try to
   use it first and block waiting for a timeout before trying an
   alternate address.

   As discussed in Section 2, this unreachability condition may or may
   not be signaled to the sending host.  If the local TCP is not
   signaled concerning the error condition, there is very little that
   can be done other than to repeatedly retransmit the SYN segment and
   wait for the existing timeout mechanism in TCP, or an application
   timeout, to be triggered.  However, even if unreachability is
   signaled by some intermediate router to the local TCP by means of an
   ICMP soft error message, the local TCP will still repeatedly
   retransmit the SYN segment until the connection timer expires (in the
   hopes that the error is transient).  The Host Requirements RFC
   [RFC1122] states that this timer MUST be large enough to provide
   retransmission of the SYN segment for at least 3 minutes.  This would
   mean that the application on the local host would spend several
   minutes for each unreachable address with which it tries to establish
   the TCP connection.  These long delays between connection-
   establishment attempts would be inappropriate for many interactive
   applications, such as the Web. [Shneiderman] and [Thadani] offer some
   insight into interactive systems (e.g., how the response time affects
   the usability of an application).  This highlights that there is no
   one definition of a "transient error" and that the level of
   persistence in the face of failure represents a tradeoff.

   It is worth noting that while most applications try the addresses
   returned by the name-to-address function in serial, this is certainly
   not the only possible approach.  For example, applications could try
   multiple addresses in parallel until one succeeds, possibly avoiding
   the problem of long delays between connection-establishment attempts
   described in this document [Gont].

3.2.  Problems That May Arise with Dual-Stack IPv6 on by Default

   A particular scenario in which the above type of problem may occur
   regularly is that where dual-stack nodes that have IPv6 enabled by
   default are deployed in IPv4 or mixed IPv4 and IPv6 environments and
   the IPv6 connectivity is non-existent [RFC4943].

   As discussed in [RFC4943], there are two possible variants of this
   scenario, which differ in whether or not the lack of connectivity is
   signaled to the sending node.

   In those scenarios in which packets sent to a destination are
   silently dropped and no ICMPv6 [RFC4443] errors are generated, there
   is little that can be done other than to wait for the existing
   connection-timeout mechanism in TCP, or an application timeout, to be
   triggered.

   In scenarios where a legacy node has no default routers and Neighbor
   Unreachability Detection (NUD) [RFC4861] fails for destinations
   assumed to be on-link, or where firewalls or other systems that
   enforce scope boundaries send ICMPv6 errors, the sending node will be
   signaled of the unreachability problem.  However, as discussed in
   Section 2.2, compliant TCP implementations will not abort connections
   when receiving ICMP error messages that indicate soft errors.

4.  Deployed Workarounds for Long Delays between Connection-
    Establishment Attempts

   The following subsections describe a number of workarounds for the
   problem of long delays between connection-establishment attempts that
   have been implemented in a variety of TCP/IP stacks.  We note that
   treating soft errors as hard errors during connection establishment,
   while widespread, is not part of standard TCP behavior and this
   document does not change that state of affairs.  The consensus of the
   TCPM WG (TCP Maintenance and Minor Extensions Working Group) was to
   document this widespread implementation of nonstandard TCP behavior
   but to not change the TCP standard.

4.1.  Context-Sensitive ICMP/TCP Interaction

   As discussed in Section 1, it may make sense for the fault recovery
   action to depend not only on the type of error being reported but
   also on the state of the connection against which the error is
   reported.  For example, one could infer that when an error arrives in
   response to opening a new connection, it is probably caused by
   opening the connection improperly, rather than by a transient network
   failure [RFC0816].

   A number of TCP implementations have modified their reaction to all
   ICMP soft errors and treat them as hard errors when they are received
   for connections in the SYN-SENT or SYN-RECEIVED states.  For example,
   this workaround has been implemented in the Linux kernel since
   version 2.0.0 (released in 1996) [Linux].  However, it should be
   noted that this change violates section 4.2.3.9 of [RFC1122], which
   states that these ICMP error messages indicate soft error conditions
   and that, therefore, TCP MUST NOT abort the corresponding connection.

   [RFC3168] states that a host that receives a RST in response to the
   transmission of an ECN (Explicit Congestion Notification)-setup SYN
   packet MAY resend a SYN with the CWR (Congestion Window Reduced) and
   ECE (ECN-Echo) bits cleared.  This is meant to deal with faulty
   middle-boxes that reject connections when a SYN segment has the ECE
   and CWR bits set.  Some faulty middle-boxes (e.g., firewalls) may
   reject these connection requests with an ICMP soft error of type 3
   (Destination Unreachable), code 0 (net unreachable) or 1 (host
   unreachable), instead of a RST.  Therefore, a system that processes
   ICMP soft error messages as hard errors when they are received for a
   connection in any of the non-synchronized states could resend the SYN
   segment with the ECE and CWR bits cleared when an ICMP "net
   unreachable" (type 3, code 0) or "host unreachable" (type 3, code 1)
   error message is received in response to a SYN segment that had these
   bits set.

   Section 4.2 discusses a more conservative approach than that sketched
   above, which is implemented in FreeBSD.

4.2.  Context-Sensitive ICMP/TCP Interaction with Repeated Confirmation

   A more conservative approach than simply treating soft errors as hard
   errors (as described above) would be to abort a connection in the
   SYN-SENT or SYN-RECEIVED states only after an ICMP soft error has
   been received a specified number of times and the SYN segment has
   been retransmitted more than some specified number of times.

   Two new parameters would have to be introduced to TCP, to be used
   only during the connection-establishment phase: MAXSYNREXMIT and
   MAXSOFTERROR.  MAXSYNREXMIT would specify the number of times the SYN
   segment would have to be retransmitted before a connection is
   aborted.  MAXSOFTERROR would specify the number of ICMP messages
   indicating soft errors that would have to be received before a
   connection is aborted.

   Two additional state variables would need to be introduced to store
   additional state information during the connection-establishment
   phase: "nsynrexmit" and "nsofterror".  Both would be initialized to
   zero when a connection attempt is initiated, with "nsynrexmit" being
   incremented by one every time the SYN segment is retransmitted and
   "nsofterror" being incremented by one every time an ICMP message that
   indicates a soft error is received.

   A connection in the SYN-SENT or SYN-RECEIVED states would be aborted
   if "nsynrexmit" was greater than MAXSYNREXMIT and "nsofterror" was
   simultaneously greater than MAXSOFTERROR.

   This approach would give the network more time to solve the
   connectivity problem than does simply aborting a connection attempt
   upon reception of the first soft error.  However, it should be noted
   that, depending on the values chosen for the MAXSYNREXMIT and
   MAXSOFTERROR parameters, this approach could still lead to long
   delays between connection-establishment attempts, thus not solving
   the problem.  For example, BSD systems abort connections in the SYN-
   SENT or the SYN-RECEIVED state when a second ICMP error is received
   and the SYN segment has been retransmitted more than three times.
   They also set up a "connection-establishment timer" that imposes an
   upper limit on the time the connection-establishment attempt has to
   succeed, which expires after 75 seconds (see [Stevens2], pp. 828-
   829).  Even when this policy may be better than the three-minute
   timeout policy specified in [RFC1122], it may still be inappropriate
   for handling the potential problems described in this document.  This
   more conservative approach has been implemented in BSD systems for
   more than ten years [Stevens2].

   We also note that the approach given in this section is a generalized
   version of the approach sketched in the previous section.  In
   particular, with MAXSOFTERROR set to 1 and MAXSYNREXMIT set to zero,
   the schemes are identical.

5.  Possible Drawbacks of Changing ICMP Semantics

   The following subsections discuss some possible drawbacks that could
   arise from use of the non-standard modifications to TCP's reaction to
   soft errors, which are described in Section 4.1 and Section 4.2.

5.1.  Non-Deterministic Transient Network Failures

   In scenarios where a transient network failure affects all of the
   addresses returned by the name-to-address translation function, all
   destinations could be unreachable for some short period of time.  For
   example, a mobile system consisting of a cell and a repeater may pass
   through a tunnel, leading to a loss of connectivity at the repeater,
   with the repeater sending ICMP soft errors back to the cell.  Also, a
   transient routing problem might lead some intervening router to drop
   a SYN segment that was meaning to establish a TCP connection and send
   an ICMP soft error back to the host.  Finally, a SYN segment carrying
   data might get fragmented and some of the resulting fragments might
   get lost, with the destination host timing out the reassembly process
   and sending an ICMP soft error back to the sending host (although
   this particular scenario is unlikely because, while [RFC0793] allows
   SYN segments to carry data, in practice they do not).  In such
   scenarios, the application could quickly cycle through all the IP
   addresses in the list and return an error, when it could have let TCP

   retry a destination a few seconds later, when the transient problem
   could have disappeared.  In this case, the modifications described
   here make TCP less robust than a standards-compliant implementation.

   Additionally, in many cases a domain name maps to a single IP
   address.  In such a case, it might be better to try that address
   persistently according to normal TCP rules, instead of just aborting
   the pending connection upon receipt of an ICMP soft error.

5.2.  Deterministic Transient Network Failures

   There are some scenarios in which transient network failures could be
   deterministic.  For example, consider a scenario in which upstream
   network connectivity is triggered by network use.  That is, network
   connectivity is instantiated only on an "as needed" basis.  In this
   scenario, the connection triggering the upstream connectivity could
   deterministically receive ICMP Destination Unreachables while the
   upstream connectivity is being activated, and thus would be aborted.
   Again, in this case, the modifications described here make TCP less
   robust than a standards-compliant implementation.

5.3.  Non-Compliant Network Address Translators (NATs)

   Some NATs respond to an unsolicited inbound SYN segment with an ICMP
   soft error message.  If the system sending the unsolicited SYN
   segment implements the workaround described in this document, it will
   abort the connection upon receipt of the ICMP error message, thus
   probably preventing TCP's simultaneous open from succeeding through
   the NAT.  However, it must be stressed that those NATs described in
   this section are not BEHAVE-compliant and therefore should implement
   REQ-4 of [RFC5382] instead.

   In those scenarios in which such a non-BEHAVE-compliant NAT is
   deployed, TCP simultaneous opens could fail.  While undesirable, this
   is tolerable in many situations.  For instance, a number of host
   implementations of TCP do not support TCP simultaneous opens
   [Zuquete].

6.  Security Considerations

   This document describes a non-standard modification to TCP's reaction
   to soft errors that has been implemented in a variety of TCP
   implementations.  This modification makes TCP abort a connection in
   the SYN-SENT or the SYN-RECEIVED states when it receives an ICMP
   error message that indicates a soft error.  Therefore, the
   modification could be exploited to reset valid connections during the
   connection-establishment phase.

   The non-standard workaround described in this document makes TCP more
   vulnerable to attack, even if only slightly.  However, we note that
   an attacker wishing to reset ongoing TCP connections could send any
   of the ICMP hard error messages in any connection state.

   Generally, TCP backs off its retransmission timer each time it
   retransmits the SYN segment for the same connection.  If a TCP
   implements the modification described in this document, that is,
   tries the next address in the list upon receipt of an ICMP error
   message, it might end up injecting more packets into the network than
   if it had simply retried the same address a number of times.
   However, compliant TCP implementations might already incur this
   behavior (e.g., as a result of cycling through the list of IP
   addresses in response to RST segments) as there are currently no
   recommendations on methods for limiting the rate at which SYN
   segments are sent for connecting to a specific destination.

   A discussion of the use of ICMP to perform a variety of attacks
   against TCP, and a number of counter-measures that minimize the
   impact of these attacks, can be found in [ICMP-ATTACKS].

   A discussion of the security issues arising from the use of ICMPv6
   can be found in [RFC4443].

7.  Acknowledgements

   The author wishes to thank Mark Allman, Jari Arkko, David Black, Ron
   Bonica, Ted Faber, Gorry Fairhurst, Sally Floyd, Juan Fraschini,
   Tomohiro Fujisaki, Guillermo Gont, Saikat Guha, Alfred Hoenes,
   Michael Kerrisk, Eddie Kohler, Mika Liljeberg, Arifumi Matsumoto,
   Sandy Murphy, Carlos Pignataro, Pasi Sarolahti, Pekka Savola, Pyda
   Srisuresh, Jinmei Tatuya, and Joe Touch for contributing many
   valuable comments on earlier versions of this document.

   The author wishes to thank Secretaria de Extension Universitaria at
   Universidad Tecnologica Nacional and Universidad Tecnologica
   Nacional/Facultad Regional Haedo for their support in this work.

   Finally, the author wishes to express deep and heartfelt gratitude to
   Jorge Oscar Gont and Nelida Garcia for their precious motivation and
   guidance.

8.  Contributors

   Mika Liljeberg was the first to describe how their implementation
   treated soft errors.  Based on that, the solution discussed in
   Section 4.1 was documented in [v6-ON] by Sebastien Roy, Alain Durand,
   and James Paugh.

9.  References

9.1.  Normative References

   [RFC0792]       Postel, J., "Internet Control Message Protocol",
                   STD 5, RFC 792, September 1981.

   [RFC0793]       Postel, J., "Transmission Control Protocol", STD 7,
                   RFC 793, September 1981.

   [RFC1122]       Braden, R., "Requirements for Internet Hosts -
                   Communication Layers", STD 3, RFC 1122, October 1989.

   [RFC1123]       Braden, R., "Requirements for Internet Hosts -
                   Application and Support", STD 3, RFC 1123,
                   October 1989.

   [RFC2119]       Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
                   Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC3168]       Ramakrishnan, K., Floyd, S., and D. Black, "The
                   Addition of Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN) to
                   IP", RFC 3168, September 2001.

   [RFC4443]       Conta, A., Deering, S., and M. Gupta, "Internet
                   Control Message Protocol (ICMPv6) for the Internet
                   Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) Specification", RFC 4443,
                   March 2006.

   [RFC4861]       Narten, T., Nordmark, E., Simpson, W., and H.
                   Soliman, "Neighbor Discovery for IP version 6
                   (IPv6)", RFC 4861, September 2007.

9.2.  Informative References

   [Gont]          Gont, F., "On the problem of long delays between
                   connection-establishment attempts in TCP", Work
                   in Progress, January 2009.

   [ICMP-ATTACKS]  Gont, F., "ICMP attacks against TCP", Work
                   in Progress, October 2008.

   [Linux]         The Linux Project, "http://www.kernel.org".

   [RFC0816]       Clark, D., "Fault isolation and recovery", RFC 816,
                   July 1982.

   [RFC4943]       Roy, S., Durand, A., and J. Paugh, "IPv6 Neighbor
                   Discovery On-Link Assumption Considered Harmful",
                   RFC 4943, September 2007.

   [RFC5382]       Guha, S., Biswas, K., Ford, B., Sivakumar, S., and P.
                   Srisuresh, "NAT Behavioral Requirements for TCP",
                   BCP 142, RFC 5382, October 2008.

   [Shneiderman]   Shneiderman, B., "Response Time and Display Rate in
                   Human Performance with Computers", ACM
                   Computing Surveys, 1984.

   [Stevens]       Stevens, W., "TCP/IP Illustrated, Volume 1: The
                   Protocols", Addison-Wesley, 1994.

   [Stevens2]      Wright, G. and W. Stevens, "TCP/IP Illustrated,
                   Volume 2: The Implementation", Addison-Wesley, 1994.

   [Thadani]       Thadani, A., "Interactive User Productivity", IBM
                   Systems Journal, No. 1, 1981.

   [Zuquete]       Zuquete, A., "Improving the functionality of SYN
                   cookies", 6th IFIP Communications and Multimedia
                   Security Conference (CMS 2002), 2002.

   [v6-ON]         Roy, S., Durand, A., and J. Paugh, "Issues with Dual
                   Stack IPv6 on by Default", Work in Progress,
                   July 2004.

Author's Address

   Fernando Gont
   Universidad Tecnologica Nacional / Facultad Regional Haedo
   Evaristo Carriego 2644
   Haedo, Provincia de Buenos Aires  1706
   Argentina

   Phone: +54 11 4650 8472
   EMail: fernando@gont.com.ar
   URI:   http://www.gont.com.ar

 

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