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RFC 5295 - Specification for the Derivation of Root Keys from an


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Network Working Group                                         J. Salowey
Request for Comments: 5295                                 Cisco Systems
Updates: 5247                                                 L. Dondeti
Category: Standards Track                                   V. Narayanan
                                                           Qualcomm, Inc
                                                             M. Nakhjiri
                                                                Motorola
                                                             August 2008

             Specification for the Derivation of Root Keys
               from an Extended Master Session Key (EMSK)

Status of This Memo

   This document specifies an Internet standards track protocol for the
   Internet community, and requests discussion and suggestions for
   improvements.  Please refer to the current edition of the "Internet
   Official Protocol Standards" (STD 1) for the standardization state
   and status of this protocol.  Distribution of this memo is unlimited.

Abstract

   The Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) defined the Extended
   Master Session Key (EMSK) generation, but reserved it for unspecified
   future uses.  This memo reserves the EMSK for the sole purpose of
   deriving root keys.  Root keys are master keys that can be used for
   multiple purposes, identified by usage definitions.  This document
   also specifies a mechanism for avoiding conflicts between root keys
   by deriving them in a manner that guarantees cryptographic
   separation.  Finally, this document also defines one such root key
   usage: Domain-Specific Root Keys are root keys made available to and
   used within specific key management domains.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
     1.1.  Applicable Usages of Keys Derived from the EMSK  . . . . .  3
     1.2.  Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   2.  Cryptographic Separation and Coordinated Key Derivation  . . .  6
   3.  EMSK Key Root Derivation Framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     3.1.  USRK Derivation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
       3.1.1.  On the KDFs  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
       3.1.2.  Default KDF  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     3.2.  EMSK and USRK Name Derivation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   4.  Domain-Specific Root Key Derivation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     4.1.  Applicability of Multi-Domain Usages . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   5.  Requirements for Usage Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
     5.1.  Root Key Management Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
   6.  Requirements for EAP System  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
   7.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
     7.1.  Key Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
     7.2.  Cryptographic Separation of Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
     7.3.  Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
     7.4.  Key Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
     7.5.  Key Lifetime . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
     7.6.  Entropy Consideration  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
   8.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
     8.1.  Key Labels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
     8.2.  PRF Numbers  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
   9.  Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
   10. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
     10.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
     10.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

1.  Introduction

   This document deals with keys generated by authenticated key exchange
   mechanisms defined within the EAP framework [RFC3748].  EAP defines
   two types of keying material: a Master Session Key (MSK) and an
   Extended Master Session Key (EMSK).  The EAP specification implicitly
   assumes that the MSK produced by EAP will be used for a single
   purpose at a single device; however, it does reserve the EMSK for
   future use.  This document defines the EMSK to be used solely for
   deriving root keys using the key derivation specified.  The root keys
   are meant for specific purposes called usages; a special usage class
   is the Domain-Specific Root Keys made available to and used within
   specific key management domains.  This document also provides
   guidelines for creating usage definitions for the various uses of EAP
   key material and for the management of the root keys.  In this
   document, the terms application and usage (or "usage definition")
   refer to a specific use case of the EAP keying material.

   Different uses for keys derived from the EMSK have been proposed.
   Some examples include hand-off across access points in various mobile
   technologies, mobile IP authentication, and higher-layer application
   authentication.  In order for a particular usage of EAP key material
   to make use of this specification, it must specify a so-called usage
   definition.  This document does not define how the derived Usage-
   Specific Root Keys (USRK) are used; see the following section for
   discussion of applicable usages.  It does define a framework for the
   derivation of USRKs for different purposes such that different usages
   can be developed independently from one another.  The goal is to have
   security properties of one usage have minimal or no effect on the
   security properties of other usages.

   This document does define a special class of USRK, called a Domain-
   Specific Root Key (DSRK) for use in deriving keys specific to a key
   management domain.  Each DSRK is a root key used to derive Domain-
   Specific Usage-Specific Root Keys (DSUSRK).  The DSUSRKs are USRKs
   specific to a particular key management domain.

   In order to keep root keys for specific purposes separate from one
   another, two requirements are defined in the following sections.  One
   is coordinated key derivation and another is cryptographic
   separation.

1.1.  Applicable Usages of Keys Derived from the EMSK

   The EMSK is typically established as part of network access
   authentication and authorization.  It is expected that keys derived
   from EMSK will be used in protocols related to network access, such

   as handover optimizations, and the scope of these protocols is
   usually restricted to the endpoints of the lower layers over which
   EAP packets are sent.

   In particular, it is inappropriate for the security of higher-layer
   applications to solely rely on keys derived from network access
   authentication.  Even when used together with another, independent
   security mechanism, the use of these keys needs to be carefully
   evaluated with regards to the benefits of the optimization and the
   need to support multiple solutions.  Performance optimizations may
   not warrant the close tie-in that may be required between the layers
   in order to use EAP-based keys.  Such optimizations may be offset by
   the complexities of managing the validity and usage of key materials.
   Keys generated from subsequent EAP authentications may be beyond the
   knowledge and control of applications.

   From an architectural point of view, applications should not make
   assumptions about the lower-layer technology (such as network access
   authentication) used on any particular hop along the path between the
   application endpoints.

   From a practical point of view, making such assumptions would
   complicate using those applications over lower layers that do not use
   EAP, and make it more difficult for applications and network access
   technologies to evolve independently of each other.

   Parties using keys derived from EMSK also need trust relationships
   with the EAP endpoints, and mechanisms for securely communicating the
   keys.

   For most applications, it is not appropriate to assume that all
   current and future access networks are trusted to secure the
   application function.  Instead, applications should implement the
   required security mechanisms in an access-independent manner.

   Implementation considerations may also complicate communication of
   keys to an application from the lower layer.  For instance, in many
   configurations, application protocol endpoints may be different from
   the EAP endpoints.

   Given all this, it is NOT RECOMMENDED to use keys derived from the
   EMSK as an exclusive security mechanism, when their usage is not
   inherently, and by permanent nature, tied to the lower layer where
   network access authentication was performed.

   Keys derived from EAP are pair-wise by nature and are not directly
   suitable for multicast or other group usages such as those involved
   in some routing protocols.  It is possible to use keys derived from
   EAP in protocols that distribute group keys to group participants.

   The definition of these group key distribution protocols is beyond
   the scope of this document and would require additional
   specification.

1.2.  Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

   The following terms are taken from [RFC3748]: EAP Server, peer,
   authenticator, Master Session Key (MSK), Extended Master Session Key
   (EMSK), Cryptographic Separation.

   Usage Definition
      An application of cryptographic key material to provide one or
      more security functions such as authentication, authorization,
      encryption, or integrity protection for related applications or
      services.  This document provides guidelines and recommendations
      for what should be included in usage definitions.  This document
      does not place any constraints on the types of use cases or
      services that create usage definitions.

   Usage-Specific Root Key (USRK)
      Keying material derived from the EMSK for a particular usage
      definition.  It is used to derive child keys in a way defined by
      its usage definition.

   Key Management Domain
      A key management domain is specified by the scope of a given root
      key.  The scope is the collection of systems authorized to access
      key material derived from that key.  Systems within a key
      management domain may be authorized to (1) derive key materials,
      (2) use key materials, or (3) distribute key materials to other
      systems in the same domain.  A derived key's scope is constrained
      to a subset of the scope of the key from which it is derived.  In
      this document, the term "domain" refers to a key management domain
      unless otherwise qualified.

   Domain Specific Root Key (DSRK)
      Keying material derived from the EMSK that is restricted to use in
      a specific key management domain.  It is used to derive child keys
      for a particular usage definition.  The child keys derived from a

      DSRK are referred to as Domain-Specific Usage-Specific Root Keys
      (DSUSRKs).  A DSUSRK is similar to the USRK, except in the fact
      that its scope is restricted to the same domain as the parent DSRK
      from which it is derived.

2.  Cryptographic Separation and Coordinated Key Derivation

   The EMSK is used to derive keys for multiple use cases, and thus it
   is required that the derived keys are cryptographically separate.
   Cryptographic separation means that when multiple keys are derived
   from an EMSK, given any derived key, it is computationally infeasible
   to derive any of the other derived keys.  Note that deriving the EMSK
   from any combinations of the derived keys must also be
   computationally infeasible.  In practice, this means that derivation
   of an EMSK from a derived key or derivation of one child key from
   another must require an amount of computation equivalent to that
   required to, say, reversing a cryptographic hash function.

   Cryptographic separation of keys derived from the same key can be
   achieved in many ways.  Two obvious methods are as follows:

   o  Use a Pseudo-Random Function (PRF) on the EMSK and generate a key
      stream.  Keys of various lengths may be provided as required from
      the key stream for various uses.

   o  Derive keys from EMSK by providing different inputs to the PRF.

   However, it is desirable that derivation of one child key from the
   EMSK is independent of derivation of another child key.  Independent
   derivation of keys from the EMSK allows child keys to be derived in
   any order, independent of other keys.  Thus, it is desirable to use
   option 2 from above.  Using the second option implies the additional
   input to the PRF must be different for each child key derivation.
   This additional input to the PRF must be coordinated properly to meet
   the requirement of cryptographic separation and to prevent reuse of
   key material between usages.

   If cryptographic separation is not maintained, then the security of
   one usage depends upon the security of all other usages that use keys
   derived from the EMSK.  If a system does not have this property, then
   a usage's security depends upon all other usages deriving keys from
   the same EMSK, which is undesirable.  In order to prevent security
   problems in one usage from interfering with another usage, the
   following cryptographic separation is required:

   o  It MUST be computationally infeasible to compute the EMSK from any
      root key derived from it.

   o  Any root key MUST be cryptographically separate from any other
      root key derived from the same EMSK or DSRK.

   o  Derivation of USRKs MUST be coordinated so that two separate
      cryptographic usages do not derive the same key.

   o  Derivation of DSRKs MUST be coordinated so that two separate key
      management domains do not derive the same key.

   o  Derivation of DSRKs and USRKs MUST be specified such that no
      domain can obtain a USRK by providing a domain name identical to a
      Usage Key Label.

   This document provides guidelines for a key derivation mechanism that
   can be used with existing and new EAP methods to provide
   cryptographic separation between usages of EMSK.  This allows for the
   development of new usages without cumbersome coordination between
   different usage definitions.

3.  EMSK Key Root Derivation Framework

   The EMSK key derivation framework provides a coordinated means for
   generating multiple root keys from an EMSK.  Further keys may then be
   derived from the root key for various purposes, including encryption,
   integrity protection, entity authentication by way of proof of
   possession, and subsequent key derivation.  A root key is derived
   from the EMSK for a specific set of uses set forth in a usage
   definition described in Section 5.

   The basic EMSK root key hierarchy looks as follows:

                      EMSK
                     /    \
                   USRK1  USRK2

   This document defines how to derive Usage-Specific Root Keys (USRKs)
   from the EMSK and also defines a specific USRK called a Domain-
   Specific Root Key (DSRK).  DSRKs are root keys restricted to use in a
   particular key management domain.  From the DSRK, Usage-Specific Root
   Keys for a particular application may be derived (DSUSRKs).  The
   DSUSRKs are equivalent to USRKs that are restricted to use in a
   particular domain.  The details of lower levels of key hierarchy are
   outside scope of this document.  The key hierarchy looks as follows:

                      EMSK
                     /    \
                  USRK   DSRK
                        /    \
                   DSUSRK1 DSUSRK2

3.1.  USRK Derivation

   The EMSK Root Key Derivation Function (KDF) derives a USRK from the
   EMSK, a key label, optional data, and output length.  The KDF is
   expected to give the same output for the same input.  The basic key
   derivation function is given below.

        USRK = KDF(EMSK, key label | "\0" | optional data | length)

      where:

        | denotes concatenation
        "\0" is a NULL octet (0x00 in hex)
        length is a 2-octet unsigned integer in network byte order

   The key labels are printable ASCII strings unique for each usage
   definition and are a maximum of 255 octets.  In general, they are of
   the form label-string@specorg, where specorg is the organization that
   controls the specification of the usage definition of the Root Key.
   The key label is intended to provide global uniqueness.  Rules for
   the allocation of these labels are given in Section 8.

   The NULL octet after the key label is used to avoid collisions if one
   key label is a prefix of another label (e.g., "foobar" and
   "foobarExtendedV2").  This is considered a simpler solution than
   requiring a key label assignment policy that prevents prefixes from
   occurring.

   For the optional data, the KDF MUST be capable of processing at least
   2048 opaque octets.  The optional data must be constant during the
   execution of the KDF.  Usage definitions MAY use the EAP Session-ID
   [RFC5247] in the specification of the optional data parameter that
   goes into the KDF function.  In this case, the advantage is that data
   provided into the key derivation is unique to the session that
   generated the keys.

   The KDF must be able to process input keys of up to 256 bytes.  It
   may do this by providing a mechanism for "hashing" long keys down to
   a suitable size that can be consumed by the underlying derivation
   algorithm.

   The length is a 2-octet unsigned integer in network byte order of the
   output key length in octets.  An implementation of the KDF MUST be
   capable of producing at least 2048 octets of output; however, it is
   RECOMMENDED that Root Keys be at least 64 octets long.

   A usage definition requiring derivation of a Root Key must specify
   all the inputs (other than EMSK) to the key derivation function.

   USRKs MUST be at least 64 octets in length.

3.1.1.  On the KDFs

   This specification allows for the use of different KDFs.  However, in
   order to have a coordinated key derivation function, the same KDF
   function MUST be used for all key derivations for a given EMSK.  If
   no KDF is specified, then the default KDF specified in Section 3.1.2
   MUST be used.  A system may provide the capability to negotiate
   additional KDFs.  KDFs are assigned numbers through IANA following
   the policy set in Section 8.  The rules for negotiating a KDF are as
   follows:

   o  If no other KDF is specified, the KDF specified in this document
      MUST be used.  This is the "default" KDF.

   o  The initial authenticated key exchange MAY specify a favored KDF.
      For example, an EAP method may define a preferred KDF to use in
      its specification.  If the initial authenticated key exchange
      specifies a KDF, then this MUST override the default KDF.

   Note that usage definitions MUST NOT concern themselves with the
   details of the KDF construction or the KDF selection, they only need
   to worry about the inputs specified in Section 3.

3.1.2.  Default KDF

   The default KDF for deriving root keys from an EMSK is taken from the
   PRF+ key expansion specified in [RFC4306] based on HMAC-SHA-256
   [SHA256].  The PRF+ construction was chosen because of its simplicity
   and efficiency over other mechanisms such as those used in [RFC4346].
   The motivation for the design of PRF+ is described in [SIGMA].  The
   definition of PRF+ from [RFC4306] is given below:

        PRF+ (K,S) = T1 | T2 | T3 | T4 | ...

   where:

        T1 = PRF (K, S | 0x01)
        T2 = PRF (K, T1 | S | 0x02)
        T3 = PRF (K, T2 | S | 0x03)
        T4 = PRF (K, T3 | S | 0x04)

   continuing as needed to compute the required length of key material.
   The key, K, is the EMSK and S is the concatenation of the key label,
   the NULL octet, optional data, and length defined in Section 3.1.
   For this specification, the PRF is taken as HMAC-SHA-256 [SHA256].
   Since PRF+ is only defined for 255 iterations, it may produce up to
   8160 octets of key material.

3.2.  EMSK and USRK Name Derivation

   The EAP keying framework [RFC5247] specifies that the EMSK MUST be
   named using the EAP Session-ID and a binary or textual indication.
   Following that requirement, the EMSK name SHALL be derived as
   follows:

        EMSKname = KDF ( EAP Session-ID, "EMSK" | "\0" | length )

   where:

        | denotes concatenation
        "EMSK" consists of the 4 ASCII values for the letters
        "\0" = is a NULL octet (0x00 in hex)
        length is the 2-octet unsigned integer 8 in network byte order

   It is RECOMMENDED that all keys derived from the EMSK are referred to
   by the EMSKname and the context of the descendant key usage.  This is
   the default behavior.  Any exceptions SHALL be signaled by individual
   usages.

   USRKs MAY be named explicitly with a name derivation specified as
   follows:

         USRKName =
              KDF(EAP Session-ID, key label|"\0"|optional data|length)

    where:

         key label and optional data MUST be the same as those used
           in the corresponding USRK derivation
         length is the 2-octet unsigned integer 8 in network byte order

   USRKName derivation and usage are applicable when there is ambiguity
   in referencing the keys using the EMSKname and the associated context
   of the USRK usage.  The usage SHALL signal such an exception in key
   naming, so both parties know the key name used.

4.  Domain-Specific Root Key Derivation

   A specific USRK called a Domain-Specific Root Key (DSRK) is derived
   from the EMSK for a specific set of usages in a particular key
   management domain.  Usages derive specific keys for specific services
   from this DSRK.  The DSRK may be distributed to a key management
   domain for a specific set of usages so that keys can be derived
   within the key management domain for those usages.  DSRK-based usages
   will follow a key hierarchy similar to the following:

                                   EMSK
                                  /    \
                                 /      \
                                /        \
                               /          \
                          DSRK1            DSRK2
                         /  \                /  \
                        /    \              /    \
                  DSUSRK11  DSUSRK12  DSUSRK21  DSUSRK22

   The DSRK is a USRK with a key label of "dsrk@ietf.org" and the
   optional data containing a domain label.  The optional data MUST
   contain an ASCII string representing the key management domain for
   which the root key is being derived.  The DSRK MUST be at least 64
   octets long.

   Domain-Specific Usage-Specific Root Keys (DSUSRKs) are derived from
   the DSRK.  The KDF is expected to give the same output for the same
   input.  The basic key derivation function is given below.

        DSUSRK = KDF(DSRK, key label | "\0" | optional data | length)

   The key labels are printable ASCII strings unique for each usage
   definition within a DSRK usage and are a maximum of 255 octets.  In
   general, they are of the form label-string@specorg where specorg is
   the organization that controls the specification of the usage
   definition of the DSRK.  The key label is intended to provide global
   uniqueness.  Rules for the allocation of these labels are given in
   Section 8.  For the optional data, the KDF MUST be capable of
   processing at least 2048 opaque octets.  The optional data must be
   constant during the execution of the KDF.  The length is a 2-octet
   unsigned integer in network byte order of the output key length in
   octets.  An implementation of the KDF MUST be capable of producing at

   least 2048 octets of output; however, it is RECOMMENDED that DSUSRKs
   be at least 64 octets long.

   Usages that make use of the DSRK must define how the peer learns the
   domain label to use in a particular derivation.  A multi-domain usage
   must define how both DSRKs and specific DSUSRKs are transported to
   different key management domains.  Note that usages may define
   alternate ways to constrain specific keys to particular key
   management domains.

   To facilitate the use of EMSKname to refer to keys derived from
   DSRKs, EMSKname SHOULD be sent along with the DSRK.  The exception is
   when a DSRKname is expected to be used.  The usage SHALL signal such
   an exception in key naming, so both parties know the key name used.

   DSUSRKs MAY be named explicitly with a name derivation specified as
   follows:

        DSUSRKName =
             KDF(EMSKName,key label | "\0" | optional data | length)

   where length is the 2-octet unsigned integer 8 in network byte order.

4.1.  Applicability of Multi-Domain Usages

   The DSUSRKs generated by a domain can be used to authorize entities
   in a domain to perform specific functions.  In cases where it is
   appropriate for only a specific domain to be authorized to perform a
   function, the usage SHOULD NOT be defined as multi-domain.

   In some cases, only certain domains are authorized for a particular
   multi-domain usage.  In this case, domains that do not have full
   authorization should not receive the DSRK and should only receive
   DSUSRKs for the usages for which they are authorized.  If it is
   possible for a peer to know which domains are authorized for a
   particular usage without relying on restricting access to the DSRK to
   specific domains, then this recommendation may be relaxed.

5.  Requirements for Usage Definitions

   In order for a usage definition to meet the guidelines for USRK
   usage, it must meet the following recommendations:

   o  The usage must define if it is a domain-enabled usage.

   o  The usage definition MUST NOT use the EMSK in any other way except
      to derive Root Keys using the key derivation specified in
      Section 3 of this document.  They MUST NOT use the EMSK directly.

   o  The usage definition SHOULD NOT require caching of the EMSK.  It
      is RECOMMENDED that the Root Key derived specifically for the
      usage definition (rather than the EMSK) should be used to derive
      child keys for specific cryptographic operations.

   o  Usage definitions MUST define distinct key labels and optional
      data used in the key derivation described in Section 3.  Usage
      definitions are encouraged to use the key name described in
      Section 3.2 and include additional data in the optional data to
      provide additional entropy.

   o  Usage definitions MUST define the length of their Root Keys.  It
      is RECOMMENDED that the Root Keys be at least as long as the EMSK
      (at least 64 octets).

   o  Usage definitions MUST define how they use their Root Keys.  This
      includes aspects of key management covered in the next section on
      Root Key management guidelines.

5.1.  Root Key Management Guidelines

   This section makes recommendations for various aspects of key
   management of the Root Key including lifetime, child key derivation,
   caching, and transport.

   It is RECOMMENDED that the Root Key is only used for deriving child
   keys.  A usage definition must specify how and when the derivation of
   child keys should be done.  It is RECOMMENDED that usages following
   similar considerations for key derivation are as outlined in this
   document for the Root Key derivation with respect to cryptographic
   separation and key reuse.  In addition, usages should take into
   consideration the number of keys that will be derived from the Root
   Key and ensure that enough entropy is introduced in the derivation to
   support this usage.  It is desirable that the entropy is provided by
   the two parties that derive the child key.

   Root Keys' lifetimes should not be more than that of the EMSK.  Thus,
   when the EMSK expires, the Root Keys derived from it should be
   removed from use.  If a new EMSK is derived from a subsequent EAP
   transaction, then a usage implementation should begin to use the new
   Root Keys derived from the new EMSK as soon as possible.  Whether or
   not child keys associated with a Root Key are replaced depends on the
   requirements of the usage definition.  It is conceivable that some
   usage definition forces the child key to be replaced and others allow
   child keys to be used based on the policy of the entities that use
   the child key.

   Recall that the EMSK never leaves the EAP peer and server.  That also
   holds true for some Root Keys; however, some Root Keys may be
   provided to other entities for child key derivation and delivery.
   Each usage definition specification will specify delivery caching
   and/or delivery procedures.  Note that the purpose of the key
   derivation in Section 3 is to ensure that Root Keys are
   cryptographically separate from each other and the EMSK.  In other
   words, given a Root Key, it is computationally infeasible to derive
   the EMSK, any other Root Keys, or child keys associated with other
   Root Keys.  In addition to the Root Key, several other parameters may
   need to be sent.

   Root Key names may be derived using the EAP Session-ID, and thus the
   key name may need to be sent along with the key.  When Root Keys are
   delivered to another entity, the EMSKname and the lifetime associated
   with the specific root keys MUST also be transported to that entity.
   Recommendations for transporting keys are discussed in the Security
   Considerations (Section 7.4).

   Usage definitions may also define how keys are bound to particular
   entities.  This can be done through the inclusion of usage parameters
   and identities in the child key derivation.  Some of this data is
   described as "channel bindings" in [RFC3748].

6.  Requirements for EAP System

   The system that wishes to make use of EAP root keys derived from the
   EMSK must take certain things into consideration.  The following is a
   list of these considerations:

   o  The EMSK MUST NOT be used for any other purpose than the key
      derivation described in this document.

   o  The EMSK MUST be secret and not known to someone observing the
      authentication mechanism protocol exchange.

   o  The EMSK MUST be maintained within a protected location inside the
      entity where it is generated.  Only root keys derived according to
      this specification may be exported from this boundary.

   o  The EMSK MUST be unique for each EAP session

   o  The EAP method MUST provide an identifier for the EAP transaction
      that generated the key.

   o  The system MUST define which usage definitions are used and how
      they are invoked.

   o  The system may define ways to select an alternate PRF for key
      derivation as defined in Section 3.1.

   The system MAY use the MSK transmitted to the Network Access Server
   (NAS) in any way it chooses in accordance with [RFC3748], [RFC5247],
   and other relevant specifications.  This is required for backward
   compatibility.  New usage definitions following this specification
   MUST NOT use the MSK.  If more than one usage uses the MSK, then the
   cryptographic separation is not achieved.  Implementations MUST
   prevent such combinations.

7.  Security Considerations

7.1.  Key Strength

   The effective key strength of the derived keys will never be greater
   than the strength of the EMSK (or a master key internal to an EAP
   mechanism).

7.2.  Cryptographic Separation of Keys

   The intent of the KDF is to derive keys that are cryptographically
   separate: the compromise of one of the Usage-Specific Root Keys
   (USRKs) should not compromise the security of other USRKs or the
   EMSK.  It is believed that the KDF chosen provides the desired
   separation.

7.3.  Implementation

   An implementation of an EAP framework should keep the EMSK internally
   as close to where it is derived as possible and only provide an
   interface for obtaining Root Keys.  It may also choose to restrict
   which callers have access to which keys.  A usage definition MUST NOT
   assume that any entity outside the EAP server or EAP peer has access
   to the EMSK.  In particular, it MUST NOT assume that a lower layer
   has access to the EMSK.

7.4.  Key Distribution

   In some cases, it will be necessary or convenient to distribute USRKs
   from where they are generated.  Since these are secret keys, they
   MUST be transported with their integrity and confidentiality
   maintained.  They MUST be transmitted between authenticated and
   authorized parties.  It is also important that the context of the key
   usage be transmitted along with the key.  This includes information
   to identify the key and constraints on its usage such as lifetime.

   This document does not define a mechanism for key transport.  It is
   up to usage definitions and the systems that use them to define how
   keys are distributed.  Usage definition designers may enforce
   constraints on key usage by various parties by deriving a key
   hierarchy and by providing entities only with the keys in the
   hierarchy that they need.

7.5.  Key Lifetime

   The key lifetime is dependent upon how the key is generated and how
   the key is used.  Since the Root Key is the responsibility of the
   usage definition, it must determine how long the key is valid for.
   If key lifetime or key strength information is available from the
   authenticated key exchange, then this information SHOULD be used in
   determining the lifetime of the key.  If possible, it is recommended
   that key lifetimes be coordinated throughout the system.  Setting a
   key lifetime shorter that a system lifetime may result in keys
   becoming invalid with no convenient way to refresh them.  Setting a
   key lifetime to longer may result in decreased security since the key
   may be used beyond its recommended lifetime.

7.6.  Entropy Consideration

   The number of root keys derived from the EMSK is expected to be low.
   Note that there is no randomness required to be introduced into the
   EMSK-to-Root-Key derivation beyond the root key labels.  Thus, if
   many keys are going to be derived from a Root Key, it is important
   that Root-Key-to-child-key derivation introduce fresh random numbers
   in deriving each key.

8.  IANA Considerations

   The keywords "Private Use", "Specification Required", and "IETF
   Consensus" that appear in this document when used to describe
   namespace allocation are to be interpreted as described in [RFC5226].

8.1.  Key Labels

   This specification introduces a new name space for "USRK Key Labels".
   Key labels MUST be printable US-ASCII strings, and MUST NOT contain
   the characters at-sign ("@") except as noted below, comma (","),
   whitespace, control characters (ASCII codes 32 or less), or the ASCII
   code 127 (DEL).  Labels are case-sensitive and MUST NOT be longer
   than 64 characters.

   Labels can be assigned based on Specification Required policy
   [RFC5226].  In addition, the labels "experimental1" and
   "experimental2" are reserved for experimental use.  The following
   considerations apply to their use:

   Production networks do not necessarily support the use of
   experimental code points.  The network scope of support for
   experimental values should carefully be evaluated before deploying
   any experiment across extended network domains, such as the public
   Internet.  The potential to disrupt the stable operation of EAP
   devices is a consideration when planning an experiment using such
   code points.

   The network administrators should ensure that each code point is used
   consistently to avoid interference between experiments.  Particular
   attention should be given to security vulnerabilities and the freedom
   of different domains to employ their own experiments.  Cross-domain
   usage is NOT RECOMMENDED.

   Similarly, labels "private1" and "private2" have been reserved for
   Private Use within an organization.  Again, cross-domain usage of
   these labels is NOT RECOMMENDED.

   Labels starting with a string and followed by the "@" and a valid,
   fully qualified Internet domain name [RFC1034] can be requested by
   the person or organization that is in control of the domain name.
   Such labels can be allocated based on Expert Review with
   Specification Required.  Besides the review needed for Specification
   Required (see Section 4.1 of [RFC5226]), the expert needs to review
   the proposed usage for conformance to this specification, including
   the suitability of the usage according to the applicability statement
   outlined in Section 1.1.  It is RECOMMENDED that the specification
   contain the following information:

   o  A description of the usage

   o  The key label to be used

   o  Length of the Root Key

   o  If optional data is used, what it is and how it is maintained

   o  How child keys will be derived from the Root Key and how they will
      be used

   o  How lifetime of the Root Key and its child keys will be managed

   o  Where the Root Keys or child keys will be used and how they are
      communicated if necessary

   The following labels are reserved by this document: "EMSK",
   "dsrk@ietf.org".

8.2.  PRF Numbers

   This specification introduces a new number space for "EMSK PRF
   numbers".  The numbers are in the range 0 to 255.  Numbers from 0 to
   220 are assigned through the policy IETF Consensus, and numbers in
   the range 221 to 255 are left for Private Use.  The initial registry
   contains the following values:

      0 RESERVED

      1 HMAC-SHA-256 PRF+ (Default)

9.  Acknowledgements

   This document expands upon previous collaboration with Pasi Eronen.
   This document reflects conversations with Bernard Aboba, Jari Arkko,
   Avi Lior, David McGrew, Henry Haverinen, Hao Zhou, Russ Housley, Glen
   Zorn, Charles Clancy, Dan Harkins, Alan DeKok, Yoshi Ohba, and
   members of the EAP and HOKEY working groups.

   Thanks to Dan Harkins for the idea of using a single root key name to
   refer to all keys.

10.  References

10.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC3748]  Aboba, B., Blunk, L., Vollbrecht, J., Carlson, J., and H.
              Levkowetz, "Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP)",
              RFC 3748, June 2004.

   [RFC4306]  Kaufman, C., "Internet Key Exchange (IKEv2) Protocol",
              RFC 4306, December 2005.

   [RFC5226]  Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an
              IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 5226,
              May 2008.

   [RFC5247]  Aboba, B., Simon, D., and P. Eronen, "Extensible
              Authentication Protocol (EAP) Key Management Framework",
              RFC 5247, August 2008.

   [SHA256]   National Institute of Standards and Technology, "Secure
              Hash Standard", FIPS 180-2, With Change Notice 1 dated
              February 2004, August 2002.

10.2.  Informative References

   [RFC1034]  Mockapetris, P., "Domain names - concepts and facilities",
              STD 13, RFC 1034, November 1987.

   [RFC4346]  Dierks, T. and E. Rescorla, "The Transport Layer Security
              (TLS) Protocol Version 1.1", RFC 4346, April 2006.

   [SIGMA]    Krawczyk, H., "SIGMA: the 'SIGn-and-MAc' Approach to
              Authenticated Diffie-Hellman and its Use in the IKE
              Protocols", LNCS 2729, Springer, 2003,
              <http://www.informatik.uni-trier.de/~ley/db/conf/
              crypto/crypto2003.html>.

Authors' Addresses

   Joseph Salowey
   Cisco Systems

   EMail: jsalowey@cisco.com

   Lakshminath Dondeti
   Qualcomm, Inc

   EMail: ldondeti@qualcomm.com

   Vidya Narayanan
   Qualcomm, Inc

   EMail: vidyan@qualcomm.com

   Madjid Nakhjiri
   Motorola

   EMail: madjid.nakhjiri@motorola.com

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