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RFC 5009 - Private Header (P-Header) Extension to the Session In


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Network Working Group                                           R. Ejzak
Request for Comments: 5009                                Alcatel-Lucent
Category: Informational                                   September 2007

                Private Header (P-Header) Extension to
the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) for Authorization of Early Media

Status of This Memo

   This memo provides information for the Internet community.  It does
   not specify an Internet standard of any kind.  Distribution of this
   memo is unlimited.

Abstract

   This document describes a private Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)
   header field (P-header) to be used by the European Telecommunications
   Standards Institute (ETSI) Telecommunications and Internet-converged
   Services and Protocols for Advanced Networks (TISPAN) for the purpose
   of authorizing early media flows in Third Generation Partnership
   Project (3GPP) IP Multimedia Subsystems (IMS).  This header field is
   useful in any SIP network that is interconnected with other SIP
   networks and needs to control the flow of media in the early dialog
   state.

Table of Contents

   1. Introduction ....................................................2
   2. Applicability Statement .........................................3
   3. Conventions and Acronyms ........................................3
   4. Background on Early Media Authorization .........................4
      4.1. Backward Early Media .......................................5
      4.2. Forward Early Media ........................................5
   5. Applicability of RFC 3959 and RFC 3960 ..........................6
   6. Overview of Operation ...........................................6
   7. Limitations of the P-Early-Media Header Field ...................8
   8. The P-Early-Media Header Field ..................................8
      8.1. Procedures at the User Agent Client .......................10
      8.2. Procedures at the User Agent Server .......................10
      8.3. Procedures at the Proxy ...................................11
   9. Formal Syntax ..................................................11
   10. Security Considerations .......................................11
   11. IANA Considerations ...........................................12
      11.1. Registration of the "P-Early-Media" SIP Header Field .....12
   12. Acknowledgements ..............................................12
   13. References ....................................................12
      13.1. Normative References .....................................12
      13.2. Informative References ...................................13

1.  Introduction

   This document defines the use of the P-Early-Media header field for
   use within SIP [1] messages in certain SIP networks to authorize the
   cut-through of backward and/or forward early media when permitted by
   the early media policies of the networks involved.  The P-Early-Media
   header field is intended for use in a SIP network, such as a 3GPP IMS
   [13][14] that has the following characteristics: its early media
   policy prohibits the exchange of early media between end users; it is
   interconnected with other SIP networks that have unknown, untrusted,
   or different policies regarding early media; and it has the
   capability to "gate" (enable/disable) the flow of early media to/from
   user equipment.

   Within an isolated SIP network, it is possible to gate early media
   associated with all endpoints within the network to enforce a desired
   early media policy among network endpoints.  However, when a SIP
   network is interconnected with other SIP networks, only the boundary
   node connected to the external network can determine which early
   media policy to apply to a session established between endpoints on
   different sides of the boundary.  The P-Early-Media header field
   provides a means for this boundary node to communicate this early
   media policy decision to other nodes within the network.

2.  Applicability Statement

   The use of this extension is only applicable inside a "Trust Domain"
   as defined in RFC 3325 [6].  Nodes in such a Trust Domain are
   explicitly trusted by its users and end-systems to authorize early
   media requests only when allowed by early media policy within the
   Trust Domain.

   This document does NOT offer a general early media authorization
   model suitable for inter-domain use or use in the Internet at large.
   Furthermore, since the early media requests are not cryptographically
   certified, they are subject to forgery, replay, and falsification in
   any architecture that does not meet the requirements of the Trust
   Domain.

   An early media request also lacks an indication of who specifically
   is making or modifying the request, and so it must be assumed that
   the Trust Domain is making the request.  Therefore, the information
   is only meaningful when securely received from a node known to be a
   member of the Trust Domain.

   Although this extension can be used with parallel forking, it does
   not improve on the known problems with early media and parallel
   forking, as described in RFC 3960 [4], unless one can assume the use
   of symmetric RTP.

   Despite these limitations, there are sufficiently useful specialized
   deployments that meet the assumptions described above, and can accept
   the limitations that result, to warrant publication of this
   mechanism.  An example deployment would be a closed network that
   emulates a traditional circuit switched telephone network.

3.  Conventions and Acronyms

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [2].

   The following acronyms are used in this document:

      3GPP   - the Third Generation Partnership Project
      ABNF   - Augmented Backus-Naur Form [5]
      DTMF   - Dual Tone Multi-Frequency
      ETSI   - European Telecommunications Standards Institute
      IMS    - Internet Protocol Multimedia Subsystem [13][14]
      MIME   - Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions
      NAT    - Network Address Translation
      PSTN   - Public Switched Telephone Network

      SDP    - Session Description Protocol [7]
      SIP    - Session Initiation Protocol [1]
      TISPAN - Telecommunications and Internet-converged Services and
               Protocols for Advanced Networks
      UA     - User Agent [1]
      UAC    - User Agent Client [1]
      UAS    - User Agent Server [1]

4.  Background on Early Media Authorization

   PSTN networks typically provide call progress information as backward
   early media from the terminating switch towards the calling party.
   PSTN networks also use forward early media from the calling party
   towards the terminating switch under some circumstances for
   applications, such as digit collection for secondary dialing.  PSTN
   networks typically allow backward and/or forward early media since
   they are used for the purpose of progressing the call to the answer
   state and do not involve the exchange of data between endpoints.

   In a SIP network, backward early media flows from the User Agent
   Server (UAS) towards the User Agent Client (UAC).  Forward early
   media flows from the UAC towards the UAS.  SIP networks by default
   allow both forms of early media, which may carry user data, once the
   media path is established.  Early media is typically desirable with a
   PSTN gateway as UAS, but not with SIP user equipment as UAS.

   To prevent the exchange of user data within early media while
   allowing early media via PSTN gateways, a SIP network may have a
   policy to prohibit backward early media from SIP user equipment and
   to prohibit forward media towards SIP user equipment, either of which
   may contain user data.  A SIP network containing both PSTN gateways
   and SIP end devices, for example, can maintain such an early media
   policy by gating "off" any early media with a SIP end device acting
   as UAS, gating "on" early media with a SIP end device acting as UAC,
   and gating "on" early media at each PSTN gateway.

   Unfortunately, a SIP network interconnected with another SIP network
   may have no means of assuring that the interconnected network is
   implementing a compatible early media policy, thus allowing the
   exchange of user data within early media under some circumstances.
   For example, if a network "A" allows all early media with user
   equipment as UAC and an interconnected network "B" allows all early
   media with user equipment as UAS, any session established between
   user equipment as UAC in "A" and user equipment as UAS in "B" will
   allow bidirectional user data exchange as early media.  Other
   combinations of early media policies may also produce similar
   undesirable results.

   The purpose of the extension is to allow a SIP network interconnected
   to other SIP networks with different early media policies to
   correctly identify and enable authorized early media according to its
   policies.

4.1.  Backward Early Media

   Backward early media in the PSTN typically comprises call progress
   information, such as ringing feedback ("ringback"), or announcements
   regarding special handling such as forwarding.  It may also include
   requests for further information, such as a credit card number to be
   entered as forward early media in the form of Dual Tone Multi-
   Frequency (DTMF) tones or speech.  Backward early media of this type
   provides information to the calling party strictly for the purpose of
   progressing the call and involves no exchange of data between end
   users.  The usual PSTN charging policy assumes that no data is
   exchanged between users until the call has been answered.

   A terminating SIP User Agent (UA) outside of the SIP network, on the
   other hand, may provide any user data in a backward early media
   stream.  Thus, if the network implements the usual early media
   policy, the network equipment gating the backward early media flow
   for the originating UA must distinguish between authorized early
   media from a terminating SIP endpoint and unauthorized early media
   from another SIP device outside of the network.  Given the assumption
   of a transitive trust relationship between SIP servers in the
   network, this can be accomplished by including some information in a
   backward SIP message that identifies the presence of authorized
   backward early media.  Since it is necessary to verify that this
   indication comes from a trusted source, it is necessary for each
   server on the path back to the originating UA to be able to verify
   the trust relationship with the previous server and to remove such an
   indication when it cannot do so.  A server on the boundary to an
   untrusted SIP network can assure that no indication of authorized
   backward early media passes from an external UAS to a UAC within the
   network.  Thus, the use of a private header field that can be
   modified by SIP proxies is to be preferred over the use of a
   Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) attachment that cannot
   be modified in this way.

4.2.  Forward Early Media

   Forward early media is less common than backward early media in the
   PSTN.  It is typically used to collect secondary dialed digits, to
   collect credit card numbers, or to collect other DTMF or speech
   responses for the purpose of further directing the call.  Forward
   early media in the PSTN is always directed toward a network server

   for the purpose of progressing a call and involves no exchange of
   data between end users.

   A terminating SIP UA outside of the SIP network, on the other hand,
   may receive any user data in a forward early media stream.  Thus, if
   the network implements the usual early media policy, the network
   equipment gating the forward early media flow for the originating UA
   must distinguish between a terminating endpoint that is authorized to
   receive forward early media, and another SIP device outside of the
   network that is not authorized to receive forward early media
   containing user data.  This authorization can be accomplished in the
   same manner as for backward early media by including some information
   in a backward SIP message that identifies that the terminating side
   is authorized to receive forward early media.

5.  Applicability of RFC 3959 and RFC 3960

   The private header extension defined in this document is applicable
   to the gateway model defined in RFC 3960 [4], since the PSTN gateway
   is the primary requestor of early media in an IMS.  For the same
   reason, neither the application server model of RFC 3960, nor the
   early-session disposition type defined in RFC 3959 [3] is applicable.

   The gateway model of RFC 3960 [4] allows for individual networks to
   create local policy with respect to the handling of early media, but
   does not address the case where a network is interconnected with
   other networks with unknown, untrusted, or different early media
   policies.  Without the kind of information in the P-Early-Media
   header field, it is not possible for the network to determine whether
   cut-through of early media could lead to the transfer of data between
   end-users during session establishment.

   Thus, the private header extension in this document is a natural
   extension of the gateway model of RFC 3960 [4] that is applicable
   within a transitive trust domain.

6.  Overview of Operation

   This document defines a new P-Early-Media header field for the
   purpose of requesting and authorizing requests for backward and/or
   forward early media.  A UAC capable of recognizing the P-Early-Media
   header field may include the header field in an INVITE request.  The
   P-Early-Media header field in an INVITE request contains the
   "supported" parameter.

   As members of the Trust Domain, each proxy receiving an INVITE
   request must decide whether to insert or delete the P-Early-Media
   header field before forwarding.

   A UAS receiving an INVITE request can use the presence of the P-
   Early-Media header field in the request to decide whether to request
   early media authorization in subsequent messages towards the UAC.
   After receiving an incoming INVITE request, the UAS requesting
   backward and/or forward early media will include the P-Early-Media
   header field in a message towards the UAC within the dialog,
   including direction parameter(s) that identify for each media line in
   the session whether the early media request is for backward media,
   forward media, both, or neither.  The UAS can change its request for
   early media by including a modified P-Early-Media header field in a
   subsequent message towards the UAC within the dialog.

   Each proxy in the network receiving the P-Early-Media header field in
   a message towards the UAC has the responsibility for assuring that
   the early media request comes from an authorized source.  If a P-
   Early-Media header field arrives from either an untrusted source, a
   source not allowed to send backward early media, or a source not
   allowed to receive forward early media, then the proxy may remove the
   P-Early-Media header field or alter the direction parameter(s) of the
   P-Early-Media header field before forwarding the message, based on
   local policy.

   A proxy in the network not receiving the P-Early-Media header field
   in a message towards the UAC may insert one based on local policy.

   If the proxy also performs gating of early media, then it uses the
   parameter(s) of the P-Early-Media header field to decide whether to
   open or close the gates for backward and forward early media flow(s)
   between the UAs.  The proxy performing gating of early media may also
   add a "gated" parameter to the P-Early-Media header field before
   forwarding the message so that other gating proxies in the path can
   choose to leave open their gates.

   If the UAC is a trusted server within the network (e.g., a PSTN
   gateway), then the UAC may use the parameter(s) of the P-Early-Media
   header field in messages received from the UAS to decide whether to
   perform early media gating or cut-through and to decide whether or
   not to render backward early media in preference to generating
   ringback based on the receipt of a 180 Ringing response.

   If the UAC is associated with user equipment, then the network will
   have assigned a proxy the task of performing early media gating, so
   that the parameter(s) of the P-Early-Media header field received at
   such a UAC do not require that the UAC police the early media
   flow(s), but they do provide additional information that the UAC may
   use to render media.

   The UAC and proxies in the network may also insert, delete, or modify
   the P-Early-Media header field in messages towards the UAS within the
   dialog according to local policy, but the interpretation of the
   header field when used in this way is a matter of local policy and
   not defined herein.  The use of direction parameter(s) in this header
   field could be used to inform the UAS of the final early media
   authorization status.

7.  Limitations of the P-Early-Media Header Field

   The P-Early-Media header field does not apply to any SDP with
   Content-Disposition: early-session [3].

   When parallel forking occurs, there is no reliable way to correlate
   early media authorization in a dialog with the media from the
   corresponding endpoint unless one can assume the use of symmetric
   RTP, since the SDP messages do not identify the RTP source address of
   any media stream.  When a UAC or proxy receives multiple early
   dialogs and cannot accurately identify the source of each media
   stream, it SHOULD use the most restrictive early media authorization
   it receives on any of the dialogs to decide the policy to apply
   towards all received media.  When early media usage is desired for
   any reason and one cannot assume the use of symmetric RTP, it is
   advisable to disable parallel forking using callerprefs [9].

   Although the implementation of media gating is outside the scope of
   this extension, note that media gating must be implemented carefully
   in the presence of NATs and protocols that aid in NAT traversal.
   Media gating may also introduce a potential for media clipping that
   is similar to that created during parallel forking or any other
   feature that may disable early media, such as custom ringback.

8.  The P-Early-Media Header Field

   The P-Early-Media header field with the "supported" parameter MAY be
   included in an INVITE request to indicate that the UAC or a proxy on
   the path recognizes the header field.

   A network entity MAY request the authorization of early media or
   change a request for authorization of early media by including the
   P-Early-Media header field in any message allowed by Table 1 within
   the dialog towards the sender of the INVITE request.  The P-Early-
   Media header field includes one or more direction parameters where
   each has one of the values: "sendrecv", "sendonly", "recvonly", or
   "inactive", following the convention used for Session Description
   Protocol (SDP) [7][8] stream directionality.  Each parameter applies,
   in order, to the media lines in the corresponding SDP messages
   establishing session media.  Unrecognized parameters SHALL be

   silently discarded.  Non-direction parameters are ignored for
   purposes of early media authorization.  If there are more direction
   parameters than media lines, the excess SHALL be silently discarded.
   If there are fewer direction parameters than media lines, the value
   of the last direction parameter SHALL apply to all remaining media
   lines.  A message directed towards the UAC containing a P-Early-Media
   header field with no recognized direction parameters SHALL NOT be
   interpreted as an early media authorization request.

   The parameter value "sendrecv" indicates a request for authorization
   of early media associated with the corresponding media line, both
   from the UAS towards the UAC and from the UAC towards the UAS (both
   backward and forward early media).  The value "sendonly" indicates a
   request for authorization of early media from the UAS towards the UAC
   (backward early media), and not in the other direction.  The value
   "recvonly" indicates a request for authorization of early media from
   the UAC towards the UAS (forward early media), and not in the other
   direction.  The value "inactive" indicates either a request that no
   early media associated with the corresponding media line be
   authorized, or a request for revocation of authorization of
   previously authorized early media.

   The P-Early-Media header field in any message within a dialog towards
   the sender of the INVITE request MAY also include the non-direction
   parameter "gated" to indicate that a network entity on the path
   towards the UAS is already gating the early media, according to the
   direction parameter(s).  When included in the P-Early-Media header
   field, the "gated" parameter SHALL come after all direction
   parameters in the parameter list.

   When receiving a message directed toward the UAC without the P-
   Early-Media header field and no previous early media authorization
   request has been received within the dialog, the default early media
   authorization depends on local policy and may depend on whether the
   header field was included in the INVITE request.  After an early
   media authorization request has been received within a dialog, and a
   subsequent message is received without the P-Early-Media header
   field, the previous early media authorization remains unchanged.

   The P-Early-Media header field in any message within a dialog towards
   the UAS MAY be ignored or interpreted according to local policy.

   The P-Early-Media header field does not interact with SDP
   offer/answer procedures in any way.  Early media authorization is not
   influenced by the state of the SDP offer/answer procedures (including
   preconditions and directionality) and does not influence the state of
   the SDP offer/answer procedures.  The P-Early-Media header field may
   or may not be present in messages containing SDP.  The most recently

   received early media authorization applies to the corresponding media
   line in the session established for the dialog until receipt of the
   200 OK response to the INVITE request, at which point all media lines
   in the session are implicitly authorized.  Early media flow in a
   particular direction requires that early media in that direction is
   authorized, that media flow in that direction is enabled by the SDP
   direction attribute for the stream, and that any applicable
   preconditions [11] are met.  Early media authorization does not
   override the SDP direction attribute or preconditions state, and the
   SDP direction attribute does not override early media authorization.

   Table 1 is an extension of Tables 2 and 3 in RFC 3261 [1] for the P-
   Early-Media header field.  The column "PRA" is for the PRACK method
   [12].  The column "UPD" is for the UPDATE method [10].

      Header field     where    proxy  ACK BYE CAN INV OPT REG PRA UPD
      ________________________________________________________________
      P-Early-Media      R       amr    -   -   -   o   -   -   o   o
      P-Early-Media     18x      amr    -   -   -   o   -   -   -   -
      P-Early-Media     2xx      amr    -   -   -   -   -   -   o   o

                   Table 1: P-Early-Media Header Field

8.1.  Procedures at the User Agent Client

   A User Agent Client MAY include the P-Early-Media header field with
   the "supported" parameter in an INVITE request to indicate that it
   recognizes the header field.

   A User Agent Client receiving a P-Early-Media header field MAY use
   the parameter(s) of the header field to gate or cut-through early
   media, and to decide whether to render early media from the UAS to
   the UAC in preference to any locally generated ringback triggered by
   a 180 Ringing response.  If a proxy is providing the early media
   gating function for the User Agent Client, then the gateway model of
   RFC 3960 [4] for rendering of early media is applicable.  A User
   Agent Client without a proxy in the network performing early media
   gating that receives a P-Early-Media header field SHOULD perform
   gating or cut-through of early media according to the parameter(s) of
   the header field.

8.2.  Procedures at the User Agent Server

   A User Agent Server that is requesting authorization to send or
   receive early media MAY insert a P-Early-Media header field with
   appropriate parameters(s) in any message allowed in table 1 towards
   the UAC within the dialog.  A User Agent Server MAY request changes
   in early media authorization by inserting a P-Early-Media header

   field with appropriate parameter(s) in any subsequent message allowed
   in table 1 towards the UAC within the dialog.

   If the P-Early-Media header field is not present in the INVITE
   request, the User Agent Server MAY choose to suppress early media
   authorization requests and MAY choose to execute alternate early
   media procedures.

8.3.  Procedures at the Proxy

   When forwarding an INVITE request, a proxy MAY add, retain, or delete
   the P-Early-Media header field, depending on local policy and the
   trust relationship with the sender and/or receiver of the request.

   When forwarding a message allowed in Table 1 towards the UAC, a proxy
   MAY add, modify, or delete a P-Early-Media header field, depending on
   local policy and the trust relationship with the sender and/or
   receiver of the message.  In addition, if the proxy controls the
   gating of early media for the User Agent Client, it SHOULD use the
   contents of the P-Early-Media header field to gate the early media,
   according to the definitions of the header field parameters defined
   in clause 8.

9.  Formal Syntax

   The syntax of the P-Early-Media header field is described below in
   ABNF, according to RFC 4234 [5], as an extension to the ABNF for SIP
   in RFC 3261 [1].  Note that not all combinations of em-param elements
   are semantically valid.

         P-Early-Media = "P-Early-Media" HCOLON
                          [ em-param *(COMMA em-param) ]
         em-param      = "sendrecv" / "sendonly" / "recvonly"
                          / "inactive" / "gated" / "supported" / token

10.  Security Considerations

   The use of this extension is only applicable inside a "Trust Domain",
   as defined in RFC 3325 [6].  This document does NOT offer a general
   early media authorization model suitable for inter-domain use or use
   in the Internet at large.

   There are no confidentiality concerns associated with the P-Early-
   Media header field.  It is desirable to maintain the integrity of the
   direction parameters in the header field across each hop between
   servers to avoid the potential for unauthorized use of early media.
   It is assumed that the P-Early-Media header field is used within the
   context of the 3GPP IMS trust domain or a similar trust domain,

   consisting of a collection of SIP servers maintaining pair wise
   security associations.

   Within the trust domain of a network it is only necessary to police
   the use of the P-Early-Media header field at the boundary to user
   equipment served by the network and at the boundary to peer networks.
   It is assumed that boundary servers in the trust domain of a network
   will have local policy for the treatment of the P-Early-Media header
   field as it is sent to or received from any possible server external
   to the network.  Since boundary servers are free to modify or remove
   any P-Early-Media header field in SIP messages forwarded across the
   boundary, the integrity of the P-Early-Media header field can be
   verified to the extent that the connections to external servers are
   secured.  The authenticity of the P-Early-Media header field can only
   be assured to the extent that the external servers are trusted to
   police the authenticity of the header field.

11.  IANA Considerations

11.1.  Registration of the "P-Early-Media" SIP Header Field

   Name of Header field:    P-Early-Media

   Short form:              none

   Registrant:              Richard Ejzak
                            ejzak@alcatel-lucent.com

   Normative description:   Section 8 of this document

12.  Acknowledgements

   The author would like to thank Miguel Garcia-Martin, Jan Holm,
   Sebastien Garcin, Akira Kurokawa, Erick Sasaki, James Calme, Greg
   Tevonian, Aki Niemi, Paul Kyzivat, Gonzalo Camarillo, Brett Tate, Jon
   Peterson, Alfred Hoenes, and David Black for their significant
   contributions made throughout the writing and reviewing of this
   document.

13.  References

13.1.  Normative References

   [1]  Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., Camarillo, G., Johnston, A.,
        Peterson, J., Sparks, R., Handley, M., and E. Schooler, "SIP:
        Session Initiation Protocol", RFC 3261, June 2002.

   [2]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
        Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [3]  Camarillo, G., "The Early Session Disposition Type for the
        Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)", RFC 3959, December 2004.

   [4]  Camarillo, G. and H. Schulzrinne, "Early Media and Ringing Tone
        Generation in the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)", RFC 3960,
        December 2004.

   [5]  Crocker, D. and P. Overell, "Augmented BNF for Syntax
        Specifications: ABNF", RFC 4234, October 2005.

   [6]  Jennings, C., Peterson, J., and M. Watson, "Private Extensions
        to the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) for Asserted Identity
        within Trusted Networks", RFC 3325, November 2002.

   [7]  Handley, M., Jacobson, V., and C. Perkins, "SDP: Session
        Description Protocol", RFC 4566, July 2006.

   [8]  Rosenberg, J. and H. Schulzrinne, "An Offer/Answer Model with
        Session Description Protocol (SDP)", RFC 3264, June 2002.

   [9]  Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., and P. Kyzivat, "Caller
        Preferences for the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)", RFC
        3841, August 2004.

   [10] Rosenberg, J., "The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) UPDATE
        Method", RFC 3311, October 2002.

   [11] Camarillo, G., Marshall, W., and J. Rosenberg, "Integration of
        Resource Management and Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)", RFC
        3312, October 2002.

   [12] Rosenberg, J. and H. Schulzrinne, "Reliability of Provisional
        Responses in Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)", RFC 3262, June
        2002.

13.2.  Informative References

   [13] 3GPP "TS 23.228: IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS); Stage 2 (Release
        7)", 3GPP 23.228, March 2007,
        ftp://ftp.3gpp.org/specs/archive/23_series/23.228/.

   [14] 3GPP "TS 24.229: IP Multimedia Call Control Protocol based on
        SIP and SDP; Stage 3 (Release 7)", 3GPP 24.229, March 2007,
        ftp://ftp.3gpp.org/specs/archive/24_series/24.229/.

        ETSI documents can be downloaded from the ETSI Web server,
        "http://www.etsi.org/".  Any 3GPP document can be downloaded
        from the 3GPP Web server, "http://www.3gpp.org/". See
        specifications.

Authors Address

   Richard Ejzak
   Alcatel-Lucent
   1960 Lucent Lane
   Naperville, IL 60566
   USA

   Phone: +1 630 979 7036
   EMail: ejzak@alcatel-lucent.com

Full Copyright Statement

   Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2007).

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