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RFC 4083 - Input 3rd-Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) Relea


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Network Working Group                                   M. Garcia-Martin
Request for Comments: 4083                                         Nokia
Category: Informational                                         May 2005

            Input 3rd-Generation Partnership Project (3GPP)
    Release 5 Requirements on the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)

Status of This Memo

   This memo provides information for the Internet community.  It does
   not specify an Internet standard of any kind.  Distribution of this
   memo is unlimited.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2005).

Abstract

   The 3rd-Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) has selected Session
   Initiation Protocol (SIP) as the session establishment protocol for
   the 3GPP IP Multimedia Core Network Subsystem (IMS).  IMS is part of
   Release 5 of the 3GPP specifications.  Although SIP is a protocol
   that fulfills most of the requirements for establishing a session in
   an IP network, SIP has never been evaluated against the specific 3GPP
   requirements for operation in a cellular network.  In this document,
   we express the requirements identified by 3GPP to support SIP for
   Release 5 of the 3GPP IMS in cellular networks.

Table of Contents

   1. Introduction ....................................................4
   2. Conventions .....................................................4
   3. Overview of the 3GPP IMS ........................................5
   4. 3GPP Requirements on SIP ........................................7
      4.1. General Requirements .......................................7
           4.1.1. Efficient Use of the Radio Interface ................7
           4.1.2. Minimum Session Setup Time ..........................7
           4.1.3. Minimum Support Required in the Terminal ............8
           4.1.4. Roaming and Non-roaming .............................8
           4.1.5. Terminal Mobility Management ........................8
           4.1.6. IP Version 6 ........................................8
      4.2. SIP Outbound Proxy .........................................8
           4.2.1. SIP Outbound Proxy ..................................8
           4.2.2. Discovery of the SIP Outbound Proxy .................8
      4.3. Registration ...............................................9
           4.3.1. Registration Required ...............................9
           4.3.2. Efficient Registration .............................10
           4.3.3. Registration for Roaming and Non-roaming Cases .....10
           4.3.4. Visited Domain Name ................................10
           4.3.5. De-registration ....................................10
      4.4. SIP Compression ...........................................11
           4.4.1. Compression Algorithm Independence .................12
           4.4.2. Extensibility of the SIP Compression ...............12
           4.4.3. Minimal Impact of SIP Compression on the Network ...12
           4.4.4. Optionality of SIP Compression .....................12
      4.5. QoS Requirements Related to SIP ...........................13
           4.5.1. Independence between QoS Signaling and SIP .........13
           4.5.2. Coordination between SIP and QoS/Resource
                  Allocation .........................................13
      4.6. Prevention of Theft of Service ............................14
      4.7. Radio Resource Authorization ..............................14
      4.8. Prevention of Malicious Usage .............................14
      4.9. Prevention of Denial of Service ...........................14
      4.10. Identification of Users ..................................15
            4.10.1. Private User Identity ............................15
            4.10.2. Public User Identities ...........................15
            4.10.3. Delivery of the Dialed Public User ID ............17
      4.11. Identifiers Used for Routing .............................17
      4.12. Hiding Requirements ......................................17
            4.12.1. Hiding of the Network Structure ..................17
            4.12.2. Hiding of IP Addresses ...........................17
            4.12.3. SIP Hiding Proxy .................................18
      4.13. Cell-ID ..................................................18
            4.13.1. Cell-ID in Signaling from the UA to the
                    Visited and Home .................................18
            4.13.2. Format of the Cell-ID ............................18

      4.14. Release of Sessions ......................................18
            4.14.1. Ungraceful Session Release .......................19
            4.14.2. Graceful Session Release .........................19
      4.15. Routing of SIP Messages ..................................20
            4.15.1. SIP Outbound Proxy ...............................20
            4.15.2. SIP Serving Proxy in the Home Network ............20
            4.15.3. INVITE Might Follow a Different Path than
                    REGISTER .........................................20
            4.15.4. SIP Inbound Proxy ................................20
            4.15.5. Distribution of the Source Routing Set of
                    Proxies ..........................................21
      4.16. Emergency Sessions .......................................21
      4.17. Identities Used for Session Establishment ................21
            4.17.1. Remote Party Identification Presentatio ..........21
            4.17.2. Remote Party Identification Privacy ..............21
            4.17.3. Remote Party Identification Blocking .............21
            4.17.4. Anonymity ........................................22
            4.17.5. Anonymous Session Establishment ..................22
      4.18. Charging .................................................22
            4.18.1. Support of Both Prepaid and Postpaid Models ......22
            4.18.2. Charging Correlation Levels ......................23
            4.18.3. Charging Correlation Principles ..................23
            4.18.4. Collection of Session Detailed Information .......24
      4.19. General Support of Additional Capabilities ...............24
            4.19.1. Additional Capabilities ..........................24
            4.19.2. DTMF Signaling ...................................24
            4.19.3. Early Media ......................................25
      4.20. Exchange of Session Description ..........................25
      4.21. Prohibition of Certain SDP Parameters ....................26
            4.21.1. Prohibition of Codecs ............................26
            4.21.2. Prohibition of Media Types .......................26
      4.22. Network-initiated Re-authentication ......................26
      4.23. Security Model ...........................................27
      4.24. Access Domain Security ...................................28
            4.24.1. General Requirements .............................28
            4.24.2. Authentication ...................................29
            4.24.3. Message Protection ...............................29
            4.24.4. Negotiation of Mechanisms ........................31
            4.24.5. Verification of Messages .........................31
      4.25. Network Domain Security ..................................32
   5. Security Considerations ........................................32
   6. Contributors ...................................................32
   7. References .....................................................32
      7.1. Normative References ......................................32
      7.2. Informative References ....................................33

1.  Introduction

   3GPP has selected SIP [2] as the protocol to establish and tear down
   multimedia sessions in the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS).  3GPP
   Technical Specification 23.228 [28] describes the IMS.  3GPP
   Technical Specification 24.228 [29] contains a comprehensive set of
   session flows.  3GPP Technical Specification 24.229 [30] describes
   the usage of SIP by the various IMS nodes.

   This document is an effort to define the requirements applicable to
   the usage of the SIP protocol suite in cellular networks,
   particularly in the 3GPP IMS for Release 5 of the 3GPP
   specifications.  Further releases of the 3GPP specifications may
   contain additional SIP requirements.  This document focuses on the
   requirements identified for the 3GPP Release 5 IMS.

   The rest of this document is structured as follows:

   o  Section 3 offers an overview of the 3GPP IMS.  Readers who are not
      familiar with it should carefully read this section.

   o  Section 4 contains the 3GPP requirements to SIP.  Requirements are
      grouped by category.  Some requirements include statements on
      possible solutions that would be able to fulfill them.  Note that,
      as a particular requirement might be fulfilled by different
      solutions, not all the solutions might have an impact on SIP.

   This document is advisory in nature.  Its primary purpose is to help
   the IETF understand the IMS environment.  Given this better
   understanding, we expect that the IETF can more effectively evolve
   the SIP protocol.  The IETF will not respond to the requirements
   given in this document on a point-for-point basis.  Some requirements
   have been and/or will be met by extensions to the SIP protocol.
   Others may be addressed by effectively using existing capabilities in
   SIP or other protocols, and we expect that individual members of the
   SIP community will work with 3GPP to achieve a better understanding
   of these mechanisms.  Some of the requirements in this document may
   not be addressed at all by the IETF, although we believe that the act
   of documenting and discussing them is in itself helpful in achieving
   a better all-around understanding of the task at hand.

2.  Conventions

   This document does not specify any protocol of any kind.  Therefore,
   the usage of the key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL",
   "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document, as described in RFC 2119 [1], does not
   apply.

3.  Overview of the 3GPP IMS

   This section gives the reader an overview of the 3GPP IM CN Subsystem
   (IMS).  It is not intended to be comprehensive, but it provides
   enough information to understand the basis of the 3GPP IMS.  Readers
   are encouraged to find a more detailed description in the 3GPP
   Technical Specifications 23.060 [27], 23.228 [28], and 24.228 [29].

   For a particular cellular device, the 3GPP IMS network is further
   decomposed in a home network and a visited network.

   An IMS subscriber belongs to his or her home network.  Services are
   triggered and may be executed in the home network.  One or more SIP
   servers are deployed in the SIP home network to support the IP
   Multimedia Subsystem.  Among those SIP servers, there is a SIP
   serving proxy, which is also acting as a SIP registrar.
   Authentication/Authorization servers may be part of the home network
   as well.  Users are authenticated in the home network.

   A SIP outbound proxy is provided to support the User Agent (UA).  The
   SIP outbound proxy is typically located in the visited network,
   although it may be located in the home network as well.  The SIP
   outbound proxy maintains security associations between itself and the
   terminals, and interworks with the resource management in the packet
   network.

   The SIP outbound proxy is assigned after the mobile device has
   connected to the access network.  Once this proxy is assigned, it
   does not change while the mobile remains connected to the access
   network.  Thus the mobile can move freely within the access network
   without SIP outbound proxy reassignment.

   The home network may also support one or more SIP edge proxies.
   These nodes may act as the first entry points for SIP signaling to
   the home network and may determine (with the help of location
   servers) which SIP registrar server to assign to a particular user.
   Typically the address of the home network SIP edge proxy is
   configured in DNS in the form of a DNS Naming Authority Pointer
   (NAPTR) and Service (SRV) records for SIP.

   Additionally, home and visited networks may deploy, if required, a
   SIP-hiding proxy.  The main purpose of the SIP-hiding proxy is to
   hide the network configuration.

   The 3GPP IM CN Subsystem is designed to be access independent.
   Access is granted from 3GPP cellular terminals or from other
   terminals that use other accesses out of the scope of 3GPP.

   3GPP cellular IP Multimedia terminals use the existing General Packet
   Radio Service (GPRS) [27] as a transport network for IP datagrams.
   The terminals first connect to the GPRS network to get an IPv6
   prefix.  In order to do this, the terminals must perform a GPRS
   Attach procedure followed by a GPRS PDP Context Activation procedure.
   These GPRS procedures are required to be completed before any IP
   Multimedia session can be established.

   As a result of the above-mentioned GPRS procedures, the terminal has
   built an IPv6 address.  The IPv6 address belongs to the same network
   address space as does the SIP outbound proxy.  The address does not
   change, as the mobile terminal moves while still attached to the same
   network address space.

   If the terminal moves from a GPRS access to another GPRS access, the
   above-mentioned GPRS procedures needs to start from the beginning to
   allocate an IPv6 address to the terminal.

   Figure 1 shows an overview of the 3GPP architecture for IM CN
   Subsystem.

             +-------------+  +----------------+   +----------------+
             |             |  |                |   |      +------+  |
             |             |  |                |   |      | SIP  |  |
             |             |  |                |   |      |server|  |
       |     |             |  |                |   |      +------+  |
     +-|+    |             |  |                |   |       /        |
     |  |    |             |  |    +------+    |   | +------+       |
     |  |    |             |  |    | SIP  |    |   | | SIP  |       |
     |  | ---|-------------|--|----|server|----|---|-|server|       |
     +--+    |             |  |    +------+    |   | +------+       |
             |             |  |                |   |                |
     SIP     | GPRS access |  | Visited Network|   |  Home Network  |
     dev.    +-------------+  +----------------+   +----------------+

                Figure 1: Overview of the 3GPP IMS architecture

   Another possible future configuration is depicted in Figure 2.  In
   that case, a general-purpose computer (e.g., a laptop computer) is
   connected to a GPRS terminal.  The computer hosts the Multimedia
   application (comprising SIP, SDP, RTP, etc.).  The GPRS terminal
   handles the radio access and the GPRS connectivity.  Note that, for
   the sake of clarity, in this example the home network has not been
   depicted in the figure.

                                  +-------------+  +----------------+
         +-------+          |     |             |  |                |
         |       |        +-|+    |             |  |                |
         |       |        |  |    |             |  |    +------+    |
         +-------+        |  |    |             |  |    | SIP  |    |
        /       / --------|  | ---|-------------|-------|server|------
       /-------/          +--+    |             |  |    +------+    |
                                  |             |  |                |
         SIP              GPRS    | GPRS access |  | Visited Network|
        client          terminal  +-------------+  +----------------+

              Figure 2: A computer connected to a GPRS terminal

   Services are typically executed in an application server.  The
   interface between the SIP server and the application server is based
   on SIP.  However, certain operators may want to reuse the existing
   technology, and therefore, they may need to interoperate SIP with
   protocols such as CAMEL/Intelligent-Network or Open Services
   Architecture (OSA).

4.  3GPP Requirements on SIP

4.1.  General Requirements

   This section does not specify any particular requirement for SIP.
   However, it includes a list of general requirements that must be
   considered when developing solutions to particular requirements.

4.1.1.  Efficient Use of the Radio Interface

   The radio interface is a scarce resource.  As such, the exchange of
   signaling messages between the mobile terminal and the network should
   be minimized.  All the mechanisms developed should make an efficient
   use of the radio interface.

   See also the related requirements in Section 4.4.

4.1.2.  Minimum Session Setup Time

   All the procedures and mechanisms should have a minimum impact on the
   session setup time as perceived by the user.  When there is a choice
   between performing tasks at session establishment and prior to
   session establishment, then tasks should be performed prior to
   session establishment.

   See also the related requirements in Section 4.4.

4.1.3.  Minimum Support Required in the Terminal

   As terminals could be rather small devices, memory requirements,
   power consumption, processing power, etc., should be kept to a
   minimum.  Mandating support for additional protocols in the terminal
   must meet this requirement.

4.1.4.  Roaming and Non-roaming

   All the requirements must be met for both roaming and non-roaming
   scenarios.  There should not be a significant change in the signaling
   procedures between roaming and non-roaming scenarios.

4.1.5.  Terminal Mobility Management

   As terminal mobility is managed by the access network, there is no
   need to support terminal mobility management in SIP.

4.1.6.  IP Version 6

   3GPP IMS is solely designed to use IP version 6.  As a consequence,
   all protocols must support IPv6 addresses.

4.2.  SIP Outbound Proxy

4.2.1.  SIP Outbound Proxy

   A SIP outbound proxy is provided to support both roaming and
   non-roaming scenarios.  The SIP outbound proxy may be located either
   in the home network or in the visited network.

4.2.2.  Discovery of the SIP Outbound Proxy

   There must be a general mechanism whereby the mobile device (UA)
   learns the SIP outbound proxy address.

   The DHCPv6 option for SIP servers in RFC 3319 [19] seems to fulfill
   the requirement.

   In addition to the above-expressed requirement, the 3GPP access
   network may provide the SIP outbound proxy address during access
   network bearer establishment.  This is considered a less general
   mechanism, though.

4.3.  Registration

   The home network must maintain one or more SIP registrars.  The SIP
   registrar authenticates the user and registers the IP address where
   the user can be located.

   Once the terminal is switched on, the mobile device UA reads its
   configuration data.  This data may be stored in a SIM card or in any
   other memory device.  The configuration data contains an
   identification of the home network.  The device finds the SIP
   registrar address from the home network domain name.  The terminal
   sends the registration through the SIP outbound proxy.

   In order to support the search of the registrar, the home network
   contains one or more SIP servers that may be configured in DNS with
   the NAPTR/SRV record of SIP.  These are the home network edge
   proxies.  Their mission is to serve as the first points of contact in
   the home network, and to decide (with the help of location servers)
   which SIP registrar server to assign to a particular user.

   The procedures specified in RFC 3263 [10] applied to a REGISTER
   message seem to be sufficient to meet this requirement.

4.3.1.  Registration Required

   A user must register to the IMS before he/she can receive any
   invitation to any sessions.  In addition, it is desirable for the
   user to register before initiating any sessions.  The following
   factors contribute to the rationale behind this:

   1.  The SIP serving proxy in the home network needs to know when and
       from which terminal the user is available, in order to route
       received SIP requests for sessions and services.

   2.  The user can be pre-authenticated early so that authentication
       does not contribute to post-dial delay.  The procedure should not
       have a penalty on the session setup time (see also the
       requirement stated in Section 4.1.2).

   3.  The user is assigned a particular serving proxy.  The serving
       proxy downloads the service profile for that user to trigger
       services.

   Therefore, 3GPP has mandated the mobile device UA to register before
   the mobile device UA initiates any session.

4.3.2.  Efficient Registration

   Due to the scarce radio interface resource, a single registration
   must be sufficient to ensure that the mobile UA is reachable from
   both the home and the visited networks.

   A single REGISTER message, addressed to the registrar, may traverse
   the SIP outbound proxy.  This can install, if needed, soft
   registration states in the SIP outbound proxy.

4.3.3.  Registration for Roaming and Non-roaming Cases

   Independent of whether the UA is roaming, it is desirable for the
   registration procedure to be the same.

4.3.4.  Visited Domain Name

   The home network must be able to validate the existence of a roaming
   agreement between the home and the visited network.  The home network
   needs to validate that the user is allowed to roam to such a visited
   network.  Therefore, there must be a mechanism whereby the visited
   network identity is known at registration time at the home network.

   It is acceptable to represent the visited network identity either as
   a visited network domain name or as a string.

4.3.5.  De-registration

4.3.5.1.  De-registration of Users

   There must be a procedure for a user to de-register from the network.
   This procedure may be used, for example, when the user deactivates
   the terminal.

   We believe that a REGISTER with an expiration timer of 0 will meet
   the requirement.

4.3.5.2.  Network-initiated De-registration or Re-registration

   In a number of situations a network needs to de-register or trigger a
   re-registration of a previously registered UA.  Examples of usage are
   described in sections 4.3.6.3, 4.3.6.4, and 4.3.6.5.

   This implies a need for a notification mechanism whereby the UA can
   be notified of the de-registration, or of a request for
   re-registration.

   We believe that this requirement is met by the SIP-specific event
   notification [12] and a registration event package [14].

4.3.5.3.  Network-initiated De-registration, Network Maintenance

   There might be cases in which the SIP serving proxy has to shutdown;
   e.g., due to maintenance operation.  Although this situation is not
   likely to happen in everyday situations, it is desirable to have a
   mechanism to inform the UA that his current registration is being
   cancelled.  The UA may initiate another registration process that
   will lead to the selection of a new SIP serving proxy.

4.3.5.4.  Network-initiated De-registration, Network/Traffic Determined

   The system must support a mechanism to avoid inconsistent information
   storage and to remove any redundant registration information.  This
   case will occur when a subscriber roams to a different network
   without a prior de-registration.  This case occurs in normal mobility
   procedures when the user roams from one access network to another, or
   when new service conditions are imposed on roamers.

4.3.5.5.  Network-initiated De-registration, Administrative

   For different reasons (e.g., subscription termination, stolen
   terminal, etc.) a home network administrative function may determine
   a need to clear a user's SIP registration.  It is desirable to have a
   mechanism whereby the SIP serving proxy can inform the UA that its
   registration is being cancelled.

   There must be a procedure for the SIP serving proxy to de-register
   users.  The de-registration information must be available at all the
   proxies that keep registration state and the UA.

   We believe that a procedure based on SIP-specific event notification
   [12] and a registration event package [14] will meet this
   requirement.

4.4.  SIP Compression

   The radio interface is a scarce resource, and typically the available
   bandwidth over the radio interface is limited.  These two factors
   seem to limit the transport of possibly large SIP messages over the
   air interface.  Particularly, the session setup time might be
   extended due to the time needed to transport SIP messages over a
   limited bandwidth channel.

   On the other hand, the number and size of certain SIP header values,
   such as Via or Record-Route, seems not to be limited.  A mobile
   device UA may present limitations in the available memory to store
   this kind of information.

   Therefore, there must be a mechanism to efficiently transport SIP
   signaling packets over the radio interface, by compressing the SIP
   messages between the mobile device UA and the SIP outbound proxy, and
   between the SIP outbound proxy and the mobile device UA.  Note that
   compression of IP and transport layer protocol headers that carry
   these SIP messages is also a requirement, although we believe that
   this does not have an impact on SIP.

4.4.1.  Compression Algorithm Independence

   The chosen solution(s) must be able to allow the operation under
   several different compression algorithms.

4.4.2.  Extensibility of the SIP Compression

   The chosen solution(s) must be extensible to facilitate the
   incorporation of new and improved compression algorithms in a
   backward-compatible way, as they become available.

4.4.3.  Minimal Impact of SIP Compression on the Network

   Application-specific compression must minimize impacts on existing
   3GPP access networks (such as base stations transceivers).  On the
   other hand, the compression mechanism should be independent of the
   access; e.g., the compression must be defined between the mobile
   device UA and the outbound SIP proxy.

4.4.4.  Optionality of SIP Compression

   It must be possible to leave the usage of compression for SIP
   signaling optional.  To facilitate mobile terminal roaming between
   networks that are using compression, the mobile terminal should
   always support SIP signaling compression.  If compression is not
   supported, communication may continue without compression, depending
   on the local policy of the visited network.

4.4.4.1.  Compression Reliability

   The compression mechanism should be reliable and able to recover
   automatically from errors generated during the decompression.

4.5.  QoS Requirements Related to SIP

4.5.1.  Independence between QoS Signaling and SIP

   The selection of QoS signaling and resource allocation schemes must
   be independent of the selected session control protocols.  This
   allows for independent evolution of QoS control and SIP.

4.5.2.  Coordination between SIP and QoS/Resource Allocation

4.5.2.1.  Allocation before Alerting

   In establishing a SIP session, it must be possible for an application
   to request that the resources needed for bearer establishment are
   successfully allocated before the destination user is alerted.  Note,
   however, that it must be also possible for an SIP application in a
   terminal to alert the user before the radio resources are established
   (e.g., if the user wants to participate in the media negotiation).

   We believe that this requirement is met by Integration of Resource
   Management and SIP [15].

4.5.2.2.  Destination User Participates in the Bearer Negotiation

   In establishing a SIP session, it must be possible for a terminating
   application to allow the destination user to participate in
   determining which bearers will be established.  However, it must be
   possible to establish the SIP session without user intervention.

   We believe that this requirement is met by the standard SDP
   negotiation described in SIP [2], the SDP offer/answer model [11] and
   the extensions described in Integration of Resource Management and
   SIP

4.5.2.3.  Successful Bearer Establishment

   Successful bearer establishment must include the completion of any
   required end-to-end QoS signaling, negotiation, and resource
   allocation.

   We believe that this requirement is met by the procedures described
   in the Integration of Resource Management and SIP [15].

4.6.  Prevention of Theft of Service

   Typically, users are allocated QoS resources.  There is an admission
   control mechanism that prevents users exceeding the limits negotiated
   with the network.  The network must prevent unauthorized users to
   make use of non-authorized resources.  For instance, the network must
   provide a mechanism to prevent a user from using the resources
   allocated to a second user, and for which this second user may be
   paying.

   We believe that this requirement may be met by the procedures
   described in the Private SIP extensions for Media Authorization [16].

4.7.  Radio Resource Authorization

   As radio resources are very valuable, the network must be able to
   manage them in a controlled manner.  The network must be able to
   identify who is using these resources and to authorize their usage.
   For example, a mobile device terminal could execute an unlimited and
   uncontrolled resource reservation procedure if the network does not
   supervise the usage of radio resources.

   We believe that this requirement is met by the procedures described
   in the Private SIP extensions for Media Authorization [16].

4.8.  Prevention of Malicious Usage

   The 3GPP IMS must prevent mobile devices from making malicious use of
   the network.  For instance, a malicious UA could not obey the
   procedures related to the Record-Route header field: when sending
   subsequent requests the UA could bypass proxies which inserted a
   Record-Route header during the initial transaction.

4.9.  Prevention of Denial of Service

   The risk that a proxy will receive a denial of service attack should
   be minimized.  For instance, a malicious mobile device could learn a
   SIP proxy IP address and port number (e.g., in a Record-Route header
   value) and establish an attack upon that proxy.

4.10.  Identification of Users

4.10.1.  Private User Identity

   In order to use the 3GPP IMS, a user is assigned a private user
   identity.  The home network operator assigns the private user
   identity, which is used to identify the user uniquely from a network
   perspective.  The private user identity is used, for example, for
   authentication, authorization, administration, and, possibly,
   accounting purposes.  Note that the private user identity is not used
   for routing of SIP messages.

   The private user identity is a unique global identity defined by the
   Home Network Operator.  The identity takes the form of a Network
   Access Identifier (NAI) as defined in RFC 2486 [6].

   The end user does not have access to the private user identity.
   Typically the identity is stored in a Subscriber Identity Module
   card.

   The private user identity is permanently allocated to a user (it is
   not a dynamic identity), and is valid for the duration of the user's
   business subscription with the home network.

4.10.1.1.  Private User ID in Registrations

   The mobile UA must deliver the private user identity to the SIP
   outbound proxy and the registrar at registration time.

   The private user identity is used as the basis for authentication
   during registration of the mobile user.  The term authentication is
   used in this document with the same meaning as it is defined in RFC
   2828 [7].

   We believe that this requirement is met by populating the username
   field of the Authorization: header value of the REGISTER request with
   the private user identity.

4.10.2.  Public User Identities

   In order to use the 3GPP IMS, a user is assigned one or more public
   user identities.  The user will make use of the public user identity/
   identities when requesting communication to other users.  For
   example, the public user identity might be included on a business
   card.

   Different public user identities may be grouped into a user profile.
   A user may have different profiles, each one containing different
   public user identities.  A public user identity can be part of a
   single user profile.

   The user may need to register one or more public user identities
   prior to receiving communications addressed to that public user
   identity.

   We believe that this requirement is met by populating the From: and
   To:  header values of a REGISTER message with the public user
   identity.

4.10.2.1.  Format of the Public User Identities

   The public user identity must take the form of a SIP URI (as defined
   in RFC 3261 [2] and RFC 2396 [4]) or of a E.164 [34] number.

   We believe that this requirement is met by using SIP URLs and
   telephone numbers represented in SIP URLs as described in SIP [3].
   In addition, tel: URLs as specified in RFC 3966 [35] can be used to
   fulfill the requirement.

4.10.2.2.  Registration of Public User IDs

   It must be possible to register globally (i.e., through one single UA
   request) a user that has more than one public identity that belongs
   to the same user profile, via a mechanism within the IMS.  In this
   case, the user will be registered with all the public identities
   associated to a user profile.

   We believe this requirement may be accomplished by external
   procedures.  For example, the user's profile may contain a list of
   alias identities that the registrar considers active if the primary
   identity is registered.  The user may get informed of the
   automatically registered public user IDs by subscribing to its own
   registration state.

4.10.2.3.  Authentication of the public user ID

   Public user identities are not authenticated by the 3GPP IMS.
   However, the network authorizes that the public user identity is
   associated with the registered private user identity.

   There is a list of public user identities associated with each
   private user ID within the IMS.  IMS will reject attempts to use
   other public identities with this private user ID.

4.10.3.  Delivery of the Dialed Public User ID

   Typically a UA will be registered under a set of different public
   user IDs.  As such, sessions destined to the user can be placed with
   any of the registered public user IDs.  The serving proxy and
   application server(s) in the termination network may apply certain
   filtering rules or services based on the public user ID contained in
   the Request-URI.  The UA may also apply certain filtering rules or
   services based on the called public user ID.

   Therefore, it must be possible for all sessions to deliver the dialed
   public user ID to the terminating entities, such as the serving
   proxy, application servers, and terminating UA.

4.11.  Identifiers Used for Routing

   Routing of SIP signaling within IMS must use SIP URLs as defined in
   SIP [2].  E.164 [34] format public user identities must not be used
   for routing within IMS, and session requests based on E.164 format
   public user identities will require conversion into SIP URI format
   for internal IMS usage.

   We believe that this requirement is achieved by translating E.164
   numbers into SIP URIs.  A database, such as ENUM [9], might do the
   job.

4.12.  Hiding Requirements

   Although the requirements included in this section are not optional,
   the hiding feature is optional to use through configuration.  This
   means that a network operator can, at his desire, switch the hiding
   functionality on or off.

4.12.1.  Hiding of the Network Structure

   A network operator need not be required to reveal the internal
   network structure to another network (in Via, Route, or other
   headers) that may contain indication of the number of SIP proxies,
   domain name of the SIP proxies, capabilities of the SIP proxies, or
   capacity of the network.

4.12.2.  Hiding of IP Addresses

   A network need not be required to expose the explicit IP addresses of
   the nodes within the network (excluding firewalls and border
   gateways).

4.12.3.  SIP Hiding Proxy

   In order to support the hiding requirements, a SIP hiding proxy may
   be included in the SIP signaling path.  This additional proxy may be
   used to shield the internal structure of a network from other
   networks.

4.13.  Cell-ID

   The identity of the cell through which the 3GPP UA is accessing the
   IMS (Cell-ID) may be used by the home network to provide localized
   services or information on the location of the terminal during an
   emergency call (when emergency calls are handled in IMS; see also the
   requirement stated in Section 4.16).

4.13.1.  Cell-ID in Signaling from the UA to the Visited and Home
         Networks

   Assuming that the Cell-ID is obtained by the UA by other mechanisms
   outside the scope of SIP, the Cell-ID must be transported at least in
   the following procedures:

   o  Registration
   o  Session Establishment (Mobile Originated)
   o  Session Establishment (Mobile Terminated)
   o  Session Release

   The Cell-ID is private information and only of interest in the UA
   home network.  Therefore, the Cell-ID should be removed prior to
   sending the SIP signaling beyond the originating home network.

4.13.2.  Format of the Cell-ID

   The cell-ID must be sent in any of the formats described in the 3GPP
   Technical Specification 23.003 [26].

4.14.  Release of Sessions

   In addition to the normal mechanisms for releasing a SIP session
   (e.g., BYE), two cases are considered in this section: the ungraceful
   session release (e.g., the terminal moves to an out-of-coverage zone)
   and the graceful session release ordered by the network (e.g.,
   prepaid caller runs out of credit).

   We believe that this requirement is met by a SIP entity acting as a
   so-called transparent back-to-back UA.

4.14.1.  Ungraceful Session Release

   If an ungraceful session termination occurs (e.g., a flat battery or
   a mobile leaves coverage), when a call stateful SIP proxy server
   (such as the SIP serving proxy at home) is involved in a session,
   memory leaks and, eventually, server failure can occur due to hanging
   state machines.  To ensure stable server operation and carrier grade
   service, a mechanism to handle the ungraceful session termination
   issue must be provided.  We assume that there is a mechanism by which
   the SIP outbound proxy is notified, by a mechanism external to SIP,
   of the ungraceful session termination.  This allows transforming the
   ungraceful session release into a graceful session release ordered by
   the network (see the next section).  For example, upon reception of
   the notification of loss of mobile radio coverage, the SIP outbound
   proxy could send a BYE request on behalf of the terminal, although
   this BYE cannot be authenticated.

4.14.2.  Graceful Session Release

   There must be a mechanism whereby an entity in the network may order
   the release of resources to other entities.  This may be used, for
   example, in prepaid calls when the user runs out of credit.

   This release must not involve any request to the UA to send out a
   release request (BYE), as the UA might not follow this request.  The
   receiving entity needs the guarantee that resources are released when
   requested by the ordering entity.

   The following objectives must be met:

   o  Accurately report the termination to the charging subsystem.

   o  Release the associated network resources: bearer resources and
      signaling resources.

   o  Notify other parties to the session, if any, of the session
      termination.

   When feasible, this mechanism should be at the SIP protocol level in
   order to guarantee access independence for the system.

4.15.  Routing of SIP Messages

4.15.1.  SIP Outbound Proxy

   The 3GPP architecture includes a SIP outbound proxy that is typically
   located in the visited network (although it may be located in the
   home network).  This outbound proxy provides local services such as
   compression of SIP messages or security functions.  In addition, the
   outbound proxy may interact with the media reservation mechanism to
   provide authentication and authorization support for media
   reservation.

   All mobile terminal originated session setup attempts must transit
   the outbound proxy so that the services provided by the outbound
   proxy can be delivered to the mobile terminal.

4.15.2.  SIP Serving Proxy in the Home Network

   The serving proxy in the home network allows triggering of user-
   customized services that are typically executed in an application
   server.

   All mobile terminal originated session setup attempts must transit
   the serving proxy in the home network so that the proxy can properly
   trigger the SIP services allocated to the user (e.g., speed dial
   substitution).  This implies a requirement for some sort of source-
   routing mechanism to ensure these proxies are transited correctly.

4.15.3.  INVITE Might Follow a Different Path than REGISTER

   The path taken by an INVITE request need not be restricted to the
   specific path taken by a mobile terminal originated REGISTER request;
   e.g., the INVITE may traverse just the SIP outbound proxy and the SIP
   serving proxy, without passing through any other proxies.  However,
   the path taken by the INVITE may follow the same path taken by the
   REGISTER.

4.15.4.  SIP Inbound Proxy

   The visited network may apply certain services and policies to
   incoming sessions (such as establishment of security services or
   interaction with the media reservation mechanism).  Therefore, the
   visited network may contain a SIP inbound proxy for terminating
   sessions.  In general, the SIP inbound proxy and the SIP outbound
   proxy are the same SIP proxy.

4.15.5.  Distribution of the Source Routing Set of Proxies

   Sections 4.15.2 and 4.15.4 assume that a source-routing mechanism is
   used to effect traversal of the required SIP proxies during session
   setup.

   There must be some means of dynamically informing the node that adds
   the source-routing set of proxies that the INVITE has to traverse
   (e.g., the outbound proxy or serving proxy) of what that set of
   proxies should be.

   The hiding requirements expressed in Section 4.12 also apply to the
   said set of proxies.

4.16.  Emergency Sessions

   3GPP networks already contain alternative procedures for delivering
   emergency sessions.  Release 5 of the 3GPP specifications does not
   add any requirement for SIP emergency sessions.

4.17.  Identities Used for Session Establishment

4.17.1.  Remote Party Identification Presentation

   It must be possible to present to the caller the identity of the
   party to which he/she may dial back to return a call.

   We believe that this requirement is met by the procedures described
   in RFC 3325 [17].

4.17.2.  Remote Party Identification Privacy

   In addition to the previous requirement, the called party must be
   able to request that his/her identity not be revealed to the caller.

   We believe that this requirement is met by the procedures described
   in RFC 3323 [18].

4.17.3.  Remote Party Identification Blocking

   Regulatory agencies, as well as subscribers, may require the ability
   of callers to block the display of their caller identification.  The
   destination subscriber's SIP serving proxy may be perform this
   function.  In this way, the destination subscriber is still able to
   do a session-return, session-trace, transfer, or any other
   supplementary service.

   Therefore, it must be possible that the caller request to block the
   display of his/her identity on the callee's display.

   We believe that this requirement is met by the procedures described
   in RFC 3323 [18].

4.17.4.  Anonymity

   Procedures are required for anonymous session establishment.
   However, sessions are not intended to be anonymous to the originating
   or terminating network operators.

   We believe that this requirement is met by the procedures described
   in RFC 3323 [18] and RFC 3325 [17].

4.17.5.  Anonymous Session Establishment

   If the caller requests that the session be anonymous, the User Agent
   Client (UAC) must not reveal any identity information to the User
   Agent Server (UAS).

   If the caller requests that the session be anonymous, the terminating
   network must not reveal any identity or signaling routing information
   to the destination endpoint.  The terminating network should
   distinguish at least two cases: first, whether the caller intended
   the session to be anonymous, and second, whether the caller's
   identity was deleted by a transit network.

   We believe that this requirement is met by the procedures described
   in RFC 3323 [18] and RFC 3325 [17].

4.18.  Charging

   The 3GPP charging implications are described in the 3GPP Technical
   Specification 32.225 [31].

4.18.1.  Support of Both Prepaid and Postpaid Models

   Operators may choose to offer prepaid and/or postpaid services.  The
   prepaid model is accomplished with the support of the online charging
   model.  The postpaid model is accomplished with the support of the
   offline charging model.

   Online charging is the process whereby charging information can
   affect, in real-time, the service rendered to the user, such as a
   request for a graceful release of an existing session.  Online
   charging interacts with the SIP signaling.

   Offline charging is the process whereby charging information does not
   affect, in real-time, the service rendered to the user.

4.18.2.  Charging Correlation Levels

   The following levels of correlation for IMS charging are considered:

   o  Correlation within a session.  A session may comprise a number of
      media components.  It must be possible to correlate the charging
      data of the different media components belonging to a session.

   o  Correlation at media-component level.  For a session comprising
      several media types (such as audio and video), charging data is
      generated for each media type and needs to be correlated between
      network elements.  For this, a media identifier will be unique and
      will clearly identify which media type of a session this charging
      information belongs to.  This component identifier is not
      exchanged between network elements and is based on the ordering of
      media flows in the SDP.  This ordering is the same as that used in
      the binding information passed to the GPRS network.

4.18.3.  Charging Correlation Principles

   To support the correlation of charging information, the following
   principles apply to both offline and online charging:

   o  The correlation of charging information for an IMS session is
      based on the use of IMS Charging Identifiers (ICID).

   o  The first IMS network entity within the SIP signaling path is
      responsible for assigning an ICID.  This ICID will then be passed
      along the whole session path in an end-to-end manner.  However,
      this will not preclude further elements (other SIP proxies) along
      the session path from generating additional identifiers to be
      passed along.

   o  The ICID is passed to all IMS network entities in the session
      signaling path.  This is performed using SIP signaling.

   o  The addresses of the charging functions are passed by the serving
      SIP proxy to all IMS network entities in the session signaling
      path.  This is to provide a common destination for all the
      charging records generated by each IMS network entity with the
      same ICID.

   o  For the charging correlation between the GPRS network and the IMS,
      one or more GPRS Charging IDs, which identify the PDP contexts of
      the session, are passed from the GPRS network to the IMS.

   o  The GPRS Charging IDs are passed by the outbound SIP proxy to the
      serving SIP proxy and the Application Servers using SIP signaling.
      They are not transferred from one home IMS (e.g., caller's home)
      to another (e.g., callee's home).

   o  Inter Operator Identifiers (IOI) are shared between the caller's
      home IMS and the callee's home IMS to provide identifiers of the
      home originating and home terminating networks.

4.18.4.  Collection of Session Detailed Information

   The SIP serving proxy or another SIP server in the home network must
   be able to log details of all sessions, such as the duration, source,
   and destination of a session, to provide to the charging subsystem.

4.19.  General Support of Additional Capabilities

4.19.1.  Additional Capabilities

   3GPP is interested in applying and using additional services, such as
   those described in SIP Call Control - Transfer [20], SIP Basic Call
   Flow Examples [21], SIP Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) Call
   Flows [22], and SIP service examples [23].  Although 3GPP is not
   going to standardize additional services, 3GPP may make sure that the
   capabilities that enable those services are granted in the network.

   Therefore, we believe that the SIP REFER method [24] and the Replaces
   header [25] constitute a complement to be used as an enabler in order
   to meet the above requirement.

4.19.2.  DTMF Signaling

   Support for voice calls must provide a level of service similar to
   that of the existing circuit-based voice service.  This includes the
   ability to use DTMF signaling, for example, for control of
   interactive voice response systems such as ticket sales lines and
   timetable information.

   The transport of DTMF tones from the mobile terminal to target
   systems that may be in the PSTN, or to SIP-based solutions (i.e., no
   PSTN connection), must be supported.

   The transport of DTMF signals may be required for the whole call,
   just for the first part, or from some later point in the call.  The
   start time and duration of such signaling is therefore unpredictable.

   We believe that the mechanisms specified in RFC 2833 [8] meet the
   requirement without impacting SIP.

4.19.3.  Early Media

   As mobile terminals will frequently interoperate with the PSTN,
   support for early media is required.

4.20.  Exchange of Session Description

   Typically a session description protocol such as SDP is used in SIP
   to describe the media streams and codecs needed to establish the
   session.  SIP uses an offer/answer model of the session description,
   as described in RFC 3264 [11], in which one of the parties offers his
   session description and the other answers that offer.

   In the 3GPP IMS, the mobile terminals might have restrictions with
   the memory, DSP capacity, etc.  As such, a mechanism is required by
   which the Session Description negotiation may conclude with one out
   of many codecs per media stream.  Both UAC and UAS must know, prior
   to any media being sent or received, which codec is used for each
   media stream.

   In the 3GPP IMS, efficient use of the network and radio resources is
   an important requirement.  As such, the network should know in
   advance which codec is used for a particular media stream.  The
   network access control may use this information to grant access to
   the network and to control the resource utilization.

   Additionally, it is required that the party who pays for the resource
   utilization have the opportunity to decide which codecs to use, once
   both end parties are aware of the capabilities supported at the
   remote UA.

   Therefore, a mechanism is required by which both UAC and UAS have the
   ability to negotiate and trim down the number of codecs used per
   media stream, so that at the end of the negotiation there can be a
   reduced set of agreed codecs per media stream.

   We believe that the mechanism specified in RFC 3264 [11] meets the
   requirement.

4.21.  Prohibition of Certain SDP Parameters

4.21.1.  Prohibition of Codecs

   The SIP outbound proxy may contain local policy rules with respect
   the codecs allowed in the network.  For instance, certain networks
   may disallow high-bandwidth-consuming audio codecs.  There has to be
   a mechanism whereby the SIP outbound proxy can reject a session
   establishment attempt when a codec is prohibited in the network due
   to local policy.

4.21.2.  Prohibition of Media Types

   Certain users' subscriptions may include restrictions on certain
   media types.  For instance, a user may not be allowed to establish a
   video session.  The SIP serving proxy in the home network downloads
   the user profile, which contains the rules for these kinds of
   restrictions.

   As the establishment of sessions traverse the SIP serving proxy in
   the home network, the proxy can prohibit an attempt to establish a
   session that includes a non-allowed media type for the user.
   Therefore, there has to be a mechanism whereby the SIP serving proxy
   can reject a session establishment attempt when the session includes
   a forbidden media type.

4.22.  Network-initiated Re-authentication

   Network operators need to authenticate users to ensure that they are
   charged appropriately for the services they use.  The
   re-authentication done when the user initiates a message will not
   suffice for this purpose, as described below.

   If the duration of the authentication period is set to a relatively
   low value to ensure that the user cannot incur a high amount of
   charges between two authentications, it may create a lot of
   unnecessary authentications of users that have remained largely
   inactive, and therefore it may use unnecessary air interface
   resources.

   If the duration of the authentication period is set to a relatively
   high value to avoid these unnecessary authentications, the risk is
   then that some users may incur high charges between authentications.

   A user's authentication is automatically invalidated when a certain
   threshold for charges (or number, or duration of sessions) is reached
   without giving the user a chance to re-authenticate, even if a valid
   registration exists.  This would not provide an adequate level of
   service.

   Consequently, it must be possible for the network to initiate a
   re-authentication process at any time.  The triggers must be set
   within the network and may include charging thresholds, number of
   events, session duration, etc.

4.23.  Security Model

   Sections 4.23, 4.24, and 4.25 have been based on the 3GPP Technical
   Specifications 33.203 [32], 23.228 [28], and 33.210 [33].

   The scope for security of the 3GPP IMS is the SIP signaling between
   the various SIP entities.  Protecting the end-to-end media streams
   may be a future extension, but it is not considered in the Release 5
   version of the IMS specifications.

   Each operator providing IMS services acts as its own domain of trust
   and shares a long-term security association with its subscribers
   (e.g., pre-shared keys).  Operators may enter into roaming agreements
   with other operators, in which case a certain level of trust exists
   between their respective domains.

   SIP UAs must authenticate to their home network before the use of IMS
   resources is authorized.  In Release 5 of the 3GPP IMS
   specifications, authentication is performed during registration and
   re-registrations.

   Portions of the SIP signaling must be protected hop by hop.  Looking
   at Figure 1 in Section 3, we can distinguish two distinct zones where
   the required security is unique:

   o  Access Domain:  Between the SIP user device and the visited
                      network.

   o  Network Domain: Between the visited and home networks, or inside
                      the home network.

   Characteristics needed in the Access Domain are quite different from
   those of the Network Domain because of the terminal's requirements
   for mobility, computation restriction, battery limit, bandwidth
   conservation, and radio interface.  SIP entities in the access domain
   should be able to maintain security contexts with a large group of
   users in parallel.  Furthermore, Access Domain provides user-specific

   security associations, whereas Network Domain provides security
   associations between network nodes.  Therefore, the weight of
   protocols and algorithms and their compliance with compression
   mechanisms are very important to Access Domain Security.  It is
   therefore required that the security solutions allow different
   mechanisms in these two domains.

4.24.  Access Domain Security

4.24.1.  General Requirements

4.24.1.1.  Scalability and Efficiency

   3GPP IMS is characterized by a large subscriber base of up to a
   billion users, all of which must be treated in a secure manner.

   The security solutions must allow global roaming among a large number
   of administrative domains.

4.24.1.2.  Bandwidth and Round-trips

   The wireless interface in 3GPP terminals is an expensive resource
   both in terms of power consumption and maximum use of scarce
   spectrum.  Furthermore, cellular networks typically have long
   round-trip time delays, which must be taken in account in the design
   of the security solutions.

   Any security mechanism that involves 3GPP terminals should not
   unnecessarily increase the bandwidth needs.

   All security mechanisms that involve 3GPP terminals should minimize
   the number of necessary extra round-trips.  In particular, during
   normal call signaling there should not be any additional security-
   related messages.

4.24.1.3.  Computation

   It must be possible for mobile device terminals to provide security
   without requiring public key cryptography and/or certificates. 3GPP
   IMS may, however, include optional security schemes that employ these
   techniques.

   Current HTTP authentication methods use only symmetric cryptography,
   as required here.  Lower-layer mechanisms (IKE, TLS) require
   implementation of public-key cryptography e.g., Diffie-Hellman.  If
   these lower-layer mechanisms were used, the mobile terminal would
   authenticate and negotiate session keys with the visited network
   using only symmetric methods.

4.24.1.4.  Independence of the Transport Protocol

   The selected security mechanism should work with any transport
   protocol allowed by SIP (e.g., TCP, UDP).

4.24.2.  Authentication

   Authentication, as used in this context, means entity authentication
   that enables two entities to verify the identity of the respective
   peer.

4.24.2.1.  Authentication Method

   A strong, mutual authentication must be provided.

   The authentication method must be able to work when there are zero or
   more SIP proxies in the SIP path between the authenticator and the
   authenticated user.

   It must be possible to support extensible authentication methods.
   Therefore, authentication using an extensible authentication
   framework is strongly recommended.

   Authentication methods based on the secure storage of long-term keys
   used for authentication and the secure execution of authentication
   algorithms must be supported.

   The SIP client's credentials must not be transferred as plain text.

   3GPP intends to reuse UMTS AKA [13].  UMTS AKA applies a symmetric
   cryptographic scheme, provides mutual authentication, and is
   typically implemented on a so-called SIM card that provides secure
   storage on the user's side.

   Additional requirements related to message protection that apply to
   the authentication method are stated in Section 4.24.3.

4.24.3.  Message Protection

4.24.3.1.  Message Protection Mechanisms

   SIP entities (typically a SIP client and a SIP proxy) must be able to
   communicate using integrity.  By integrity, we mean the ability for
   the receiver of a message to verify that the message has not been
   modified in transit.  SIP entities should be able to communicate
   confidentially.  In 3GPP IMS, these protection modes must be based on
   initial authentication.  Integrity protection and confidentiality
   must be possible using symmetric cryptographic keys.

   It must also be possible to handle error conditions in a satisfactory
   manner as to allow recovery (see also sections 4.3.6.3 and 4.14).

   It must be possible to provide this protection between two adjacent
   SIP entities.  In future network scenarios, it may also be necessary
   to provide this protection through proxies, though the 3GPP Release 5
   IMS does not require this.

   The security mechanism must be able to protect a complete SIP
   message.

   If header compression/removal or SIP compression is applied to SIP
   messages, it must be compatible with message protection.

4.24.3.2.  Delegation

   3GPP IMS implements distributed security functions responsible for
   authentication and message protection.

   It must be possible to perform an initial authentication based on
   long-term authentication credentials, followed by subsequent
   protected signaling that uses short-term authentication credentials,
   such as session keys created during initial authentication.  The
   authentication mechanism used is able to provide such session keys.
   It must be possible to apply subsequent message protection as soon as
   possible, even during the initial authentication period.

   Initial authentication is performed between the SIP UA and the
   authenticating SIP serving proxy in the home network.  However, the
   authentication mechanism must not require access to the long-term
   authentication credentials in these nodes.  In the home network, the
   authenticating SIP serving proxy must support interaction with a
   dedicated authentication server in order to accomplish the
   authentication task.  At the client side, a secured
   (tamper-resistant) device storing the long-term credentials of the
   user must perform the authentication.

   Additionally, the SIP serving proxy that performed the initial
   authentication must be able to delegate subsequent SIP signaling
   protection (e.g., session keys for integrity or encryption) securely
   to an authorized SIP proxy further downstream.  The tamper-resistant
   device at the client side must be able to delegate the session keys
   securely to the SIP UA.

4.24.4.  Negotiation of Mechanisms

   A method must be provided to negotiate the security mechanisms to be
   used in the access domain securely.

   This method must at least support the negotiation of different
   security mechanisms providing integrity protection and encryption,
   algorithms used within these mechanisms, and additional parameters
   that they require in order to be exchanged.

   The negotiation mechanism must protect against attackers who do not
   have access to authentication credentials.  In particular, the
   negotiation mechanism must be able to detect a possible
   man-in-the-middle attacker who could influence the negotiation result
   so that services with weaker security or with none are negotiated.

   A negotiation mechanism is generally required in all secure protocols
   to decide which security services to use and when they should be
   started.  This security mechanism serves algorithm and protocol
   development as well as interoperability.  Often, the negotiation is
   handled within a security service.  For example, the HTTP
   authentication scheme includes a selection mechanism for choosing
   among appropriate algorithms.  Note that when referring to
   negotiation we mean just the negotiation, not all functions in
   protocols such as IKE.  For instance, we expect that the session key
   generation is to be a part of the initial authentication.

   SIP entities must be able to use the same security mode parameters to
   protect several SIP sessions without re-negotiation.  For example,
   security mode parameters may be assumed to be valid within the
   lifetime of a registration.  Note that it is necessary to amortize
   the cost of security association setup and parameter negotiation over
   several INVITEs.

4.24.5.  Verification of Messages

4.24.5.1.  Verification at the SIP Outbound Proxy

   The SIP outbound proxy must be able to guarantee the message origin
   and to verify that the message has not been changed (e.g., it is
   integrity protected).

4.24.5.2.  Verification at the SIP Serving Proxy

   The serving SIP proxy needs to receive an indication if the outbound
   proxy was able to verify the message origin and, in the case of a
   REGISTER request, whether or not it was integrity protected.

4.25.  Network Domain Security

   Message authentication, key agreement, integrity and replay
   protection, and confidentiality must be provided for communications
   between SIP network entities such as proxy servers.

   Network domain security mechanisms must be scalable up to a large
   number of network elements.

   3GPP intends to make having the protection discussed above mandatory
   at least between two operators, and optional within an operator's own
   network.  Security gateways exist between operator's networks.

   We believe that the above requirements are fulfilled by applying
   security mechanisms as specified in the current IP Security standards
   in RFC 2401 [5].

5.  Security Considerations

   This document does not define a protocol, but still presents some
   security requirements to protocols.  The main security requirements
   are stated in sections 4.23, 4.24, and 4.25.  Additional
   security-related issues are discussed under sections 4.6, 4.7, 4.8,
   4.9, 4.10, and 4.12.

6.  Contributors

   The following people contributed to this document:

   Duncan Mills (Vodafone), Gabor Bajko (Nokia), Georg Mayer (Siemens),
   Francois-Xerome Derome (Alcatel), Hugh Shieh (AWS), Andrew Allen
   (dynamicsoft), Sunil Chotai (mmO2), Keith Drage (Lucent), Jayshree
   Bharatia (Nortel), Kevan Hobbis (Huthison 3G UK), Dean Willis
   (dynamicsoft), Krisztian Kiss (Nokia), Vesa Torvinen (Ericsson), Jari
   Arkko (Ericsson), and Sonia Garapaty (Nortel).

7.  References

7.1.  Normative References

   [1]   Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
         Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [2]   Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., Camarillo, G., Johnston, A.,
         Peterson, J., Sparks, R., Handley, M., and E. Schooler, "SIP:
         Session Initiation Protocol", RFC 3261, June 2002.

7.2.  Informative References

   [3]   Dierks, T. and C. Allen, "The TLS Protocol Version 1.0",
         RFC 2246, January 1999.

   [4]   Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L. Masinter, "Uniform
         Resource Identifiers (URI): Generic Syntax", RFC 2396,
         August 1998.

   [5]   Kent, S. and R. Atkinson, "Security Architecture for the
         Internet Protocol", RFC 2401, November 1998.

   [6]   Aboba, B. and M. Beadles, "The Network Access Identifier",
         RFC 2486, January 1999.

   [7]   Shirey, R., "Internet Security Glossary", RFC 2828, May 2000.

   [8]   Schulzrinne, H. and S. Petrack, "RTP Payload for DTMF Digits,
         Telephony Tones and Telephony Signals", RFC 2833, May 2000.

   [9]   Faltstrom, P., "E.164 number and DNS", RFC 2916, September
         2000.

   [10]  Rosenberg, J. and H. Schulzrinne, "Session Initiation Protocol
         (SIP): Locating SIP Servers", RFC 3263, June 2002.

   [11]  Rosenberg, J. and H. Schulzrinne, "An Offer/Answer Model with
         Session Description Protocol (SDP)", RFC 3264, June 2002.

   [12]  Roach, A., "Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)-Specific Event
         Notification", RFC 3265, June 2002.

   [13]  Niemi, A., Arkko, J., and V. Torvinen, "Hypertext Transfer
         Protocol (HTTP) Digest Authentication Using Authentication and
         Key Agreement (AKA)", RFC 3310, September 2002.

   [14]  Rosenberg, J., "A Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Event
         Package for Registrations", RFC 3680, March 2004.

   [15]  Camarillo, G., Marshall, W., and J. Rosenberg, "Integration of
         Resource Management and Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)", RFC
         3312, October 2002.

   [16]  Marshall, W., "Private Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)
         Extensions for Media Authorization", RFC 3313, January 2003.

   [17]  Jennings, C., Peterson, J., and M. Watson, "Private Extensions
         to the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) for Asserted Identity
         within Trusted Networks", RFC 3325, November 2002.

   [18]  Peterson, J., "A Privacy Mechanism for the Session Initiation
         Protocol (SIP)", RFC 3323, November 2002.

   [19]  Schulzrinne, H. and B. Volz, "Dynamic Host Configuration
         Protocol (DHCPv6) Options for Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)
         Servers", RFC 3319, July 2003.

   [20]  Sparks, R., "Session Initiation Protocol Call Control -
         Transfer", Work in Progress, February 2005.

   [21]  Johnston, A., Donovan, S., Sparks, R., Cunningham, C., and K.
         Summers, "Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Basic Call Flow
         Examples", BCP 75, RFC 3665, December 2003.

   [22]  Johnston, A., Donovan, S., Sparks, R., Cunningham, C., and K.
         Summers, "Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Public Switched
         Telephone Network (PSTN) Call Flows", BCP 76, RFC 3666,
         December 2003.

   [23]  Johnston, A. and R. Sparks, "Session Initiation Protocol
         Service Examples", Work in Progress, February 2005.

   [24]  Sparks, R., "The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Refer
         Method", RFC 3515, April 2003.

   [25]  Mahy, R., Biggs, B., and R. Dean, "The Session Initiation
         Protocol (SIP) 'Replaces' Header", RFC 3891, September 2004.

   [26]  3GPP, "TS 23.003 Numbering, addressing and identification
         (Release 5)", September 2002,
         <ftp://ftp.3gpp.org/Specs/archive/23_series/23.003/>.

   [27]  3GPP, "TS 23.060:General Packet Radio Service (GRPS); Service
         Description; Stage 2", September 2002,
         <ftp://ftp.3gpp.org/Specs/archive/23_series/23.060/>.

   [28]  3GPP, "TS 23.228: IP Multimedia  Subsystem (IMS) (Stage 2) -
         Release 5", September 2002,
         <ftp://ftp.3gpp.org/Specs/archive/23_series/23.228/>.

   [29]  3GPP, "TS 24.228: Signaling flows for the IP Multimedia call
         control based on SIP and SDP", September 2002,
         <ftp://ftp.3gpp.org/Specs/archive/24_series/24.228/>.

   [30]  3GPP, "TS 24.229: IP Multimedia  Subsystem (IMS) (Stage 3) -
         Release 5", September 2002,
         <ftp://ftp.3gpp.org/Specs/archive/24_series/24.229/>.

   [31]  3GPP, "TS 32.225: Telecommunication Management; Charging
         Management; Charging Data Description for IP Multimedia
         Subsystem; (Release 5)", September 2002,
         <ftp://ftp.3gpp.org/Specs/archive/32_series/32.225/>.

   [32]  3GPP, "TS 32.203: 3G Security; Access security for IP based
         services; (Release 5)", September 2002,
         <ftp://ftp.3gpp.org/Specs/archive/33_series/33.203/>.

   [33]  3GPP, "TS 32.210: 3G Security; Network Domain Security; IP
         network layer security (Release 5)", September 2002,
         <ftp://ftp.3gpp.org/Specs/archive/33_series/33.210/>.

   [34]  ITU-T, "Recommendation E.164 (05/97): The international public
         telecommunication numbering plan", May 1997,
         <http://www.itu.int/rec/recommendation.asp?
         type=folders&lang=e&parent=T-REC-E.164>.

   [35]  Schulzrinne, H., "The tel URI for Telephone Numbers", RFC 3966,
         December 2004.

Author's Address

   Miguel A. Garcia-Martin
   Nokia
   P.O. Box 407
   NOKIA GROUP, FIN  00045
   Finland

   EMail: miguel.an.garcia@nokia.com

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